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PUBLICIYT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
MISSION MONEY MASSAGE MEDIA MEASUREMENT TO SALES PERSONS TO MIDDIL MAN TO CUSTOMER
PROSPECATING PRE APPROACH APROACH PRESENTATION OBJECATION HADLING CLOSING FOLLOW UP
DIRECT MAIL TELEMARKETIN G TELESHOPING INTERNET MARKETING
POSITIVE NEWS IN MEDIA COMMUNITY ACTIVITY SPONSOR SHIP OF EVENTS
A COMPREHENSIVE STRUCTURE OF MARKETING MIX
Module I MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Marketing communications The marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers, directly or indirectly, about the products and brands they sell. The concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its products. IMC implementation often requires the hiring of a Mar Com manager. “is the coordination and integration of all marketing communications tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless program that maximizes the impact on consumer and other end users at a minimal cost.” Clow and Baack, 2004, p.8
Integrated Marketing Communication Indroduction. The shift from mass marketing to targeted marketing, with its corresponding use of a richer mixture of communication channels and promotion tools, poses a problem for marketers. Consumers are being exposed to a greater variety of marketing communications from and about the company from an array of sources. However, customers don’t distinguish between message sources the way marketers do. In the consumer’s mind, advertising messages from different media—such as television, magazines, or online sources—blur into one. Messages delivered via different promotional approaches—such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, or direct marketing—all become part of a single message about the company. Conflicting messages from these different sources can result in confused company images and brand positions.
The Need for Integrated Marketing Communications Conflicting messages from different sources or promotional approaches can confuse company or brand images • The problem is particularly prevalent when functional specialists handle individual forms of marketing communications independently
The Web alone cannot be used to build brands; brand awareness potential is limited Best bet is to wed traditional branding efforts with the interactivity and service capabilities of online communications Web efforts can enhance relationships
Steps in Developing Effective Communications • • • • • • • Identify target audience Determine objectives Design communications Select channels Establish budget Decide on media mix Measure results/manage IMC
Developing Effective Communication Step 1: Identifying the Target Audience Affects decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it Step 2: Determining Communication Objectives Six buyer readiness stages Buyer-Readiness Stages • Awareness • Knowledge • Liking • Preference • Conviction • Purchase Step 3: Designing a Message AIDA framework guides message design Message content contains appeals or themes designed to produce desired results Rational appeals
Emotional appeals Love, pride, joy, humor, fear, guilt, shame Moral appeals Message Structure: Key decisions are required with respect to three message structure issues: Whether or not to draw a conclusion One-sided vs. two-sided argument Order of argument presentation Message Format: Design, layout, copy, color, shape, movement, words, sounds, voice, body language, dress, etc.
Message Content Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals Moral Appeals Message Structure Draw Conclusions Argument Type Argument OrderMoral Appeals Desire
Message Format Headline, Copy, Color, Words, & Sounds, Body Language ActionAppeals Moral
Step 4: Choosing Media Personal communication channels Includes face-to-face, phone, mail, and Internet chat communications Word-of-mouth influence is often critical Buzz marketing cultivates opinion leaders Non personal communication channels Includes media, atmosphere, and events
Step 5: Selecting the Message Source Highly credible sources are more persuasive A poor spokesperson can tarnish a brand
Step 6: Collecting Feedback Recognition, recall, and behavioral measures are assessed May suggest changes in product/promotion
Communications Objectives • Category need • Brand awareness • Brand attitude • Purchase intention
Designing the Communications • Message strategy • Creative strategy • Message source • Global adaptation Creative Strategy • Informational and transformational appeals • Positive and negative appeals • Fear • Guilt • Shame • Humor • Love • Pride • Joy Message Source Celebrity Characteristics • Expertise • Trustworthiness • Likeability Select Communication Channels • Personal channels • Non personal channels • Integration of channels Personal Communications Channels • Advocate channels • Expert channels • Social channels Non Personal Communication Channels • Media • Sales promotion • Events and experiences • Public relations Modes Of Marketing Communications • Advertising • Sales promotion • Events and experiences • Public relations and publicity • Direct marketing • Interactive marketing • Word-of-mouth marketing • Personal selling Communication Platforms Advertising • Print and broadcast ads • Packaging inserts • Motion pictures • Brochures and booklets • Posters • Billboards
• • • POP displays Logos Videotapes Sales Promotion • Contests. sweepstakes • Premiums • Sampling • Trade shows. games. exhibits • Coupons Events/ Experiences • Sports • Entertainment • Festivals • Art • Causes • Factory tours • Company museums • Street activities • Rebates • Entertainment • Continuity programs Public Relations • Press kits • Speeches • Seminars • Annual reports • Charitable donations • Publications • Community relations • Lobbying • Identity media Personal Selling • Sales presentations • Sales meetings • Incentive programs • Samples • Fairs and trade shows Direct Marketing • Catalogs • Mailings • Telemarketing • Electronic shopping • TV shopping • Fax mail • E-mail • Voice mail • Blogs • Websites 23 .
personal selling. Modify. or Reinforce Attitudes Develop Sales Leads Stimulate Interest Establish Understanding Build Support & Acceptance Marketing Communications Mix The specific mix of advertising. causing marketers to shift away from mass marketing • Media fragmentation is increasing as well in information technology are facilitating Improvements segmentation Factors In Setting Communications Mix • Type of product market • Buyer readiness stage • Product life cycle stage Establish the Budget • • Affordable Percentage-of-sales 23 . The Marketing Communications Environment is Changing Mass markets have fragmented. sales promotion. and public relations a company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing objectives.Word-of-Mouth Marketing • Person-to-person • Chat rooms • Blogs Module II CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING COMMUNICATION Marketing Communications Objectives • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Increase Market Penetration Develop Repeat Purchase Behavior Establish Customer Relationships Increase Rate of Consumption Encourage Product Trial Stimulate Impulse Buying Stimulate Demand Differentiate the Product Establish a Product Image Influence Sales Volume Establish.
