You are on page 1of 172

# MSC.

BASIC TRAINING and EXAMPLES

2007
CONTENTS

2

## ADAMS BASIC TRAINING and EXAMPLES

CONTENTS

1.1.1 Steps in Modeling and Simulating .................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Build Your Model .............................................................................................. 1
1.1.3 Test and Validate Your Model .......................................................................... 3
1.1.4 Refine Your Model and Iterate .......................................................................... 5
1.1.5 Customize and Automate ADAMS/View......................................................... 5
1.2 Working with the ADAMS/View ............................................................................. 6
1.2.2 ADAMS/View Main Window ........................................................................... 6
1.2.3 Starting a New Modeling Session ..................................................................... 7
1.3 Defining the Modeling Environment ........................................................................ 9
1.3.1 Specifying the Type of Coordinate System ...................................................... 9
1.3.2 Setting Units of Measurement ......................................................................... 10
1.3.3 Specifying Gravitational Force........................................................................ 11
1.3.4 Specifying Working Directory ........................................................................ 12

## 2 Building Models in ADAMS/View ................................................................. 13

2.1 Creating Parts .......................................................................................................... 13
2.1.1 Creating Construction Geometry..................................................................... 14
2.1.2 Creating Solid Geometry ................................................................................. 19
2.1.3 Creating Complex Geometry ........................................................................... 23
I
CONTENTS

## 2.1.4 Adding Features to Geometry ......................................................................... 25

2.1.5 Working with Point Masses ............................................................................. 26
2.2 Modifying Parts ...................................................................................................... 26
2.2.1 Modifying Rigid Body Geometry ................................................................... 26
2.2.2 Modifying Part Properties................................................................................ 27
2.3.1 Types of Constraints ........................................................................................ 27
2.3.2 Accessing the Constraint Creation Tools........................................................ 27
2.3.3 Working with Joints ......................................................................................... 28
2.4 Applying Forces to Your Model ............................................................................. 37
2.4.1 Accessing the Force Tools ............................................................................... 37
2.4.2 Constructing Applied Forces ........................................................................... 38
2.4.3 Constructing Flexible Connectors ................................................................... 41

## 3 Simulating Models in ADAMS/View ............................................................. 43

3.1 Types of Simulations .............................................................................................. 43
3.2 Accessing the Simulation Controls ......................................................................... 44
3.3 Performing an Interactive Simulation ..................................................................... 45
3.4 Viewing and Controlling Animations ..................................................................... 46
3.4.2 Accessing the Animation Controls.................................................................. 47
3.4.3 Playing Animations .......................................................................................... 47

4 Examples ......................................................................................................... 49
4.1 The Latch Design Problem ..................................................................................... 49
4.1.1 Introducing the Latch Design Problem ........................................................... 49
4.1.2 Building Model................................................................................................. 50
4.1.3 Testing Your First Prototype ........................................................................... 55
4.1.4 Validating Results Against Physical Test Data .............................................. 59
4.1.5 Refining Your Design ...................................................................................... 62
4.1.7 Optimizing Your Design .................................................................................. 66
4.2 The Front Suspension Design Problem ................................................................... 70
4.2.1 Introducing the Front Suspension Design Problem ....................................... 70
4.2.2 Building Model................................................................................................. 71

II

## 4.2.3 Testing the Front Suspension .......................................................................... 76

4.3 The Full Vehicle Design Problem........................................................................... 83
4.3.1 Creating Chassis Model ................................................................................... 83
4.3.2 Creating Front Suspension Model ................................................................... 85
4.3.3 Creating Steering System Model ..................................................................... 88
4.3.4 Creating Rear Suspension Model .................................................................... 92
4.3.5 Creating Tire and Road .................................................................................... 83
4.3.6 Testing the Full Vehicle ................................................................................. 101

5.1 What is ADAMS/Car? .......................................................................................... 106
5.2 What You Can Do with ADAMS/Car .................................................................. 107
5.3 How You Benefit from Using ADAMS/Car......................................................... 108

## 6 Introducing Analyses in ADAMS/Car .......................................................... 109

6.2 Types of Analyses ................................................................................................. 109
6.3 Introducing Suspension Analyses ......................................................................... 110
6.3.1 Suspension Analysis Process ......................................................................... 110
6.3.2 Suspension Assembly Roles .......................................................................... 111
6.3.3 Setting Suspension Parameters ...................................................................... 111
6.3.4 Submitting Suspension Analyses .................................................................. 111
6.4 Introducing Full-Vehicle Analyses ....................................................................... 114
6.4.1 Full-Vehicle Analysis Process ....................................................................... 114
6.4.2 About the Full-Vehicle Analyses .................................................................. 114

## 7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions ........................................................... 121

7.1 Starting ADAMS/Car Standard Interface ............................................................. 121
7.2 Creating Suspension Assemblies .......................................................................... 121
7.2.1 Creating a New Front Suspension Subsystem .............................................. 121
7.2.2 Creating a Suspension and Steering Assembly ............................................ 124

III
CONTENTS

## 7.3 Performing a Baseline Parallel Wheel Travel Analysis ........................................ 125

7.3.1 Defining Vehicle Parameters ......................................................................... 125
7.3.2 Performing the Analysis ................................................................................ 126
7.3.3 Animating the Results .................................................................................... 127
7.4 Performing a Baseline Pull Analysis .................................................................... 127
7.4.1 Defining a Loadcase File ............................................................................... 127
7.4.2 Performing the Analysis ................................................................................ 129
7.4.3 Animating the Results .................................................................................... 130
7.5 Modifying the Suspension and Steering Subsystem ............................................. 130
7.5.1 Modifying Hardpoint Locations .................................................................... 130
7.5.2 Saving the Modified Subsystem .................................................................... 131
7.6 Performing an Analysis on the Modified Assembly ............................................. 131

## 8 Template Builder Tutorial ............................................................................. 133

8.1 Starting ADAMS/Car Template Builder............................................................... 133
8.2 Creating Topology for Your Template ................................................................. 134
8.2.1 Creating a Template ....................................................................................... 134
8.2.2 Building Suspension Parts ............................................................................. 135
8.2.3 Creating the Wheel Carrier ............................................................................ 138
8.2.4 Creating the Strut............................................................................................ 139
8.2.5 Creating the Damper ...................................................................................... 140
8.2.6 Defining the Spring ........................................................................................ 140
8.2.7 Creating the Tie Rod ...................................................................................... 141
8.2.8 Creating the Toe and Camber Variables ....................................................... 142
8.2.9 Creating the Hub ............................................................................................ 142
8.2.10 Creating and Defining Attachments and Parameters ................................. 143
8.3 Creating a Suspension Subsystem......................................................................... 148

## 9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles .......................................................... 151

9.1 A Full-Vehicle Assembly ..................................................................................... 151
9.2 Performing a Single Lane-Change Analysis ......................................................... 153
9.3 Performing a Step Steer Analysis ......................................................................... 155
9.4 Performing a Quasi-Static Steady-State Cornering Analysis ................................ 156
9.5 Performing a Baseline ISO Lane-Change Analysis .............................................. 156
9.6 Modifying the Full-Vehicle Assembly ................................................................. 157

IV

## APPENDIX A: ADAMS/View keyboard shortcuts ......................................... 159

APPENDIX B: ADAMS/Car keyboard shortcuts ............................................ 162
REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 164

V

ADAMS/View is a powerful modeling and simulating environment that lets you build,
simulate, and refine models of mechanical systems.

ADAMS/View lets you build models of mechanical systems and simulate the full-motion
behavior of the models. You can also use ADAMS/View to quickly analyze multiple design
variations until you find the optimal design. This chapter introduces you to ADAMS/View.
It includes the sections:
 Steps in Modeling and Simulating
 Test and Validate Your Model
 Refine Your Model and Iterate

## 1.1.1 Steps in Modeling and Simulating

The steps that you use in ADAMS/View to create a model mirror the same steps that you
would use to build a physical prototype. These steps are shown in Figure 1.
Although we’ve listed the steps that you perform to create a model as though you create the
entire model at once and then test and refine it, we recommend that you build and test small
elements or subsystems of your model before you build the entire model. For example,
create a few modeling objects, connect them together, and then run a simple simulation to
test their motion and ensure that you are connecting them correctly. Once these are modeled
correctly, add more complexity to your model. By starting out slowly, you can ensure that
each subsystem works before moving on to the next step. We call this the crawl-walk-run
approach.

1

##  Creating the Parts of Your Model

 Adding Constraints and Motions to Mandate Part Movements
 Adding Forces that Induce or Resist Part Movements

## Each of these processes is explained below.

Creating the Parts of Your Model
You start building your model by building the physical attributes of the movable elements

2

(parts) in your mechanical system. You can build the geometry using:
(1) ADAMS/View library of parts to create the simpler elements of your model.
Adding Constraints and Motions to Mandate Part Movements
Constraints define how parts are attached and how they are allowed to move relative to each
other. ADAMS/View provides a library of constraints including:
(1) Idealized joints that have a physical counterpart, such as a revolute (hinge) or
translational joint (sliding dovetail).
(2) Joint primitives that place a restriction on relative motion, such as the
restriction that one part always moves parallel to another part.
(3) Motions generators that drive your model through a prescribed distance,
velocity, or acceleration as a function of time.
(4) Associative constraints that define how pairs of constraints move, such a
couplers or gears.
(5) Two-dimensional curve constraints that define how a point or curve moves
along another curve.
Adding Forces that Induce or Resist Part Movements
You can also apply forces that act on your model. These forces will affect part motion and
reaction forces on constraints. ADAMS/View provides you with libraries of forces that
include:
(1) Flexible connectors, such as spring-dampers and bushings, those provide
pre-defined, compliant force relationships.
(2) Special forces, such as aerodynamic force, that provide pre-defined forces that
are commonly encountered.
(3) Applied forces that allow you to write your own equations to represent a wide
provided a Function Builder, which steps you through writing a function and
(4) Contacts that specify how bodies react when they come in contact with one
another when the model is in motion.

## 1.1.3 Test and Validate Your Model

After you create your model or at any point in the modeling process, you can run tests of
your model to ensure that it was created correctly and to verify its system characteristics.
 Defining Results to Be Output
 Performing a Simulation
3

##  Reviewing the Simulation Results

 Validating Simulation Results
Defining Results to Be Output
predefined information for the objects in your model, such as displacements and velocities.
You can also define measures or requests that ADAMS/View tracks during a simulation.
You can measure almost any characteristic of the objects in your model, such as the force
applied to a spring or the distance or angle between objects. As you run the simulation,
ADAMS/View displays strip charts of the measures that you requested so you can view the
results as the simulation occurs.
Performing a Simulation
After creating your model or at any point in the modeling process, you can run a simulation
of the model to verify its:
 Performance characteristics
 Response to a set of operating conditions
To perform a simulation, ADAMS/View submits the model to MDI’s analysis engine,
ADAMS/Solver, which formulates and solves the equations of motion for the model. As
in motion and displays strip charts tracking the measures that you specified.
ADAMS/View provides many different categories of simulations, including dynamic
simulations, which calculate the dynamic motion of your model, static equilibrium
Reviewing the Simulation Results
After a simulation is complete, you can rerun the animation of the simulation, pause it at
any frame in the animation, or change the camera angle. In addition, you can view the
results of the simulation by plotting them in ADAMS/PostProcessor.
ADAMS/PostProcessor lets you plot all of the measures that you specified, as well as plot
the result components that ADAMS/View automatically generates during a simulation.
ADAMS/PostProcessor lets you zoom in on your plot, plot any of the result components
against any other data, and view statistics about data in the plot, such as the slope of the
curve or the curve’s minimum and maximum values. A plot can contain multiple axes and
you can construct Bode and fast fourier transform (FFT) plots.
Validating Simulation Results
You can import numeric results from physical tests of a mechanical system and compare
them to the results of simulations in ADAMS/View to validate the accuracy of your model.
You can plot the test data over the ADAMS/View simulation results for quick and easy
comparison.

4

## 1.1.4 Refine Your Model and Iterate

After you have run initial simulations to determine the basic motion of your model, you can
and defining control systems using linear or general state equations. You can also enhance
its realism by changing rigid bodies to flexible bodies or joints to flexible connectors.
To help you compare alternative designs, you can build in parameters that change
automatically as you change your model. The parameters can be defined using:
Design points - Design points allow you to build automatic parameterization between
objects, as well as position and orient objects. They help you explore the effects of the
geometry and mechanical layout of your model. When you change the position of a design
point, the position of all objects defined relative to it automatically change.
Design variables - Design variables allow you to vary any aspect of a modeling object.
For example, you can define a variable for the width of a link or for the stiffness of a spring.
You can then run a design study that changes a single variable over a range of values to
investigate the sensitivity of the design to changes in this variable.
system:
(1) Design of experiments - Helps you to understand which design variables have
the greatest impact on a design objective.
(2) Optimization - Helps you find an optimal design. You define the design
objective and specify the parameters of the model that can change.
These tools automatically run several simulations, varying one or more modeling variables
with each new simulation.

## 1.1.5 Customize and Automate ADAMS/View

You can customize ADAMS/View so that it works and looks the way you want it to and
mimics your design environment. There are four major ways to customize it. You can:
(1) Customize the graphical interface - For example, you can create your own set
(2) Automate your work using macros - You can also speed up your work by
creating macros to perform complex or repetitive tasks. You can edit the
macros to include design variables to further customize and automate the
modeling process.
(3) Create your own ADAMS/View executable - The executable you create can
(4) Edit ADAMS/View startup files - You can edit the files that ADAMS/View
5

reads when it first starts. These files can automatically load a model, execute
commands, or change menus or dialog boxes.

## This chapter explains how to use the basic features of ADAMS/View.

ADAMS/View looks after you start it.
On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to ADAMS 12.0, point to AView, and then select
Starting a New Modeling Session
When you start ADAMS/View, ADAMS/View displays a Welcome dialog box that lets you
create a new modeling database or use an existing one. The Welcome dialog box also lets
you import modeling data and specify your working directory.
ADAMS/View also displays the Welcome dialog box when you use the New Database
command to create a new modeling database in which to store your models. The Welcome
dialog box is shown below.

After you start ADAMS/View, the ADAMS/View main window appears. Figure 1.2 shows
the default window. Your window may look different if it was customized.
The elements in the ADAMS/View main window are described below.
(1) Main toolbox - Displays commonly used tools for creating, editing, and
selecting modeling elements, as well as simulating the model and undoing
operations. The tools are shortcuts to using the menus in the menu bar.
(2) Window title bar - Displays the title of the ADAMS/View main window.
(4) Welcome dialog box - Steps you through starting your ADAMS/View session.
It appears when you first start ADAMS/View and when you create a new
modeling database.
(5) View triad - Displays the orientation of the global coordinate system.
(6) Status bar - Displays information messages and prompts while you work. Also

6

## 1.2.3 Starting a New Modeling Session

When you start ADAMS/View, ADAMS/View displays a Welcome dialog box that lets you
create a new modeling database or use an existing one. The Welcome dialog box also lets
you import modeling data and specify your working directory.
ADAMS/View also displays the Welcome dialog box when you use the New Database
command to create a new modeling database in which to store your models. The Welcome
dialog box is shown below.

7

## Figure 1.3. Welcome Dialog Box

Select one of the options explained in Table 1.1 to indicate how you’d like to start using
Table 1.1 Options in Welcome Dialog Box
The option: Does the following:
Create a new model Lets you start a new modeling session with a new
modeling database. Follow Steps 2 and 3 to create
the new modeling database.
Open an existing Lets you open an existing modeling database. For more
database information on opening existing databases.
Import a file Lets you start a new modeling session by reading in a
model from an ADAMS/View command file or an
Exit Lets you exit ADAMS/View without performing an
operation.
If you selected to create a new model, do the following:
(1) In the Model name text box, enter the name you want assigned to the new
model. You can enter up to 80 alphanumeric characters. You cannot include
special characters, such as spaces or periods.
(2) Select the gravity settings for the new model. You can select:
 Earth Normal - Sets the gravity to 1 G downward.
 No Gravity - Turns off the gravitational force.
 Other - Lets you set the gravity as desired. The Gravity Settings dialog box
appears after you select OK on the Welcome dialog box.
(3) Select a preset unit system for your model. In all the preset unit systems, time is

8

## in seconds and angles are in degrees. You can set:

 MMKS - Sets length to millimeter, mass to kilogram, and force to Newton.
 MKS - Sets length to meter, mass to kilogram, and force to Newton.
 CGS - Sets length to centimeter, mass to gram, and force to Dyne.
 IPS - Sets length to inch, mass to slug, and force to PoundForce.

## 1.3 Defining the Modeling Environment

environment by specifying your unit system and gravitational force. Anytime you are
working with ADAMS/View you can redefine the modeling environment. The next sections
explain how to set up your modeling environment.

## 1.3.1 Specifying the Type of Coordinate System

When you first start ADAMS/View, it displays a view triad in the lower left corner. The
view triad displays the global coordinate system for the modeling database. By default,
ADAMS/View uses a Cartesian coordinate system as the global coordinate system with
three axes (x, y, and z). ADAMS/View attaches the ground part to the global coordinates
system and by default positions all other modeling objects to it.
You can change the default coordinate system from Cartesian to cylindrical or spherical.
ADAMS/View uses the default system for any values you enter and any values it displays.
ADAMS/View also uses the default system for values when importing and exporting data.
1. Types of Coordinate Systems
ADAMS/View lets you specify locations using three different types of coordinate
systems: Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical. By default, ADAMS/View uses the Cartesian
coordinate system.

9

## 2. About Orientation Angles and Rotations

ADAMS/View uses three orientation angles to perform three rotations about the axes of a
coordinate system. These rotations can be space-fixed or body-fixed.
 Space-fixed rotation: ADAMS/View applies the rotations about axes that remain in
their original orientation.
 Body-fixed rotation: ADAMS/View applies the rotations about axes that move with
the body as it rotates. As ADAMS/View applies each rotation to an axis, it produces
a new set of axes.
You specify the order in which axes are rotated about as a sequence of three numbers
(1,2,3), which correspond to x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. For example, a rotation order
of 313 produces rotations about the z-, then x-, and then y-axis. ADAMS/View provides
you with a set of 24 rotation sequences from which to choose. The most commonly used
rotation sequence, body 313, is the default sequence.
The right-hand rule defines the direction of positive rotation about each axis.
3. Setting the Default Coordinate System
1) Do one of the following:
 On the Settings menu, select Coordinate System.
 On the Move tool stack, select the Coordinate System tool .
The Coordinate Systems Setting dialog box appears.
2) Select the type of location coordinate systems.
3) Select the type of orientation coordinates and rotation sequence.
4) Select OK.

## 1.3.2 Setting Units of Measurement

You can set the units that ADAMS/View uses to define dimensions. ADAMS/View comes
with a predefined set of units. You can change the system of units you are using any time
during the modeling process.
To set the unit of measurement in ADAMS/View:
1) On the Settings menu, select Units. The Units Settings dialog box appears.

10

## 2) Select the unit of measurement for each of the dimensions.

3) Select OK.
The units of measurement that ADAMS/View provides for you are shown in Table 1.2. It
also shows the default units used when you start a new session with a new modeling
database.
Table 1.2 Standard Units of Measurement
For the
Its supported units are: The default unit is:
dimension:
Length Meter, Millimeter, Centimeter, Millimeter
Kilometer, Inch, Foot, Mile
Mass Kilogram, Gram, PoundMass, Kilogram
OunceMass, Slug, KilopoundMass
Force Newton, KilogramForce, Dyne, PoundForce, Newton
OunceForce, KiloNewton, KilopoundForce,
MilliNewton
Time Second, Minute, Hour, Millisecond Second

## 1.3.3 Specifying Gravitational Force

You can specify the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of gravity. For each part
with mass, the gravitational force produces a point force at its center of mass.
To turn on and specify the gravitational force:
1) Do one of the following:
On the Settings menu, select Gravity.
On the Create Forces tool stack, select the Gravity tool .

11

## 2) Select the Gravity check box to turn on gravity.

3) Set the acceleration of the gravity in the x, y, and z directions with respect to the
global coordinate system.
4) Select OK.

## 1.3.4 Specifying Working Directory

By default, ADAMS/View searches for and saves all files in the directory from which you
ran ADAMS/View. You can change the working directory.
To change the working directory for the current session:
1) On the File menu, select Select Directory.
2) Select the directory in which ADAMS/View should save files.
3) Select OK.

12

## 2 Building Models in ADAMS/View

ADAMS/View provides a complete library of parts that you can create. ADAMS/View
provides you with three different types of parts.
 Rigid Bodies: Parts in your models that have mass and inertia properties. They
cannot deform.
 Flexible Bodies: Parts that have mass and inertia properties and can bend when
forces are applied to them. Basic ADAMS/View provides you with the ability to
create discrete flexible links. For more functionality, you can purchase
 Point Masses: Parts that have only mass. They have no extent and, therefore, no
inertia properties.
ground part is the only part in your model that must remain stationary at all times.
ADAMS/View creates the ground part automatically when you create a model. You can
also define a new or existing part as ground. The ground part does not have mass properties
or initial velocities and does not add degrees of freedom into your model.

## 2.1 Creating Parts

You can create rigid body geometry using the tools on the Geometric Modeling palette or
the Geometric Modeling tool stack on the Main toolbox. The palette and tool stack contain
the same tools so you can choose whichever one you are most comfortable using. The
Geometric Modeling palette and tool stack are shown in figure 2.1.
As you create geometry, ADAMS/View provides settings to assist you in defining the
geometry. It provides the settings in a container at the bottom of the palette or Main toolbox.
The settings change depending on the type of geometry that you are creating. For example,
Figure 2.1 shows the length, width, and depth values associated with creating link
geometry.
You can use the settings to control how you want ADAMS/View to define the geometry.
For example, when you create a link, ADAMS/View lets you specify its width, length, and
height before creating it. Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set regardless of
how you move the mouse. You can also define design variables or expressions for these
setting values.
To display the Geometric Modeling palette:
From the Build menu, select Bodies/Geometry.
13

## To display the contents of the Geometric Modeling tool stack:

From the Main toolbox, right-click the Geometric Modeling tool stacks. By default,
the Link tool appears at the top of the tool stack.

