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Homework #6

Masaya Sato

Section 11.4 3. Let R be any commutative ring with 1, let V be an R-module and let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∈ V . Assume that for some A ∈ Mn×n (R), x1 . A . = 0. . xn Prove that (det A)xi = 0, for all i ∈ {1, 2, . . . , n}. Proof. Consider the following two cases. Case 1. Suppose all xi ’s are 0. Then it is obvious that (det A)xi = 0 for all i = {1, 2, . . . , n}. Case 2. Suppose there exist some xi such that xi = 0. Then the equation x1 . A . = 0. . xn has a nontrivial solution. Therefore the set of column vectors {a1 , a2 , . . . , an } of the matrix A = [a1 a2 · · · an ] are linearly dependent. Hence det A = 0 and thus (det A)xi = 0 for all i = {1, 2, . . . , n}. 6. (Minkowski’s Criterion) Suppose that A is an n × n matrix with real entries such that the diagonal elements are all positive, the oﬀ-diagonal elements are all negative and the row sums are all positive. Prove that det A = 0. [Consider the corresponding system of equations AX = 0 and suppose there is a nontrivial solution (x1 , . . . , xn ). If xi has the largest absolute value show that the ith equation leads to a contradiction.] Proof. Suppose by contradiction that det A = 0, i.e. the matrix equation AX = 0 has a nontrivial solution X = (x1 , . . . , xn ), where not all xi ’s are zero. Then choose xi = 0 such that |xi | is the largest value. For the corresponding system of equations of x1 , . . . , xn the ith equation is given by ai1 x1 + · · · + aii−1 xi−1 + aii xi + aii+1 xi+1 + · · · + ain xn = 0, where ai1 + · · · + aii−1 + aii + aii+1 + · · · + ain > 0. So even if xi > 0 or xi < 0 the above ith equation cannot be equal to zero. This is contradiction and therefore det A = 0 as desired. Section 12.1 1. Let M be a module over the integral domain R. (a) Suppose x is a nonzero torsion element in M . Show that x and 0 are “linearly dependent.” Conclude that the rank of Tor(M ) is 0, so that in particular any torsion R-module has rank 0. Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 1

Section 11.4 and 12.1.

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

(b) Show that the rank of M is the same as the rank of the (torsion free) quotient M/Tor(M ). Proof. (a) Since x ∈ Tor(M ), there exists a nonzero r ∈ R such that rx = 0. Therefore the equation rm + r 0 = 0 holds true, where r ∈ R, and hence x and 0 are linearly dependent. Every nonzero x ∈ M has some nonzero r ∈ R such that rx = 0 since R is an integral domain, so the maximum number of linearly independent elements is 0. Thus Tor(M ) is of rank 0. (b) Deﬁne an R-module homomorphism ϕ : M → M/Tor(M ) by ϕ(x) = x + Tor(M ). By its construction ϕ is surjective. Moreover for every x ∈ ker ϕ ≤ M ϕ(x) = 0 + Tor(M ) ⇒ x + Tor(M ) = 0 + Tor(M ) ⇒ x ∈ Tor(M ). Now observe that there exists some r1 , . . . , rn ∈ R such that x = r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn and moreover there is some nonzero r so that rx = 0. Then rx = 0 ⇒ r(r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn ) = 0 ⇒ (rr1 )x1 + · · · + (rrn )xn = 0 ⇒ rri = 0 ∀i = 1, · · · , n since {x1 , · · · , xn } is a basis for M . Furthermore rri = 0 implies that ri = 0 since R is an integral domain. Therefore ker ϕ = 0 and hence ϕ is an isomorphism. Thus M/Tor(M ) is also of rank n. 2. Let M be a module over the integral domain R. (a) Suppose that M has rank n and that x1 , x2 , . . . , xn is any maximal set of linearly independent elements of M . Let N = Rx1 + · · · + Rxn be the submodule generated by x1 , x2 , . . . , xn . Prove that N is isomorphic to Rn and that the quotient M/N is a torsion R-module (equivalently, the elements x1 , . . . , xn are linearly independent and for any y ∈ M there is a nonzero element r ∈ R such that ry can be written as a linear combination r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn of the xi ). (b) Prove that conversely that if M contains a submodule N that is free of rank n (i.e. N ∼ Rn ) such that the quotient M/N is a torsion R-module then M has rank n. [Let = y1 , y2 , . . . , yn+1 be any n + 1 elements of M . Use the fact that M/N is torsion to write ri yi as a linear combination of a basis for N for some nonzero elements r1 , . . . rn+1 of R. Use an argument as in the proof of Proposition 3 to see that the ri yi , and hence also the yi , are linearly dependent.] Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 2

Section 11.4 and 12.1.