23 . then summed to create the promotional budget Setting the Overall Promotion Mix Determined by the nature of each promotion tool and the selected promotion mix strategy • • PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Elements in the Communication Process • Sender • Message • Media • Receiver • Encoding • Decoding • Response • Feedback • Noise Sender: The party sending the message to another party—here. HewlettPackard.• • Competitive parity Objective-and-task Setting the Promotional Budget And Mix Setting the Total Promotional Budget Affordability Method Budget is set at a level that a company can afford Percentage-of-Sales Method Past or forecasted sales may be used Competitive-Parity Method Budget matches competitors’ outlays Setting the Total Promotional Budget Objective-and-Task Method Specific objectives are defined Tasks required to achieve objectives are determined Costs of performing tasks are estimated. Message: The set of symbols that the sender transmits—the actual HP multifunction machine ad. Encoding: The process of putting thought into symbolic form—HP’s advertising agency assembles words and illustrations into an advertisement that will convey the intended message.
which results in the receiver’s getting a different message than the one the sender sent—the consumer is distracted while reading the magazine and misses the HP ad or its key points. The communication process begins with an audit of all potential contacts. or does nothing. Noise: The unplanned static or distortion during the communication process. Effective communication requires knowledge of how communication works. Response: The reactions of the receiver after being exposed to the message—any of hundreds of possible responses. Feedback: The part of the receiver’s response communicated back to the sender—HP research shows that consumers are struck by and remember the ad. or consumers write or call HP praising or criticizing the ad or HP’s products. Decoding: The process by which the receiver assigns meaning to the symbols encoded by the sender—a consumer reads the HP multifunction machine ad and interprets the words and illustrations it contains. actually buys an HP multifunction machine. 23 . the specific magazines that HP selects. such as the consumer is more aware of the attributes of HP multifunction machines. Receiver: The party receiving the message sent by another party—the home office or business customer who reads the HP multifunction machine ad. The • • • Communications Process Selective attention Selective distortion Selective retention Communications efforts should be viewed from the perspective of managing customer relationships over time.Media: The communication channels through which the message moves from sender to receiver—in this case.
Schramm incorporates the study of human behavior in the communication process. Schramm has included these concepts: • Feedback .Noise Sende r Encodi ng Messa ge Messa ge Chann el Messa ge Chann el Decodi ng Messa ge Receiv er Schramm's Model of Communication Wilbur L. In addition to the six elements above. Schramm envisioned this process as a two-way circular communication between the sender and receiver. 23 . His model is a derivation of the Shannon-Weaver transmission model of communication. Where the Shannon-Weaver model is a more mathematical and technological one. Schramm was a forefather in the development of a basic model of communication. The Shannon-Weaver model proposed six elements of communication: • • • • • • source encoder message channel decoder receiver Wilbur Schramm's 1954 model expands on this thinking by emphasizing the process of encoding and decoding the message.information that comes back from the receiver to the sender and tells him how well he is doing.
Diagram of Schramm's feedback loop Diagram of Schramm's field of experience Dr. accents. Schramm suggests that the message can be complicated by different meanings learned by different people. Other characteristics of messages that impact communication between two individuals are: intonations and pitch patterns. facial expressions. Connotative meanings are emotional or evaluative and based on personal experience. 23 . Meanings can be denotative or connotative. Denotative meanings are common or dictionary meanings and can be roughly the same for most people. quality of voice. A message can also have surface and latent meanings.
This model provides the rationale to solve the problem presented in this project. 1963. sirens. Others are only moderately direct. even though the feedback may be delayed. or shift your body position when you think it’s your turn to talk. etc. etc. Strengths Schramm provided the additional notion of a “field of experience.Some of these methods of communication are very direct.) and semantic (distractions. all of these elements of Wilbur Schramm's communication model are useful in addressing problems with conducting a reference interview. Still other kinds of feedback are completely indirect. two-way.” or the psychological frame of reference. Schramm's model of communication also allows for the process of interpreting the message.) noise. Within a library. pg. this refers to the type of orientation or attitudes which interactants maintain toward each other. For example. wrinkle your nose and scratch your head when a message is too abstract. Included Feedback Communication is reciprocal. This process is influenced by the presence of both physical (phone. The successful transmission of a message depends on whether this message will be accepted over all the competing messages. tv. as when you talk in direct response to someone. attitudes. 14). age. you might squirm when a speaker drones on and on. Schramm believed that all of these elements were important functions of communication in society.and gestures. Dr. Most importantly we need "places to store the accumulated knowledge and wisdom of a society and this is why we have libraries" (Schramm. 23 . He felt that people in a society need information on their environment and methods of communicating in order to make decisions.
depending upon the specific context or setting. teachers measure their abilities to get the material across in a particular course by seeing how many students sign up for it the next term. while less linear.politicians discover if they’re getting their message across by the number of votes cast on the first Tuesday in November. 1970). theoretical 23 . The complex. still accounts for only bilateral communication between two parties. 1953). Weaknesses Schramm’s model.” (Mysak. Shouting “Fire!” on a rifle range produces one set of reactions-reactions quite different from those produced in a crowded theater. Lowery and DeFleur argue the book was much more than a simple research report: it was an effort to interpret the authors' research within a framework of conceptual schemes. and from them to a wider population. Included Culture A message may have different meanings associated with it depending upon the culture or society. “co-orientation” (Newcomb. It was first introduced by sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld et al. thus. Two-step flow of communication The two-step flow of communication model hypothesizes that ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders. Included Context A message may have different meanings. Communication systems. operate within the confines of cultural rules and expectations to which we all have been educated. in 1944 and elaborated by Elihu Katz and Lazarsfeld in 1955 and subsequent publications. 1953). Other model designers abstracted the dualistic aspects of communication as a series of “loops. commercial sponsors examine sales figures to gauge their communicative effectiveness in ads. “speech cycles” (Johnson. multiple levels of communication between several sources is beyond this model. and overlapping “psychological fields” (Fearing. 1953).
explain and diffuse the content to others. The two-step theory refined the ability to predict how media messages influence audience behavior and explains why certain media campaigns do not alter audiences’ attitudes. The people with most access to media. Furthermore.issues. critics 23  Unlike the hypodermic needle model. the two-step flow model stresses human . and research findings drawn broadly from the scientific study of small groups agency. and having a more literate understanding of media content. These leaders tend to influence others to change their attitudes and behaviors. According to Lazarsfeld and Katz. mass media information is channeled to the "masses" through opinion leadership. the term “personal influence” came to illustrate the process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s reaction to that message. Similarly. the two-step hypothesis does not adequately describe the flow of learning. Everett Rogers’ “Diffusion of Innovations” cites one study in which two-thirds of respondents accredited their awareness to the mass media rather than face-to-face communication. They find substantial evidence that initial mass media information flows directly to people on the whole and is not relayed by opinion leaders. “we would urge that the KatzLazarsfeld two-stage flow hypothesis. Findings from Deutschmann and Danielson assert. Opinion leaders tend to be similar to those they influence—based on personality. This hypothesis provided a basis for the multi-step flow theory of mass communication. be applied to mass communication with caution”. which considers mass media effects to be direct. or socio-economic factors. demographics. interests. as a description of the initial information process. Criticisms The original two-step flow hypothesis—that ideas flow from the media to opinion leaders and then to less active sections of the population —has been criticized and negated by myriad consequent studies. Based on the two-step flow hypothesis.