## Geometric Modeling palette Geometric Modeling tool

stack on Main toolbox
Figure 2.1 Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack

## 2.1.1 Creating Construction Geometry

You can create several types of construction geometry. You draw construction geometry
normal to the screen or the working grid.
Types of construction geometry are shown in table 2.1.
The next sections explain how to create construction geometry.
 Defining Points
 Defining Coordinate System Markers
 Creating Lines and Polylines
 Creating Arcs and Circles
 Creating Splines

14

## Attach Near/Don’t Attach

Points
Location, Parent Part

Orientation, Location,
Markers
Parent Part

## One Line/Multiple Lines,

Polylines Open/Closed, Length, Vertex
Points Angle, Parent Part

## Radius, Start and End Angle,

Arcs
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

## Open/Closed, Knot Points,

Splines
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

1. Defining Points
Points define locations in three-dimensional space upon which you can build your model.
They allow you to build parameterization between objects, as well as position objects.
For example, you can attach a link to points so that each time you move the points, the
link’s geometry changes accordingly. You can also use points to define the location where
modeling objects connect, such as the point where a joint connects two parts. Points do not
define an orientation, only a location.
As you create a point, you define whether ADAMS/View should add it to ground or to
another part. In addition, you specify whether other parts near the same location should be
attached (parameterized) to the point. If you attach other bodies to the point, then the
location of those bodies is tied to the location of that point. As you change the location of
the point, the location of all attached bodies change accordingly.
To quickly access the Table Editor:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack, select the Point tool .
2) From the settings container, select Point Table.
To create a point:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Point tool .
2) In the settings container, specify the following:
 Whether you want the point added to ground or to another part in your model.
 Whether you want to attach nearby objects to the point.
3) If you selected to add the point to another part in your model, select the part.
15

4) Place the cursor where you want the point to be located and click the mouse button.
2. Defining Coordinate System Markers
You can create a marker defining a local coordinate system on any part in your model or
ground. The marker has a location (the origin of the coordinate system) and an orientation.
ADAMS/View automatically creates markers at the center of mass of all solid geometry and
at anchor points on geometry that define the location of the object in space. For example, a
link has three markers: two at its endpoints and one at its center of mass. ADAMS/View
also creates markers automatically for you when you constrain objects, such as add a joint
between parts.
ADAMS/View displays markers as triads. Figure 2.2 shows how markers appear for boxes

## Figure 2.2 Marker Screen Icons

You create markers by specifying their location and orientation. You can align the
orientation of the marker with the global coordinate system, the current view coordinate
system, or a coordinate system that you define. When you define a coordinate system, you
specify one or two of its axes and ADAMS/View calculates the other axes accordingly.
ADAMS/View assigns the marker a default name. The default name is MARKER followed
by a number representing the marker (for example, MARKER_1, MARKER_2, and so on).
To create a marker:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Marker tool .
2) In the settings container, specify the following:
 Whether you want the marker added to ground or to another part in your model.
 How you want to orient the marker. From the Orientation option menu, select an
orientation method.
3) If you selected to add the marker to a part, select the part to which you want to add the
marker.
4) Place the cursor where you want the marker to be located and click.
5) If you selected to orient the marker to anything other than the global or view
coordinate system, select the directions along which you want to align the marker’s axes.
Do this for each axis that you selected to specify.
3. Creating Lines and Polylines
You can create both single- and multi-line segments (polylines). In addition, you can create

16

## open or closed polylines (polygons).

To draw a single line:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Polyline tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 Set the type of line to be drawn to One Line.
 If desired, set the length and angle of the line.
3) Position the cursor where you want the line to begin and click.
4) Move the cursor in the direction you want to draw the line.
5) When the line is the desired length and orientation, click again to end the line.
To draw an open or closed polyline:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Polyline tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 Set the type of line to be drawn to Polyline.
 If desired, set the length of the line segments.
 Select whether you want a closed polyline (polygon) by selecting Closed.
3) Position the cursor where you want the polyline to begin and click.
4) To create the first line segment, drag the cursor and click to select its endpoint.
5) To add line segments to the polyline, continue dragging the cursor and clicking.
6) To stop drawing and create the open or closed polyline, right-click. If you selected to
create a closed polyline, ADAMS/View automatically draws a line segment between the
last and first points to close the polyline. Note that clicking the right mouse button does not
create another point.
4. Creating Arcs and Circles
You can create arcs and circles centered about a location. You begin drawing an arc by
specifying its starting and ending angles. You then indicate its center location and set its
radius and the orientation of its x axis. You can also specify the arc’s radius before you
draw it. ADAMS/View draws the angle starting from the x-axis that you specify and
moving counterclockwise (right-hand rule).
To draw an arc:

1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Arc tool .

## 2) In the settings container, do the following:

17

 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, ADAMS/View creates a
new part.
 If desired, set the radius of the arc.
 Specify the starting and ending angles of the arc. The default is to create a
90-degree arc from a starting angle of 0 degrees.
3) Click where you want the center of the arc and then drag the mouse to define the
radius of the arc and the orientation of the x-axis. ADAMS/View displays a line on the
screen to indicate the x-axis. If you specified the radius of the arc in the settings container,
4) When the radius is the desired size, click.
To draw a circle:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Arc tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part or add the geometry to an existing
part. By default, ADAMS/View creates a new part.
 If desired, set the radius of the circle.
 Select Circle.
3) Click where you want the center of the circle and then drag the mouse to define the
radius of the circle. If you specified the radius of the circle in the settings container,
4) When the radius is the desired size, click.
5. Creating Splines
A spline is a smooth curve that a set of location coordinates define. You create splines by
defining the locations of the coordinates that define the curve or by selecting an existing
geometric curve and specifying the number of points to be used to define the spline.
To create a spline by selecting points on the screen:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Spline tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 Select whether you want the spline to be closed or open.
3) Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the spline and click.
4) Click the locations where you want the spline to pass through. You must specify at
least eight locations for a closed spline and four locations for an open spline.
5) To stop drawing the spline, right-click.
To create a spline by selecting an existing curve:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Spline tool .
18

## 2) In the settings container, do the following:

 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 Select whether you want the spline to be closed or open.
 Select to create a spline by selecting a curve.
 In the # Points text box, set how many points you want used to define the curve or
clear the selection of Spread Points and let ADAMS/View calculate the number of
points needed.
3) Select the curve.

## 2.1.2 Creating Solid Geometry

Solid geometries are three-dimensional objects. You can create solid geometry from
ADAMS/View library of solids or extrude closed wire geometry into a solid. In addition,
you can combine solid geometry into more complex geometry or modify the geometry by
adding features, such as fillets or chamfers.
Types of solid Geometry in ADAMS/View are shown in table 2.2.

Type Tool An example Parameters

## Length (x), Height (y),

Box Depth(z),
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

Cylinders
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

Spheres/ 3-Diameters,
Ellipsoids Anchor CSM, Parent Part

Part

19

## Radius of Ring (xy plane),

Torus
Cross-section ( to xy plane),
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

Width, Depth,2
Part
Plate Locations, Anchor CSM,
Parent Part

## Open/Closed Profile, Depth,

Extrusion
Anchor CSM, Parent Part

## Open/Closed Profile, Sweep

Revolution Angle, Anchor CSM, Parent
Part

Two-
Dimensional Length (x), Height (y)
Plane

The following sections explain how to create solids from ADAMS/View library of solids.
1. Creating a Box
To create a box:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Box tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 If desired, set any of length, height, or depth dimensions of the box.
3) Place the cursor where you want a corner of the box and click and hold down the left
mouse button.
4) Drag the mouse to define the size of the box. If you specified any of the length, height,
or depth dimensions of the box in the settings container, ADAMS/View maintains those
dimensions regardless of how you drag the mouse.
20

5) Release the mouse button when the box is the desired size.
2. Creating Two-Dimensional Plane
To create a plane:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Plane tool .
2) In the settings container, specify whether you want to create a new part composed of
the geometry or add the geometry to an existing part or ground.
3) Place the cursor where you want a corner of the box and click and hold down the left
mouse button.
4) Drag the mouse to define the size of the box.
5) Release the mouse button when the box is the desired size.
3. Creating a Cylinder
To create a cylinder:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Cylinder tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, ADAMS/View creates a
new part.
 If desired, set the length or radius dimensions of the cylinder in the settings
container.
3) Click where you want to begin drawing the cylinder.
4) Drag the mouse to size the cylinder. If you specified any of the length and radius
dimensions of the cylinder in the settings container, ADAMS/View maintains those
dimensions regardless of how you drag the mouse.
5) When the cylinder is the desired size, click.
4. Creating a Sphere
To create a sphere:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Sphere tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, ADAMS/View creates a
new part.
 If desired, set the radius of the sphere.
3) Click where you want the center of the sphere.
4) Drag the mouse to size the sphere. If you specified a radius dimension for the sphere in
the settings container, ADAMS/View maintains that dimension regardless of how you drag
the mouse.
5) When the sphere is the desired size, click.
5. Creating a Frustum
21

To create a frustum:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Frustum tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 If desired, set the length or radii of the frustum.
3) Click where you want to begin drawing the frustum.
4) Drag the mouse to size the frustum. If you specified the length or radii of the frustum
in the settings container, ADAMS/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how you
drag the mouse.
5) When the frustum is the desired size, click.
6. Creating a Torus
To create a torus:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Torus tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, ADAMS/View creates a
new part.
 If desired, set the inner and outer radii of the torus.
3) Place the cursor where you want the center of the torus and click.
4) Drag the mouse to define the radius of the torus. If you specified the radii of the torus
in the settings container, ADAMS/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how you
drag the mouse.
5) When the torus is the desired size, click.
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Link tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 If desired, set any of the length, width, or depth dimensions of the link.
3) Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the link and click.
4) Drag the mouse until the link is the desired size and then release the mouse button. If
you specified the length, width, and depth of the link in the settings container,
ADAMS/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how you drag the mouse.
8. Creating a plate
To create a plate:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Plate tool .
22

## 2) In the settings container, do the following:

 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 If desired, set the thickness or radius of the corners of the plate.
3) Place the cursor where you want the first corner of the plate and click the mouse
button.
4) Click at each corner of the plate. You must specify at least three locations.
5) Continue selecting locations or right-click to close the plate.
9. Creating an Extrusion
To create an extrusion from existing curve geometry:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Extrusion tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 If desired, set the length (depth) of the extrusion.
 Specify the direction you want the profile to be extruded from the current working
grid.
3) Select the curve geometry.
To create an extrusion by selecting points:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Extrusion tool .
2) In the settings container, do the following:
 Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
 Specify whether or not you want to create a closed extrusion.
 If desired, set the length of the extrusion.
 Specify the direction you want the profile to be extruded from the current working
grid.
3) Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the profile of the extrusion, and
click.
4) Click at each vertex in the profile; then right-click to finish drawing the profile.

## 2.1.3 Creating Complex Geometry

ADAMS/View provides you with many ways in which you can take simple geometry and
create complex geometry from it. You can create solid geometry that has mass from wire
geometry or create complex, open geometry that has no mass.
1. Chaining Wire Construction Geometry

23

You can link together wire construction geometry to create a complex profile, which you
can then extrude. The geometry to be chained together must touch at one endpoint and
cannot be closed geometry. ADAMS/View adds the final chained geometry to the part that
owns the first geometry that you selected.
To chain wire geometry together:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Chain tool .
2) Click each piece of the wire geometry to be chained. The Dynamic Model Navigator
highlights those objects in your model that can be chained as you move the cursor around
the main window.
3) After selecting the geometry to be chained, right-click to create the chained geometry.
2. Combining Geometry
Once you have created individual parts of solid geometry, you can combine them into one
part to create complex, solid geometry, referred to as constructive, solid geometry or CSG.
ADAMS/View creates the solid geometry using Boolean operations, such as union and
intersection.
(1) Creating One Part from the Union of Two Solids
ADAMS/View lets you create complex geometry by joining two intersecting solids.
ADAMS/View merges the second part you select into the first part resulting in a single part.
The union has a mass computed from the volume of the new solid. Any overlapping volume
is only counted once.
To create a part from the union of two solids:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Union tool .
2) Select the solid geometry to be combined. As you move the cursor, the Dynamic
Model Navigator highlights those objects that can be combined. The second part you select
is combined into the first part.
(2) Creating One Part from the Intersection of Two Solids
ADAMS/View lets you intersect the geometry belonging to two solids to create a single
part made up of only the intersecting geometries. ADAMS/View merges the second part
that you select with the geometry of the first part that you select and forms one rigid body
from the two geometries.
To create a part from the intersection of two overlapping solids:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Intersect tool .
2) Select the solid geometry to be combined. As you move the cursor, the Dynamic
Model Navigator highlights those objects that can be combined. The second part you select
is combined into the first part.
(3) Cutting a Solid from Another Solid
ADAMS/View lets you remove the volume where one solid intersects another solid to
create a new solid. ADAMS/View subtracts the geometry of the second part that you select
24

from the geometry of the first part. The remaining geometry belongs to the second part that
you selected.
To create a part from the difference of two solids:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Cut tool .
2) Select the solid geometry to be cut. As you move the cursor, the Dynamic Model
Navigator highlights those objects that can be cut. The second part you select is cut from the
first part.
(4) Splitting a Solid
After you’ve created a complex solid, often referred to as a CSG, using the Boolean
operations explained in the previous sections, you can split the complex solid back into its
primitive solids. ADAMS/View creates a part for each solid resulting from the split
operation.
To split a complex solid:
1) From the Geometric Modeling tool stack or palette, select the Split tool .
2) Select the solid geometry to be split. The Dynamic Model Navigator highlights those
objects in your model that can be split.

## 2.1.4 Adding Features to Geometry

You can add features to the solid geometry that you create, including chamfering the edges
of the geometry, adding holes and bosses, and hollowing out solids.
Chamfering and Filleting Objects
You can create different types of edges and corners on your solids. These include beveled
(chamfered) edges and corners and rounded (filleted) edges and corners. You can think of
creating filleted edges as rolling a ball over the edges or corners of the geometry to round
them.
When chamfering an edge or corner, you can set the width of the beveling. When filleting
an edge or corner, you can specify a start and an end radius for the fillet to create a variable
fillet.
Adding Holes and Bosses to Objects
You can create circular holes in solid objects and create circular protrusions or bosses on
the face of solid objects. Examples of a hole and boss on a link are shown below.
As you create a hole, you can specify its radius and depth. As you create a boss, you can
Hollowing Out a Solid
You can hollow out one or more faces of a solid object to create a shell. As you hollow an
object, you can specify the thickness of the remaining shell and the faces to be hollowed.

25

## 2.1.5 Working with Point Masses

Point masses are points that have mass but no inertia properties or angular velocities. They
are computationally more efficient when rotational effects are not important.
To create or modify a point mass:
1) From the Build menu, point to Point Mass, and then select either New or Modify.
2) If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a point mass to
modify.
The Create or Modify Point Mass dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the
same options.
3) If you are creating a point mass, enter a name for the point mass.
4) Set the mass of the point mass in the dialog box and adjust its location as desired. By
default, ADAMS/View places the point mass in the center of the main window with a mass
of 1 in current units.
5) Select the Comments tool on the dialog box and enter any comments you want
associated with the point mass.
6) Select OK.

## 2.2 Modifying Parts

Parts define the objects in your model that can have mass and inertia properties and can
move. All forces and constraints that you define in your model act on these parts during a
simulation. This chapter explains how to create and modify parts. It contains: modifying
rigid body geometry, modifying part properties, setting up materials.

## 2.2.1 Modifying Rigid Body Geometry

You can modify the geometry of a rigid body using: using hotpoints to graphically modify
geometry, using dialog boxes to precisely modify geometry, editing locations using the
location table.
Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry
You can use hotpoints to resize and reshape the geometry of a rigid body. The hotpoints
appear at various locations on the geometry depending on the type of geometry.
Using Dialog Boxes to Precisely Modify Geometry
You can precisely control the size, location, and shape of rigid body geometry using modify
dialog boxes. In addition, you can change the name of the geometry as you modify it.
Editing Locations Using the Location Table
To specify the location of points in lines, polylines, splines, extrusions, and revolutions, you
26

can use the Location Table. The Location Table lets you view the points in the geometry
and edit them. You can also save the location information to a file or read in location
information from a file.

## 2.2.2 Modifying Part Properties

Each moving part in ADAMS/View can have the following properties in addition to having
geometry:
 Location and name
 Mass and inertia
 Initial velocities
 Initial location and orientation
ADAMS/View automatically calculates the total mass of the part and its inertia based on
the part’s volume and density. It also automatically calculates the initial velocity and
position for the part based on any other initial conditions and connections in your model.

After you’ve created the parts for your model, you need to define how they are attached to
one another and how they move relative to each other. You use constraints to specify part
attachments and movement. This section explains the different types of constraints and how

## 2.3.1 Types of Constraints

Constraints define how parts (rigid bodies, flexible bodies, and point masses) are attached to
one another and how they are allowed to move relative to each other. Constraints restrict
relative movement between parts and represent idealized connections.
ADAMS/View provides a library of constraints including:
 Idealized joints - Have a physical counterpart, such as a revolute (hinge) or
translational (sliding dovetail) joint.
 Joint primitives - Place a restriction on relative motion, such as the restriction that
one part must always move parallel to another part.
 Motions generators - Drive your model.
 Higher-pair constraints

## 2.3.2 Accessing the Constraint Creation Tools

You can create constraints using the tools on the Joint palette or the tools on the Joint and
27

Motion tool stacks on the Main toolbox. The palette contains the entire library of
constraints while the tool stacks contain only subsets of the most commonly used
constraints. The palette and tool stacks for creating constraints are shown in figure 2.3.

## To display the Joint palette:

From the Build menu, select Joints.
To display the contents of the Joint or Motion tool stack:
From the Main toolbox, right-click the Joint or Motion tool stack.
By default, the Revolute tool appears at the top of the Joint tool stack and the
Rotational Motion tool appears at the top of the Motion tool stack.

## 2.3.3 Working with Joints

Idealized joints are mathematical representations of joints that have physical counterparts,
such as a revolute (hinge) or translational joint (sliding dovetail). ADAMS/View provides a

28

variety of idealized joints from which you can choose. The next sections explain the
different types of joints and how to create and modify them.
2.3.3.1 Working with Idealized Joints
Idealized joints connect two parts. The parts can be rigid bodies, flexible bodies, or point
masses. You can place idealized joints anywhere in your model. ADAMS/View supports
two types of idealized joints: simple and complex.
Simple joints directly connect bodies and include the following:
Table1 2.3 Simple joints in ADAMS/View
DOF
Icon Idealized Joints An example
Translational Revolute

Revolute Joints 3 2

Translational Joints 2 3

Cylindrical Joints 2 2

Spherical Joints 3 0

Planar Joints 1 2

Constant-Velocity Joints 3 1

29

Screw Joints 3 2

Fixed Joints 3 3

Hooke Joint 3 1

Universal Joint 3 1

Complex joints indirectly connect parts by coupling simple joints. They include: Gear Joint
and Coupler Joint. See table 2.4.

## Table1 2.4 Complex joints in ADAMS/View

Icon Idealized Joints An example

Gear Joint

Coupler Joint

## To create a simple idealized joint:

1) From the Joint tool stack or palette, select the joint tool representing the idealized
joint that you want to create.
2) In the settings container, specify the following:
How you want the joint connected to parts. You can select the following:
 1 location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint and have
30

selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only one part near the joint,
ADAMS/View connects the joint to that part and ground.
 2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be connected by
the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains fixed on the first part and
moves relative to the second part.
 2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be connected by
the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You should use this option if you
are working in exploded view.
How you want the joint oriented. You can select:
 Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current working grid, if it is
displayed, or normal to the screen.
 Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a
feature in your model, such as the face of a part.
3) Select the first part to be connected using the left mouse button. If you selected to
explicitly select the parts to be connected, select the second part in your model using the left
mouse button.
4) Place the cursor where you want the joint to be located, and click the left mouse button.
If you selected to specify its location on each part, place the cursor on the second location,
and click the left mouse button.
5) If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor
around in your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where
you want the joint oriented. When the direction vector represents the correct orientation,
click the left mouse button.
To create a gear joint:
1) To create a gear, select the Gear tool on the Joint tool stack or palette. The
Constraint Create Complex Joint Gear dialog box appears.
2) In the Gear Name text box, enter or change the name for the gear. If you are creating
a gear, ADAMS/View assigns a default name to the gear.
3) In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the gear. The ID is an integer
number used to identify the gear in the ADAMS/Solver dataset. You only need to specify
an ADAMS ID if you are exporting the model to an ADAMS/Solver dataset, and you want
to control the numbering scheme used in the file.
Enter a positive integer for the ID or enter 0 to let ADAMS set the ID for you.
manage and identify the gear. You can enter any alphanumeric characters. The comments
appear in the information window when you select to display information about the gear, in
the ADAMS/View log file, and in a command or dataset file when you export your model

31

## to these types of files.

5) In the Joint Name text box, enter or change the two translational, revolute, or
cylindrical joints to be geared together. ADAMS/View automatically separates the joint
names with a comma (,).
6) In the Common Velocity Marker text box, enter or change the marker defining the
point of contact between the geared parts. You need to make sure the z-axis of the common
velocity marker points in the direction of motion of the gear teeth that are in contact.
To create a marker, right-click the Common Velocity Marker text box, and then select
Create.
7) Select OK.
To create a coupler joint:
1) From the Joint tool stack or palette, select the Coupler tool .
2) Select the driver joint to which the second joint is coupled.
3) Select the coupled joint that follows the driver joint.
2.3.3.2 Working with Joint Primitives
A joint primitive places a restriction on relative motion, such as restricting one part to
always move parallel to another part. The joint primitives do not have physical counterparts
as the idealized joints do. You can, however, combine joint primitives to define a complex
constraint that cannot be modeled using the idealized joints.
Table 2.5 lists the different types of joint primitives that are available in ADAMS/View.

## Table1 2.5 Joint Primitives in ADAMS/View

DOF
Icon The primitive An example Constrains the following
T R
One part so that it can only
move along a straight line
defined on a second part. The
Inline 2 0
location of the inline joint on
the first part must remain on
the z-axis of the second part.
One part so that it can only
move in a plane of a second
part. The origin of the inplane
Inplane 2 3
joint on the first part must
remain in the xy plane of the
second part.

32

## The coordinate system of one

part so that it cannot rotate
with respect to a second part.
The axes of the coordinate
Orientation 2 2
systems must maintain the
same orientation. The location
of the origins of the coordinate
systems does not matter.
The z-axis of the coordinate
system of one part so that it
remains parallel to the z-axis
of the coordinate system of a
Parallel axes second part. The coordinate 3 0
system of the first part can
only rotate about one axis with
respect to the coordinate
system of the second part.
The coordinate system of one
part so that it remains
Perpendicular perpendicular to the z-axis of a
second part. The coordinate 1 2
axes system of the first part can
respect to the second part.