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

Proof. (a) Think of Rn as an R-module and deﬁne an R-module map ϕ : N → Rn by ϕ(r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn ) = (r1 , . . . , rn ). It is easy to see that ϕ is an R-module homomorphism and moreover surjective by its construction. So for all x ∈ N with some r1 , . . . , rn ∈ R such that x = r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn if x ∈ ker ϕ, then ϕ(x) = 0Rn ⇒ ϕ(r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn ) = 0Rn ⇒ (r1 , . . . , rn ) = 0Rn . Thus ri = 0 for i = 1, . . . , n and x = 0. Therefore ker ϕ = 0 and hence ϕ is injective. This proves that ϕ is an isomorphism. Now observe that {x1 , . . . , xn } is a basis for M since M has rank n. So for every y ∈ M and some nonzero r ∈ R ry ∈ M is expressed as a linear combination of x1 , . . . , and xn , i.e. ry = r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn , where ri ∈ R for i = 1, . . . , n. This implies that ry ∈ N and ry + N = 0 + N ∈ M/N and thus y is a torsion element in the quotient M/N . (b) Suppose that N is isomorphic to Rn and M/N is a torsion module. Then choose a basis {x1 , . . . , xn } for N and extend this basis {x1 , . . . , xn , xn+1 , . . . , xm } for M . M has rank m ≥ n, so suppose by contradiction that m > n. Observe that xn+1 + N, . . . , xm + N form a basis for M/N . Since M/N is a torsion module, there exist some ri ∈ R such that ri (xi + N ) = ri xi + N = 0 + N ∈ M/N for i = n + 1, . . . , m. I.e. ri xi ∈ N . Then for every x ∈ M there exist ai ∈ R for i = 1, . . . , m such that x = a1 x1 + · · · + an xn + an+1 xn+1 + · · · + am xm . Now let r = rn+1 · · · rm . So rx ∈ M since M is a R-module. However for i = n + 1, . . . , m r(ai xi ) = (rai )xi = (ai r)xi = ai (rxi ) ∈ N since R is an integral domain and N is an R-submodule. This contradicts the assumption that M has rank m such that m > n. Therefore m = n and thus M is of rank n. 3. Let R be an integral domain and let A and B be R-modules of rank m and n, respectively. Prove that the rank of A ⊕ B is m + n. [Use the previous exercise.] Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 3

Section 11.4 and 12.1.

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

Proof. Observe that A ⊕ B is ﬁnite dimensional since A and B are both ﬁnite dimensional. Then by the Second Isomorphism Theorem for modules (A + B)/B ∼ A/(A ∩ B). = Moreover since A ∩ B = 0, Therefore dim (A ⊕ B)/B = dim A ⇒ dim A ⊕ B − dim B = dim A ⇒ dim A ⊕ B = dim A + dim B = m + n and thus A ⊕ B is of rank m + n. 4. Let R be an integral domain, let M be an R-module and let N be a submodule of M . Suppose that M has rank n, N has rank r and the quotient M/N has rank s. Prove that n = r + s. [Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xs be elements of M whose images in M/N are maximal set of independent elements and let xs+1 , xs+2 , . . . , xs+r be a maximal set of independent elements in N . Prove that x1 , x2 , . . . , xs+r are linearly independent in M and that for any element y ∈ M there is a nonzero element r ∈ R such that ry is a linear combination of these elements. Then use Exercise 2.] Proof. Let {x1 , . . . , xr } be a basis for N and extend this to a basis {x1 , . . . , xr , xr+1 , . . . , xn for M . Observe that xi + N = 0 + N ∈ M/N for i = 1, . . . , r since each is a basis element for N . Now claim that {xr+1 + N, . . . , xn + N } form a basis for M/N . Then for every x ∈ M there exist a1 , . . . , an ∈ R such that x = a1 x1 + · · · + an xn ⇒ x + N = (ar+1 xr+1 + · · · + an xn ) + N ⇒ x + N = ar+1 (xr+1 + N ) + · · · + an (xn + N ) ∈ M/N . So the set {xr+1 + N, . . . , xn + N } generates M/N . Moreover for ar+1 , . . . , an ∈ R ar+1 (xr+1 + N ) + · · · + an (xn + N ) = 0 + N ⇒ ar+1 xr+1 + · · · + an xn ∈ N . Thus ar+1 xr+1 + · · · + an xn = 0 and ar+1 = · · · = an = 0 because otherwise ar+1 xr+1 + · · · + an xn would not be expressed uniquely. Therefore {xr+1 + N, . . . , xn + N } is linearly independent and then the set form a basis for M/N . Hence M/N has rank n − r and n−r =s⇒n=r+s as desired. Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 4 (A ⊕ B)/B ∼ A. =