The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. However. This person will then seek advice from their opinion leader. Experience can clash with expectations. These findings also realize opinion leaders decisive role in the balance theory. with buyer's remorse following the purchase of an expensive item. This bias gives dissonance theory its 23 . as. Troldahl finds that media exposure is a first step to introduce discussion. In a state of dissonance. Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. at which point opinion leaders initiate the second-step flow. If a person is exposed to new observations that are inconsistent with present beliefs. blaming.  Dissonance is also reduced by justifying. and denying. which suggests that people are motivated to keep consistency among their current beliefs and opinions. guilt. to provide them with additional cognitions to bring them back into balance. anger. People are biased to think of their choices as correct. despite any contrary evidence. and actions. beliefs. Lazarsfeld’s two-step hypothesis is an adequate description to understand the media’s influence on belief and behavior. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. They do this by changing their attitudes. he or she is thrown into imbalance. dread.argue that most of Lazarsfeld’s findings pertain to learning factors involved with general media habits rather than the learning of particular information. for example. or embarrassment. Both findings suggest a greater prevalence of a one-step flow of communication. people may feel surprise.
shedding light on otherwise puzzling irrational and destructive behavior. when we are acting in a way that is inconsistent with our beliefs/attitudes/opinions. as they must not be ripe or that they are sour. according to the theory. he surmises that the grapes are probably not worth eating. A classical example of this idea (and the origin of the expression "sour grapes") is expressed in the fable The Fox and the Grapes by Aesop (ca. When the fox is unable to think of a way to reach them.predictive power. whether we like it or not. For example. a fox sees some high-hanging grapes and wishes to eat them. This example follows a pattern: one desires something. if you have a belief that it is wrong to cheat. you will notice and be affected by this inconsistency. 3. and reduces one's dissonance by criticizing it. Humans are sensitive to inconsistencies between actions and beliefs. yet you find yourself cheating on a test. The degree of dissonance. we all recognize. 620–564 BCE). the greater the dissonance the more you will be motivated to resolve it. according to this theory. 1. You will feel some sort of mental anguish about this. will vary with the importance of your belief/attitude/principle and with the degree of inconsistency between your behavior and this belief. Recognition of this inconsistency will cause dissonance. In effect. and will motivate an individual to resolve the dissonance. finds it unattainable. you won’t just say "oh well". In the story. According to the theory. Once you recognize that you have violated one of your principles. of course. In any case. Dissonance will be resolved in one of three basic ways: 23 . at some level. Jon Elster calls this pattern "adaptive preference formation. there is a built in alarm that goes off when we notice such an inconsistency." Cognitive dissonance theory is based on three fundamental assumptions. 2.
the trick would be to get rid of this feeling without changing your beliefs or your actions. you may say to yourself that you will never cheat on a test again. and probably most common. c. In more colloquial terms. you might decide that the test you cheated on was for a dumb class that you didn’t need anyway. However. Therefore. our basic beliefs and attitudes are pretty stable. Plus. and this may aid in resolving the dissonance. just decide that cheating is o. you think about your action in a different manner or context so that it no longer 23 . Change actions A second option would be to make sure that you never do this action again. So. and this leads us to the third. if the belief is fundamental and important to you such a course of action is unlikely. Change beliefs Perhaps the simplest way to resolve dissonance between actions and beliefs is simply to change your beliefs. Moreover. Lord knows that guilt and anxiety can be motivators for changing behavior.e..a. you would "rationalize" your actions. you may really benefit in some way from the action that’s inconsistent with your beliefs. For example. b. You could. Or you may say to yourself that everyone cheats so why not you? In other words. since we rely a lot on our world view in predicting events and organizing our thoughts.k. method of resolution. though this is the simplest option for resolving dissonance it’s probably not the most common. However. of course. This would take care of any dissonance. guilt/anxiety) can often be a pretty poor way of learning. and people don’t just go around changing basic beliefs/attitudes/opinions all the time. aversive conditioning (i. Change perception of action A third and more complex method of resolution is to change the way you view/remember/perceive your action. So. especially if you can train yourself not to feel these things.
appears to be inconsistent with your beliefs. In order to obtain higher turnover business now uses various methods of persuading people to buy their products. • Advertising is there for essential for creating and maintaining demand for products. If you’re like me. It educates people and spread knowledge. • 23 . Module III ADVERTISING Introduction Word advertising has been derived from the Latin work ‘Adverts’. If you reflect on this series of mental gymnastics for a moment you will probably recognize why cognitive dissonance has come to be so popular. This means to turn people to attention to specific things. Advertising is the art of making the product and known to the world in such as way that a desire for buying that product is created in the hearts of the people. you notice such post-hoc reconceptualiztions (rationalizations) of behavior on the part of others all the time. though it’s not so common to see it in one’s self.
11. Non personal presentation 5. 6. Increases sales 3. etc. Educate consumers 23 . Paid form 2. It can be oral written of visual It can do through various media. televisions etc. 10. Creation of demand 2. It is a kind of printed salesmanship. 9. Motivation of sales 4. Promotion of Idea. Building up fixed clientele 8. Advertising is both art and sales. Minimizes seasonal fluctuations 7. Objectives of advertising 1. samples It can be stimulate demand of goods and services. radio. Builds goodwill 5. Supports dealers 4. It is paid form of publicity. Identifiable sponsor 7.• Making one’s products known to the prospective customers through hoarding. radio. • • According to American Marketing Association “Advertising implies any paid form non personal presentation and promotion of ideas. new paper. is called advertising. Provide some information 3. such as press. magazines. good or services. Eliminates middle man 6. Adverting is not the guarantee of sales 8. goods and services by an identified sponsor” Characteristics of advertising 1.
when. It can force middle man to stock the product by building consumer interest it can help train dealers sales man in product uses and applications. in store. Effective advertising by a manufacturer often arouses a consumers interest but it will rarely send him to retail store actively seeking the products. an alert sales man on attractive displays all his attention to manufacture products. the impact of previous advertising often helps in persuading him to buy. Higher standard of living Role and importance of advertising Advertising is a relativity low cost way of conveying selling massages to numerous prospects and is important in most marketing programmes it is used not only stimulate demand but for many other purposes.9. • It serve social awareness programmes Scope of advertising • Mission • Money • Message • Media • Measurement Functions of advertising Primary functions • • • • • • • • • Increase sales Awareness about the new product Increased brand awareness Helping dealers Pressured dealers Increasing demand Demand in recession period Raising standard of living Business for other parties • • • Secondary functions • To encourage sales man • Provide information 23 . However. It can build deal and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building familiarity. Importance of advertising Economies the production process Product available to more people Advertising share expenses of news papers and other media of advertising.
• Good feeling among executives • Feeling of security • Attract better employees Benefits of advertising To manufacturers • Create regular demand • Aid to selling • Create awareness • Introduction of new products • Increasing goodwill • Expand the market • Increasing profitability • Encourage research in an organization To customer • Make purchasing easier • Educate the consumers • Create confidence • Eliminate middle man • Reduction in selling price To society • Provide direct employment • Advertising medias can earn big revenue • Improve the standard of living • Motivate people for hard work Types of advertising • Consumer advertising o National advertisement o Regional advertising o Local advertising • • Industrial advertising Trade advertising o Retail advertising o Whole sale advertising Product advertising o Informative o Persuasive o Remainder Institution advertising o Informative o Persuasive o Remainder o Manufacturer 23 • • .