## To create a joint primitive:

1) From the Joint palette, select the joint primitive tool representing the joint that you
want to create.
2) In the settings container, specify the following:
How you want the joint connected to parts. You can select the following:
 1 Location - Bodies implicit - Lets you select the location of the joint and have
selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only one part near the joint,
ADAMS/View connects the joint to that part and ground.
 2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be connected by
the joint and the location of the joint.
 2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be connected by
the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You should use this option if you
are working in exploded view.
How you want the joint oriented. You can select:
 Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current working grid, if it is
displayed, or normal to the screen.
 Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a
feature in your model, such as the face of a part.
33

3) If you selected to explicitly select the parts to be connected, select each part in your
model using the left mouse button.
4) Place the cursor where you want the joint to be located, and click the left mouse button.
If you selected to specify its location on each part, place the cursor on the second location
and click the left mouse button.
5) If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor
around in your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where
you want the joint oriented. When the direction vector represents the correct orientation,
click the left mouse button.
ADAMS/View creates the joint at the specified location.
2.3.3.3 Working with Higher-Pair Constraints
ADAMS/View provides you with two types of higher-pair constraints: point curve and 2D
curve-curve. See table 2.6.
Table1 2.6 Higher-Pair Constraints in ADAMS/View
Higher-Pair
Icon An example Constrains the following
Constraints
The point-curve constraint
restricts a fixed point defined
on one part to lie on a curve
pin-in-slot defined on a second part.
The first part is free to roll
and slide on the curve that is
fixed to a second part. The
curve on the second part can
be planar or spatial, or open
Point-Follower or closed.
A point-curve constraint
removes two translational
A 2D curve-curve constraint
restricts a curve defined on
the first part to remain in
contact with a second curve
defined on a second part.
2D The curve-curve constraint is
useful for modeling cams
curve-curve where the point of contact
between two parts changes
during the motion of the
mechanism. The curve-curve
constraint removes three

34

## 1) From the Joint palette, select the Point-Curve Constraint tool .

2) In the settings container, set whether or not you will be selecting an edge or curve:
 Curves - Splines, chains, and data-element curves are all considered curves.
 Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid.
3) Select a point on a part that will travel along a curve.
4) Select the curve or edge along which the point will travel. The curve can be closed or
open. Note that when you select a closed curve, the Dynamic Model Navigator highlights
only a portion of the curve. ADAMS/View will use the entire curve.
To create a 2D Curve-Curve constraint:
1) From the Joint palette, select the 2D Curve-Curve Constraint tool .
2) In the settings container, for each part, set whether or not you will be selecting an edge
or curve:
 Curves - Splines, chains, and data-element curves are all considered curves.
 Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid.
3) For a curve-on-curve cam, select a curve or edge that will travel along a second curve.
4) Select the curve along which the first curve will travel. The curve can be closed or
open. Note that when you select a closed curve, the Dynamic Model Navigator highlights
only a portion of the curve. ADAMS/View will use the entire curve.
2.3.3.4 Working with Motions generators
A motion generator dictates the movement of a part as a function of time. It supplies
whatever force is required to make the part satisfy the motion.
ADAMS/View provides you with the following types of motion:
 Joint Motion - Prescribes translational or rotational motion on a translational,
revolute, or cylindrical joint. Each joint motion removes one DOF from your model.
Joint motions are very easy to create, but they limit you to motions that are applied
to the above listed joints and movements in only one direction or rotation.
 Point Motion - Prescribes the movement between two parts. When you create a
point motion, you specify the direction along which the motion occurs. You can
impose a point motion on any type of idealized joint, such as a spherical or
cylindrical. Point motions enable you to build complex movements into your model
without having to add joints or invisible parts.
1. Joint Motion
You can create two types of joint motion.
 Translational - For a translational motion, ADAMS/View moves the first part that
the joint connects along the z-axis of the second part.
 Rotational - For a rotational motion, ADAMS/View rotates the first part that the
joint connects about the z-axis of a second part. The right-hand rule determines the
sign of the motion. The z-axis of the first part must be aligned with the z-axis of the
35

second part at all times. The angle is zero when the x-axis of the first part is also
aligned with the x-axis of the second part.
To create a joint motion:
1) From the Motion tool stack or the Joint palette, select the joint motion tool
representing the motion that you want to create. Select either:
 to create a translational motion.
 to create a rotational motion.
2) In the settings container, specify the speed of the motion in displacement units per
second. By default, ADAMS/View creates a rotational motion with a speed of 30 degrees
per second and a translational motion with a speed of 10 millimeters per second.
To enter a function expression or user-written subroutine, right-click the Speed text box,
point to Parameterize, and then select Expression Builder to display the ADAMS/View
Function Builder.
3) Use the left mouse button to select the joint on the screen to which the motion will be
applied.
Modifying a Joint Motion:
You can change several properties about a joint motion after you create it. The properties
include:
 Joint to which the motion is applied.
 Motion direction, either rotational or translational.
 Motion definition, including displacement, velocity, or acceleration.
 Initial conditions for displacement and velocity.
2. Point Motion
There are two types of point motion that you can create:
 Single point motion - Prescribes the motion of two parts along or around one axis.
 General point motion - Prescribes the motion of two parts along or around the three
axes (six DOF).
To create a point motion:
1) From the Motion tool stack or the Joint palette, select the tool representing the type of
point motion that you want to create. Select either:
 to create a single point motion.
 to create a general point motion.
2) In the settings container, specify the these options.
3) If you selected to explicitly select the parts to which the motion is to be applied, select
each part using the left mouse button.
4) Place the cursor where you want the motion to be located and click the left mouse
button. If you selected to specify its location on each part, place the cursor on the second
location, and click the left mouse button.
36

5) If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor
around in your model to display an arrow showing the direction you want the motion
oriented. When the direction vector shows the correct orientation, click the left mouse
button.

## 2.4 Applying Forces to Your Model

ADAMS/View provides the following types of forces: Applied forces, Flexible connectors,
Special forces, Contacts. This section introduces forces and explains how to create and
modify forces.
For every force that you define in ADAMS/View, you specify the following information:
 Whether the force is translational or rotational.
 To which part or parts the force is applied.
 At what point or points is the force applied (only applies to translational forces).
 Magnitude and direction of the force.
You can define force magnitudes in ADAMS/View in the following ways:
 Enter values used to define stiffness and damping coefficients.
 Enter a function expression using the ADAMS/View library of built-in functions.
 Enter parameters that are passed to user-written subroutines that are linked to
You can define force directions in ADAMS/View in one of two ways:
 Along one or more of the axes of a marker.
 Along the line-of-sight between two points.

## 2.4.1 Accessing the Force Tools

You can create forces using the tools on the Create Forces palette or the Create Forces tool
stack on the Main toolbox.
To display the Create Forces palette:
 From the Build menu, select Forces.
To display the contents of the Create Forces tool stack:
 From the Main toolbox, right-click the Create Forces tool stack. By default, the
Translational Spring-Damper tool appears at the top of the tool stack.

37

## 2.4.2 Constructing Applied Forces

Applied forces are forces that define loads and compliances on parts so they move in certain
ways. ADAMS/View provides a library of applied forces that you can use. Applied forces
give you a great deal of flexibility, but they require work to model simple forces. Instead of
using applied forces, you may want to consider using the flexible connectors, which model
several commonly used force elements, or special forces, which provide environmental and
complex forces.
ADAMS/View provides several types of applied forces that are defined as single-
component force and single-component torque, multi-component forces and multi-
component torque, General Force.
Applied forces in ADAMS/View are shown in table1 2.7.

38

## A single-component force applies a

Single-component Force translational force in one of two
ways: one movable part, two parts
A single-component torque applies a
Single-component Toque rotational force to either one part or
Multi-component forces apply
Multi-component forces
translational force between two parts
（Three-component force） in your model using three orthogonal
components.
Multi-component toques apply
Multi-component toque
rotational force between two parts in
（Three-component torque） your model using three orthogonal
components.
General forces apply translational
General Force and/or rotational force between two
(6-Component Force/Torque) parts in your model using six
orthogonal components.

## To create a single-component force:

1) From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select either:
 to create a single-component force.
 to create a single-component torque.
2) In the settings container, specify the following:
 The number of parts and the nature of the force direction. You can select the
following:
Space Fixed - On One Body, Fixed
Body Moving -On One Body, Moving
Two Bodies - Between Two Bodies
 How you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current working grid, if it
is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your
model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a part.
 The characteristics of the force. You can select the following:
39

## Constant force/torque - Enter a constant force or torque value or let

Spring-Damper - Enter stiffness and damping coefficients and let ADAMS/View
create a function expression for damping and stiffness based on the coefficient
values. (Not available when you are using the Main toolbar to access the force
tool.)
Custom - ADAMS/View does not set any values for you, which, in effect, creates
a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force, you modify it by entering
a function expression or parameters to a user-written subroutine that is linked to
3) Do one of the following depending on whether you are creating a single-component
force or torque:
 For a single-component force, select the action body. If you selected to create a
torque between two parts, select the reaction body and then select the points of
application on the two bodies. Be sure to select the point of application on the action
body first.
 For a single-component torque, select the action body. If you selected to create a
torque between two parts, select the reaction body and then select the points of
application on the two bodies. Be sure to select the point of application on the action
body first.
4) If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor
around in your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where
you want the force oriented. When the direction vector represents the desired orientation,
click.
To modify a single-component force:
1) Right-click the object whose properties you want to modify, point to the type of object,
and then select Modify. Display the Modify a Force or Modify a Torque dialog box.

The dialog box appears. The options available in the dialog box change depending on the

40

direction of the force. The following shows the Modify a Force dialog box when the force
was defined as applied to one part with the direction of the force moving with a direction
body.
2) Enter the values in the dialog box and select OK.

## ADAMS/View provides 5 types of flexible connectors: bushings, translational spring-

dampers, torsion spring, massless beam, field element.
2.4.2.1. Working with Bushings
A bushing is a linear force that represents the forces acting between two parts over a
distance. The bushing applies a force and a torque. You define the force and torque using
six components (Fx, Fy, Fz, Tx, Ty, Tz).
To create a bushing:

1) From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select the Bushing tool .

2) In the settings container, specify the force applied and oriented to parts.
If desired, enter stiffness (K) and damping (C) coefficients in the Settings container.
3) Click the bodies.
4) Click one or two force-application points depending on the location method you
selected.
5) If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector using a feature, move the
cursor around in your model to display an arrow that shows the direction along a feature
where you want the force oriented. Click when the direction vector shows the correct z-axis
orientation.
2.4.2.2 Working with Translational Spring-Dampers
A translational spring-damper represents forces acting between two parts over a distance
and along a particular direction. You specify the locations of the spring-damper and points
on two parts. ADAMS/View calculates the spring and damping forces based on the distance
between the locations on the two parts and their rate of change, respectively.
To create a spring-damper:
1) From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Translational Spring-
Damper tool .
2) If desired, enter stiffness (K) and damping (C) coefficients in the Settings container.
3) Select a location for the spring-damper on the first part. This is the action body.
4) Select a location for the spring-damper on the second part. This is the reaction body.
A torsion spring force is a rotational spring-damper applied between two parts.

41

From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Torsion Spring tool to create
a torsion spring.
You can create a massless beam with a uniform cross-section. You enter values of the
beam’s physical properties, and ADAMS/Solver, calculates the beam transmits forces and
torques between the two parts.
To create a beam:
1) From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Massless Beam tool .
2) Select a location for the beam on the first part. This is the action body.
3) Select a location for the beam on the second part. This is the reaction body.
4) Select the direction in the upward (y) direction for the cross-section geometry.
The field element can apply either linear or nonlinear force.
To specify a linear field, enter values that define a six-by-six stiffness matrix, translational
and rotational preload values, and a six-by-six damping matrix. The stiffness and damping
matrixes must be positive semidefinite, but need not be symmetric.
To specify a nonlinear field, use the user-written subroutine to define the three force
components and three torque components.
From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Field Element tool to create a
field.

42

## 3 Simulating Models in ADAMS/View

After you’ve built your model, you can perform a variety of simulations on the model to
investigate how it will perform under various operating conditions.
During a simulation, ADAMS/View performs the following operations:
 Sets the initial conditions for all the objects in your model.
 Formulates appropriate equations of motion based on the laws of Newtonian
mechanics that predict how objects in your model will move given the set of forces
and constraints acting on them.
 Solves the equations to within your specified accuracy tolerance for such
information as part displacements, velocities, and acceleration, as well as applied
and constraint forces.
 Temporarily saves the data calculated so that you can investigate your results using
animations, plots, and numerical signal processing. You can also permanently save

## You can run five types of simulations in ADAMS/View using ADAMS/Solver,

Dynamic - A dynamic simulation provides a time-history solution for displacements,
velocities, accelerations, and internal reaction forces in your model driven by a set of
external forces and excitations. A dynamic simulation is also known as a kinetic simulation.
During a dynamic simulation, ADAMS/Solver solves the full set of nonlinear differential
and algebraic equations (DAEs). It is a computationally demanding simulation and is meant
to be used with models that have one or more degrees of freedom (DOF).
Kinematic - A kinematic simulation enables you to determine the range of values for the
displacement, velocity, and acceleration of any point of interest in the model independent of
forces applied to it. During a kinematic simulation, ADAMS/Solver solves only the reduced
set of algebraic equations. This type of simulation, therefore, is only available for models
with zero DOF.
If you specify the mass and inertia properties of bodies in your model, a kinematic
simulation also calculates the corresponding applied and reaction forces required to
generate the prescribed motions.
Static - A static simulation attempts to find a configuration for the parts in your model for
which all the forces balance. This configuration is often referred to as an equilibrium
43

configuration. Velocities and accelerations are set to zero for static simulations, so inertial
forces are not taken into consideration. A static simulation is for use with models that have
one or more DOF so ADAMS/Solver can move parts around as it seeks to balance all the
forces acting on the model.
Assemble - An assemble simulation attempts to correct any broken joints that
ADAMS/Solver sees as being defined incorrectly. It also attempts to resolve any conflicts
in the initial conditions you specified for the entities in your model. An assemble simulation
is also known as an initial conditions simulation.
Linear - A linear simulation lets you linearize your nonlinear dynamic equations of motion
about a particular operating point in order to determine natural frequencies and
corresponding mode shapes. You must purchase ADAMS/Linear to perform a linear
simulation.

## 3.2 Accessing the Simulation Controls

You access simulation controls using the Simulation tool and the corresponding Simulation
container on the Main toolbox or using the tools on the Simulation Control dialog box. The
dialog box contains a complete set of simulation controls, while the Simulation container
contains only a subset of the most commonly used simulation controls. The Simulation
container on the Main toolbox and the Simulation Controls dialog box are shown in figure
3.1.

## Figure 3.1 Simulation Controls

To display the Simulation container on the Main toolbox:

44

##  On the Main toolbox, select the Simulation tool .

To display the Simulation Control dialog box, select one of the following:
 On the Simulation container on the Main toolbox, select More.
 On the Simulate menu, select Interactive Controls.

## 3.3 Performing an Interactive Simulation

You use interactive simulation controls to quickly run a single simulation and experiment
with different simulation parameters and options. Simulating interactively is helpful when
you are not sure exactly what your model will do or which options you need.
When you perform an interactive simulation, ADAMS/View submits one or two simple
commands to ADAMS/Solver based on the type of simulation, how long the simulation will
last, and the frequency with which you want data to be output.
To perform an interactive simulation, you need to tell ADAMS/View the following
information:
 Type of simulation to be performed.
 Time interval over which ADAMS/View should perform the simulation.
 How often ADAMS/View should output data and temporarily store it in the
modeling database for use with animations and plots. For each output time step,
ADAMS/View creates a frame for animation and a data point for plotting and signal
processing.
To run an interactive simulation:

## 1) On the Main toolbox, select the Simulation tool .

2) From the Simulation Type option menu, select the type of simulation you want
 Default - If your model contains zero degrees of freedom (DOF), ADAMS/View
performs a kinematic simulation. If your model has one or more DOF,
 Dynamic - Request a dynamic simulation.
 Kinematic - Request a kinematic simulation.
 Static - Request a static simulation.
3) Enter the time interval over which the simulation takes place and set how you want it
defined. You can select:
 End Time - Specify the absolute point in time at which you want the simulation to
stop.
 Duration - Specify the amount of time over which you want the simulation to run.

45

##  Forever - ADAMS/View continues simulating until you stop the simulation or

until it can no longer solve the equations of motion to within your specified
tolerance. This option is only available on the Simulation Control dialog box.
4) Set the frequency with which ADAMS/View outputs data during your simulation. You
can specify:
 Step Size, which represents the amount of time, in current model units, between
output steps. The output frequency remains constant even if you change your
simulation end time or duration. For example, enter a step size of 0.01 seconds to
specify an output period of 0.01 seconds per step, which yields an output frequency
of 100 steps/second.
 Steps, which represents the total number of times you want ADAMS/View to
provide output information over your entire simulation. For example, specify 50
steps over a 1-second simulation interval to define an output period of 0.02 seconds
per step, which yields an output frequency of 50 steps/second.
5) Select the Simulation Start tool .
To stop a simulation:
 Select the Simulation Stop tool .
ADAMS/Solver stops any further processing, and the modeling objects appear in the
positions that ADAMS/Solver last successfully calculated.

## 3.4 Viewing and Controlling Animations

After you’ve simulated your model, you can animate the results. Animations replay the
and study the part movements within your model.

Animations provide instant feedback to you as your simulation runs. When you perform a
simulation, ADAMS/Solver, the analysis engine, creates one animation frame for every
output step that you request in the simulation. For example, if you performed a simulation
from 0.0 to 10.0 seconds and asked for output every 0.1 seconds, ADAMS/Solver records
data at 101 steps or frames. It creates a frame every tenth of a second for ten seconds plus
one at time 0.0.
By default, each time you run a simulation, ADAMS/Solver replaces the previous
animation frames. To replay earlier animations, you must save them in your modeling
database.
During animations, ADAMS/View displays frames as quickly as it can based on the
46

## 3.4.2 Accessing the Animation Controls

You can work with animations using the Animation container on the Main toolbox or using
the tools on the Animation Control dialog box. The dialog box contains the complete set of
animation controls, while the Animation container contains only the most commonly used
animation controls. The Animation container on the Main toolbox and the Animation
Controls dialog box are shown in figure 3.2.

## To display the Animation container on the Main toolbox:

 On the Main toolbox, select on the Animation tool .
To display the Animation Control dialog box, do one of the following:
 On the Animation container on the Main toolbox, select More.
 From the Review menu, select Animation Controls.

## 3.4.3 Playing Animations

You can replay an animation again after the simulation ends to investigate the results of a
simulation, as long as the results of the simulation have been stored in your modeling
database. By default, ADAMS/View only stores the last simulation you performed. You can
either manually store a particular simulation, or you can set ADAMS/View so that it

47

## automatically stores all your simulations.

You can play animation frames forwards or backwards, speed them up or slow them down,
pause and continue an animation, rewind to an earlier frame, continuously play an
animation in a loop, or play only a certain portion of the entire sequence of frames.
Playing an Animation
When you play an animation, ADAMS/View plays every frame by default. You can rewind
an animation and play the animation at various speeds as explained in table 3.1. During
fast-forward and fast-backward play modes, ADAMS/View plays only every fifth frame.
Table 3.1 Animation Play Options

## Forwards Play-forward tool

Backward Play-backward tool
Fast-forward mode Play-fast-forward tool
Fast-backward mode Play-fast-backward tool

Stopping an Animation
You can pause an animation at any time instead of waiting for it to complete.
To stop an animation, do one of the following:
 On the Main toolbox or the Animation Control dialog box, select the Pause tool
.
 On the status bar, select the Stop tool .
 Press the Esc key.

48

4 Examples

This chapter provides overview information and step-by-step procedures for building,
simulating, and refining a model using ADAMS/View.

## 4.1 The Latch Design Problem

In this tutorial, you’ll build a latch model that is required to securely clamp two halves of
large shipping containers together.

## The latch model must meet the following design requirements:

 Exerts at least 800 N clamping force.
 Is hand-actuated by less than 80 N force.
 Is hand released with minimal effort.
 Must work within a given envelope.
 Clamping remains secure under vibration.
Figure 4.2 shows a virtual model of the latch. The latch is clamped by pushing down on the

49
4 Examples

operating handle at POINT_4. This causes the pivot to rotate around POINT_1 in a
clockwise direction, drawing back POINT_2 of the hook. As this happens, POINT_8 of the
slider is forced downward. Finally, as POINT_8 passes through the line between POINT_9
and POINT_3, the clamping force reaches its maximum. POINT_8 should move below the
line created by POINT_3 and POINT_9, followed by the operating handle coming to rest on
the top of the hook. This sets the latch near the maximum force point, but allows a
reasonable release force to open the latch.

## Figure 4.2 ADAMS/View Latch Model

Based on the description of the latch operation, the relative layout of POINT_1 through
POINT_9 is important in ensuring that the latch will meet the design requirements.
Therefore, when your latch model is assembled and tested, you will want to change the
relative locations of the points to see their effect on the design requirements.

## 4.1.2 Building Model

In this section, you start ADAMS/View and create a modeling database containing a new
model named Latch. A modeling database contains all your work in the current session of
ADAMS/View. It contains any models you create, their attributes, simulation results, plots,
customized menus and dialog boxes, and any preferences you set.
ADAMS/View assigns to the parts you create the material type of steel, with a material
density of 7801.0 kg/m3.
50

## You build the latch model in two basic sections:

 Building the Pivot and Handle
 Building the Hook and Slider
Figure 4.3 shows the latch as it should look when you have finished it.

## Figure 4.3 Latch in Build Phase

(1) To start ADAMS/View in the Windows environment
1) Select Start. start ADAMS/View, Select Create a new model from the Welcome
dialog box.
2) Replace the contents of the Model name text box with Latch.
3) Select OK.
(2) Setting Up Your Work Environment
1) Setting up units: From the Settings menu, select Units. Set the units of length to
centimeter. Select OK.
2) Setting up Working Grid: From the Settings menu, select Working Grid. Set the
grid size along X and Y to 25, and the grid spacing at 1. Select OK.

51
4 Examples

3) Setting up Icons: From the Settings menu, select Icons. In the New Size text box,
enter 1.5. Select OK.
4) To display the Coordinates window: From the View menu, select Coordinate
Window. The Coordinates window appears
2. Creating Design Points
1) Right-click the Rigid Body tool stack (Link tool is on top by default) to display the
tool stack containing the Point tool.

2) Select the Point tool and click the locations shown in Table 4.1 to place design
points. Use the default settings for point, which are Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
Table 4.1 Points Coordinate Locations

## X location: Y location: Z location:

POINT_1 0 0 0
POINT_2 3 3 0
POINT_3 2 8 0
POINT_4 -10 22 0
3. Creating the Pivot
52

## 1) Select the Plate tool .

2) In the Thickness text box, enter 1, and then press Enter.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 1, and then press Enter.
4) Click the location of POINT_1, POINT_2, and POINT_3.
5) To close the plate geometry, right-click.
6) Right-click the plate part. A pop-up menu appears.
7) Point to Part: PART_2, and then select Rename.
8) Replace PART_2 with pivot, Select OK.
4. Creating the Handle
1) Select the Link tool .
2) Click POINT_3, then POINT_4 to create a link between the two points.
3) Rename the link part, Part: PART_3, to handle, to represent the handle part as shown
in Figure 4.
5. Creating the Hook
1) Select the Extrusion tool .
2) Be sure that Create profile by: is set to Points and Closed is selected.
3) Select Path: to About Center.
4) In the Length text box, enter 1, and then press Enter.
5) Click the locations listed in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2 Extrusion Coordinate Values

5 3 0
3 5 0
-6 6 0
-14 6 0
-15 5 0
-15 3 0
-14 1 0
-12 1 0
-12 3 0
-5 3 0
4 2 0

53
4 Examples

## 6) To close the extrusion, right-click.

Note: Sometimes ADAMS/View snaps to the nearest object instead of snapping to a
coordinate value. To override this, hold down the Ctrl key and move the cursor until you
select the desired coordinate.
7) Change the name of the extrusion part to hook.
6. Creating the Slider
1) Create two more design points, POINT_8 and POINT_9, at the locations shown in
table 4.3.
Table 4.3 Points Coordinate Locations

## X location: Y location: Z location:

POINT_8 -1 10 0
POINT_9 -6 5 0

2) Create a link connecting these two new design points. Again, before you click, make
sure the point labels are visible.
3) Rename the link part to slider.
7. Connecting the Parts Using Revolute Joints
1) Select the Revolute Joint tool .
2) To select the parts to attach, click the pivot and ground (the background).
3) Click POINT_1 to set the joint’s location. The revolute joint at POINT_1 should look
like this:

## 4) Select the Revolute Joint tool again.

5) Select the pivot, the handle, and POINT_3.
6) Place revolute joints at the following locations using the construction method 2 Bod -
1 Loc, and Normal To Grid:
 Between the handle and the slider at POINT_8.

