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BY-ELITE GROUP Amit joshi UPES Dehradun
The switchyard is a junctionconnecting the Transmission &Distribution system to the power plant. Switchyard consists of the air insulated aluminium bus type and of high voltage SF6 –insulated dead tank circuit breakers arranged in a ring bus configuration. Each circuit breaker are equipped with a no-load breaker, air insulated, disconnect switch on each side. An isolating disconnect switch are installed in each generator transformer connection to the bus.
In switchyard, a power transformer is used to step up or step down the voltage. Current and Voltage transformers are located at points within the switchyard to provide for metering and relaying. Control, protection and monitoring for the switchyard will be located in the switchyard relay room of the electrical building. All protection and circuit breaker control will be powered from the station battery-backed 220V DC system.
A grounding grid are provided to control step and touch potentials . Lightning protection are provided by shield wires for any overhead lines- Lightning arrestors. Interface with SCADAsystem are provided. The communication between the facility switchyard and the control building is facilitated. Revenue metering are provided on the outgoing lines, recording net power to or from the switchyard.
OVERVIEW 11 kV Bus –Bar Lightning Arrestor Isolator 11 kV Circuit Breaker Current Transformer Power Transformer 11 kV/ 400 kV line Incoming 400 kV Outgoing line Line11kV 400 kV Outgoing .
Equipments used in Switchyard 1)Bus Bar 2)Insulators 3)Lightening Arrestor 4)Earthing System 5)Control Panel 6)Transformer 7)Circuit Breaker 8)Arching horns 9)SCADA Nodes 10)ROW 11) 12) 13) .
amount of current passed .BUS BAR Used to interconnect the loads and sources of electrical power It connects incoming and outgoing transmission lines Also connect generator and main transformer in power plant Material used: Copper or Aluminium Size of bus bar to determine max.
And high voltages Strain bus bars:used for high voltages Insulated phase bus bars:used for mdium voltages Sulphur hexaflouride bus bar:used for medium and high voltage system .md.TYPES OF BUS BAR Rigid bus-bars:used for low.
1500 ampere bus bar .
Insulator Supported the poles and towers in such a way that currents from conductors do not flow to earth through these supports .
Types of Insulators Pin type Suspension type:design for 11 kv .
Lightning Arrestor Used on power system to protect the system from damaging effect of lightning .
.What exactly does a Lightning Arrestor Do? •It Does not Absorb the Lightning •It Does not Stop the Lightning •It Does Divert the Lightning to Ground •It Does Clamp (limit) the Voltage produced by the Lightning •It Only protects equipment electrically in parallel with it.
carrier signal received. auto reclose relay. carrier out of service. auto reclose lock out. VT fuse fail alarm. wattmeter. . auxiliary relay and transformer relays like OLTC out of step. back up protection. winding temperature alarm. distance protection inoperative. energy meter etc. check synchronizing relay.Control Panel Control panel mostly consists of meters and protective relays. CB pole disc trip. control DC supply fails. voltmeter. CB Air pressure low. The trip indicators included are CB SF6 gas density low. The relays include fuse failure relay. oil temperature alarm. distance protection trip etc. The meters include ammeter.
To assure that a person in the vicinity of grounded facilities is not exposed to the danger of electric shock. . without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting continuity of service .Earthing Systems Earthing is to be provided in substations due to following reasons: To provide a means to carry electric current into the earth under normal and fault conditions .
to immediately discontinue electrical flow. . Its function is to interrupt continuity.Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is an automaticallyoperated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
In 400/220KV substation Power Grid there is SF6 circuit breaker system. . In switchyard High Capacity Circuit Breakers are used.
SulphurHexafluoride Circuit Breakers The SF6 is an electro-negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. . The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and an arc is struck between them.
. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc.
. Noiseless operation due to its closed gas circuit.Advantages of using SF6 Circuit breaker Very short arcing time. No carbon deposits so that tracking and insulation problems are eliminated. No moisture problem. No risk of fire since SF6 gas is noninflammable Low maintenance cost. Can interrupt much larger currents.
so additional equipments are required. SF6 gas has to be reconditioned after every operation of the breaker. .Disadvantages of using SF6 SF6 breakers are costly due to high cost of SF6.
they will not work properly if mounted directly on power lines. Since the measuring instruments and protective devices are designed for low voltages (generally 110V) and currents (about 5A). It controls excess and low current It also helps in steping up or down the potential. Therefore.Instrument Transformers Current transformers. . together with potential transformers (PT). are known as instrument transformers.