Degree of brand differentiation Developing the advertising strategy Creative challenges • • • • • 23 .• Co operative advertising o Horizontal co operative advertising o Vertical co operative advertising Pioneering advertisement Comparative advertising Comparative advertising Reinforcement advertisement Defensive advertisement • • • • • Advertising agencies • Advertising agencies or ad agencies is a service business dedicated to creating planning and handling advertising for its clients.Introducing new products • Persuade .Most important for mature products Setting the budget • Several factors should be considered when setting the ad budget: .Market share .Becomes more important as competition increases .Level of competition . • Recording and data base maintaining Advertising Key Decisions Setting objectives Advertising objectives can be classified by primary purpose: • Inform .Ad clutter .Comparative advertising • Remind .Stage in the PLC . • The first advertising agencies is opened in Philadelphia in 1841 Functions of advertising agencies Advertising development and creative function Media selection Research and development Communication of advertisement Relationship functions – liaison between Clint and media and target audience.
frequency and impact Choose among the major media types by considering: Consumer media habits. headline. illustration. types of messages. and costs • • Select specific media vehicles Decide on media timing Creating ad messages • Message execution • • • • • Select advertising media Evaluating advertising campaigns • Measuring communications effects • Copy testing • Consumer recall • Product awareness • Product knowledge • Product preference • Measuring sales effect • Past vs. copy Decide on level of reach. format. nature of the product.• • • • Media fragmentation Soaring media costs Advertising clutter Message strategy • • Creative concept Advertising appeal Many execution styles Tone. current sales comparison • Experimentation Management of advertising or Building of advertising programme • Setting advertisement objectives o DAGMAR o AIDA Model o Innovation adaption model o Close effect model • Determining advertisement budget • Affordable • Percentage of sales • Comparative parity • Objective and task 23 .
• • • • Message content (what to say). Message format (how to say it symbolically) Message source (who should say it) Message content • It is the key element as it constitutes • Appeal • Rational appeal • Emotional appeal • Moral appeal • Theme • Unique selling proposition (USP) • Extra value proposition Message structures 23 . Message structure (how to put the massage).• Regression method • Adaptive control method • Compromise method • Selection of media • Indore and outdoor • Direct and mail advertising • Folk • Organizing advertising • Advertising manager • Advertising media • Advertising copy and lay out • Advertising theme • Advertising layout • Measuring advertising effectiveness • Sales response • Communication responses • Pretesting ads • Posttest ads • Attitude test Message The message is what the marketing communicator tries to communicates with customers to attract his attention interest arose desire and elicit action in the form of purchase. The massage should be developed in a way that it has to ability to integrate a common feel from the awareness stage to the stage purchase and satisfactions the massage formulation involves following.
heads lines. writing a jingle or the lyrics for music may also be involved. Massage source Message from attractive sources are able to break the clutter and catch attention of the audience. particularly those contained in the main body at the text. In broad cast the copy writer is. The message format can be black and white or color and can be with visual or without visuals. infect a script writer who develops the scenario or script to be used in Radio or TV medium. but also including attended by lines and headlines. Jhon caples has developed a check list of important guide lines for copy writing • • • • • • • • • • • Cash in personal experience Organize experience Write from the heart Lear from the experience of others Talk with the manufacturer Study the products Review previous advertising for the products Study competitors advertisement Solve the prospect problem Put sub conscious mind to work Ring the changes on a successful idea • 23 . slogans and illustration for a print medium in the case of an audio visual medium the characters’ the voice flying over.Message need to be structured in different orders depending on the types of audience and level of perceptual bias with the targeted audience. the locations and visuals are part of the message format. There are three key factors that influence the massage source factor • Source credibility • Trust worthiness of message • Believability of claim Copy Copy writing in print in the activity of actually putting words on paper. Message can be structured as One sided • Two sided • Conclusion drawing massages Message format Massage format covers the do ability of the message in the form of copy visuals.
Illustrations These consists of photographs.General copy principles • It should be simple • Containing only one two key ideas • Contain a benefit or idea unique to brand being advertised • Extendable • Flows naturally and smoothly from beginning to end Head lines The head line in an advertisement is the leading sentence or sentences usually at the top or bottom of the advertisement that attract attention. Uses of illustrations • To gain attentions • Comprehension • Attitude change • Behavior change • They can tell a story • Make a point quickly and clearly Lay out Its overall structure. chart. 23 . Purpose of headline • Give news about the brand • Emphasis a brand claim • Give advise to the reader • Select prospects • Stimulate the readers’ curiosity • Set a tone or establish an emotion • Identify the brand Slogan There are two types of slogans • Short rage type • Long range type Bothe types of slogan are well turned phrase or sentences intended to be repeated worbatim. painting and other pictorial devises. drawings. or the way in which the various elements are positioned with regard to one another. graphs. communicates a key selling point or achieves brand identification.
Steps • Appraisal of advertising opportunities • Market analysis and defining target market • Setting advertising objectives • Setting budgets and necessary control systems • Determining media and creative strategy • Create ads • Pretest • Release ads • Evaluate final result Objectives of campaign planning • To determine the market for the products • How large is this markets • Target market • Who buys the product who influence the products • When it brought trough the year of seasonality • How the products is brought • To decide the channel of distribution of the products • Are the established trade channels satisfactory • To determine the scope of the strategy • To prepare advertising copy • To determine amount space to be brought in various news papers Basic principles of campaign • Defining – getting to campaign objective into clear focus • Concentration – avoiding dispersal of resources over too many different or media • Domination – ensuring is that in some part of the market the campaign dominate its compotators. Campaign planning Advertising campaigns includes a series of ads. placed in various media that designed to meet objective and are based on an analysis of marketing and communications situations. 23 .Unique selling propositions (USP) An advertising message strategy proposed by Roser Reeves that focuses on a product or service attributes that is distractive to a certain brand and offers a persuasive benefit to the consumers and not claimed by any other brand. and takes control of the mind and interest of potential customer.
Advertisement objectives media should satisfied the following advertisement • It has to reach maximum prospects • It must gain the attention of readers • It must has wide coverage at less cost.Repetition – providing for the continuation of the massage in remainder form regularly or a period of time Media planning Important steps in development of media planning Market Analysis Set the media objectives Media strategy development and implementation • Evaluation and follow up Media Adverting media are the means to transmit the message of the advertiser to the desired people. It is the means or ways to convey the advertisement message to the public. The selection of medias is made with reference to not only above objective but also the following factors • Objectives of advertising • Media circulation • The class of people • Business unit\ • Massage to be sent • Extent of competition • Cost of space Additional factors • Characteristics of product and demand • Fund availability • Nature of the market • Nature and extent of competition prevailing • Medium to be adopted • Coverage of the media • Product nature 23 . The words Bravnan the term media emprises each and every method that the advertiser has at his command to carry t his massage to the public. It is a carrier of vehicle of advertising message.