54

##  Between the slider and the hook at POINT_9.

 Between the hook and the pivot at POINT_2.
8. Simulating the Motion of Your Model
1) Select the Simulation tool .
2) Set up a simulation with an end time of 1 second and 50 steps.
3) Select the Simulation Start tool .
4) To return to the initial model configuration, select the Reset tool .
Use the Save Database As command to save the current modeling database as an
ADAMS/View binary file. Saving your modeling database as a binary file saves all
modeling information.
From the File menu, select Save Database As, and then save the file as build.

## 4.1.3 Testing Your First Prototype

In this section, you prepare the latch model for virtual testing, and then proceed to test it.
Virtual tests allow you to quickly set up and tear down tests in the virtual environment.
1. Creating the Ground Block
You use the Box tool to create a ground block. The ground block represents the surface on
which the hook slides.
1) Select the Box tool , and change its construction method from New Part to On
Ground.
2) Click at location (-2, 1, 0) and drag to (-18, -1, 0). Alternatively, you can click at the
start location and then click again at the end location.
3) Rename the part ground to ground_block.
1) Use the Dynamic Pick tool to zoom in on the area around the hook end.
2) From the Force (Connector) toolstack, select the Contact tool . The Create
Contact dialog box appears.
3) Right-click the First Solid text box, point to Contact_Solid, and then select Pick.
Select the hook (EXTRUSION_7).
4) Now do the same for the Second Solid text box, selecting the ground_block
(BOX_11).
5) Because you will use the default values for the contact force, select OK.
6) Select the Select tool, and then select the Fit tool .
1) Select the Translational Spring-Damper tool to create a spring between the ground

55
4 Examples

## and the hook.

2) In the Spring container of the Main Toolbox, select the toggle for spring stiffness
coefficient, K, and for damping coefficient, C.
3) Set K to 800 and C to 0.5.

## 4) To add the spring, click at the following locations:

 (-14, 1, 0) (make sure the hook vertex, .HOOK.EXTRUSION_7.V16, is selected,
not the coordinate location).
 (-23, 1, 0)
A red spring appears.
4. Creating a Handle Force
In this section you create a handle force with a magnitude of 80N, representing a reasonable
force to be applied by hand.
1) Select the Force (Single-Component) tool and do the following in the Force
container on the Main Toolbox:

##  Set the Run-time Direction to Space Fixed.

 Set the Characteristic to Constant.

56

##  Select Force, and then set it to 80.

2) Select the following in the order listed:
 The handle
 A marker near the handle end point
 The location -18, 14, 0
5. Creating a Measure on the Spring Force
1) Right-click the spring, point to Spring: SPRING_1, and then select Measure. The
Assembly Measure dialog box appears.
2) Set Characteristic to force.
3) Select OK. The spring measure strip chart appears.
4) Run a 0.2 second, 50-step simulation.
A graph of the clamping force appears during the simulation, as shown next:

## 5) Select the Reset tool to return to the initial model configuration.

6. Creating an Angle Measure
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Angle, and then select New. The
Angle Measure dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as overcenter_angle.
3) Right-click the First Marker text box, point to Marker, and then select Pick.
4) Pick the markers to enter in your measure as shown in row 1 of Table 4.4 and
illustrated in Figure 4.4.
Table 4.4 Overcenter_angle Measure Markers

## First Point Any marker at POINT_8 -1, 10, 0

Middle Point Any marker at POINT_3 2, 8, 0
(angle vertex)
Last Point Any marker at POINT_9 -6, 5, 0

57
4 Examples

## Figure 4.4 Graphical Representation of overcenter_angle

5) Repeat the above two steps for the Middle Marker and Last Marker.
6) Select OK to display your angle measure strip chart as shown next:

7. Creating a Sensor
You now create a sensor to detect when overcenter_angle goes below zero, meaning that the
latch has toggled properly. When this condition is met, the sensor automatically stops the
simulation.
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Sensor, and then select New.
The Create Sensor dialog box appears.
2) Modify the Create Sensor dialog box as shown next, and then select OK:

58

From the File menu, select Save Database As, and then save this file as test.
1) Select the Simulation tool and run a 0.2-second simulation with 100 steps.
As the simulation proceeds, ADAMS/View updates the strip charts for the spring force and
angle measures to show that the sensor stopped the simulation.
A message window also appears alerting you that ADAMS/View stopped the simulation
because of the sensor.
These strip charts show that ADAMS/View stopped the simulation as the latch reached the
toggle point:

## 4.1.4 Validating Results Against Physical Test Data

In this section, you compare physical test data with virtual test data. By comparing the two
sets of data, you immediately know the limitations of your model compared to the physical
prototype, and you will have all the data in one place to be able to eliminate the differences.
1. Importing Physical Test Data
1) From the File menu, select Import. The File Import dialog box appears.
2) Set the File Type to Test Data.
3) Make sure that the Create Measures option is selected.
4) In the File to Read text box, enter: install_dir/aview/examples/Latch/test_dat.csv,
where install_dir is the directory where ADAMS is installed.
5) In the text box to the right of the Model Name menu, enter .Latch.
6) Select OK.
2. Creating a Plot Using Physical Test Data
1) On the Review menu, select Postprocessing or press F8.
tool that lets you view the results of simulations you performed.

59
4 Examples

2) At the bottom left of the dashboard, set Source to Measures.
3) From the Simulation list, select test_dat.
4) At the bottom right of the dashboard, set Independent Axis to Data.
A browser, named Independent Axis Browser, appears. It lets you select data for the
horizontal axis.
5) Select MEA_1.
6) Select OK.
7) From the dashboard, from the Measure list, select MEA_2, for the vertical axis data.
8) Select Add Curves to add the new data to the plot.
ADAMS displays the plot of the two measures as shown next:

## 3. Modifying Your Plot Layout

1) From the treeview, double-click page_1. Select plot_1. In the Title text box, enter

60

## Latch Force vs. Handle Angle. Press Enter.

2) From the treeview, double-click plot_1, select haxis. In the Label text box, enter
Degrees, and then press Enter.
3) Repeat the procedure for vaxis, labeling it Newtons.
4) From the treeview, select curve_1. In the Legend text box, enter Physical Test Data.
Your plot should look similar to the one shown next:

## 4. Creating a Plot Using Virtual Test Data

1) In the dashboard, from the Simulation list, select Last_Run (...).
2) Set Independent Axis to Data. The Independent Axis Browser appears.
3) Select overcenter_angle, for the horizontal axis data. Select OK.
4) From the Measure list, select SPRING_1_MEA_1, for the vertical axis data.
6) Change the legend text for this curve to Virtual Test Data.

## 7) From the File menu, select Close Plot Window.

61
4 Examples

From the File menu, select Save Database As, and then save the file as validate.

In this chapter you refine your model to add more parametrics to the critical point locations.
This allows you to compare different layouts of the model to the clamping force.
1. Creating Design Variables
1) Right-click the design point POINT_1 (0, 0, 0), point to Point: POINT_1, and then
select Modify. The Table Editor appears.

## 2) Select the Loc_X cell for POINT_1.

3) Right-click the input box at the top of the Table Editor, point to Parameterize, point
to Create Design Variable, and then select Real.
This creates a design variable named .Latch.DV_1 with the value of 0.
4) Select the Loc_Y cell for POINT_1.
5) Repeat Step 3.
6) Repeat the above procedure for the x and y locations of POINT_2, POINT_3,
POINT_8, and POINT_9.
7) Select Apply.
2. Reviewing Design Variable Values
After you’ve created all the design variables, you can display their range and allowed values.
ADAMS/View sets the design variable range based on the envelope requirements for the
latch. It automatically assigns a ±10% relative range to the design variables, except when
the design variable real value is 0. When the design variable value is 0, the range is set as
±1 absolute.
If you want to open up the range to different values, you must modify the range values and
possibly the delta type
1) At the bottom of the Table Editor, select the Variables option.
2) Select Filters. The Variables Table Editor Filters dialog box appears.
62

## 3) Select Delta Type.

4) Be sure that Range is selected.
5) Select OK.
The Table Editor changes to show you the range of the design variables.
6) Select OK.
7) Save your model as refine.

In this section, you work on arriving at an improved design that meets the specifications and
includes all necessary behavior of the physical latch. You set up some design studies for a
few points to find a case that maximizes peak clamping force, while making sure the handle
toggles overcenter.
1. Performing a Manual Study
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Display.
2) Select SPRING_1_MEA_1.
3) Select OK.
4) Run a .2 second, 100-step simulation and then return to the initial model configuration.
5) Right-click the spring force curve in the strip chart. Point to Curve: Current, and then
select Save Curve.
6) From the Build menu, point to Design Variable, and select Modify.
7) Double-click on DV_1.
8) Change the standard value of DV_1 to 1.0.
9) Select OK.
10) Run a .2 second, 100-step simulation.
This new plot shows a comparison of the spring force measure for the two cases. The new
curve shows better draw on the spring.

63
4 Examples

## 11) Change DV_1 back to 0.0, its original value.

2. Running a Design Study
Run a design study to quickly look at a range of design variable values, and see how they
affect the design. ADAMS/View gives you the option of displaying various plots, as well as
a design study report.
1) From the Simulate menu, select Design Evaluation.
2) Fill out the dialog box that appears so it matches the one shown here. Leave the dialog
box open.

## 3) In the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select Display.

4) To see all the options, select More.
5) Set Time Delay to 0.0.

64

## 6) Set Chart Objective, Chart Variables, and Show Report to Yes.

7) In the Solver Settings dialog box, select Close.
8) In the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select Start.
ADAMS displays the following plots and a design study report:

## Design study report

9) Close the Information window, the Message window, and the Design Evaluation
Tools dialog box.

65
4 Examples

## 3. Examining the Results of Design Studies

We ran some design studies for all the design variables and provided the results in Table 4.5.
These results are from individual design studies of each design variable, keeping the rest of
the variables fixed at their nominal value.
study, because they represent a summary of the sensitivity of the clamping force magnitude
to a given change in the geometric location, keeping all other locations fixed.
Table 4.5 Design Studies Results

## ADAMS design Design point Initial Sensitivity at initial Apparent

variable names: locations: value: value (N/cm): optimal:
DV_1 (POINT x) 0 -82 1
DV_2 (POINT y) 0 56 0
DV_3 (POINT_2 x) 3 142 2.7
DV_4 (POINT_2 y) 3 -440 3.3
DV_5 (POINT_3 x) 2 -23 2.2
DV_6 (POINT_3 y) 8 281 7.6
DV_7 (POINT_5 x) -1 36 -1.1
DV_8 (POINT_5 y) 10 -287 10.5
DV_9 (POINT_6 x) -6 -61 -5.4
DV_10 (POINT_6 y) 5 104 4.5

Parameterization lets you see which design variables have the greatest effect on the
clamping force. In this case, design variables DV_4, DV_6, and DV_8 have the greatest
sensitivity.

## 1. Modifying Design Variables

1) On the Build menu, point to Design Variable, and then select Modify.
2) Double-click the first design variable you need to modify, in this case, DV_4.
The Modify Design Variable dialog box appears:

66

3) Set the Min. Value and Max. Value, which are the minimum and maximum values
for your first design variable, DV_4, as shown in Table 4.6.
Table 4.6 Design Variable Limits

## Design Design point Minimum Maximum

variable names: locations: value: value:
DV_4 POINT_2 y 1 6
DV_6 POINT_3 y 6.5 10
DV_8 POINT_5 y 9 11

4) Select Apply.
5) Right-click the Name text box, point to Variable, and Browse for DV_6.
6) Double-click on DV_6.
7) Type in the minimum and maximum values for DV_6. Make sure the Absolute Min
and Max Values option is selected.
8) Select Apply.
9) Repeat the above three steps for DV_8.
10) After you’ve modified the last design variable, DV_8, select OK.
2. Running an Optimization
1) On the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Display.
2) Select SPRING_1_MEA_1.
3) Select OK. The SPRING_1_MEA_1 plot appears.
4) On the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Display.
5) Select overcenter_angle.
6)3 Select OK. The overcenter_angle plot appears.
7) On the Simulate menu, select Design Evaluation.
8) Fill in the dialog boxes as shown below and select Start after selecting Close from the

67
4 Examples

## two Solver Settings dialog boxes.

The spring force measure plot shows the optimal clamping force as a function of time.

68

The SPRING_1_force versus iteration plot shows how the spring force changed with each
iteration.

The overcenter_angle plot shows the cases in which the angle reached the toggle point.

69
4 Examples

## 4.2 The Front Suspension Design Problem

In this section, you’ll build a Front Suspension model that is required to securely clamp two
halves of large shipping containers together. greška !!!

70

## 4.2.2 Building Model

(1) To start ADAMS/View in the Windows environment
1) Select Start. start ADAMS/View, Select Create a new model from the Welcome
dialog box.
2) Replace the contents of the Model name text box with FRONT_SUSP.
3) Select OK.
(2) Setting Up Your Work Environment.
1) Setting up units: From the Settings menu, select Units. Set the units of length to
Millimeter, the units of length to Kilogram, Force to Newton, Time to Second, Angle to
Degree, Frequency to Hertz. Select OK.
2) Setting up Working Grid: From the Settings menu, select Working Grid. Set the
grid size along X to 750 and Y to 800, and the grid spacing at 50. Select OK.
3) Setting up Icons: From the Settings menu, select Icons. In the New Size text box,
enter 50. Select OK.
4) To display the Coordinates window: From the View menu, select Coordinate
Window.
2. Creating Design Points
1) Right-click the Rigid Body tool stack (Link tool is on top by default) to display the
tool stack containing the Point tool.
2) Select the Point tool and click the locations shown in Table 4.7 to place design
points. Use the default settings for point, which are Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
Table 4.7 Points Coordinate Locations
Points X Location Y Location Z Location
LCA_outer 0 0 0
UCA_outer 57.25 324.68 14.39
UCA_inner 399.51 391.21 44.90
LCA_inner 485.65 81.27 -86.82
Tie_rod_outer -26.95 100 -107.71
Tie_rod_inner 439.55 181.19 -252.50
Knuckle_inner 18.91 107.24 4.75
Knuckle_outer -235.05 102.81 3.86
3. Creating the Kingpin
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 20, and then press Enter.

71
4 Examples

4) Click LCA_outer, then UCA_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to Kingpin.
4. Creating the UCA
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 20, and then press Enter.
4) Click UCA_outer, then UCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to UCA.
6) Select the Sphere tool .
8) In the Radius text box, enter 25.
9) Click UCA, then UCA_outer to create a Sphere.
5. Creating the LCA
1) Select the Cylinder tool.
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 20, and then press Enter.
4) Click LCA_outer, then LCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to LCA.
6) Select the Sphere tool .
8) In the Radius text box, enter 25.
9) Click LCA, then LCA_outer to create a Sphere.
6. Creating the Pull_arm
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 15, and then press Enter.
4) Click Knuckle_inner, then Tie_rod_outer to create a Cylinder between the two
points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to Pull_arm.
7. Creating the Tie_rod
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 15, and then press Enter.
4) Click Tie_rod_outer, then Tie_rod_inner to create a Cylinder between the two
points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to Tie_rod.
6) Select the Sphere tool .

72

## 7) Select Add to Part.

8) In the Radius text box, enter 20.
9) Click Tie_rod, then Tie_rod_outer and Tie_rod_inner to create two Spheres.
8. Creating the Knuckle
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 20, and then press Enter.
4) Click Knuckle_outer, then Knuckle_inner to create a Cylinder between the two
points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to Knuckle.
9. Creating the Wheel
1) Select the Cylinder tool .
2) Select New Part.
3) In the Radius text box, enter 375, in the Length text box, enter 215.
4) Click Knuckle_outer, then Knuckle_inner to create a Cylinder between the two
points.
5) Rename the cylinder part, to Wheel.
6) Select the Fillet tool
7) In the Radius text box, enter 50.
8) Click one side of the wheel, and then press right_mouse_button to finish. Repeat the
other side of the wheel.
10. Creating the Test_Patch
1) Select the Point tool .
2) Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach.
3) Creating Design Points: POINT_1 (-350,-320,-200).
4) Select the Sphere tool .
5) Select New Part.
6) In the Length, Height, Depth text box, enter 500, 45, 400.
7) Click POINT_1, to create a Box.
8) Select the Cylinder tool .
10) In the Radius text box, enter 30, in the Length text box, enter 350.
11) Click BOX: PART_1, and then click the CM of the box to create a Cylinder.
12) Rename the part, to Test_Pacth.
11. Creating the Spring
1) Select the Point tool .

73
4 Examples

## 2) Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach.

3) Creating Design Points: Spring_lower (174.6, 347.85, 24.85).
4) Select the Point tool .
5) Select Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
6) Creating Design Points: Spring_upper (174.6, 637.89, 24.85).
7) Select the Sphere tool .
8) In the K, C text box, enter 129.8, 6000.
9) Click Spring_lower and Spring_upper, to create a Spring.
12. Creating the Spherical Joint
1) Select the Spherical Joint tool .
2) Select the construction method 2 Bod - 1 Loc, and Normal To Grid.
3) Select the UCA and the Kingpin, and then click the point: UCA_outer, to create the
construction joint between the UCA and the Kingpin.
4) Select the Spherical Joint tool again.
5) Place spherical joints at the following locations using the construction method 2 Bod -
1 Loc, and Normal To Grid:
 Between the LCA and the Kingpin at LCA_outer.
 Between the Tie_rod and the Pull_arm at Tie_rod_outer.
6) Select the Spherical Joint tool again.
7) Select the construction method 1 Location, and Normal To Grid.
8) Click the point: Tie_rod_inner, to create the construction joint between the Tie_rod
and the Ground.
13. Creating the Fixed Joint
1) Select the Fixed Joint tool .
2) Select the construction method 2 Bod - 1 Loc, and Normal To Grid.
3) Select the Pull_arm and the Kingpin, and then click the point: Knuckle_inner, to
create the construction joint between the Pull_arm and the Kingpin.
4) Select the Fixed Joint tool again.
5) Place spherical joints at the following locations using the construction method 2 Bod -
1 Loc, and Normal To Grid:
 Between the Knuckle and the Kingpin at Knuckle_inner.
 Between the Wheel and the Knuckle at Knuckle_inner.
14. Creating the Revolute Joint
1) Click Front_View tool .
2) Select the Revolute Joint tool .
3) Select the construction method 1 Location and Normal To Grid.

74

## 4) Click the point: UCA_inner, to create the revolute joint.

5) Select Edit in the main menu: Click Modify. The modify dialog box appears. Click
(Change Position). The move object dialog box appears. In the Rotate text box, enter 5,
then click . Close the dialog.

6) Repeat 1)—3).
7) Click the point: LCA_inner, to create the revolute joint.
8) Select Edit in the main menu: Click Modify. The modify dialog box appears. Click
(Change Position). The move object dialog box appears. In the Rotate text box, enter
10, then click . Close the dialog.
15. Creating the Translational Joint
1) Select the Translational Joint tool .
2) Select the construction method 1 Location and Pick Feature.
3) Select the Test_Patch.cm, to create the construction joint between the Test_Patch
and the Ground.
16. Creating the Inplane Joint Primitive
1) Select the Inplane Joint Primitive tool .
2) Select the construction method 2 Bodies-1 Location and Pick Geometry Feature.
3) Select the Wheel and the Test_patch, and then click the point: Test_Patch.cm, to
create the construction joint between the Test_Patch and the Ground.
75
4 Examples

File Save Datebase As.

## 1. Adding a Translational Joint Motion

1) Select the Translational Joint Motion tool .
2) Select the Translational Joint between the Wheel and the Test_patch, to create the
Translational Joint Motion (TRANS_MOTION_1).
3) Select Edit in the main menu: Click Modify. The modify dialog box appears.

Click Impose Motion. The Constraint Modify Motion Generator dialog box appears. In
the F(time) text box, enter 100*sin(360d*time), then click OK.

76

## 2. Simulating the Motion of Your Model

1) Select the Simulation tool .
2) Set up a simulation with an end time of 1 second and 100 steps.
3) Select the Simulation Start tool .
4) To return to the initial model configuration, select the Reset tool .
3. Creating a Measure on the Kingpin_Inclination
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.

2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Kingpin_Inclination.
Units select angle, then edit the function expression of Kingpin_Inclination with Function
77
4 Examples

Builder.
The function expression of Kingpin_Inclination:
ATAN(DX(.FRONT_SUSP.Kingpin.MARKER_2, .FRONT_SUSP.
Kingpin.MARKER_1)/DY(.FRONT_SUSP. Kingpin.MARKER_2, .FRONT_SUSP.
Kingpin.MARKER_1))

## Fig. The curve of the Kingpin_Inclination vs time

4. Creating a Measure on the Kingpin_Caster_Angle
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Caster_Angle. Units
select angle, then edit the function expression of Caster_Angle with Function Builder.
The function expression of Caster_Angle:
ATAN(DZ(.FRONT_SUSP.Kingpin.MARKER_2, .FRONT_SUSP.
Kingpin.MARKER_1) / DY(.FRONT_SUSP. Kingpin.MARKER_2, .FRONT_SUSP.
Kingpin.MARKER_1))

## 5. Creating a Measure on the Front_Wheel Camber_Angle

78

1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Camber_Angle. Units
select angle, then edit the function expression of Camber_Angle with Function Builder.
The function expression of Camber_Angle:
ATAN(DY(.FRONT_SUSP.Knuckle.MARKER_1, .FRONT_SUSP.
Knuckle.MARKER_2) / DX(.FRONT_SUSP.Knuckle.MARKER_1, .FRONT_SUSP.
Knuckle.MARKER_2))

## 6. Creating a Measure on the Front_Wheel Toe_Angle

1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Toe_Angle. Units select
angle, then edit the function expression of Toe_Angle with Function Builder.
The function expression of Toe_Angle:
ATAN(DZ(.FRONT_SUSP. Knuckle.MARKER_1, .FRONT_SUSP.
Knuckle.MARKER_2) /DX(.FRONT_SUSP. Knuckle.MARKER_1, .FRONT_SUSP.
Knuckle.MARKER_2))

79
4 Examples

## 7. Creating a Measure on the Sideways_Displacement of the Wheel

Creating Marker Points on the Wheel: Wheel.MARKER_5, modify the position to (-150,
-270, 0). Creating Marker Points on the ground: ground_MARKER_6, modify the position
to (-150, -270, 0).
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Sideways_Displacement.
Units select Length, then edit the function expression of Sideways_Displacement with
Function Builder.
The function expression of Sideways_Displacement:
DX (.FRONT_SUSP.Wheel.MARKER_5, .FRONT_SUSP.ground.MARKER_6)

## 8. Creating a Measure on the Wheel_Travel

1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.
2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Wheel_Travel. Units
select Length, then edit the function expression of Wheel_Travel with Function Builder.
The function expression of Wheel_Travel:
DY(.FRONT_SUSP.Wheel.MARKER_5, .FRONT_SUSP.ground.MARKER_6)

80

## 9. Creating curves on the Front Suspension characteristic

1) On the Review menu, select Postprocessing or press F8.
tool that lets you view the results of simulations you performed.
2) At the bottom left of the dashboard, set Source to Measures.
3) From the Simulation list, select test_dat.

