DATE February 07, 2011 6:43 pm

PROCEDURE Urine Sediment Analysis y Transparency

NORMS Transparent and clear

RESULT Slightly turbid

INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS Interpretation: Slightly turbid in urine is not normal. Analysis: Normal urine is transparent. Slightly turbid (cloudy) urine may be caused by either normal or abnormal processes. Normal conditions giving rise to turbid urine include precipitation of crystals, mucus, or vaginal discharge. Abnormal causes of turbidity include the presence of blood cells, yeast, and bacteria. Interpretation: Positive nitrate in urine is not normal. Analysis: Nitrite levels are also tested with the urinalysis. These values can be elevated when bacteria are found in the urinary tract. However, urinalysis results for nitrites can be affected by many issues. False negatives can be caused by other infections, lack of available nitrates, and a quick conversion of nitrites to nitrogen.

y

Nitrate

Negative

Positive

Interpretation: High creatinine level Analysis: Creatinine is produced by the body during the process of normal muscle breakdown. High levels may indicate kidney impairment. low blood pressure. too much water intake or retention.9 mmol/L 26. high blood pressure or another condition.February 07. or to fluid accumulation in the body (edema). Interpretation: Low sodium level in blood Analysis: A low level of blood sodium means you have hyponatremia. 2011 6:00 pm Blood Chemistry Test y Urea (BUN) 2.8 mmol/L Interpretation: Above the normal values. an isolated elevation of BUN may also reflect excessive formation of urea without any compromise to the kidneys. Some medications can also cause a higher than normal level of blood creatinine. However. which is usually due to too much sodium loss. y Creatinine 62-106 umol/L 155 umol/L y Sodium 135-145 mEq/L 112mEq/L . Elevated BUN Analysis: An elevated BUN in the setting of a relatively normal creatinine may reflect a physiological response to a relative decrease of blood flow to the kidney (as seen in heart failure or dehydration) without indicating any true injury to the kidney.9-8.

magnesium deficiency.y Potassium 3.7 mmol/L Interpretation: Low serum potassium level Analysis: This test shows the level of potassium in the blood. chronic renal failure. Patients who are taking diuretics regularly may require regular blood tests to monitor potassium levels.6 mg/dL 7. Both high and low levels of potassium can cause problems with the rhythm of the heart so it is important to monitor the level of potassium after surgery.1 mg/dL . y Calcium 8. including hypoparathyroidism. and hence the calculation. vitamin D deficiency.5-5 mmol/L 1. varies from laboratory to laboratory). True decrease in the physiologically active ionized form of Ca++ occurs in many situations.10. The normal albumin. Interpretation: Low serum calcium level Analysis: Hypocalcemia or low serum calcium level must be interpreted in relation to serum albumin concentration (Some laboratories report a "corrected calcium" or "adjusted calcium" which relate the calcium assay to a normal albumin.2 . Potassium plays an important role in muscle contractions and cell function. as some diuretics cause the kidneys to excrete too much potassium.

acute pancreatitis. alcoholism. etc. etc. massive transfusion. thermal burns. Drugs producing hypocalcemia include most diuretics. methicillin. malabsorption. Cushing's disease. many GI conditions. and other chronic diseases). y ALT (SGPT) 1033 U/L 21 U/L Interpretation: Low Analysis: Decreased serum AST is of no known clinical significance. y Albumin Serum 35-52 21 . fluorides. familial hypoproteinemia). glucose. Interpretation: Low albumin serum Analysis: Decreased serum albumin is seen in states of decreased synthesis (malnutrition. magnesium salts. and increased catabolism (thyrotoxicosis. insulin.). excessive laxatives. liver disease. cancer chemotherapy. increased loss (nephrotic syndrome. estrogens. and phosphates.prolonged anticonvulsant therapy.

immunodeficiency including AIDS Interpretation: Too high Analysis: Hemoglobin is the amount of oxygen carrying protein contained within the red blood cells. living at high altitude. excessive bone marrow production of blood cells. hepatitis. uterine leiomyomas. SLE.February 07. cerebellar hemangioblastomas. White Blood Count High: Rule out infection and leukemia.04 y Hemoglobin 120-160 90 gm/dl y Hematocrit 0. viral and some bacterial infections.28 Interpretation: Low hematocrit .37-.9x103/µL 16. and sickle cell anemia. hepatomas (liver tumors). 2011 7:05 pm Hematology y WBC 4. kidney tumors.83x103/µL Interpretation: High WBC Analysis: White blood cells are responsible for detecting and destroying diseases that come into our body. Interpretation: Too low Analysis: Lymphocytes increased with infectious mononucleosis.40 gm/dl 0. Hemoglobin Too High: Rule out lung disease.047 0.1-10. decreased in aplastic anemia. y Lymphocyte 20-0.

Analysis: Hematocrit (Hct. blood loss. and destruction of blood cells internally. . Men have a slightly higher hematocrit percentages than women because women lose a bit of blood each month during their menstrual cycle. or failure to produce blood in the bone marrow. Packed Cell Volume or PCV): The hematocrit is the percentage of the blood volume occupied by red blood cells. Hematocrit Too Low: Rule out anemia due to nutritional deficiencies.

7.231 mmHg 64.45 35-45 mm Hg 80 to 100 mm Hg. 22 to 26 mEq/liter 7.5 mEq/liter pH lower than the normal values pCO2 high PO2 at the normal range High HCO3 Analysis: pH is Decreased (more acid.9 mmHg 88 mmHg 27. lower pH) with: y y y y y y y y y y y y Strenuous physical exercise Obesity Starvation Diarrhea Ventilatory failure More severe degrees of Pulmonary Disease More severe degrees of Congestive Heart Failure Pulmonary edema Cardiac arrest Renal failure Lactic acidosis Ketoacidosis in diabetes Increased pCO2 is caused by: y y Pulmonary edema Obstructive lung disease . 2011 9:03 am Blood Gases Result Acid/Base y pH y pCO2 y PO2 y HCO3 Interpretation: 7.35 .February 8.