• Sales of the advertisement Types of media • Indoor advertising media o Print New paper Magazines Trade journals Periodical o Broad cast Radio TV Film Screen slide Outdoor advertising media o Outdoor or mural Poster Hoarding Electrical display Electric sign Wall painting o Transit media /inside and outside Railway Bus Car Aero plane Auto • Direct and mail o Post card o Envelope enclosures o Booklet o Catalogue o Price list o Sales letter o Gift novelty o Other direct mails Folk media o Magic show o Puppet show • 23 .
• Use an outside advertising agency. 23 . many services offered • Do both. • Organizing for Advertising • Develop an internal advertising department. Effectiveness can be tested: • Before an ad is presented. • After it has completed its run.o Mobile stationary theater group Advertisement and Ethics Advertising is more than advertisement alone it is an institutional part of our society a social force affecting and affected to our stale of life. • While it is being presented. • Ads can have an effect over time period. • Measurement problems. deception Evaluating Advertising • It is difficult to measure the sales effectiveness of advertising because: • Ads have different objectives. • Experienced. The central issue of advertising and society can be divided into three categories • The nature and content of advertising to which people are exposed • Effect on society’s values and life style • Operation of the economic system Economic issues • Effect on the value of goods and service • Effect on prices • Effect on consumer demand and consumer choice • Effect on competition Social issues • Social and cultural issues • Materialism • Stereotyping in advertising Ethical issues • Sex appeals and or nudity used simply to gain consumers attention • Misleading • Puffery – superlative. • Many large retailers do this. skilled professionals. exaggeration. • Specialized.
With the growing criticisms of advertising. 23 . its point of view and the complaints of the public are forwarded to the National Advertising Review Board. In 1976. advertisers have been considering the idea of selfregulation. It consists of eight members drawn from leading advertising agencies. Yet many advertisers have declared that they should exercise control over.Regulations on Advertising. his case is forwarded to the Federation of Trade Commissions or to the Federal Communication Commission. They see to it that no false or misleading copy. they opted for self-regulation in 1970 in USA. the Council of Better Business Bureaus and National Advertising Review Board were established. advertising media and other agencies were determined to stamp out deceptive advertising.-merchandise division. Self.regulation would result in true and accurate messages. and it may direct the advertiser to modify the challenged advertising. there were about 240 Better Business Bureaus throughout the USA. the NAD may dismiss the complaint on the ground that the advertiser’s claims are correct and substantial. Therefore. This council performs nation-wide activities. The local Better Business Bureau has three divisions. These Better Business Bureaus were reorganized under the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) in 1970. layout. If the advertiser does not comply with the direction of the CBBB. The Better Business Bureaus are interested in people operating advertising agencies. immoral and unethical values are controlled by government and by consumers. The NAD evaluates the reports of the CBBB. Advertising agencies. their activities. They were fighting immoral and unethical advertising to raise its standards. is employed in advertising. The complaints may be accepted by the NAD. The BBB persuades advertisers to discard questionable modes and practices of advertising. etc. The reports of CBBB are prepared in the light of the recommendations of the local people. It maintains a register of consumer complaints. Advertising puts across messages and their presentation may be against the accepted values of society. These unsocial. After evaluating the reports of the CBBB and the claims of the advertiser. The CBBB has a wing known as National Advertising Division (NAD) composed of knowledgeable individuals from the local bureaus. Moral and ethical values have been discarded by several advertisers. Many advertisers were sceptical of the success of self regulation. It was known as Better Business Bureau. If the advertiser does not accept the verdict of the NARB. The Better Business Bureau (BBB) operated at local levels. financial division and solicitation division. and restraint on. The NAD asks the advertiser to submit the logic and rationale of his challenged advertisements. Each Better Business Bureau was assigned the job of spearheading a movement for improvements in advertising in its locality. The CBBB achieved prominence for national advertising regulation. Consequently. The first self-regulatory organization was established by the Advertising Club of Cleveland.
short as well as long-range. the industry. Many newspapers do not accept objectionable advertisements. The NAD suggests appropriate changes in the advertisement. patent medicines with high alcohol content. CONTROL BY GOVERNMENT Control by the government is felt to be necessary to check deceptive. are frowned upon. it calls upon the advertiser to modify or withdraw the advertisement. The objectionable advertisements are not published or viewed or advertised by the media. The local Better Business Bureaus. It has 50 member-forty representing advertising agencies and ten representing the public Complaints about any advertisement are made to this Board through the National Advertising Division (NAD) which receives complains from the public. The NARB appoints a five-member panel composed of three representatives of advertisers. advertisement bearing on sexual themes and representations of certain professions. The FTC can call for suitable correction of misleading or incorrect advertisements. women. As a final step. the complaint is forwarded to the National Advertising Review Board. through businessmen and through a law-enforcing authority. Television does not accept bait advertising.. one agency person and one public representative to review the complains forwarded by the NAD and the stand taken by the advertiser. They exert control in different forms: direct and indirect. CONTROL BY CONSUMERS Consumers have started exercising control over misleading advertisements since the latter part of the nineteenth century. They have devastating power to accept or boycott the product. misleading. The government is after all responsible to see to it that there is no undesirable advertising. They are famous for refusing to publish such advertisements. have been approaching the NARB for the settlement of the complaints filed by the public. The time allotted to advertisers is restricted by television and radio. Many magazines also impose restrictions on advertisement content. the case be referred to a government authority for appropriate action against the defaulting advertiser. It has the power to control it. We have discussed the control by businessmen. If the advertiser does not change the message and continues to advertise. minorities and other sections of society. The NARB has special cells to hear the complains of children. advertisements bearing on these are not accepted by newspapers. formal and informal. too.The National Advertising Review Board started its functions in 1971 in the USA. etc. It should exercise this power to protect the 23 . Television in India and France is quite selective in accepting a particular message or mode of advertising. Self-Regulation by Media The media people can reject any advertisement if they consider that it is misleading and incorrect. highly competitive and immoral advertising. business and other sources. The NARB bas reported many cases to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for final settlement. which they do through consumer groups. Television and radio are more concerned about the content of advertisements than the print media. If the panel upholds the decision of the NAD. Sex selling. The NARB publishes the complaints if the advertiser does not accept the suggestion of the NARB.