## 4) At the bottom right of the dashboard, set Independent Axis to Data.

A browser, named Independent Axis Browser, appears. It lets you select data for the
horizontal axis.

5) Select Kingpin_Inclination.
6) Select OK.
7) From the dashboard, from the Measure list, select Wheel_Travel, for the vertical axis
data.

## 8) Select Add Curves to add the new data to the plot.

ADAMS displays the plot of the two measures as shown next:

81
4 Examples

82

## 4.3.1 Creating Chassis Model

(1) To start ADAMS/View in the Windows environment
1) Select Start. start ADAMS/View, Select Create a new model from the Welcome
dialog box.
2) Replace the contents of the Model name text box with JEEP.
3) Select OK.
(2) Setting Up Your Work Environment.
1) Setting up units: From the Settings menu, select Units. Set the units of length to
Millimeter, the units of length to Kilogram, Force to Newton, Time to Second, Angle to
83
4 Examples

## Degree, Frequency to Hertz. Select OK.

2) Setting up Working Grid: From the Settings menu, select Working Grid. Set the
grid size along X to 2000 and Y to 1000, and the grid spacing at 50. Select OK.
3) Setting up Icons: From the Settings menu, select Icons. In the New Size text box,
enter 50. Select OK.
4) To display the Coordinates window: From the View menu, select Coordinate
Window.
2. Creating Design Points
1) Right-click the Rigid Body tool stack (Link tool is on top by default) to display the
tool stack containing the Point tool.
2) Select the Point tool , to create design point: Vehicle_CM (0, 600, 0), which are
Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
3. Creating Chassis
Select the Sphere tool , select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 50. Click
Vehicle_CM, to create a Cylinder. Rename the cylinder part, to Chassis.
Place the cursor over the part containing the geometry and hold down the right mouse
button. Point to the name of the geometry that you want to modify and then select Modify.
The Modify Body dialog box appears as shown next.

In the Category box, select Mass Properties. In the Define Mass By box, select User
Input. In the Mass text box, enter 2010. In the Ixx, Iyy, Izz text box, enter 1.06E+009,
2.28E+009, 2.18E+009. Select OK.

84

## 1. Creating Design Points

Select the Point tool and click the locations shown in Table 4.8 to place design
points. Use the default settings for point, which are Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
Table 4.8 Points Coordinate Locations

## Points X Location Y Location Z Location

Left_LCA_outer -1339.243 270.315 697.432
Left_UCA_outer -1324.849 594.992 640.183
Left_UCA_inner -1295.861 666.706 316.702
Left_LCA_inner -1428.932 327.896 192.048
Left_Tie_rod_outer -1512.765 363.009 724.270
Left_Tie_rod_inner -1594.556 444.195 257.770
Left_Knuckle_inner -1334.488 377.557 678.522
Left_Wheel_center -1335.000 375.000 825.000
Right_LCA_outer -1339.243 270.315 -697.432
Right_UCA_outer -1324.849 594.992 -640.183
Right_UCA_inner -1295.861 666.706 -316.702
Right_LCA_inner -1428.932 327.896 -192.048
Right_Tie_rod_outer -1512.765 363.009 -724.270
Right_Tie_rod_inner -1594.556 444.195 -257.770
Right_Knuckle_inner -1334.488 377.557 -678.522
Right_Wheel_center -1335.000 375.000 -825.000

## 2. Creating Front Suspension

Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Left_LCA_outer and Left_UCA_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_Kingpin.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Left_UCA_outer and Left_UCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_UCA. Select the Sphere tool . Select Add to Part. In
the Radius text box, enter 25. Click Left_UCA, then Left_UCA_outer, to create a Sphere.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Left_LCA_outer and Left_LCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.

85
4 Examples

Rename the cylinder part, to Left_LCA. Select the Sphere tool . Select Add to Part. In
the Radius text box, enter 25. Click Left_LCA, then Left_LCA_outer, to create a Sphere.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Left_Knuckle_inner and Left_Tie_rod_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_Pull_arm.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Left_Tie_rod_outer and Left_Tie_rod_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_Tie_rod. Select the Sphere tool . Select Add to Part.
In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click Left_Tie_rod, then Left_Tie_rod_outer and
Left_Tie_rod_inner to create two Spheres.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Left_Wheel_outer and Left_Knuckle_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_Knuckle.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Right_LCA_outer and Right_UCA_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Right_Kingpin.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Right_UCA_outer and Right_UCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Right_UCA. Select the Sphere tool . Select Add to Part.
In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click Right_UCA, then Right_UCA_outer, to create a
Sphere.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click
Right_LCA_outer and Right_LCA_inner to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Right_LCA. Select the Sphere tool . Select Add to Part.
In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click Right_LCA, then Right_LCA_outer, to create a
Sphere.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Right_Knuckle_inner and Right_Tie_rod_outer to create a Cylinder between the two
points. Rename the cylinder part, to Right_Pull_arm.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Right_Tie_rod_outer and Right_Tie_rod_inner to create a Cylinder between the two
points. Rename the cylinder part, to Right_Tie_rod. Select the Sphere tool . Select
Add to Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click Right_Tie_rod, then
Right_Tie_rod_outer and Right_Tie_rod_inner to create two Spheres.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 20. Click

86

## Right_Wheel_outer and Right_Knuckle_inner to create a Cylinder between the two

points. Rename the cylinder part, to Right_Knuckle.

Figure 4.13 The body model of the chassis and the front suspension
3. Creating the Constraint Joint
Select the Spherical Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc, and
Normal To Grid. Select the Left_UCA and the Left_Kingpin, and then click the point:
Left_UCA_outer, to create the constraint joint between the Left_UCA and the
Left_Kingpin.
Select the Spherical Joint tool again. Place spherical joints at the following locations
using the constraint method 2 Bod - 1 Loc, and Normal To Grid:
 Between the Left_LCA and the Left_Kingpin at Left_LCA_outer.
 Between the Left_Tie_rod and the Left_Pull_arm at Left_Tie_rod_outer.
Select the Fixed Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc, and Normal
To Grid. Select the Left_Pull_arm and the Left_Kingpin, and then click the point:
Left_Knuckle_inner, to create the constraint joint between the Left_Pull_arm and the
Left_Kingpin.
Select the Fixed Joint tool again. Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc, and Normal
To Grid, to create the constraint joint between the Left_Knuckle and the Left_Kingpin at
Left_Knuckle_inner.
On the File menu, select Settings. Click Working Grid. In the Set Location box, select
Pick, click design point: Left_UCA_outer. In the Set Orientation box, select Global YZ.
Click Right_View tool .
Select the Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and
Normal To Grid, Select the Left_UCA and the Chassis, and Click the point: Left_UCA_
inner, to create the revolute joint.
On the File menu, select Edit. Click Modify. Click (Change Position). In the
Rotate text box, enter 5, then click . Close the dialog.
Select the Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and

87
4 Examples

Normal To Grid, Select the Left_LCA and the Chassis, and Click the point: Left_LCA_
inner, to create the revolute joint. On the File menu, select Edit. Click Modify. Click
(Change Position). In the Rotate text box, enter 10, then click . Close the dialog.
Repeat above steps, to create the revolute joint between the right bodies of the front
suspension.

## 4. Creating the Spring

Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
Left_Spring_lower (-1314.390, 620.866, 523.473) on the Left_UCA.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
Left_Spring_upper (-1314.390, 910.866, 523.473) on the Chassis.
Select the Spring tool . In the K, C text box, enter 129.8, 6000. Click Left_Spring_
lower and Left_Spring_upper, to create the left spring of the front suspension.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
Right_Spring_lower (-1314.390, 620.866, -523.473) on the Right_UCA.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
Right_Spring_upper (-1314.390, 910.866, -523.473) on the Chassis.
Select the Spring tool . In the K, C text box, enter 129.8, 6000. Click Right_Spring_
lower and Right_Spring_upper, to create the right spring of the front suspension.

Figure 4.14 The model of the chassis and the front suspension

## 1. Creating Design Points

Select the Point tool and click the locations shown in Table 4.9 to place design
points. Use the default settings for point, which are Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.

88

## Table 4.9 Points Coordinate Locations

Points X Location Y Location Z Location
Pitman_arm_pivot -1624.0 451.0 172.5
Idler_arm_pivot -1624.0 451.0 -172.5
Lower_sector_shaft_point -1444.0 451.0 172.5
Idler_arm_center -1444.0 451.0 -172.5
Steering_shaft_pivot -1232.0 562.0 230.5
Steering_wheel_pivot -873.5 678.6 260.0
Steering_wheel_center -260.0 1033.2 260.0
2. Creating Steering System
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Left_Tie_rod_inner and Pitman_arm_pivot to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Center_link (left ).
Select the Cylinder tool . Select Add to Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15.
Select body: Center_link, select point: Pitman_arm_pivot and Idler_arm_pivot, to create
the middle part of the Center_link.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select Add to Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15.
Select body: Center_link, select point: Idler_arm_pivot and Right_Tie_rod_inner, to
create the right part of the Center_link.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Pitman_arm_pivot and Lower_sector_shaft_point to create a Cylinder between the two
points. Rename the cylinder part, to Pitman_arm.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Idler_arm_pivot and Idler_arm_center to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Idler_arm.

## Figure 4.15 The model of the steering trapezium

Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click

89
4 Examples

## Lower_sector_shaft_point and Steering_shaft_pivot to create a Cylinder between the two

points. Rename the cylinder part, to Steering_gear.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Steering_shaft_pivot and Steering_wheel_pivot to create a Cylinder between the two
points. Rename the cylinder part, to Steering_shaft.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 15. Click
Steering_wheel_center and Steering_wheel_pivot to create a Cylinder between the two
points. Rename the cylinder part, to Steering_Wheel.
On the File menu, select Settings. Click Working Grid. The Working Grid Settings
dialog box appears. In the Set Location box, select Pick, click design point:
Steering_wheel_center. In the Set Orientation box, select Z-Axis, pick the axis direction
of the Steering_wheel cylinder as to Z-Axis of Working Grid.
text box, enter 12 and 190. Select body: Steering_Wheel, select point: Steering_Wheel_
center, to create another part of the Steering_Wheel.
On the File menu, select Settings. Click Working Grid. Pick Polar. In the Circle
Spacing and Radial Increments text box, enter 10 and 3. Select OK.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select Add to Part. In the Length and Radius text box,
enter 190 and 8. Select body: Steering_Wheel, select center point: Steering_Wheel_center,
to create three cylinders.

## 3. Creating the Constraint Joint

90

Select the Hooke Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Pick
Feature. Select the Left_Tie_rod and the Center_link, and then click the point:
Left__Tie_rod_inner, Hooke Joint orientation: axis direction of the Left_Tie_rod and the
Center_link, to create the constraint joint between the Left_Tie_rod and the Center_link.
Setting up Working Grid orientation: Global XZ direction. Click Top View Select the
Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Normal To Grid,
Select the Center_link and the Pitman_arm, and Click the point: Pitman_arm_pivot, to
create the revolute joint.
Setting up Working Grid orientation: Global XZ direction. Click Top View. Select the
Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Normal To Grid,
Select the Pitman_arm and the Chassis, and Click the point: Lower_sector_shaft_point,
to create the revolute joint between the Pitman_arm and the Chassis.
Select the Spherical Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and
Normal To Grid. Select the Center_link and the Idler_arm, and then click the point:
Idler_arm_pivot, to create the constraint joint between the Center_link and the
Idler_arm.
Select the Hooke Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Pick
Feature. Select the Idler_arm and the Chassis, and then click the point:
Idler_arm_center, Hooke Joint orientation: plus (or minus) axis direction of the
Idler_arm, to create the constraint joint between the Idler_arm and the Chassis.
Select the Hooke Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Pick
Feature. Select the Right_Tie_rod and the Center_link, and then click the point:
Right_Tie_rod_inner, Hooke Joint orientation: axis direction of the Right_Tie_rod and
the Center_link, to create the constraint joint between the Right_Tie_rod and the
Select the Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Pick
Feature, Select the Steering_gear and the Chassis, and Click the design point:
Steering_gear.CM, Revolute Joint orientation: axis direction of the Steering_gear
cylinder, to create the revolute joint between the Steering_gear and the Chassis.
Select the Coupler Joint tool . Select two types of Constraint Joint: the Revolute
Joint between the Steering_gear and the Chassis, the Revolute Joint between the
Pitman_arm and the Chassis. The Revolute Joint between the Pitman_arm and the
Chassis is the Coupler Joint. The Scale of the Coupler Joint is modified to 14.
Select the Constant-Velocity Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc
and Pick Feature. Select the Steering_wheel and the Steering_shaft, and then click the

91
4 Examples

## point: Steering_wheel_pivot, Constant-Velocity Joint orientation: axis direction of the

Steering_wheel cylinder and the Steering_shaft, to create the constraint joint between the
Steering_wheel and the Steering_shaft.
Select the Constant-Velocity Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc
and Pick Feature. Select the Steering_gear and the Steering_shaft, and then click the
point: Steering_shaft_pivot, Constant-Velocity Joint orientation: axis direction of the
Steering_shaft and the Steering_gear cylinder, to create the constraint joint between the
Steering_shaft and the Steering_gear.
Select the Cylindrical Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and
Pick Feature. Select the Steering_wheel and the Chassis, and then click the point:
Steering_wheel.CM, Cylindrical Joint orientation: axis direction of the Steering_wheel
cylinder, to create the constraint joint between the Steering_wheel and the Chassis.

## 1. Creating Design Points

Select the Point tool and click the locations shown in Table 4.10 to place design
points. Use the default settings for point, which are Add to Ground and Don’t Attach.
Table 4.10 Points Coordinate Locations

## Points X Location Y Location Z Location

Left_RCA_pivot 689.37 375.0 363.22
Left_RCA_outer 1265.0 375.0 695.56
RL_Wheel_center 1265.0 375.0 825.0
Right_RCA_pivot 689.37 375.0 -363.22
Right_RCA_outer 1265.0 375.0 -695.56
RR_Wheel_center 1265.0 375.0 -825.0

## 2. Creating Rear Suspension

Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click
Left_RCA_pivot and Left_RCA_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.
Rename the cylinder part, to Left_RCA.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select Add to Part. In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click
Left_RCA, then RL_Wheel_center and Left_RCA_outer, to create Left_RCA.
Select the Cylinder tool . Select New Part. In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click
Right_RCA_pivot and Right_RCA_outer to create a Cylinder between the two points.

92

## Rename the cylinder part, to Right_RCA.

Select the Cylinder tool . Select Add to Part. In the Radius text box, enter 25. Click
Right _RCA, then RR_Wheel_center and Right _RCA_outer, to create Right _RCA.

## 3. Creating the Constraint Joint

Setting up Working Grid orientation: Global XY direction. Click Top View Select the
Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Normal To Grid,
Select the Left_RCA and the Chassis, and Click the point: Left_RCA_pivot, to create the
revolute joint. Modify the position of the Revolute Joint: rotation to 300.

## Figure 4.18 Creating the Revolute Joint

Setting up Working Grid orientation: Global XY direction. Click Top View Select the
Revolute Joint tool . Select the constraint method 2 Bod-1 Loc and Normal To Grid,

93
4 Examples

Select the Right_RCA and the Chassis, and Click the point: Right_RCA_pivot, to create
the revolute joint. Modify the position of the Revolute Joint: rotation to 300.
4. Creating the Spring
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
RL_Spring_lower (1070.42, 375.0, 583.22) on the Left_RCA.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
RL _Spring_upper (1070.42, 641.0, 583.22) on the Chassis.
Select the Spring tool . In the K, C text box, enter 160.2, 6000. Click RL_Spring_
lower and RL_Spring_upper, to create the left spring of the rear suspension.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
RR_Spring_lower (1070.42, 375.0, -583.22) on the Right_RCA.
Select the Point tool . Select Add to Part and Don’t Attach. Creating Design Points:
RR_Spring_upper (1070.42, 641.0, -583.22) on the Chassis.
Select the Spring tool . In the K, C text box, enter 160.2, 6000. Click RR_Spring_
lower and RR_Spring_upper, to create the right spring of the rear suspension.

## 1. Creating Tire Property File

The five tire models were provided in the ADAMS/View, Table 4.11 shows the models.
The TIRE statement has five required arguments, the tire id, the J marker id, the tire mass,
the tire inertia properties, and the associated tire property file.

94

## Table 4.11 Overview of Tire Models

Tire type Data required Applicability
Fiala Basic tire properties  Handling analysis
(Default)  Pure slip
University of Basic tire  Handling analysis
Arizona (UA) properties  Comprehensive slip
Smithers Coefficients from  Handling analysis
fitted tire test data  Pure slip
Delft Coefficients from  Handling analysis
fitted tire test data  Comprehensive slip
User Defined User User

## Default Dynamic Analysis Tire Model

An enhanced version of the so-called Fiala model is available as a default in
ADAMS/Solver. The default tire model calculates tire forces in the longitudinal, lateral, and
vertical directions as well as aligning moment and rolling resistance in response to slip
angle, slip ratio and normal deflection. Camber thrust is not modeled. While rather simple,
this model is capable of providing reliable results for situations not involving
comprehensive slip, i.e., situations where longitudinal slip and lateral slip are not present
simultaneously. This model is automatically invoked by ADAMS/Solver during a dynamic
simulation involving tires translating at moderate to fast rates.
UA-Tire Dynamic Analysis Model
The UA-Tire model developed by Nikravesh and Gim at the University of Arizona, is part
of the optional ADAMS/Tire module. The UA-Tire model computes normal, longitudinal,
and lateral forces as well as aligning torque and rolling resistance under comprehensive slip
conditions. These forces and moments are determined by explicit formulations which are
analytically derived depending on the coupled properties of slip ratio, slip angle, inclination
angle, normal deflection, and other dynamic tire properties.
The UA-Tire model is much more comprehensive and accurate than the simpler Fiala model.
It always provides much better results for aligning moments than the Fiala model.
Additionally, in situations of comprehensive slip, the UA-Tire model provides much more
realistic values for the other forces and torques.
Smithers Dynamic Analysis Tire Model
The Smithers tire model is part of the optional ADAMS/Tire module. This model is also
referred to as the BNPS or Bakker-Nyborg-Pacejka-Smithers model. The Smithers model
computes the lateral force and the aligning moment from the slip angle, inclination angle,
vertical force, and data provided by Smithers Scientific Services. The Fiala tire model

95
4 Examples

computes the other tire forces and torques. The Smithers model comes complete with three
sample tire property files, which you can use until you obtain the specific tire property files
DELFT Dynamic Tire Model
The DELFT tire model is part of the optional ADAMS/Tire module. This model was
developed by TNO Road-Vehicle Research Institute in the Netherlands. It is a Pacejka
―magic formula‖ tire model. The model computes lateral, longitudinal, and vertical forces
and the aligning moment from fitted coefficients TNO provides.
User-Defined Tire Models
You have the option of defining your own tire model. A user-written subroutine, TIRSUB,
is provided to facilitate this. Instantaneous tire kinematic contact properties and tire material
properties are provided as input to TIRSUB. In addition, users can use the UPARAMETER
and USTRINGS arguments to pass real values and character strings to TIRSUB. TIRSUB
patch in the instantaneous SAE coordinate system. ADAMS/Solver transfers the forces and
torques to the tire hub center and apply them.
The UA tire model was selected in the example. The tires are P215/80R16 meridian tire.
The tire property shown in Table 4.12.
Table 4.12 P215/80R16 Meridian Tire Property

## Model R1 R2 CNORMAL CSLIP CALPHA

R1 /mm R2 /mm Cz /(N/mm) Cs /(N/mm) Cα /(N/rad)
Analytical 375 107.5 261.3 30000 46000

## CGAMMA CRR RDR U0 U1

Cγ /(N/rad) f  0 1
4000 0.015 0.75 0.94 0.74

CALPHA: The tire’s cornering stiffness: the partial derivative of lateral force (Fy) with
regard to slip angle (α) at zero slip angle. CALPHA = Cα = r1*r2. CALPHA should have
units of force per radian or degree.
CGAMMA: The tire’s camber stiffness: the partial derivative of lateral force (Fy) with
regard to inclination (camber) angle at zero camber angle. Note that CGAMMA = Cγ =
r1*r2.
CNORMAL: The tire’s vertical stiffness: the partial derivative of vertical force (Fz) with
regard to ire vertical penetration (such as deflection) at zero vertical penetration. Note that
CNORMAL = Cz = r1*r2.
CRR: Specifies the conversion factor and the rolling resistance moment coefficient. Note
that CRR = Cr = r1*r2. CRR should have units of length.
96

CSLIP: The tire’s longitudinal slip stiffness: the partial derivative of longitudinal force (Fx)
with regard to longitudinal slip (s) at zero longitudinal slip. Note that CSLIP=Cs = r1*r2.
CSLIP should have units of force.
the tire center to the crown of the tread.
R2: Specifies the conversion factor and the carcass radius of a toroidal (or doughnut shaped)
tire. This is equal to one half the greatest distance from one sidewall to the other, when
measured along an axis parallel to the tire spin axis.

