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• A transduser is a device which, when actuated by energy in one transmission system, supplies energy in the same form or in another form to a second transmission system • Transducers may be classified according to their application, method of energy conversion, nature of the output signal, and so on.
Classification of Transducers
Prinsip Kemuatan (Capacitive)
The capacitance is defined as the ratio of the charge to the voltage for a given physical situation. If the capacitance is large, more charge is needed to establish a given voltage difference.
Capacitance measurement is used to detect the motion of a sensor element. A simple example would involve the motion of one electrode in the plane parallel to the electrodes. Assume a pair of rectangular electrodes, as shown in figure 3, with dimensions Length (L) and Width (W). If one of the electrodes moves laterally a distance x, the capacitance changes
Electrolytic or ceramic capacitors are most common
e.g. An electrolytic capacitor is made of Aluminum evaporated on either side of a very thin plastic film (or electrolyte)
a. Variable Area Mode b. Variable Dielectric Mode
c. Differential Mode
Mechanical transducers : Inductive
• Differential core positions in the coil produce changes in inductance which can be employed for displacement measurements -----------------
• A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) has a primary excitation coil and two series-connected secondary coils with a movable core --
core moves (displaces) in magnetic field Voltage generated
amplified for readout in voltage converted to displacement
• Cheap, easy to use way of measuring deflection • Measure deflections from 12 in. to millimeters
Primary Secondary Displacement Sensor
An inductor is basically a coil of wire over a “core” (usually ferrous) It responds to electric or magnetic fields
A transformer is made of at least two coils wound over the core: one is primary and another is secondary
Inductors and tranformers work only for ac signals
• When core slides through transformer, a certain number of coils are affected • This generates a unique voltage
Inductive Sensors - LVDT
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
An LVDT is used as a sensitive displacement sensor: for example, in a cardiac assist device or a basic research project to study displacement produced by a contracting muscle.
• An LVDT consists of a coil structure shaped into a cylinder and a magnetic core • Coil structure consists of one primary core and two secondary cores
• Voltage can be interpreted using formula stated above • V = Voltage and N = Number of coils
• Core attached to a stationary object
– E.g. Testing frame
• Rod attached to the object to be displacing
– E.g. Mid-span of girder
• Object moves and thus changes the position of rod in core
• Easy way to measure deflection • Very rugged piece of equipment
– Ideally a frictionless surface – Expected life is 2,000,000 hours – Can be used in adverse environmental conditions
• The range of measurement is limited
– ~12 in. – For longer stroke, a cable extension transducer is preferable ~ 1700 in.
• Rod attached to magnetic core can be bent
– Exact distance is no longer known
• Requires alignment to be correct
– extensometers, temperature transducers, butterfly valve control, servo valve displacement sensing
• • • •
Deflections Measurements of thickness changes Fluid level (float attached to rod) Velocity and acceleration
What is piezoelectricity ?
Strain causes a redistribution of charges and results in a net electric dipole (a dipole is kind of a battery!)
A piezoelectric material produces voltage by distributing charge (under mechanical strain/stress)
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical signal
31 denotes the crystal axis
Above equations are valid when force is applied in the L,W or t directions respectively.
Transduser Berintangan (Resistive)
• A resistive transducer is a device that senses a change to cause a change in resistance
Light Dependent Resistor Thermistor Strain gauge Moisture detector
Resistance falls with increasing light level Resistance falls with increased temperature Resistance changes with force Resistance falls when wet
Light operated switches Electronic thermometers Sensor in an electronic balance Damp meter
• Resistive thermometers
– typical devices use platinum wire (such a device is called a platinum resistance thermometers or PRT) – linear but has poor sensitivity
A typical PRT element
A sheathed PRT
– use materials with a high thermal coefficient of resistance – sensitive but highly non-linear
A typical disc thermistor thermistor
RTD (Resistive Temperature Detector)
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 C.
Contoh (Gunakan Konsep Titi Wheatstone)
Mechanical transducers : Potentiometric
Jadual 4.2 (Type J with 0 deg ref)
Suhu ( C) 0 50 100 150 200 Emf (mv) 0.00 2.61 5.28 8.01 10.77
– such devices do not produce electricity, but simply change their resistance – photodiode (as described earlier) can be used in this way to produce a linear device – phototransistors act like photodiodes but with greater sensitivity – light-dependent resistors (LDRs) are slow, but respond like the human eye
Konsep sel foto
• Rintangan bahan ini berkurangan apabila terdedah kepada keamatan cahaya. Rintangan bahan ini sangat tinggi pada suhu bilik. • Untuk mengurangkan nilai rintangannya, bentuk sepertiRajah 4.19 digunakan dengan nilai ketebalan l yang kecil dan A dimaksimumkan dengan menggunakan jalur (strip) nipis dan berlingkar(winding) supaya memenuhi persamaan
The photoconductive cell structure
-Terdiri dari bahan semikonduktor spt silikon,selenium dan germanium
-Apabila gelombang cahaya dipancarkan, elektron dalam sel suria akan tercas keluar melalui simpang diod didalam sel. -Cas e akan menjanakan tenaga elektrik secara berulang-ulang
Sistem sel suria
• Sejenis fotodiod yg boleh berfungsi dalam zero-bias (sistem sel suria) dan reverse bias (aliran arus balikan yg dikawal oleh keamatan cahaya) • Diperbuat dari silikon • Kelebihan : sambutan masa lebih cepat dari sel foto
The photodiode uses the pn junction reverse current to measure radiation
• Bekerja berasaskan hubungan arus elektrikcahaya. • Mempunyai 3 terminal spt transistor biasa. • Lebih peka dan arus keluaran lebih tinggi berbanding fotodiod.
Litar untuk fototransistor
Mechanical transducers : Level Transducers
• There are many level sensor techniques ------------------
• Ultrasonic level measurement needs no physical contact with the material, just a transmitter T and reciver R ----------------
Mechanical transducers : Strain Gauge
Tensile and compressional stress can be defined in terms of forces applied to a rod ----------------- Stress = F
l0 l 1 2 A0 l0 R strain R
Typical semiconductor strain gauge configuration ------------
elastically deforms the load cell structure Strain gages attached to the structure deform, causing change in resistance
R causes V; V amplified in resistance converted to V, then V converted to load
causes piezoelectric crystal to
created by deformation converted to voltage, amplified
converted to g’s
Meter Pecutan (Accelerometer)
• Digunakan untuk mengukur pecutan.Juga boleh digunakan untuk mengukur halaju dan anjakan.
Jenis Meter pecutan
• Potentiometric • LVDT • Keengganan boleh ubah (variable reluctance) • Piezoelectric
Mechanical transducers : accelerometer
• An object in periodic motion about an equilibrium at x=0, the peak motion is xo
x(t ) x o sin t
v(t ) x o cos t
xo sin t
• A typical shock graph showing acceleration versus time. Shock duration is Td
• The basic accelerometer is a spring –mass system k x ma
k x m
• Spring-mass system exhibits a natural oscillation with damping as a transient response to an impulse input
fN 1 2 k m
• A spring-mass accelerometer driven by a periodic acceleration of varying frequency shows a peak mass displacement or resonance at the natural frequency X T X o e t sin 2 f N t
x mx o k
A piezoelectric accelerometer
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