The second period of growth of consumerism was between l926 and 1959 in the USA" Many books. articles and seminars were held on consumerism. In America. came into being during this period.interests of consumers. Consumers' Union. consumers insisted on the right to safety. state governments. which brought pressure to bear on manufacturers and traders so that there might be the right type of packaging. and municipalities. The present laws in India may not be very useful unless consumers are educated and motivated to protect their interests. In India. the growth of consumerism took place between 1951 and 1985. The content of advertisements has to be regulated by the Government. truth in credit and substantiation of claims of deceptive products. The USA has been very active in this field. the surge of modern consumerism. consumer power developed during the Swadeshi Andolan in 1922. Only the public laws and Sale of Goods Act are employed to control advertising.. regulations concerning advertising are limited. In India. The government was apprised of the widespread practice of adulteration. The Consumers' Protection Act and other relevant laws have been enacted to control objectionable advertising. Therefore. It is true that very few advertisers resort to deceptive advertising. Women's organizations have become very active in India to educate people about misleading advertising and products. The Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code have been used against deceivers and lawbreakers. Advertising is criticized vehemently. 23 . Growth of Consumerism: The term "consumerism" refers to the resistance of consumers to misleading advertising. There has been a great pressure on the government to enact suitable legislation to protect the interests of consumers. Consumerism in India has to be developed rapidly. producers and traders. i. The misleading activities of advertisers were brought to the notice of the public. the government has enacted several laws. Consumerism in India developed rapidly. Its manipulative and undesirable activities have to be controlled. small businesses and other sections of society and to ensure that there is no deceptive and misleading advertising. sales techniques and products. Advertising has become an integral part of life and has lasting effects on society. Many books on consumerism were written. the right to choose and the right to be heard. Drug Control. Truthful advertising leads to consumer satisfaction. true labeling. the right to be informed. They compete with others on the basis of dishonest presentation. many voluntary organizations were formed to protect the interests of consumers. The third period.e. etc. started in India in 1986 when various organizations developed to protect the interests of the consumer. In the USA such legislation has been enacted by the federal government. The Indian Government too has enacted some laws to protect the interests of consumers. In India. honest advertisers. In India. which continued till 1950. The development of consumer power took place in the USA between 1889 and 1925 when consumers developed their strength and realized the need for resisting misleading and unrealistic advertising. Women's organizations developed to resist “black" sales. The consumers' Safety Act was enacted in 1989. It has to demonstrate greater social responsibility.
in fact. Advertisers have to evaluate the end results of their advertisements. Advertisers look upon their reactions as clues to the need for further development. If they do not. soaring prices. The reasons for the growth of consumerism are technological development. consumer protests have to be developed on a large scale. There-fore. advertisers should not feel that consumers are adversaries. Consumerism gives a boost to government control. 23 . In America a tax was levied on advertising. their image would be tarnished. Education and social consciousness have motivated people to safeguard their interests. The advertising research will not be required if consumer organizations provided adequate information and feedback on advertising. true guides for the success of advertising. Therefore. In the Indian context. Pre-assessment and evaluation will avoid unnecessary expenses on advertising. they would avoid misleading advertising.The present state of consumerism in India is worse than it is in the USA. Consumerism has a direct as well as indirect impact on advertising. to restrict the putting up of billboards along highways and to create a sense of purpose among consumers. They are. water and air pollution. heavy taxes and other economic factors. If advertisers get the feedback that their presentation and announcements have been resisted by people. consumers now receive the cooperation and assistance ofmany sound advertising agencies.
or the producer’s own sales force.Module IV SALES PROMOTION • • • Demand-stimulating devices designed to supplement advertising and facilitate personal selling. Providing information. Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. in-store demonstrations. Building product awareness. that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. Sales promotions include such things as coupons. Creating interest. The target for these activities may be middlemen. such as displays show and exhibitions demonstrations and various other non recurrent selling effort not in ordinary routine’ • Objectives • • • • Speeding the sales process and increasing the sales volume. and contests. 23 . in-store displays. According to American Marketing Association ‘sales promotion refers to those activities other than persons selling advertising and publicity. end users. trade shows. premiums.
of sales promotion Immediate purchases Increase trial Boost consumer inventory Encourage repurchase Encourage brand switching Encourage brand loyalty Types of Sales Promotion • Trade promotions.coupons.sampling can get costly. promotional giveaways Managing Sales Promotion • Select from wide range of techniques. • Sampling program for new/improved product • Improving the marketing performance of middlemen and salespeople. retailers and wholesalers. • 23 . Pull. • Supplementing advertising and facilitating personal selling. • Usually clear start. • Evaluating Sales Promotion: • Much easier than with advertising. goal. depending on objectives • Select promotional devices based on: • Nature of target audience • Promotional objectives: Push vs. Sales promotions are attractive to price-conscious consumers. • Displays. business customers. finish. The use of sales promotions has been growing rapidly. and members of the sales force. Competitors are using sales promotions. directed to members of the distribution channel. • Current economic conditions-. Key Reasons for Sales Promotion Stimulating end-user demand. win a holiday trip. Advantages of Sales Promotion • • • • It can produce short-term results. • Consumer promotions. Can enhance/facilitate retail salesmanship which is often of low quality. aimed at consumers.• Uses • • • • • • Reinforcing the brand. • Cost of device-. rebates work best in recessionary period. Sales Promotions Can be targeted at final buyers. • Sell more.
Point – of – purchase (POP) promotion 23 . given as a gift to consumers. Patronage reward Cash or other award for the regular use of certain company’s products or services.deal) Reduced price that is marked by the producer directly on the label or package. Games. and Sweepstakes Coupon certificate that gives buyers a saving when they purchase a specified product. Cash refund offer (rebate) Offer to refund the part of the purchase price of the product to consume send a “ proof of purchase “ to the manufacturer. Advertising capacity Useful article imprinted with an advertiser’s name.Trade Promotions: Obtaining distribution and shelf space Encouraging retailers to advertise the brand • Objectives -. Price pack (cents – off .Sales Force Promotions: Signing up new accounts Consumer Promotion Tools • Coupon • Samples • Cash Refunds (Rebates) • Price packs (cents-off deals) • Advertising Specialties • Premiums • Patronage Rewards • Point-of-Purchase Communications • Contests. • Sample A small amount of a product offer to customers for trial.Objectives -.Consumer Promotions: Increase short-term sales Generate product trial • Objectives -.