Section 11.4 and 12.1.

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

5. Let R = Z[x] and let M = (2, x) be the ideal generated by 2 and x, considered as a submodule of R. Show that {2, x} is not a basis of M . [Find a nontrivial R-linear dependence between these two elements.] Show that the rank of M is 1 but that M is not free of rank 1 (cf. Exercise 2). Proof. {2, x} is not a basis of M since {2, x} is linearly dependent i.e. the equation in terms of r1 and r2 r1 2 + r2 x = 0 has a nontrivial solution r1 = −x and r2 = 2 because multiplication is commutative. So the maximum number of a linearly independent set is 1 and thus M is of rank 1. However M is not generated by any nonzero single element since M = (2, x), which is a nonprincipal ideal of R. 6. Show that if R is an integral domain and M is any nonprincipal ideal of R then M is torsion free of rank 1 but is not a free R-module. Proof. Observe ﬁrst that M is an R-submodule of R. For all nonzero x, y ∈ M the equation in terms of x and y r1 x + r2 y = 0, where r1 and r2 are elements in R, has a nontrivial solution r1 = −y and r2 = x because multiplication is commutative. So the maximum number of linearly independent set is 1 and thus M is of rank 1. Moreover for every nonzero x ∈ M rx = 0 for every nonzero r ∈ R since R is an integral domain. Thus M is a torsion free module, but M is not free because M is nonprincipal ideal of R, i.e. M cannot be generated by any nonzero single element in M . 7. Let R be any ring, let A1 , A2 , . . . , Am be R-modules and let Bi be submodules of Ai , 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Prove that (A1 ⊕ A2 ⊕ · · · Am )/(B1 ⊕ B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bm ) ∼ (A1 /B1 ) ⊕ (A2 /B2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ (Am /Bm ). = Proof. Deﬁne an R-module homomorphism ϕ : A1 ⊕ A2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Am → (A1 /B1 ) ⊕ (A2 /B2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ (Am /Bm ) by ϕ(a1 ⊕ a2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ am ) = (a1 + B1 ) ⊕ (a2 + B2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ (an + Bn ). ϕ is well-deﬁned and moreover surjective by its construction. Then the kernel ker ϕ is given by all elements x1 ⊕ x2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ xm ∈ A1 ⊕ A2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Am such that ϕ(x1 ⊕ x2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ xm ) = 0 + B1 ⊕ 0 + B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ 0 + Bm . So x1 ⊕ x2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ xm ∈ (A1 ⊕ A2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Am ) ∩ (B1 ⊕ B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bm ) Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 5