## Figure 4.20 Analytical and Geometrical Representation of Tire

RDR: Specifies the tire radial damping ratio(ζ). RDR is the ratio of tire damping to critical
damping.
U0: Specifies the tire/road coefficient of friction at zero slip and represents the ―sticking‖ or
―static‖ friction coefficient.
U1: Specifies the tire/road coefficient of friction for the full slip case and represents the
―sliding‖ or ―kinetic‖ friction coefficient.
The tire property file (jeep_tire.tpf) appears as shown next.
! ----------------------
! | TIRE_PROPERTY_FILE |
! ----------------------

MODEL=
ANALYTICAL

97
4 Examples

## ! ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS BLOCK

1 375
R2 (idealized toroidal cross section carcass radius)
1 107.5
CN (vertical stiffness at zero deflection)
1 261.3
CSLIP (longitudinal stiffness at zero slip ratio)
1 30000
CALPHA (lateral stiffness due to slip angle at zero slip angle)
0.01745 46000
CGAMMA (lateral stiffness due to inclination angle at zero inclination angle)
0.01745 4000
CRR (rolling resistance moment)
1.00 5.625
RDR (vertical damping ratio)
0.75
U0 (maximum friction coefficient, friction coefficient at zero slip)
0.94
U1 (minimum friction coefficient, friction coefficient at full slip)
0.75
! ----------------------
! | ROAD DATA FILE |
! ----------------------
! jeep road file - flat
METHOD
GENDATA
!
! Conversion factors
!
X_SCALE
1.0
Y_SCALE
1.0
Z_SCALE

98

1.0
!
! Road origin is located at the following global coordinates in the data set.
!
ORIGIN
000
UP
0.0,1.0,0.0
!
! Road coordinate system is oriented with respect to the global origin
! by the following transformation matrix.
!
ORIENTATION
100
010
001
!
!coordinates for the node points on road
!
NODES
4
1 200000.0 0.0 -20000.0
2 -500000.0 0.0 -20000.0
3 200000.0 0.0 400000.0
4 -500000.0 0.0 400000.0
!
! Connectivity of node points defining the triangular element
!
ELEMENTS
2
1 2 3 1.0 1.0
2 3 4 1.0 1.0
1) From the Main Toll menu, point to Force Database, point to Tire. The Create Tire
Force dialog box appears.

99
4 Examples

## 2) Select Tire Type: UA Tire.

3) In the Attachment Marker text box, enter .JEEP.Left_Knuckle.MARKer_11, it is
the marker of Left_Knuckle in the Left_Wheel_center.
4) In the Tire Mass text box, enter 29.2.
5) In the Tire Inertia Moments text box, enter 5.002E+005, 5.002E+005, 6.904E+005.
6) In the Tire Property File text box, enter jeep_tire.tpf and path.
7) In the Road Data File text box, enter jeep_road.rdf and path.
8) In the Tire Width text box, enter 215.
9) Select OK, to create the left tire of front suspension.
10) Repeat above steps, to create the right tire of front suspension and the tires of rear
suspension.
100

Figure 4.21 shows the model of tires. Figure 4.22 shows the full vehicle model.

## 1. Creating Motion and Torque

Select the Rotational Joint Motion tool . Select the Cylindrical Joint between the
Steering_wheel and the Chassis, to create the Rotational Joint Motion on the
Steering_wheel. Modify the motion equation: step(time, 1,0,2,100d), see Fig.4.23.

101
4 Examples

## Figure 4.23 Joint Motion Dialog Box

Select the Torque tool . Select Two Bodies, see Figure 4.23. Select the Left_RCA
as master body, then select the TIRE_3 as slave body, select design point of the
Left_RCA_outer as master point, select design point of the RL_Wheel_center as slave
point, to create the drive torque on the Left Tire. Modify the torque equation: step(time,
0,0,1,-11000)+step(time,60,-30000,120,-150000), see Fig.4.25.

## Figure 4.24 Figure 4.25 Modify Torque Dialog Box

Follow above steps to create the drive torque on the Right Tire between the Right_RCA
102

## and the TIRE_4.

2. Creating curves on the vehicle characteristic
1) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.

2) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Radius. Units select
Length(m), then edit the function expression of Radius with Function Builder.
(VM(.jeep.chassis.cm)/WY(.jeep.chassis.cm))/1000
3) From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New. The
Function Builder dialog box appears.

4) In the Measure Name text box, enter the measure name as Velocity. Units select
Length(m), then edit the function expression of Velocity with Function Builder.
The function expression of Velocity:
SQRT(VX(.JEEP.Chassis.cm)**2+VZ(.JEEP.Chassis.cm)**2)*3.6/1000

103
4 Examples

3. Simulation
1) Select the Simulation tool .
2) Set up a simulation with an end time of 120 second and Step Size of 0.01.
3) Select the Simulation Start tool .
4) To return to the initial model configuration, select the Reset tool .
The curves on the vehicle characteristic appear during the simulation, as shown next:

104

## Figure 4.29 The motion trace of the vehicle mass center

105

This chapter introduces you to ADAMS/Car and explains how you can benefit from using it.

## ADAMS/Car is a specialized environment for modeling vehicles. It allows you to create

virtual prototypes of vehicle subsystems, and analyze the virtual prototypes much like you
would analyze the physical prototypes.
The ADAMS/Car model hierarchy is comprised of the following components, which are
stored in databases:
 Templates - Are ADAMS/Car models built in ADAMS/Car Template Builder by
users who have expert privileges. Templates are parameterized and generally are
topological representations of vehicle subsystems, which can include front
suspensions, brakes, chassis, and so on.
You save templates in ASCII or binary format.
 Subsystems - Are based on ADAMS/Car templates and allow standard users to
change the parametric data of the template. For example, you can change the
location of hardpoints, modify parameter variables, and so on.
You save subsystems in ASCII format.
 Assemblies - Are comprised of subsystems that can be grouped together to form
suspension assemblies, full-vehicle assemblies, and so on.
You save assemblies in ASCII format.
 Standard Interface - You use it when working with existing templates to create and
analyze assemblies of suspensions and full vehicles. Both standard users and expert
users can use ADAMS/Car Standard Interface.
 Template Builder - If you have expert user privileges, you use ADAMS/Car
Template Builder to create new templates for use in ADAMS/Car Standard
Interface.

106

When you create a new component in the Template Builder, ADAMS/Car automatically
adds a prefix based on the entity type and the symmetry. ADAMS/Car uses a naming
convention to let you easily determine an entity’s type from the entity’s name.

## 5.2 What You Can Do with ADAMS/Car

Using ADAMS/Car, you can quickly create assemblies of suspensions and full vehicles,
and then analyze them to understand their performance and behavior.
You create assemblies in ADAMS/Car by defining vehicle subsystems, such as front and
rear suspensions, steering gears, anti-roll bars, and bodies. You base these subsystems on
templates for double-wishbone suspension, MacPherson strut suspension, rack-and-pinion
steering, and so on.
If you have expert user privileges, you can also base your subsystems on custom templates
that you create using the ADAMS/Car Template Builder.
When you analyze an assembly, ADAMS/Car applies the analysis inputs that you specify.
For example, for a suspension analysis you can specify inputs to:
 Move the wheels through bump-rebound travel and measure the toe, camber, wheel
rate, roll rate, and side-view swing arm length.
 Apply lateral load and aligning torque at the tire contact path and measure the toe
change and lateral deflection of the wheel.
 Rotate the steering wheel from lock to lock and measure the steer angles of the
wheels and the amount of Ackerman, that is, the difference between the left and
right wheel steer angles.
Based on the analysis results, you can quickly alter the suspension geometry or the spring
rates and analyze the suspension again to evaluate the effects of the alterations. For example,
you can quickly change a rear suspension from a trailing-link to a multi-link topology to see
which yields the best handling characteristics for your vehicle.
107

Once you complete the analysis of your model, you can share your work with others. You
can also print plots of the suspension characteristics and vehicle dynamic responses. In
addition, you can access other users’ models without overwriting their data.

## 5.3 How You Benefit from Using ADAMS/Car

ADAMS/Car enables you to work faster and smarter, letting you have more time to study
and understand how design changes affect vehicle performance. Using ADAMS/Car you
can:
 Explore the performance of your design and refine your design before building and
testing a physical prototype.
 Analyze design changes much faster and at a lower cost than physical prototype
testing would require. For example, you can change springs with a few mouse
clicks instead of waiting for a mechanic to install new ones in your physical
 Vary the kinds of analyses faster and more easily than if you had to modify
instrumentation, test fixtures, and test procedures.
 Work in a more secure environment without the fear of losing data from instrument
failure or losing testing time because of poor weather conditions.
 Run analyses and what-if scenarios without the dangers associated with physical
testing.

108

## 6 Introducing Analyses in ADAMS/Car

ADAMS/Car allows you to quickly and easily analyze suspensions and full vehicles under
various conditions. The following sections introduce you to running analyses.

Using ADAMS/Car to analyze a virtual prototype is much like ordering a test of a physical
prototype. When ordering a test in ADAMS/Car, you specify the following:
 The virtual prototype to be tested - You specify the virtual prototype by opening
or creating an assembly that contains the appropriate components, or subsystems,
that make up the prototype. For example, you create suspension assembly
containing suspension and steering subsystems and the suspension test-rig.
ADAMS/Car contains suspension and full-vehicle test rigs.
 The kind of analysis you’d like performed - You specify the test or analysis by
selecting one from the ADAMS/Car Simulate menu. There are two major types of
analyses: suspension and full-vehicle.
 The analysis inputs to be used - You specify the inputs to the analysis by typing
them directly into an analysis dialog box or by selecting a loadcase file that contains
the desired inputs from an ADAMS/Car database.
After specifying the prototype assembly and its analysis, ADAMS/Car, like your company’s
testing department, applies the inputs that you specified and records the results. To
understand how your prototype behaved during the analysis, you can plot the results. After
viewing the results, you might modify the prototype and analyze it again to see if your
modifications improve its behavior.
Each kind of analysis that you perform requires a minimum set of subsystems. For example,
a suspension analysis requires one suspension subsystem. A full-vehicle analysis requires
front and rear suspension subsystems, front and rear wheel subsystems, one steering
subsystem, and one body subsystem. Before you can create an assembly and perform an
analysis in ADAMS/Car, you must open or create the minimum set of subsystems required.

## 6.2 Types of Analyses

There are two types of analyses that you can run in ADAMS/Car: suspension analyses and
full-vehicle analyses. To run full-vehicle analyses, you must have purchased the
109

ADAMS/Car lets you analyze and view virtual prototypes of suspensions and steering
 Easily modify the topology and the properties of the components of your
suspension.
 Run a standard set of suspension and steering maneuvers.
 Visualize suspension characteristics through plots.
For a suspension analysis, you can specify inputs to:
 Move the wheels through bump-rebound travel and measure the toe, camber, wheel
rate, roll rate, side-view swing-arm length, and other characteristics.
 Apply lateral load and aligning torque at the tire contact path and measure the toe
change and lateral deflection of the wheel.
 Rotate the steering wheel from lock to lock and measure the steer angles of the
wheels and the amount of Ackerman, which is the difference between the left and
right wheel steer angles.
Based on ADAMS/Car results, you can alter the suspension geometry or spring rates and
analyze the suspension again to evaluate the effects of the alterations.
ADAMS/Car lets you analyze virtual prototypes of full vehicles. Using ADAMS/Car, you
can:
 Easily modify the geometry and the properties of the components of your
subsystems.
 Select from a standard set of vehicle maneuvers to evaluate handling characteristics
 View the vehicle states and other characteristics through plots.

## 6.3 Introducing Suspension Analyses

You can test suspensions to determine their kinematic and compliance characteristics by
performing wheel travel, static load, and steering analyses. This chapter explains how to run
suspension analyses and describes each type of suspension analysis you can run.

## 6.3.1 Suspension Analysis Process

You perform a suspension analysis to learn how a suspension controls the wheel motions
and transmits load from the wheels to the chassis. To perform a suspension analysis, you
first create or open a suspension assembly that contains the selected subsystems and the test
rig. You then specify ranges of vertical wheel travel, steering travel, and static tire contact

110

## patch loads and the number of solution steps.

During the analysis, the test rig articulates the suspension assembly in the specified number
of steps and applies the inputs you specified. At each step, ADAMS/Car calculates over 38
suspension characteristics, such as toe angle, camber angle, track change, wheel base
change, wheel rate (vertical stiffness), fore-aft wheel center stiffness, and so on. You can
plot these characteristics and use them to determine how well the suspension controls the
motions of the wheels.
Figure 6.1 shows an overview of the process.

## Figure 6.1 Suspension Analysis Process

A suspension analysis in ADAMS/Car is a quasi-static equilibrium analysis.

## 6.3.2 Suspension Assembly Roles

To create a suspension assembly, you can select any subsystem that has either a suspension
or a steering major role. A major role defines the primary function of the subsystem.

## 6.3.3 Setting Suspension Parameters

Before you submit a suspension analysis, you need to set the suspension parameters that
ADAMS/Car uses when calculating suspension characteristics. These parameters describe
the vehicle in which you wish to use the suspension. ADAMS/Car uses, for example, the
parameters wheelbase, cg_height, and sprung mass to calculate the fore-aft weight transfer
during braking and acceleration.
Once you set the vehicle parameters in an ADAMS/Car session, ADAMS/Car uses those
settings for all suspension analyses until you reset the parameters.
To set parameters:
(1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Set
Suspension Parameters.
(2) Enter the desired parameter values, and then select OK.

## 6.3.4 Submitting Suspension Analyses

You submit an analysis by selecting a specific analysis from the Simulate menu and then
111

entering the vertical wheel travel and other parameters needed to control the analysis. You
files contain the vertical wheel travel and other parameters needed to control a suspension
analysis. If you regularly perform several kinds of suspension analyses using the same
ranges of travel, you should consider creating loadcase files for these. You can then submit
all the analyses without having to reenter travel parameters each time. Actually, as you
perform an analysis for which you did not create a loadcase file, ADAMS/Car temporarily
creates one for you and deletes it after the analysis.
Note: All suspension analyses in ADAMS/Car are quasi-static equilibrium analyses.
1. Specifying Number of Steps
As you submit a suspension analysis, you specify the number of steps in the analysis. The
number of steps is the number of solution steps from a lower bound to an upper bound. For
example, for an opposite wheel travel analysis, if you specify five steps and -100 mm
rebound and 100 mm jounce, ADAMS/Car temporarily creates a loadcase file that contains
left vertical wheel displacement inputs of -100, -60, -20, 20, 60, and 100 mm and right
vertical wheel displacement inputs of 100, 60, 20, -20, -60, and -100 mm as shown in figure
6.1:

## Figure 6.2 Number of Inputs to Steps

2. Types of Suspension Analyses
The suspendsion analyses include:

## The types of analyses that you can run on a suspension are:

(1) Wheel Travel Analyses:
A wheel travel analysis allows you to look at how the characteristics of a suspension change

112

## throughout the vertical range of motion of the suspension.

You can perform three types of wheel travel analyses, as explained in the next sections. As
a minimum, all wheel travel analyses require a suspension subsystem. These analyses can
also include a steering subsystem.
 Parallel Wheel Travel Analysis
 Opposite Wheel Travel Analysis
 Single Wheel-Travel Analysis
Parallel Wheel Travel Analysis: A parallel wheel travel analysis keeps the left wheel and
right wheel heights equal, while moving the wheels through the specified bump and
rebound travel.
Opposite Wheel Travel Analysis: An opposite wheel travel analysis moves the left and
right wheel through equal, but opposite, vertical amounts of travel to simulate body roll.
The left and right wheels move over the specified jounce and rebound travel, 180 degrees
out of phase with each other. You specify the parameters to define the vertical wheel travel
and the fixed steer value when you submit the analysis.
Single Wheel-Travel Analysis: A single wheel-travel analysis moves one wheel, either the
right or left, through the specified jounce and rebound travel while holding the opposite
wheel fixed in a specified position.
(2) Roll & Vertical Force Analysis
A roll and vertical force analysis sweeps the roll angle while holding the total vertical force
constant. The total vertical force is the sum of the vertical forces on the left and right
wheels.
In contrast to the opposite wheel travel analysis, the roll and vertical force analysis allows
the wheels to seek their own vertical position.
(3) Steering Analysis
A steering analysis steers the wheels over the specified steering wheel angle or rack travel
displacement from the upper to the lower bound. A steering analysis requires a suspension
subsystem and a steering subsystem.
Depending on the type of load you input, the static load analysis applies static loads to the
spindle and the tire patches between the specified upper and lower load limits. A static load
analysis requires a suspension subsystem.
(5) External-File Analyses
There are two types of external-file analyses: loadcase and wheel-envelope analysis.

113

## 6.4.1 Full-Vehicle Analysis Process

You can take previously created suspension subsystems and integrate them with other
subsystems to create a full-vehicle assembly. You can then perform various analyses on the
vehicle to test the design of the different subsystems and see how they influence the total
vehicle dynamics. You can also examine and understand the influence of component
modifications, including changes in spring rates, damper rates, bushing rates, and antirollbar
rates, on the total vehicle dynamics.
Figure 6.3 shows an overview of the process.

## 6.4.2 About the Full-Vehicle Analyses

You can perform several types of full-vehicle analyses using ADAMS/Car. All of the
analyses, except for the data-driven analyses, use the .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG, and are
therefore based on the Driving Machine.
The next sections describe the different types of analyses you can perform:
 Open-Loop Steering Analyses
 Cornering Analyses
 Straight-Line-Behavior Analyses
 Course Analyses
 Driver-Control-File-Driven Analysis
 Quasi-Static Analyses
 Data-Driven Analysis

114

## 1. Open-Loop Steering Analyses

ADAMS/Car provides a wide range of open-loop steering analyses. In open-loop steering
analyses, the steering input to your full vehicle is a function of time.
The open-loop steering analyses include:
Drift - In a drift analysis, the vehicle reaches a steady-state condition in the first ten seconds.
A steady-state condition is one in which the vehicle has the desired steer angle, initial
throttle, and initial velocity values. In seconds 1 through 4 of the analysis, ADAMS/Car
ramps the steering angle/length from an initial value to a desired value. It then ramps the
throttle from zero to the initial throttle value in seconds 5 through 10. Finally, it ramps the
throttle value up to the desired value from a time of 10 seconds to the desired end time.
Fish-Hook - You use this analysis is to evaluate dynamic roll-over vehicle stability. The
test is usually performed by driving at a constant speed, putting the vehicle in neutral,
turning in one direction to a preselected steering wheel angle, and then turning in the
opposite direction, to a final preselected steering wheel angle. You can define the duration
of the step functions and the initial and final turn direction.
Impulse steer - In an impulse steer analysis, the steering demand is a force/torque,
single-cycle, sine input. The steering input ramps up from an initial steer value to the
maximum steer value. You can run with or without cruise control. The purpose of the test is
to characterize the transient response behavior in the frequency domain. Typical metrics are:
lateral acceleration, and vehicle roll and yaw rate, both in time and frequency domain.
Ramp steer - You use this analysis to obtain time-domain transient response metrics. The
most important quantities to be measured are: steering wheel angle, yaw angle speed,
vehicle speed and lateral acceleration. During a ramp steer analysis, ADAMS/Car ramps up

115

## the steering input from an initial value at a specified rate.

Single lane-change analysis - During a single lane-change analysis, the steering input goes
through a complete sinusoidal cycle over the specified length of time. The steering input
can be:
 Length, which is a motion applied to the rack of the steering subsystem.
 Angle, which is angular displacements applied to the steering wheel.
 Force applied to the rack.
 Torque applied to the steering wheel.
Step steer - The purpose of this analysis is to obtain time-domain transient response metrics.
The most important quantities to be measured are: steering wheel angle, yaw angle speed,
vehicle speed and lateral acceleration. During a step steer analysis, ADAMS/Car increases
the steering input from an initial value to a final value over a specified time.
Swept-sine steer - Sinusoidal steering inputs at the steering wheel let you measure
frequency-response vehicle characteristics. This provides a basis for evaluating a vehicle
transitional response, the intensity and phase of which varies according to the steering
frequency. The most important factors for this evaluation are: steering wheel angle, lateral
acceleration, yaw speed, and roll angle. During a swept-sine steer analysis, ADAMS/Car
steers the vehicle from an initial value to the specified maximum steer value, with a given
frequency. It ramps up the frequency of the steering input from the initial value to the
specified maximum frequency with the given frequency rate.
2. Cornering Analyses
You use Driving Machine cornering analyses to evaluate your vehicle’s handling and
dynamic response. Cornering analyses combine open- and closed-loop controllers of the
steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch signals to perform complex analyses on your
vehicle.
The cornering analyses include:

116

Braking in a turn - This is one of the most critical analyses encountered in everyday
driving. The purpose of this analysis is to examine path and directional deviations caused by
sudden braking during cornering. Typical results collected from the braking-in-turn test
include lateral acceleration, variations in turn radius, and yaw angle as a function of
longitudinal deceleration.
In a braking-in-turn analysis, the Driving Machine drives your full vehicle down a straight
road, turns onto a skidpad, and then accelerates to achieve a desired lateral acceleration.
Once the desired lateral acceleration is reached, the Driving Machine holds the longitudinal
speed and radius constant for a time to let any transients settle. Then, it locks the steering
wheel and brakes your full vehicle at a constant deceleration rate. It maintains the
deceleration rate for a given duration or until the vehicle speed drops below 2.5
meters/second.
You can use the plot configuration, mdi_fva_bit.plt, in the shared ADAMS/Car database to
generate the plots that are typically of interest for this type of analysis.
Constant radius cornering - For constant radius cornering analysis, the Driving Machine
increases velocity to build up lateral acceleration. One common use for a constant radius
cornering analysis is to determine the understeer characteristics of the full vehicle.
Cornering with steer release - The vehicle performs a dynamic constant-radius cornering
to achieve the prescribed conditions (radius and longitudinal velocity or longitudinal
velocity and lateral acceleration). After the steady state prephase, the steering wheel
closed-loop signal is released, simulating a release of the steering wheel. The analysis
focuses primary on the path deviation, yaw characteristics, steering wheel measurements,
roll angle, roll rate, and side-slip angle.
Lift-off turn-in - The purpose of this analysis is to examine path and directional deviations
caused by suddenly lifting the throttle pedal during cornering and applying an additional
ramp steering input.
Power-off during cornering - A steering controller drives the vehicle around a skid pad.
When the prescribed conditions are achieved, the steering wheel is locked and the throttle
demand is decreased to zero. This analysis allows you to determine the power-off effect on
course holding and directional behavior of a vehicle whose steady-state circular path is
disturbed by throttle power-off.
Typical results collected from the power-off cornering analysis include variations in the
heading direction and longitudinal deceleration, as well as sideslip angle, yaw angle and
gradient. Optionally, the clutch can be depressed during the throttle lift-off. In this case, you
specify the duration that is takes to depress the clutch.
3. Straight-Line-Behavior Analyses
The analyses based on the Driving Machine focus on the longitudinal dynamics of the