• • buy a This tool is used to generate business leads. stimulate purchases. Premium Good offered either free or at low cost as an incentive to product. Trade Promotion Tools a. Specialty advertising items Discount A straight reduction in price on purchases during a stated period of time. trips or goods – by luck or through extra effort.Display and the demonstration that takes place at the point of purchase or sale. Business Promotion Tools • Companies spend billions of dollars each year on promotion to customers. Many companies and trade associations organize the conventions and trade shows to promote their product. Sweepstakes. Contents. off-list. Discounts ( also called price-off. • Includes many of the same tools used in consumer and trade promotions • Two additional tools: • Conventions and trade shows • Sales contests Key Decisions When Developing the Sales Promotion Program: • Size of the incentive 23 . Allowance Promotional money paid by manufacturers to retails in return for an agreement to feature the manufacturer’s product in some way. Free goods d. Advertising allowances ii. Push money e. and off-invoice) b. Allowances i. Display allowances c. Games Promotional events that give the consumer the chance to win something – such as cash. reward customers and motivate sales people.
it could be used as a one time stock clearance from the trade • Essential elements for an effective SP programme • • • • • • Significant value before promotion is effective Promotions must be part of an overall plan Every brand must have a promotion objective and a strategy statement A written tactical plan – time frame.Conditions for participation Promotion and distribution of the actual sales promotion program • Length of the promotional program • Evaluation • Surveys and experiments can be used Advantages of sales promotions • Motivation method for special efforts • Short-term sales increase • Defined target audience • Defined role/objectives • Indirect roles (e. Prior to withdrawal of the product. evaluation yardsticks Factual knowledge must be gathered to plan Specialized professional skill and knowledge must be applied to every promotion operations 23 . wider distribution) Disadvantages of sales promotions • Only short-term • Hidden costs • Confusion • Price cutting -Brand image • Postponement effect • Significant government regulation • Lack of effectiveness sometimes (learning effect) Promotion at different stages of the PLC • Introduction – wise to use heavy promotion to induce trials and promote brand franchise • • • • Growth – promotion should be limited . Used only to retain a set of loyal customers.if any Maturity – Higher promotions required since the brand is under attack from competitors or product quality or advertising effectiveness is tapering off Decline – Heavy promotions.g. costs..
many non-believers. not in marketing. its products and policies.Module V PUBLICITY & PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relation Public Relations Involves Building Good Relations With the Company’s Various Publics by Obtaining Favorable Publicity. loosely defined. Stories. and Handling or Heading Off Unfavorable Rumors. Public relations is often overlooked by management because of: • Organization structure. • Inadequate definitions. “The planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics”. Highly credible 23 • • . and Events. Building Up a Good Corporate Image. • • A tool designed to influence favourably attitudes towards an organization. • Unrecognized benefits.
budgets and resources Feedback from PR activity should inform strategic publics change Reasons for Growth of Public Relations: The growing popularity of the PR as a profession can be attributed to several reasons: 23 .Many forms: news stories. • Reaches many prospects missed via other forms of promotion The UK’s Institute of Public Relations (IPR) has defined this communication role as ‘the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics’ (IPR 2003). news features. etc. A • Share holders Campaign group Bank Media organizations Organizati ons Government department agencies Consumer Local communities Suppliers Employee s n organisation’s dialogue with its stakeholders Successful PR PR can only be successful if it addresses the following key principles: Senior management commitment is essential PR activity must be linked to strategic aims Organisations must understand and engage with its PR strategies require plans. events and sponsorships.
the number of tools or mediums available to express or communicate has increased tenfold. Growth of media: With the burgeoning growth of media in the last decade or so. that is. abreast of what is happening in an organisation is important in order to keep them motivated. capital migration. Globalisation: Globalisation is a process of integration and unification of the world into one giant market. the need to tackle several problems. technology. you will lose out to competitors who are using public relations more aggressively and effectively to ensure communication. Thus arise many complexities. Globalisation is often used to refer to economic globalization. give them a sense of belonging and consequently ensuring greater productivity. manage reputation and effective communication. Keeping employees informed. 23 .Growth in corporates : Businesses are growing bigger today. managing target audiences at all levels including employees. With it comes. Big corporates are in the forefront. and integration the spread of of national economies To into the this. Internal communication: Regular communication with employees is important today. achieve communication and Public Relations plays a vital part. Benefits & Scope of Public Relations: No matter how good you are. international economy through trade. flows. In fact is a must. This is a need fulfilled by PR. The need for PR thus arises. Public Relations thus finds effective means to communicate through the growth of new media. if you don’t communicate with your target audiences. foreign direct investment.
Public Relations Functions • Press Relations • Product Publicity • Public Affairs • Lobbying • Investor Relations • Development PR activities and communication channels Corporate brochures Sponsorship Lobbying Internal communication News releases Exhibitions and events Public Relations Tools • News 23 . There can be no quicker way of reaching your target audience than through PR. Social and religious leaders. industrialists are all closely associated with the PR process at some point or the other. Please remember. It is not an overnight process.Every organisation can benefit from PR. It is cost-effective and credible.reaching and encompasses several industries and sectors. You cannot quantify what you lose if you don’t use PR. politicians. but companies which use it can see the benefits. PR takes time. PR can help in building a positive image and thus helps to minimise damage when something goes wrong. their views of your company will be based solely on what they hear from other sources. PR helps to maintain communications with your most important business audiences. If you don’t manage the information by which people form their opinions. The scope of PR today is far . It is an on-going endeavour. Quite simply. It helps to manage the information by which people form their opinions. entrepreneurs.
Media 7. Building Up a Good Corporate Image. Local Publics . Suppliers 3. General Public a. Local Area Marketing 8. Publicity 23 . Financial Community 2. Internal Publics a.Community a. Board of Directors c. Employees b. Corporate Citizen 9. Citizen Action Group 4. and Handling or Heading Off Unfavorable Rumors. Stories. Customers 5.Speeches Corporate Identity Materials • Mobile Marketing • Special Events • Written Materials • Audiovisual Materials • Public Service Activities Public 1. Government 6. and Events. Stockholders • • Major Activities of PR Departments • Press Relations • Product Publicity • Corporate Communication • Lobbying • Counseling Role and Impact of Public Relations Advantages: • Strong impact on public awareness at lower cost than advertising • Greater credibility than advertising Publicity is often underused Good public relations can be a powerful brand-building tool Public Relations Involves Building Good Relations With the Company’s Various Publics by Obtaining Favorable Publicity.
it must be understandable to get the message across. An advertisement must be seen or heard several times before it has any impact. UNDERSTANDABILITY. you must use more than one. emphasis must be used sparingly. Use a variety of techniques that work well together and complement each other. The more often it is seen or heard. Even if your message is readable or can be heard well. under or on room doors. Avoid excess verbiage. Good locations include: mailbox areas. and clever methods of promotion. 3. the greater the retention of your message. it makes sense to place your publicity in locations that have high visibility. You can make your publicity more understandable and more effective by incorporating the following points: Be concise and clear. 23 . Developing gimmicks or logos. QUANTITY. How often an advertisement is seen will have little impact if what is seen is not legible. 6. Areas with the greatest traffic patterns usually have the highest visibility. bathrooms and bathroom stalls. Use terminology that the target audience would understand. you can magnify the impact of your publicity by increasing the frequency with which it is seen or heard. Basic Principles of Publicity 1.It is a form of public relations that includes any communication about an organization or its products that is presented by the media but is not paid for by the organization. 4. etc. Thus. fresh. the greater the chances that an individual will read all of the information. ADVANCE NOTICE. LEGIBILITY. Since the frequency with which publicity is seen or heard is crucial to its effectiveness. bulletin boards. Put creativity into your publicity! You can generate more enthusiasm and interest by using unique. cafeteria walls. Greater legibility is ensured by using lower case lettering rather than uppercase. Capitals may be used for emphasis. 2. VARIETY. but to be effective. VISIBILITY. If no one type of publicity reaches the entire audience. 7. CREATIVITY. utilizing pictures and unusual shapes are all ways in which publicity can be made more attractive. The greater the legibility. 5. More than one medium can also reinforce and intensify your message.