It step downs the current and measurements are taken in the control room the ratings of CT is based on the ampere These CTs are connected to the control room through cables.Current Transformer The current transformer is used to measure the very high current passing through the bus. .
This has an additional core for the carrier communication. which step down the high voltage to a value that can be measured using the measuring instruments in the control room. The CVT are connected between phase and ground in parallel to the circuit. .Voltage Transformer There is a step down transformer.
They are two metal rods fitted at the top most and bottommost parts of the insulator. During high voltage insulators can't resist this and cracks may be developed. They conduct the high voltage to the ground and protect the insulator. In order to avoid these arcing horns are provided. . which it cannot stand.Arcing Horns Arcing horns are for the protection of the insulators in case of high voltage.
.SCADA nodes SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition It basically stores data for current and give alarm to Power Line Communication Carrier(PLCC) which further is transmitted to National Load Despatch Centre(NLDC) .RLDC.
ROW(Right of Way) It is the path to access devices of a switchyard Physical path IT equipments .
Maximum Security of supply and minimum fault duration. . Supply energy at lowest cost. (in case of AC supply) Supply within specified limits of voltages. Supply of power within the targeted limit of frequency. Maximum possible coverage of geographical area.Aim of Electric power supply Supply of required amount of power to all consumers over the entire geographical area at all the time continuously.
quickly and accurately.|V2|. Losses are high as the reactive power is high. Voltage drop will be more.Why DC over AC? Power Transfer through an AC transmission link is given by: Pac = ( |V1|.sinδ)/X Reactive power comes in play. . Power Transfer through the AC line can’t be controlled easily.
For shorter distances. HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. For long-distance distribution. direct current (HVDC) :bulk transmission of electrical power. the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful .HVDC High-voltage.
Ac AC Rectifier DC Inverter Synchronization of stations. Asynchronous DC linkage between the AC connections. Interconnecting two same frequency line. . as per frequency as well as voltage.
Lesser losses so better quality.Economic Consideration +Ve for HVDC: Lesser conductors are used as compare to AC. . Long distances covered. HV so more security. Simpler design of towers.
Higher Initial cost.Economic Consideration -Ve for HVDC: Not for Short distance. .
Economic Consideration (for overhead lines) .
2.Converters.Smoothing Reactor. Thyristors) 3.Shunt Capacitors.(silicon controlled rectifiers. .HVDC AC Rectifier DC Inverter AC Equipments used in Converter stations: 1.
.Transmission Models Monopolar: The line has one energized conductor with the return path through the earth.
Bipolar mode has one conductor at a positive potential with respect to ground and a second conductor operating at negative potential of the same magnitude. Bipolar: A bipolar transmission gives two circuits which are almost independent of each other. .
usually in the same building. .Back-to-back station is a plant in which both static inverters and rectifiers are in the same area. coupling of electricity mains of different frequency. The length of the direct current line is kept as short as possible. coupling two networks of the same nominal frequency but no fixed phase relationship.
. Less voltage regulation problem because only IR drop is involved. Greater power per conductor and simpler line construction. No charging current and skin effect.Advantages Of HVDC Economical for long distance bulk transmission. Ground return is possible.
. circuit breakers are unnecessary since control of the converters can be used to block current flow during faulty conditions.Advantages cont. DC line is an asynchronous or flexible link it can interconnect two rigid systems operating at different frequencies. Easy reversibility and controllability of power at DC link. For a single DC line b/w 2 converter stations.
. Converters do not have overload capacity.Disadvantages Installation of complicated converters and DC switchgear is expensive. Converters require considerable reactive power. Lack of HVDC circuit breakers hampers multi terminal or network operation. Harmonics are generated which requires filters.
Reactive power required by the load is to be supplied locally as no reactive power can be transmitted over a DC link. Contamination of the insulators in polluted areas or along the sea coast. There is nothing like DC transformer which can change the voltage level in a simple way. Pollution affects DC more then AC.Disadvantages Cont. .
Present Scenario India has been a pioneer developer of HVDC since 1990 when the 1000 MW RihandDadri line was commissioned in UP. . AP. The 2000 MW Talchar-Kolar link is the biggest so far and spans from states . Orissa. Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Since then many 500 MW lines have come up.
. Controllers would be more & more microprocessor based which can be modified or upgraded without requiring hardware changes.Future Trends R & D work is under way to provide a better understanding of the performance of HVDC links to achieve more efficient and economical designs of the thyristor valves and related equipments .
it is expected that fibre optics system would be used to generate firing signals & direct light fired thyristors would be employed for HVDC converters. .Future Trends In the near future.
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