117

vehicle. ADAMS/Car uses open- and closed-loop longitudinal controllers to drive your
vehicle model.
The straight-line-behavior analyses include:
Acceleration test - Ramps the throttle demand from zero at your input rate (open loop) or
you can specify a desired longitudinal acceleration (closed loop). You can specify either
free or locked steering. An acceleration test analysis helps you study the anti-lift and
anti-squat properties of a vehicle.
Braking - Ramps the brake input from zero at your input rate or lets you specify a
longitudinal deceleration (closed loop). You can also specify either free or locked steering.
The braking test analysis helps you study the brake-pull anti-lift and anti-dive properties of
a vehicle.
Power-off straight line - This analysis allows you to examine operating behavior and
directional deviations caused by suddenly lifting off the throttle pedal during a straight-line
analysis. Typical results collected from the power off straight-line analysis include
variations in heading direction and longitudinal deceleration. You can control the analysis
using the Driving Machine. Optionally, you can depress the clutch during the throttle lift-off.
In this case, you specify the duration that it takes to depress the clutch.
4. Course Analyses
Course analyses are based on the Driving Machine and are of a course-following type, such
as ISO-lane change.
In an ISO-lane change analysis, the Driving Machine drives your full vehicle through a lane
change course as specified in ISO-3888: Double Lane Change. You specify the gear
position and speed at which to perform the lane change. The analysis stops after the vehicle
travels 250 meters; therefore, the time to complete the lane change depends on the speed
you input.
5. Driver-Control-File-Driven Analysis (DCF Drive…)
The driver-control-file-driven analysis lets you run a analysis described in an existing driver
control file (.dcf). For the format and content of .dcf files. Having direct access to .dcf files
allows you to easily perform nonstandard analyses on your full-vehicle assembly because
all you have to do is to generate a new .dcf file describing the analysis.
6. Quasi-Static Analyses
Quasi-static analyses find dynamic equilibrium solutions for your full vehicle at increasing,
successive values of lateral acceleration. Quasi-static analyses, in contrast to open-loop and
closed-loop analyses, do not include transient effects and solve very quickly. For example,
in a quasi-static analysis, a change in lateral acceleration from 0.1g to 0.5g does not show
the lateral acceleration or yaw rate overshoot that a similar openloop and closed-loop
analysis might show.
Quasi-static analyses use either the .__MDI_DRIVER_TESTRIG or the .__MDI_SDI_

118

TESTRIG.
(1) Setting up Quasi-Static Analyses
Before you submit a quasi-static analysis, you must set up the assembly to run quasi-static
analyses.
You set up a quasi-static analysis by selecting the Setup button from the constant radius
modeling elements that do not exist by default in the standard MDI full-vehicle assemblies.
The additional elements reference information provided by communicators that are defined
in the standard templates distributed with ADAMS/Car. The communicators are:
 Body template: cos_body communicator: part communicator
 Front/rear suspension template:
 co[lr]_suspension_upright: part communicator
 co[lr]_suspension_mount: part communicator
 Steering template:
 cos_steering_wheel_joint: joint communicator
 Powertrain template:
 co[lr]_output_torque: force communicator
 cos_drive_torque_left: solver variable communicator
 cos_drive_torque_right: solver variable communicator
If you are using standard ADAMS/Car templates but have removed some of the
communicators, or if you built your own templates that do not include those communicators,
as part of the setup procedure, ADAMS/Car prompts you to identify various elements in
your assembly. You can avoid being prompted for these elements by including the
communicators in the appropriate templates.
You perform a constant radius cornering analysis to evaluate your full vehicle’s understeer
and oversteer characteristics. The constant radius cornering analysis holds the turn radius
constant and varies the vehicle velocity to produce increasing amounts of lateral
acceleration. You can use the plot configuration file mdi_fva_ssc.plt in the shared
ADAMS/Car database to generate the plots that are typically of interest for this analysis.
Before submitting a constant radius cornering analysis, you must select the Setup button to
set up your full-vehicle assembly for a quasi-static analysis.
(3) Constant-Velocity Cornering Analysis
You perform a constant velocity cornering analysis to evaluate your full vehicle’s
understeer and oversteer characteristics. The constant velocity cornering analysis holds the
vehicle velocity constant and varies the turn radius to produce increasing amounts of lateral
acceleration. The input parameters for this analysis are the same as the steady-state
cornering analysis except that the vehicle longitudinal velocity is specified instead of the

119

turn radius. You can use the plot configuration file mdi_fva_ssc.plt in the shared car
database to generate the plots that are typically of interest for this analysis.
Before submitting a constant velocity cornering analysis, you must select the Setup button
to set up your full-vehicle assembly for a quasi-static analysis.
(4) Force-Moment Analysis
You perform a force-moment analysis maneuver to evaluate the stability and handling
longitudinal speed and performs a series of simulations at different side-slip and steer
angles. The simulation represents a typical test in which the vehicle is constrained on a
model flat-belt tire tester. The testing method is based on the assumption that most of the
stability and control characteristics can be obtained from a study of the steady-state force
and moments acting on the vehicle.
The analysis consists of a series of quasi-static steady-state cornering analyses performed at
different vehicle side-slip angles and at a different steer angle. Usual results of a quasistatic
force-moment analysis can be presented in tabular form, or as diagrams and plots
representing the computed forces and moments from the simulated test.
Before you can submit a force-moment analysis, you must set up your vehicle for a
quasistatic analysis.
7. Data-Driven Analysis
You define the inputs for a data-driven analysis in a driver loadcase file (dri.). The driver
loadcase file contains the time/distance open-loop signals for steering, throttle, brake, clutch,
and gear. This is the only analysis that requires the .__MDI_DRIVER_TESTRIG and is
simulations. These actions include steering, braking, throttle position, gear shifting and
clutch operation.
Using ADAMS/Driver, you can extend the set of full-vehicle events available in
ADAMS/Driver analyses use the .__MDI_DRIVER_TESTRIG or the .__MDI_SDI_
TESTRIG.

120

## To start ADAMS/Car in the Windows environment:

1 From the Start menu, point to Programs, point to ADAMS, point to ACar, and then
The Welcome dialog box appears on top of the ADAMS/Car main window.

## 2 Do one of the following:

 If the Welcome dialog box contains the options Standard Interface and Template
Builder, select Standard Interface, and then select OK.
 If the Welcome dialog box does not contain any options, then ADAMS/Car is
already configured to run in standard mode. Select OK.

## 7.2 Creating Suspension Assemblies

In this section, you work with a suspension and steering assembly from two subsystems: a
suspension subsystem and a steering subsystem. You create the suspension subsystem using
the standard double-wishbone template. You don’t need to create the steering subsystem.
Instead, you can open an existing subsystem that we’ve provided.
After creating and opening the subsystems, you create an assembly that contains the
subsystems and a test rig.

## 7.2.1 Creating a New Front Suspension Subsystem

You create the front suspension subsystem based on a double-wishbone design stored in the
standard template named _double_wishbone.tpl, and then save it.

121
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

After you create the subsystem, you save it in an ADAMS/Car database. When you save a
subsystem, ADAMS/Car stores it in the database designated as the default writable database.
Initially, the private database is the default writable database, but as you become more
familiar with ADAMS/Car, you can change your writable database. Later, when you are
save the file in a shared database or allow others to access it from your private database.
1. Creating the front suspension subsystem:
2) From the File menu, point to New, and then select Subsystem.
The New Subsystem dialog box appears.

## 3) In the Subsystem Name text box, enter UAN_FRT_SUSP.

4) Set Minor Role to front. A minor role defines the subsystem’s function and its
placement in the assembly (for example, front or rear). In this case, you select front because
you are creating a front suspension.
5) Right-click the Template Name text box, point to Search, and then select the
acar_shared database.
The File Selection dialog box appears.
6) Double-click _double_wishbone.tpl.
The Template Name text box now contains the file _double_wishbone.tpl and an alias
to its directory path.
7) Verify that Translate from default position is not selected.

## The Modify Comment dialog box appears.

9) In the Comment Text text box, enter Baseline UAN Front Suspension.

122

## 10) Select OK.

11) Select OK again.
ADAMS/Car creates the suspension subsystem using the default data contained in the
template and displays it as shown next:

## Figure 7.1 Suspension Subsystem

2. To save the suspension subsystem
■ From the File menu, select Save.
ADAMS/Car saves the subsystem in your default writable database, which might be your

123
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

private database.

## 7.2.2 Creating a Suspension and Steering Assembly

In this section, you create a new suspension assembly and add to it a steering subsystem.
To create the suspension and steering assembly:
1) From the File menu, point to New, and then select Suspension Assembly.
The New Suspension Assembly dialog box appears.

## 2) In the Assembly Name text box, enter my_assembly.

3) Click the folder icon next to Suspension Subsystem.
The name of the suspension subsystem you just created appears.
4) Select Steering Subsystem.
5) Right-click the Steering Subsystem text box, point to Search, and then select the
acar_shared database.
The File Selection dialog box appears.
6) Double-click MDI_FRONT_STEERING.sub.
The Steering Subsystem text box now contains MDI_FRONT_STEERING.sub and an
alias to its directory path.
Note that by default ADAMS/Car selects a test rig for the assembly, ._MDI_
SUSPENSION_TESTRIG.
7) Select OK.
The Message window appears, informing you of the steps ADAMS/Car takes when creating
the assembly.
ADAMS/Car displays the suspension and steering assembly in the main window, as shown
in Figure 7.2.

124

## 7.3 Performing a Baseline Parallel Wheel Travel Analysis

You now perform a parallel wheel travel analysis on the suspension and steering assembly,
and then plot and view the results.

## 7.3.1 Defining Vehicle Parameters

Before performing a suspension analysis, you must specify several parameters about the
vehicle in which you intend to use the suspension and steering subsystems. These
parameters include the vehicle’s wheel base and sprung mass, whether or not the suspension
is front- or rear-wheel drive, and the braking ratio. For this analysis, you enter the
parameters to indicate front-wheel drive and a brake ratio of 64% front and 36% rear.
To define vehicle parameters:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Set

125
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

Suspension Parameters.
The Suspension Analysis: Setup Parameters dialog box appears. It contains default settings
2) Set up the analysis as follows:
 Suspension Assembly: my_assembly
 Tire Model: User Defined
 Tire Stiffness: 200
 Wheel Mass: 1.0
 Sprung Mass: 1400
 CG Height: 300
 Wheelbase: 2765
 Drive Ratio: 100
All driving force is applied to the front wheels.
 Brake Ratio: 64
The brake ratio value indicates the % of braking force that is applied to the front
brakes.
3) Select OK.

## 7.3.2 Performing the Analysis

Now that you’ve defined the vehicle parameters, you can run the parallel wheel travel
analysis. During the analysis, the test rig applies forces or displacements, or both, to the
assembly, as defined in a loadcase file. For this analysis, ADAMS/Car generates a
temporary loadcase file based on the inputs you specify.
This parallel wheel travel analysis moves the wheel centers from -100 mm to +100 mm
relative to their input position, while holding the steering fixed. During the wheel motion,
ADAMS/Car calculates many suspension characteristics, such as camber and toe angle,
wheel rate, and roll center height.
To perform the analysis:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Parallel
Wheel Travel.
2) Set up the analysis as follows:
 Suspension Assembly: my_assembly
 Output Prefix: baseline
 Number of Steps: 15
 Mode of Simulation: interactive
 Bump Travel: 100
 Rebound Travel: -100
126

##  Travel Relative To: Wheel Center

 Steering Input: Angle

## 3) Select the Comment tool .

4) In the Comment Text text box, enter Baseline Parallel Wheel Travel Analysis.
5) Select OK.
6) Select OK again.
7) When the analysis is complete, select Close.

## 7.3.3 Animating the Results

animation and graphic files for you.
To animate the results:
1) From the Review menu, select Animation Controls.

## 2) Select the Play tool .

ADAMS/Car animates the motion of the suspension analysis. Notice that the
suspension moves from rebound (down), to bump (up), and that the steering wheel does not
rotate.
3) When the animation is complete, close the dialog box.

## 7.4 Performing a Baseline Pull Analysis

You can now perform a baseline pull analysis to study the pull on the steering wheel. You
will use the results of this pull analysis as the baseline against which you compare the
results of another pull analysis that you perform after you modify the location of the
steering axis. By comparing the results from the two analyses, you can determine if the
modifications were successful.

## 7.4.1 Defining a Loadcase File

Before you can run the baseline pull analysis, you need to create a loadcase file to drive the
analysis. In the loadcase file, you specify the unequal braking forces to simulate braking on

a split-μ surface and the beginning, or upper, and ending, or lower, steering wheel angles.

To calculate the unequal brake forces, we assume that the vehicle is braking at a rate of 0.5
g’s deceleration, with a 64% front and 36% rear brake ratio, a vehicle mass of 1,400 kg, and
the front braking force split 55% left and 45% right. Based on these assumptions, the total
127
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

## front braking force is:

1400 kg × 0.5 g × 9.81 m/s2/g × 0.64 = 4395 N
From this, the left and right braking forces are:
■ Left braking force = 0.55 × 4395 N or 2417 N
■ Right braking force = 4395 N - 2417 N or 1978 N
You can use these calculations to define the loadcase file.
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Create
Note: If Select Loadcase Type is not set to Static Load, your dialog box will look slightly
different. Make sure you select Static Load first, and then proceed to fill in the dialog box.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

database. It stores the loadcase file as text (ASCII) and you can print it or edit it manually.
To create the loadcase file, ADAMS/Car takes the parameters that you entered and
generates a table of input values. For the parameters that you entered, ADAMS/Car
generates a table that varies steering wheel angle from -180 to 180 in 15 steps, while

128

## holding the braking forces constant.

Table 7.1 shows the loadcase file values:
Table 7.1 Loadcase File for Pull Analysis

-180 2417 1978
-156 2417 1978
-132 2417 1978
-108 2417 1978
-84 2417 1978
-60 2417 1978
-36 2417 1978
-12 2417 1978
12 2417 1978
36 2417 1978
60 2417 1978
84 2417 1978
108 2417 1978
132 2417 1978
156 2417 1978
180 2417 1978

## 7.4.2 Performing the Analysis

You can now use the loadcase file that you just created to perform an analysis that
determines the pull characteristics of the suspension and steering assembly.
To perform the pull analysis:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select External
Files.
2) Set up the analysis as follows:
 Suspension Assembly: my_assembly
 Output Prefix: baseline
 Mode of Simulation: interactive
3) Make sure Load Analysis Results is selected.
4) Clear the selection of Create Analysis Log File.

## 5) Select the Comment tool .

129
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

## 6) In the Comment Text text box, enter Baseline Pull Analysis.

7) Select OK.
8) Select OK again.

## 7.4.3 Animating the Results

In this section, you view an animation of the analysis ADAMS/Car just performed.
To animate the results:
1) From the Review menu, select Animation Controls.
2) Select the Play tool.
ADAMS/Car animates the turning motion of the steering subsystem. You should see the
wheels turn as the steering wheel rotates. The wheel centers should not move vertically.
3) Close the Animation Controls dialog box.

## 7.5 Modifying the Suspension and Steering Subsystem

For a double-wishbone suspension, the line running from the lower spherical joint to the
upper spherical joint defines the steering axis or kingpin axis. If these joints move outboard
while the rest of the suspension geometry remains unchanged, the scrub radius is decreased.

In the suspension subsystem that you created, two hardpoint pairs define the locations of
these joints:
 hpl_lca_outer and hpr_lca_outer, where lca_outer means lower control arm outer,
and the prefix hpl means hardpoint left and the prefix hpr means hardpoint right.
 hpl_uca_outer and hpr_uca_outer, where uca_outer means upper control arm outer
and the prefix hpl means hardpoint left and the prefix hpr means hardpoint right.
Hardpoints define independent locations in space.

## 7.5.1 Modifying Hardpoint Locations

You must first display a table that contains data about the current locations that the
hardpoints define. You can then modify the hardpoint locations. You only need to indicate
how you want to move the left hardpoints in each pair, and ADAMS/Car modifies the right
hardpoints accordingly.
To view hardpoint locations:
1) From the View menu, select Subsystem.
The Display Subsystem dialog box appears, already containing the subsystem
my_assembly.UAN_FRT_SUSP.
2) Select OK.
130

3) From the Adjust menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Table.
The Hardpoint Modification Table appears. It displays the locations of all the hardpoints in
the assembly. You can use this table to display and modify the locations of any of the
hardpoints.
The locations of the paired hardpoints differ only by the sign of the Y location. Therefore,
the paired hardpoints are symmetrical about the X-Z plane. With symmetrical hardpoints,
you only need to move one of the hardpoints, not both. If you want, however, you can break
the symmetry and move only one of the hardpoints of a symmetrical pair.
To see the symmetry, select left or right from the bottom of the Hardpoint Modification
Table.
To modify the hardpoints:
1) Click the cell common to hpl_lca_outer and loc_y.
2) Change the existing value to -775. This moves the hardpoint point 25 mm outboard.
3) Scroll the table window down until you see the hardpoint hpl_uca_outer.
4) Click the cell common to hpl_uca_outer and loc_y.
5) Change the existing value to -700. This moves the hardpoint 25 mm outboard.
6) Select Apply.
ADAMS/Car changes the hardpoint locations of the two hardpoints and their symmetrical
right pairs.
7) Close the dialog box.

## In this section, you save the subsystem you just modified.

To save the subsystem:
1) From the File menu, select Save.
Before saving the file, ADAMS/Car asks you if you want to create a backup copy of
the file.
2) Select No. This overwrites the subsystem file in your default writable database.
ADAMS/Car saves the subsystem file that you created.

## 7.6 Performing an Analysis on the Modified Assembly

To determine how the modifications to the suspension subsystem changed the pull on the
steering wheel, you perform a pull analysis on the modified suspension and steering
assembly. You can use the same loadcase file that you created in Defining a Loadcase File.
To perform the analysis:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select External

131
7 Creating and Simulating Suspensions

Files.
The dialog box displays the appropriate loadcase file.
2) In the Output Prefix text box, enter modified.
3) Select the Comment tool.
4) In the Comment Text text box, enter Steering axis moved 25mm outboard.
5) Select OK.
6) Select OK again.
ADAM/Car analyzes the modified suspension and steering assembly.

132

## 8 Template Builder Tutorial

This chapter guides you through the process of building a template, creating a suspension
subsystem based on the template, and then running various analyses on the subsystem. To
build the template, you must use ADAMS/Car Template Builder.
To learn how to create templates, you create a complete MacPherson front suspension
template, as shown in Figure 8.1. You then build a suspension using the template you
created. Finally, you run kinematic and compliant suspension analyses and compare their
results.

## 8.1 Starting ADAMS/Car Template Builder

In this section, you start the ADAMS/Car Template Builder and begin working in
template-builder mode.
Before you start ADAMS/Car Template Builder, make sure that your private configuration
file, .acar.cfg, shows that you can work in expert-user mode. Your private configuration file

133
8 Template Builder Tutorial

## is located in your home directory.

To check the user mode:
1) In a text editor, such as jot or notepad, open .acar.cfg.
2) Verify that the following line appears as shown:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE expert
This line sets the user mode for the ADAMS/Car session.
1) Start ADAMS/Car Standard Interface, just as you did in Starting ADAMS/Car
Standard Interface.

## 8.2 Creating Topology for Your Template

Before you begin to build your template, you must decide what elements are most
appropriate for your model. You must also decide which geometries seem most applicable
to each part or whether you want any geometry at all. Once you’ve decided, you create a
template and create the basic topology for it. Finally, you assemble the model for analysis.

## 8.2.1 Creating a Template

You must create a template in which to build suspension parts. You should assign to your
template a major role as a suspension template, because a major role defines the function
the template serves for the vehicle.
To create a template:
Builder.
2) From the File menu, select New.
The New Template dialog box appears.
3) In the Template Name text box, enter macpherson.
4) Verify that Major Role is set to suspension.
5) Select OK.
A gravity icon appears in the middle of the ADAMS/Car main window as shown in
Figure 18. If you don’t see a gravity icon, display the main shortcut menu by right-clicking
the main window, and selecting Toggle Icon Visibility. You can also toggle the icon
visibility on and off by placing the cursor in the main window and typing a lowercase v.
6) From the main shortcut menu, select Front Iso and Fit - All. Fit your model to view
whenever you create an entity outside the current view.
The ADAMS/Car main window should look as follows:

134

## 8.2.2 Building Suspension Parts

You create parts in ADAMS/Car through a three-step process. First, you create hardpoints
that define key locations on the part. Then, you create the actual part. Finally, if you want,
You can use one of two methods to create parts in ADAMS/Car:
■ User-entered method lets you manually enter mass properties and material type for a
part.
■ Geometry-based method lets you tell ADAMS/Car to automatically create mass
properties using the geometry and material type that you specify.
1. Creating the Control Arm
The first part you define is the control arm. You begin by building its hardpoints. You can
later modify these hardpoints to determine their effects on your vehicle.
Next, you create the control arm part and specify its coordinate system location and mass
properties.
To complete the creation of the control arm, you create geometry for it. You then define key
locations for that geometry so ADAMS/Car can calculate its mass properties. In this tutorial,
whenever you want ADAMS/Car to calculate mass properties, you select steel as the
material type.
When specifying orientations in ADAMS/Car, you can either enter Euler angles or specify
two direction vectors. In this tutorial, you will just use Euler angles with respect to the
global orientation, which is named the origo marker.
To build the hardpoints:
135
8 Template Builder Tutorial

1) From the Build menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select New.
The Create Hardpoint dialog box appears.

## 2) In the Hardpoint Name text box, enter arm_outer.

3) Verify that Type is set to left.
In this tutorial, you set all entities to left. ADAMS/Car automatically creates a
symmetrical pair about the central longitudinal axis.
Note: Depending on how you set up your environment variables, the longitudinal axis can
be any axis. In this tutorial, the longitudinal axis is the x-axis.
4) In the Location text box, enter 0, -700, 0.
5) Select Apply.
ADAMS/Car executes the command, but leaves the Create Hardpoint dialog box open.
6) Repeat Steps 2 through 5 to build the two hardpoints specified in Table 8.1.
Table 8.1 Wheel Carrier Hardpoints

## Hardpoint Name: Location:

Arm_front -150,-350,0
Arm_rear 150,-350,0

7) When you’re done creating the hardpoints, close the dialog box.
8) To see all six hardpoints in the main window, see figure 8.3, fit your model to view.

136

## Figure 8.3 Six hardpoints in the main window

2. To create the control arm part:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select New.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

ADAMS/Car creates a part coordinate system, also referred to as local part reference frame
(LPRF), at the specified location, but it doesn’t create geometry.

137
8 Template Builder Tutorial

## 3. To create the control arm geometry:

1) From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Arm, and then select New.
2) Create the control arm as follows:
 Arm Name: control_arm
 General Part: ._macpherson.gel_control_arm
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_outer
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_front
 Coordinate Reference #3: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_rear
 Thickness: 10
3) Select Calculate Mass Properties of General Part.
4) Set Density to Material.
5) Select OK.
ADAMS/Car displays the control arm part. If you want the control arm to be shaded, put
the cursor in the main window and type an uppercase S. This toggles the rendering mode
Note: Based on the geometry, the option Calculate Mass Properties of General Part
computes the mass properties for the part, and adds that to the total mass of the part. (You
can have more than one geometry associated with a part.)

## 8.2.3 Creating the Wheel Carrier

To create the wheel carrier, you must first create three hardpoints that define the location of
the wheel carrier. You then define the wheel carrier part using these hardpoint locations.
enter parameters that are similar to those you specified for the arm geometry, except that a
link only requires two coordinate reference points to define its geometry.
1. To create the hardpoints:
1) From the Build menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select New.
2) Create the wheel carrier hardpoints as specified in Table 8.2. Remember that you can
select Apply to execute the command but leave the dialog box open, and select OK to
execute the command and then close the dialog box.
Table 8.2 Wheel Carrier Hardpoints

## Hardpoint Name: Location:

Wheel_center 0,-800,100
Strut_lower 0,-650,250
Tierod_outer 150,-650,250

138

3) To display the hardpoints in the main window, toggle the icon visibility and fit your
model to view.
Note: Remember that all these hardpoints are left-side hardpoints.
2. To create the wheel carrier part:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select Wizard.
2) Create the wheel carrier part as follows:
 General Part Name: wheel_carrier
 Geometry Type: Arm
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_wheel_center
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_outer
 Coordinate Reference #3: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_lower
 Thickness: 10
3) Select OK.
The wizard creates both the part and the geometry.
1) From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Link, and then select New.
2) Create the wheel carrier part as follows:
 General Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_lower
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_outer
3) Select Calculate Mass Properties of General Part.
4) Select OK.
The template now includes the wheel carrier part and the link geometry.