smaller calendars of activities can be copied or mimeographed and put into mailboxes. and so on. five for example. The coupon might entitle the person to a discount admission price or a free drink. COUPONS can be placed in mailboxes. Coupons can be included on flyers or on printed schedules. lobby. simple. paper TENTS: Table tents can be placed in visible locations including the lounge. handed out or slipped under doors. If publicity goes out too late.Publicize well enough in advance. and brief. you may want to issue additional publicity pieces as the event approaches. FLYERS: A smaller version of the poster is the flyer. publicity should be out at least one week before your activity is scheduled to take place. TICKETS & You can purchase printed tickets or make your own. For optimum exposure. 23 . however. Also. BALLOONS: You can write a message on the balloon or put the message on a piece of paper inside the balloon. their message must be strong. Posters are viewed more rapidly than are other methods of advertisement. An advantage is that they can be reproduced easily at minimal cost. They are usually made on 8 ½” x 11 or 8 ½” x 14 paper. handed out at the entrance of the building. The five people would then be responsible for calling five other people. Free tickets. who would call five other people. hence. like invitations. TELEPHONE PYRAMID:: A quick way to get word out on activities or meetings is to identify a number of people. and on desk tops. TABLE: Table tents should be made of a thick or heavy grade of that will stand firm. and so on. CALENDAR: A large calendar of activities located in a central location is a particularly effective technique. it does not give people enough time to plan to attend an activity. Students will have at least one consistently identifiable source for information on activities. or handed out in dining hall lines. and this may prevent your advertisement from falling victim to the trash can. Balloons can be tied with string to student’s door knobs. dining hall. Types of Publicity • Inexpensive Publicity Techniques POSTERS: The essential purpose of a poster is the rapid telling of a single message using a limited number of elements.
BANNERS: A large extension of the poster. This is perhaps the oldest. yet most effective way to get the word out. 23 . these can be hung outside your residence hall or in your main lobby. so that they don’t forget. A bed sheet or old shower curtain will make a good size banner. recognize employees. OTHER PUBLICITY TECHNIQUES • Networking sites • Mass e-mails • Bags • Bookmarks • Bull Horns • Bumper Stickers • Computer Letters • Door Hanger • Door Prizes • Footprints Fortune • Cookies Free • Tickets to events • Lawn Signs • Logos • Painted Windows • Audix Message • Puzzle Pieces • Sidewalk Chalk Writing • Sneak Previews • Stickers • Teasers • Bathroom stalls • T-shirts • Visors • Mirror Signs • Lollipops with messages • Balloons • Post Cards Strengths of Publicity • Can announce new products. WORD OF MOUTH: And of course. breakthroughs. Go door to door and personally inform people of the activity. and remind them frequently. there is the time-honored word-of-mouth technique. report good results.
Increased readership. Typical format for a news release The message content demonstrates a number of ‘good practice’ features. addressing the six fundamental news questions (i. • Not free. Weaknesses of Publicity • Some loss of control over message. Timeliness. Planning a news release A news release: A statement. Nature of personal selling and sales management 23 . often about the launch of a new product. preparation costs. More information. press releases are biased towards the perspective of the organisation. Unlike news articles. who? what? when? where? why? how?). only happens once.• Key Benefits: • • • • Lower cost than advertising or personal selling. service or event used by an organisation to brief media journalists and encourage them to write articles on the subject. A. presenting the information in a clear and providing relevant contact details simple format. PERSONAL SELLING Scope And Significance Of Personal Selling Personal selling is a useful vehicle for communicating with present and Potential buyers. including: the provision of relevant facts. • Limited exposure. advertising ignored often. placing the most important facts at the beginning.e.
S. • personal selling occurs by telephone. identifying creative solutions to customer problems b. C. according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. and evaluating the performance of individual salespeople. Personal Selling in Marketing • Salespeople match company interests with customer needs to satisfy both parties in the exchange process are often the only personal contact a customer has with the firm • Personal selling may play a dominant role in a firm’s marketing program D. not one-time sales c. designed to influence a person’s or group’s purchase decision. Virtually every occupation that involves customer contact has an element of personal selling • About 20 percent of the chief executive officers for the largest U. • Salespeople represent what the company is or attempts to be and 23 . Involves mutual respect and trust among buyers and sellers b. Creating Customer Value through Salespeople: Relationship Selling Salespeople can create customer value in many ways: a.S. organizing the salesforce. Emphasizes the importance of learning about customer needs and wants. 1) 2) 3) 4) The tasks involved in managing personal selling include: setting objectives. easing the customer buying process c. following through after the sale Relationship selling is the practice of building ties to customers a. selecting. B. teleconferencing. and the internet between buyers and sellers • • through video Sales management involves planning the selling program and implementing and controlling the personal selling effort of the firm. often in a face to face encounter. recruiting.Personal selling involves the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller. Focuses on creating long-term customers. corporations have significant sales and marketing experience in their work history. Selling Happens Almost Everywhere Almost 16 million people hold sales positions in the U. training and compensating salespeople.
Two types exist: 1. 2) preapproach. provides customers with information. B. A single field sales call costs about $350. 1. Inside order takers . 3) approach. Prospecting . Order taking An order taker processes routine orders or reorders for products that were already sold by the company and is responsible for preserving the ongoing relationship with existing customers. take orders complete transactions with customers.the search for and qualification of potential customers 2.obtain a purchase commitment from the prospect 23 . Outside order taker . Personal Selling Process The personal selling process consists of six stages: 1) prospecting. 5)close and 6) follow-up.The Many Forms of Personal selling Personal selling assumes many forms based on the amount of selling done and the amount of creativity required to perform the sales task.answer questions. benefits.the initial meeting between the salesperson and the prospect 4. Presentation . • • week • Order getters can be inside or outside Order getting is time consuming . Approach . Order getting An order getter sells in a conventional sense and identifies prospective customers. 3.salesclerks .visits customers and replenishes inventory and 2. Close . factoring in salespeople’s compensation. and travel Expenses. Preapproach -the stage that involves obtaining further information on the prospect and deciding the best method of approach. closes sales.most reps work 50 + hours a Order getting is expensive. persuades customers to buy. 4) presentation. A. and follows up on customers use of a product or service.its objective is to convert a prospect into customer by creating a desire for the product or service 5.
6. Follow-up . 23 .includes making certain the customer’s purchase has been properly delivered and installed and any difficulties are addressed.
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