Section 11.4 and 12.1. and

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

x1 ⊕ x2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ xn ∈ (A1 ∩ B1 ) ⊕ (A2 ∩ B2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ (Am ∩ Bm ) and hence x1 ⊕ x2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ xn ∈ B1 ⊕ B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bm . Therefore ker ϕ = B1 ⊕ B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bm and thus ϕ induces the isomorphism ϕ between (A1 ⊕ A2 ⊕ · · · Am )/(B1 ⊕ B2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bm ) and (A1 /B1 ) ⊕ (A2 /B2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ (Am /Bm ). 9. Give an example of an integral domain R and a nonzero torsion R-module M such that Ann(M ) = 0. Prove that if N is ﬁnitely generated torsion R-module then Ann(N ) = 0. Proof. For F(R, R), the set of all functions from R to R, let M be a subset of F(R, R) such that every element f ∈ M is a function with compact support. Then M is a module over itself. Moreover, M is a nonzero torsion module since for every f ∈ M there exists some g ∈ M , whose compact support is distinct from the one of f , such that gf = o, where o : R → R denotes the zero function. However any nonzero g ∈ M does not annihilate all f ∈ M since some f has distinct compact support. Now suppose that a torsion R-module N is generated by x1 , . . . , xn , i.e. N = Rx1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rxn . So for every nonzero x ∈ N there exist unique a1 , . . . , an ∈ R such that x = a1 x 1 + · · · + an x n . Note that for each xi there is a nonzero ri ∈ R so that ri xi = 0 since N is a torsion module. Then for nonzero r = r1 . . . rn rx = r(a1 x1 + · · · + an xn ) = (ra1 )x1 + · · · + (ran )xn = (a1 · · · rn )(r1 x1 ) + · · · + (an · · · rn−1 )(rn xn ) = 0 + ··· + 0 =0 because R is an integral domain. Therefore r ∈ Ann(M ) and thus Ann(M ) = 0. 13. If M is ﬁnitely generated module over the P.I.D. R, describe the structure of M/Tor(M ). Solution: Let M be an R-module of rank n. Then observe that M/Tor(M ) is a torsion free quotient module. By existence and uniqueness of the Fundamental Theorem, M = R ⊕ · · · ⊕ R.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 6

Section 11.4 and 12.1.

Homework #6

Masaya Sato

15 Prove that if R is a Noetherian ring then Rn is a Noetherian R-module. [Fix a basis of Rn . If M is a submodule of Rn show that the collection of ﬁrst coordinates of elements of M is a submodule of R hence is ﬁnitely generated. Let m1 , m2 , . . . , mk be elements of M whose ﬁrst coordinates generate this submodule of R. Show that any element of M can be written as an R-linear combination of m1 , m2 , . . . , mk plus an element of M whose ﬁrst coordinates is 0. Prove that M ∩ Rn−1 is a submodule of Rn−1 is the set of elements of Rn with ﬁrst coordinate 0 and then use induction on n. Proof. Observe ﬁrst that Rn = R ⊕ · · · ⊕ R is an R-module. Then observe also that for a direct sum of ideals of Rn I1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ In ⊆ J1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Jn if and only if I i ⊆ J i for all i = 1, . . . , n. Now consider an inﬁnite ascending sequence of ideals 1 n 1 n 1 n I1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ I1 ⊆ · · · ⊆ Ik ⊕ · · · ⊕ Ik ⊆ Ik+1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Ik+1 ⊆ · · · .

i i The for each i there exists ki such that Iki = Iki +1 because R is Noetherian. Let l = max {ki |i = 1, · · · , n}. Therefore 1 n Il1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Iln = Il+1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Il+1

and hence Rn is a Noetherian R-module by the Ascending Chain Condition.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 7

- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #5, Sec 11.3
- Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2
- Homework #3, Sec 10.3
- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
- Problem 1.1, Osaka City University, 1990
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2008
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2007
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2006

Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #3, Sec 10.3
- Homework #5, Sec 11.3
- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
- Algebra Homework Set 7 Hung Tran. 8.3.11 (⇒) Suppose R
- Algebra Homework Set 8 Hung Tran. 9.4.2.c Reducing Mod 2
- Problem 1.1, Osaka City University, 1990
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2007
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2006
- Dummit Solutions
- Complex Analysis, Gamelin, II.7 Problems and Solutions
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2008
- l0k-Chapter8Solutions.pdf
- Solucionario capitulo 1
- topology chap 1
- Rudiger Gobel and Saharon Shelah- G.C.H. implies existence of many rigid almost free abelian groups
- hw04.2
- Hausdorff Topological Spaces
- m54lecture18
- Functional Notes
- Solutions to Atiyah and MacDonald’s Introduction to Commutative Algebra
- Saharon Shelah and Boaz Tsaban- On a Problem of Juhasz and Van Mill
- The Commutativity in Prime Gamma Rings
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1

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