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University of Kansas, USA

Available online 12 August 2002.

Two studies tested the effects of TV ads with celebrity endorsement on the product preference and understanding of
8- to 14-year-old boys. Study 1 compared two ads for a model racer. One had celebrity endorsement (by a famous
race driver) and footage of real automobile racing featuring the celebrity (live action); the second had neither feature.
Study 2 employed one ad for a different brand of model racer edited to generate a 2 (endorser presence) by 2
(inclusion of live racetrack action) factorial design. A total of 415 boys were exposed to one of the experimental ads
or a control ad, embedded in a new animated children's adventure program. Preference for the advertised brand of
model racer (pre- and postviewing) and a number of cognitive variables were assessed. Exposure to endorsement
led to increased preference for the toy and belief that the celebrity was expert about the toy. Live action led to
exaggerated estimates of the physical properties of the toy and the belief that the ad was Ê  staged. The 8- to 10-
year-olds associated the glamour of the endorser with the toy and were more reliant on his advice than were 11- to
14-year-olds. However, the two age groups were not differentially affected by the ads. Contrary to the speculation of
many researchers, understanding about advertising intent and techniques and cynicism about ads had almost no
influence on product preference after viewing.

This research was supported in part by a contract between the Federal Trade Commission and the University of
Kansas. The opinions expressed are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the sponsoring agency.

Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to: Rhonda P. Ross, The University of Kansas, Center
for Research on the Influences of Television on Children, Department of Human Development, Lawrence, KS, 66045,
Toni Campbell is now at Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.
Peter Turk is now at Louisiana State University.

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Volume 5, Issue 3, July-September 1984, Pages 185-202

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Likert questions can help you ascertain how strongly your respondent agrees with a particular statement.
Likert questions can also help you assess how your customers feel towards a certain issue, product or
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