## 8.2.4 Creating the Strut

In this section, you create the strut part for your suspension template. Just as you did for the
control arm, you enter the location, orientation, and mass properties for the strut part.
Because the strut geometry would not be visible from inside the damper, you don’t need to
give the strut any geometry.
To define the strut part:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select New.
2) Define the strut part as follows:
 General Part: strut
 Location values: 0, -600, 600
 Euler Angles: 0, 0, 0
 Mass/Ixx/Iyy/Izz: 1
139
8 Template Builder Tutorial

3) Select OK.

## 8.2.5 Creating the Damper

You first create a hardpoint and then use it to define the damper. You then create a damper
that is defined by a property file that we provide for you. Property files define
force-displacement or force-velocity characteristics for springs, dampers, bumpstops,
reboundstops, and bushings. In this case, the property file defines the damper’s
force-velocity curve.
1. To create a hardpoint:
1) Create a hardpoint as follows:
 Hardpoint Name: strut_upper
 Location: 0, -600, 600
2) Select OK.
2. To create the damper:
1) From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Damper, and then select New.
2) Create the damper as follows:
 Damper Name: damper
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 J Part: ._macpherson.gel_strut
 I Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_lower
 J Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_upper
3) Select OK.

## 8.2.6 Defining the Spring

Before you define the spring, you have to create a hardpoint that defines the position of the
lower spring seat. Then, to define the spring, you must specify the following:
 Two bodies between which you want the force to act.
 Specific location on each body where you want the force to act.
 Installed length of the spring, which will be used to derive the design preload on the
spring.
 Property file, which contains the free length information, as well as the
force/deflection characteristics.
ADAMS/Car calculates the force exerted by the spring using the following equations:
C = FL - IL + DM(i,j)
Force = -k(C - DM(i,j))
where:
 C is a constant.

140

##  FL is the free length of the spring, as defined in the property file.

 IL is the defined installed length.
 DM(i,j) is the initial displacement between the i and j coordinate reference points. If
you enter a smaller value for DM(i,j), ADAMS/Car calculates an increased preload
for the spring. Conversely, if you enter a larger value, ADAMS/Car calculates a
automatically calculates for you.
 DM(i,j) is the change in the displacement between the i and j coordinate reference
points as the simulation progresses.
 Force represents the spring force.
 k is the nonlinear spring stiffness derived from the property file.
1. To create a hardpoint for the spring:
1) Create a hardpoint as follows:
 Hardpoint Name: spring_lower
 Location: 0, -650, 300
2) Select OK.
2. To create the spring:
1) From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Spring, and then select New.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

## 8.2.7 Creating the Tie Rod

You first create a hardpoint and then use it to define the tie rod part.
1. To create a hardpoint:
1) Create a hardpoint with the following specifications:
141
8 Template Builder Tutorial

##  Hardpoint Name: tierod_inner

 Location: 200, -350, 250
2) Select OK.
2. To create the tie rod part:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select Wizard.
2) Create the tie rod part as follows:
 General Part Name: tierod
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_outer
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_inner
3) Select OK.
The template now includes the tie rod part.

## 8.2.8 Creating the Toe and Camber Variables

You create variables defining toe and camber angles. Because these variables are commonly
used for suspension analyses, ADAMS/Car creates both of them in one step.
1. To create toe and camber variables:
1) From the Build menu, point to Suspension Parameters, point to Toe/Camber Values,
and then select Set.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

## 8.2.9 Creating the Hub

Before you create the hub part for your template, you must create a construction frame.
Construction frames are ADAMS/Car elements that you use whenever an entity requires
that you specify an orientation in addition to a location.
You create the hub based on the construction frame, and then create geometry for the hub.
1. To create a construction frame:
1) From the Build menu, point to Construction Frame, and then select New.
2) Create a construction frame as follows:

142

##  Construction Frame: hub_bearing

 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_wheel_center
 Orientation Dependency: Toe/Camber
 Toe Parameter Variable: ._macpherson.pvl_toe_angle
 Camber Parameter Variable: ._macpherson.pvl_camber_angle
3) Select OK.
2. To create the hub part:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select New.
2) Create the hub part as follows:
 General Part: hub
 Location Dependency: Delta location from coordinate
 Coordinate Reference: cfl_hub_bearing
 Location values: 0, 0, 0
 Orientation Dependency: Delta orientation from coordinate
 Construction Frame: cfl_hub_bearing
 Orientation: 0, 0, 0
 Mass/Ixx/Iyy/Izz: 1
3) Select OK.
3. To create cylinder geometry for the hub:
1) From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Cylinder, and then select New.
2) Create the cylinder geometry as follows:
 Cylinder Name: hub
 General Part: ._macpherson.gel_hub
 Construction Frame: ._macpherson.ground.cfl_hub_bearing
 Length in Positive Z: 30
 Length in Negative Z: 0
 Color: magenta
3) Select Calculate Mass Properties of General Part.
4) Select OK.
The template now includes the hub.

## 8.2.10 Creating and Defining Attachments and Parameters

Now that you created all the ADAMS/Car parts, springs, and dampers, you are ready to
define attachments and parameters.
1. Defining the Translational Joint
1) From the Build menu, point to Attachments, point to Joint, and then select New.
2) Create the translational joint as follows:
143
8 Template Builder Tutorial

##  Joint Name: strut_joint

 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 J Part: ._macpherson.gel_strut
 Joint Type: translational
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_upper
 Orientation Dependency: Orient axis along line
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_lower
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_upper
3) Select OK.
2. Defining Control Arm Attachments
To create the mount parts:
1) From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Mount, and then select New.
2) In the Mount Name text box, enter subframe_to_body.
3) In the Coordinate Reference text box, enter ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_front.
4) Verify that From Minor Role is set to inherit.
5) Select OK.
ADAMS/Car creates fixed joints between the mount parts and ground. By default, the
visibility of the fixed joints is turned off.
To create the front bushing for the control arm:
1) From the Build menu, point to Attachments, point to Bushing, and then select New.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown in figure 8.4, and then select Apply.
To create the control arm revolute joint:
1) Create the control arm revolute joint as follows:
 Joint Name: arm_front
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_control_arm
 J Part: ._macpherson.mtl_subframe_to_body
 Joint Type: revolute
 Active: kinematic mode
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_front
 Orientation Dependency: Orient axis along line
 Coordinate Reference #1: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_front
 Coordinate Reference #2: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_rear
2) Select Apply.
To create the control arm spherical joint:
1) Create the control arm spherical joint as follows:
 Joint Name: arm_outer
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 J Part: ._macpherson.gel_control_arm

144

##  Joint Type: spherical

 Active: always
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_arm_outer
2) Select OK.

## Figure 8.4 Create bushing Attachment dialog box

3. Defining the Strut Attachment
Before you define the strut attachments to the vehicle body, you must define a mount part
for the strut. You then create a bushing for the strut. Next, you create a spherical joint to
replace the strut mount bushing during kinematic analyses.
To define a mount part:
1) Create a mount part as follows:

145
8 Template Builder Tutorial

##  Mount Name: strut_to_body

 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_upper
 From Minor Role: inherit
2) Select OK.
To create a bushing for the strut:
Create the bushing as shown next, and then select OK.

## To create a spherical joint for the strut:

1) Create the spherical joint as follows:
 Joint Name: strut_upper
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_strut
 J Part: ._macpherson.mtl_strut_to_body

146

##  Joint Type: spherical

 Active: kinematic mode
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_strut_upper
2) Select Apply.
4. Defining Wheel Carrier Attachments
In this section, you define a spherical joint between the wheel carrier and the tie rod. You
then define the mount part that connects the suspension to the steering rack during assembly.
Finally, you create a hooke joint between the tie rod and the steering rack.
To create a spherical joint:
1) Create the spherical joint as follows:
 Joint Name: tierod_outer
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 J Part: ._macpherson.gel_tierod
 Joint Type: spherical
 Active: always
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_outer
2) Select OK.
To create a mount part for the hooke joint:
1) Create a mount part as follows:
 Mount Name: tierod_to_steering
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_inner
 From Minor Role: inherit
2) Select OK.
To create a hooke joint:
1) Create a hooke joint as follows:
 Joint Name: tierod_inner
 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_tierod
 J Part: ._macpherson.mtl_tierod_to_steering
 Joint Type: hooke
 Active: always
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_inner
 I-Part Axis: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_tierod_outer
 J-Part Axis: ._macpherson.ground.hpr_tierod_inner
2) Select Apply.
5. Defining Hub Attachments
You can now define the hub bearing revolute joint between the wheel carrier and the hub.
To define the hub attachment:
1) Create a revolute joint as follows:

147
8 Template Builder Tutorial

##  Joint Name: hub_bearing

 I Part: ._macpherson.gel_wheel_carrier
 J Part: ._macpherson.gel_hub
 Joint Type: revolute
 Active: always
 Coordinate Reference: ._macpherson.ground.hpl_wheel_center
 Orientation Dependency: Delta orientation from coordinate
 Construction Frame: ._macpherson.ground.cfl_hub_bearing
2) Select OK.
6. Defining Suspension Parameters
You create a steering axis using the geometric method for calculating steer axes. When
using the geometric method, ADAMS/Car calculates the steer axis by passing a line through
two non-coincident hardpoints located on the steer axis. To use the geometric method, you
must identify the part(s) and two hardpoints that fix the steer axis.
To create a steer axis:
1) From the Build menu, point to Suspension Parameters, point to Characteristic
Array, and then select Set.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

## 8.3 Creating a Suspension Subsystem

In this section, you create an ADAMS/Car suspension subsystem that is based on the
template you just built. You also modify some hardpoints and translate the subsystem to
ensure that ADAMS/Car correctly positions the subsystem within the assembly.
To create a subsystem:
1) From the File menu, point to New, and then select Subsystem.
148

2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

## ADAMS/Car displays the following message: The template _macpherson exists in

memory. Do you want to use it?
3) Select Yes.

To modify hardpoints:
1) From the Adjust menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Table.
2) Modify the hardpoint values to match those listed in Table 8.3:

149
8 Template Builder Tutorial

## Name: loc_x: loc_y: loc_z:

Hpl_arm_front -200 -400 225
Hpl_arm_rear 200 -390 240
Hpl_tierod_inner 200 -400 300
Hpl_tierod_outer 150 -690 300

3) Select Apply.
4) Select Cancel.
To save the subsystem:
■ From the File menu, select Save.

150

## 9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles

This chapter teaches you how to create a full-vehicle assembly, run different types of
analyses, and view the results.

## 9.1 A Full-Vehicle Assembly

Using ADAMS/Car, you can group separate subsystems and test rigs into an assembly. This
grouping simplifies the opening and saving of subsystems.
In this section, you open an assembly that contains the subsystems for the full vehicle that
you are going to analyze. The assembly we’ve provided for you contains various
subsystems that ADAMS/Car requires to perform steering maneuvers, acceleration
maneuvers, and so on. Full-vehicle assemblies contain the following:
 Front/rear suspensions
 Steering subsystem
 Powertrain
 Brake subsystem
 Front/rear tires
 Rigid chassis
By default, ADAMS/Car includes a vehicle test rig in the assembly.
1. To open an assembly:
1) From the File menu, point to Open, and then select Assembly.
2) Right-click the Assembly Name text box, point to Search, and then select the
acar_shared database.
3) Double-click MDI_Demo_Vehicle.asy.
4) Select OK.
The Message window appears, informing you that ADAMS/Car is opening the
assembly.
ADAMS/Car displays the full-vehicle assembly, which should look similar to the one
shown in Figure 21.
2. To create the Full-Vehicle assembly:
1) From the File menu, point to New, and then select Full-Vehicle Assembly.
The New Full-Vehicle Assembly dialog box appears.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

151
9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles

## After you create the full-vehicle assembly, you do the following:

 To quantify how the vehicle responds to steering inputs, you perform a single
lane-change (open-loop) analysis on the vehicle. A single lane-change analysis
controls the steering subsystem and simulates a simple lane-change maneuver with
the set of parameters you enter when you submit the analysis.
 To evaluate the vehicle’s understeer and oversteer characteristics, you run a constant

152

 To drive the vehicle through a lane-change course as described in ISO-3888, you run
an ISO lane-change analysis.
 After you run each analysis, you animate and plot its results.

## 9.2 Performing a Single Lane-Change Analysis

Now that you opened a full-vehicle assembly, you can submit a single lane-change analysis.
1. Setting Up the Analysis
You can now specify the inputs for the full-vehicle analysis and perform a single
lanechange maneuver. A single lane-change maneuver indicates that the steering input goes
through a complete sine cycle in the amount of time you specify as the maximum steer
value parameter.
To set up the analysis:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop
Steering Events, and then select Single Lane Change.
2) Fill in the dialog box as shown next, and then select OK.

## Represent the duration and

the resolution of the analysis

## 3) When the analysis is complete, select Close.

You are now ready to animate and plot the results.
153
9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles

## 2. Animating the Results

analysis results files for you.
1) From the Review menu, select Animation Controls.
2) Select the Play tool .
3) If you want the vehicle to always be in the center of the screen, do the following:
 Toggle Fixed Base to Base Part.
 Right-click the text box under Base Part, point to Body, and then select Browse.
The Database Navigator appears.
 From the list under MDI_Demo_Vehicle, double-click TR_Body, and then
double-click ges_chassis.
4) If you want to see the path the vehicle takes, do the following:
 Toggle No Trace to Trace Marker.
 Right-click the text box under Trace Marker, point to Marker, and then select
Browse.
The Database Navigator appears.
 Double-click TR_BODY.
 Double-click ges_chassis.
 Double-click cm.
5) To run another animation with either of the options presented in Steps 3 or 4, select the
Play tool.
6) To return the assembly to its initial configuration, select the Reset tool .
3. Plotting the Results
In this section, you create two plots that represent the following:
 Vehicle lateral acceleration as a function of time
 Roll angle of the vehicle as a function of the lateral acceleration
To create a plot of the lateral acceleration with respect to time:
1) From the Review menu, select Postprocessing Window.
2) Verify that Source is set to Requests.
3) From the Simulation list, select fveh_test_sin.
4) From the Filter list, select user defined.
5) From the Request list, select chassis_accelerations. You might have to scroll to see
this option.
6) From the Component list, select lateral.
7) Set the Independent Axis to Time.
ADAMS/PostProcessor displays the plot you requested, as shown next:

154

## Figure 9.1 Plot of Lateral Acceleration versus Time

Note: Although the y-axis shows NO UNITS, acceleration is expressed in Gs.

## To set up the analysis:

1) From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop
Steering Events, and then select Step Steer.
2) Set up the analysis as follows:
 Full-Vehicle Assembly: fveh_assy
 Output Prefix: tst
 End Time: 4
 Number of Steps: 100
 Initial Velocity: 70 (take the default of km/hr)
 Gear Position: 3
 Initial Steer Value: 0
 Final Steer Value: -45
 Step Start Time: 1
 Duration of Step: 1
 Steering Input: Angle
3) Keep the defaults for Cruise Control (off) and Quasi-Static Straight Line Setup (on).
4) Select Apply, so the dialog box stays open for the analysis you will run in the next
section.
The SDI test rig applies to the assembly the inputs you specified and performs a dynamic
analysis.

155
9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles

## 9.4 Performing a Quasi-Static Steady-State Cornering Analysis

You use an Steady-State Cornering (SSC) analysis to evaluate your full vehicle’s understeer
and oversteer characteristics. The SSC analysis holds the turn radius constant and varies the
vehicle velocity to produce increasing amounts of lateral acceleration. A control subroutine,
CONSUB, controls the analysis and balances all the forces on the body and applies a lateral
acceleration to all model parts.
You can now specify the inputs for the full-vehicle analysis and perform a quasi-static
maneuver.
To set up the analysis:
1) From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Quasi-Static
Maneuvers, and then select Constant Radius Cornering.
2) Run an analysis with the following specifications:
 Output Prefix: ssc1
 Number of Steps: 30
 Final Lateral Accel: .9
 Make sure you set the units pull-down menu for the turn radius to m.
3) Select OK.
ADAMS/Car updates the properties of force entities such as dampers, springs, and bushings,
with the values specified in their property files and sets up the vehicle assembly for the
maneuver.
The number of steps for the output is directly related to the acceleration increment (that is,
acceleration increment = final lateral acceleration / number of steps). ADAMS/Car
performs a static analysis at each lateral acceleration increment. When the vehicle reaches
the specified final lateral acceleration, the maneuver ends automatically.

## 9.5 Performing a Baseline ISO Lane-Change Analysis

You now perform a baseline ISO lane-change analysis on the new assembly and then plot
and view the results. You then modify the spring and analyze the assembly again.
In an ISO lane-change analysis, the Driving Machine drives your full vehicle through a
lane-change course as described in ISO-3888: Double Lane Change. You specify the gear
position and the desired speed at which to perform the lane change. The analysis stops after
the vehicle travels 250 meters; therefore, the time to complete the return maneuver depends
on the speed that you input.
To set up the analysis:
156

1) From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Course Events,
and then select ISO Lane Change.
2) Set up the analysis with the following characteristics:
 Output Prefix: iso1
 Initial Velocity: 100
 Gear Position: 3
3) Select OK.

## 9.6 Modifying the Full-Vehicle Assembly

To change the roll angle versus lateral acceleration vehicle characteristic, modify the spring
by creating and assigning a new property file.
After you create a spring property file, assign the
newly created property file to the front and rear springs.
1. To create a new spring property file:
1) From the Tools menu, select Curve Manager.
2) From the File menu, select New.
3) Verify that Type is set to spring.
4) Select OK.
ADAMS/Car generates a plot of the spring displacement
versus force characteristic in the plot window of the Curve
Manager.
5) In the Slope text box, enter 225.
6) Make sure the extension/compressions limits are set to
-100, 100.
7) Select Apply.
8) In the Free Length text box, enter 300.
9) Select Apply.
10) From the File menu, select Save.
11) In the File text box, enter my_spring.
12) Select OK.
13) Close the Curve Manager.
ADAMS/Car returns to the main window.
2. To modify the springs:
1) In the model, right-click the front spring, ns[lr]_ride_spring, and then select Modify.
The Modify Spring dialog box loads the spring parameters in the text boxes.
2) Right-click the Property File text box and, from your default writable database, select
157
9 Creating and Simulating Full Vehicles

my_spring.spr.
3) Replace Installed Length with Preload.
4) Enter a Preload of 5500.
5) Select Apply.
ADAMS/Car assigns the new property file to the spring.
6) Repeat Steps 1 through 4 for the rear springs.
7) Select OK.

158

## APPENDIX A: ADAMS/View keyboard shortcuts

This appendix shows the keyboard shortcuts for ADAMS/View. Keyboard shortcuts are key
combinations that access commands quickly. When you enter a keyboard shortcut, the focus
must be in the main window except when entering a keyboard shortcut that works in dialog
boxes.
File Operations
Table 1. File Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Create a new modeling database Ctrl +n

Open an existing modeling database Ctrl + o
Save the current modeling database Ctrl + s
Print Ctrl + p
Exit Ctrl + q

Edit Operations
Table 2. Edit Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Undo the last operation Ctrl + z

Redo the last undone operation Ctrl + Shift + z
Copy objects Ctrl + c
Paste text in text boxes in dialog boxes and as comments Ctrl + v
Cut text from text boxes in dialog boxes Ctrl + x
Quickly clear text from text boxes Left-click at the
start of the text box,
and then press
Ctrl+k or Ctrl-K
Delete selected object del
Modify object Ctrl + e
Escape operation Esc

159

Display Operations
Table 3. Display Operation Shortcuts

To display: Select:
Command window F3
Coordinate window F4
Dialog Box Builder F6
Working grid g
Help window F1

Viewing Operations
Table 4. Viewing Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Rotate view in the XY directions r

Rotate view in the Z direction s (lowercase)
Translate view t
Change perspective depth d
Dynamically zoom view z
Use dynamic increment Shift
Define a zoom area w
Center view c
Orient view to object e
Fit view f
Fit view – no ground Ctrl + F
Orient view to front F
Orient view to right R
Orient view to top T
Orient view to isometric I
Toggle render mode between wireframe and shaded S (uppercase)
Toggle screen icons on and off v

160

Drawing Operations
Table 5. Drawing Operation Shortcuts

## To: Select and hold:

Turn off snapping to geometry Ctrl
Turn off highlighting of geometry during selection Ctrl

161

## APPENDIX B: ADAMS/Car keyboard shortcuts

This section shows the keyboard shortcuts for ADAMS/Car. Keyboard shortcuts are key
combinations that access commands quickly. When you enter a keyboard shortcut, the focus
must be in the main window, except when entering a keyboard shortcut that works in dialog
boxes.

File Operations
Table 1. File Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Create a new template (in Template Builder) Ctrl +n

Open an existing assembly (in Standard Interface) or Ctrl + o
template (in Template Builder)
Open a subsystem (in Standard Interface) Ctrl + u
Save the current template (in Template Builder) Ctrl + s
Print Ctrl + p
Select file F2
Exit Ctrl + q

Edit Operations
Table 2. Edit Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Undo the last operation Ctrl + z

Redo the last undone operation Ctrl + Shift + z
Copy text in text boxes in dialog boxes Ctrl + c
Paste text in text boxes in dialog boxes and as comments Ctrl + v
Cut text from text boxes in dialog boxes Ctrl + x
Delete selected object Ctrl + x
Modify selected object; if no object is selected, Ctrl + e
Escape operation Esc

162

Display Operations
Table 3. Display Operation Shortcuts

To display: Select:

Command window F3
Coordinate window F4
Working grid g
Plotting window (in Standard Interface) F8
Help window F1
Standard Interface/Template Builder F9
Viewing Operations
Table 4. Viewing Operation Shortcuts

To: Select:

## Rotate view in the XY directions r

Rotate view in the Z direction s (lowercase)
Translate view t
Change perspective depth d
Dynamically zoom view z
Use dynamic increment; use this shortcut in conjunction with Shift
the above five shortcuts to increment the view. For example,
press r to rotate, and then press Shift to rotate incrementally.
Define a zoom area w
Center view c
Orient view to object e
Fit view f
Orient view to front F
Orient view to right R
Orient view to left L
Orient view to top T
Orient view to isometric I
Orient view to plan P
Toggle render mode between wireframe and shaded S (uppercase)
Toggle screen icons on and off v

163
REFERENCES

REFERENCES

3 Mechanical Dynamics Inc. Getting Started Using ADAMS/Controls
4 Mechanical Dynamics Inc. Using ADAMS/Driver