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There are two ways the price of a currency can be determined against another. A fixed, or pegged, rate is a rate the government (central bank) sets and maintains as the official exchange rate. A set price will be determined against a major world currency (usually the U.S. dollar, but also other major currencies such as the euro, the yen, or a basket of currencies). In order to maintain the local exchange rate, the central bank buys and sells its own currency on the foreign exchange market in return for the currency to which it is pegged. If, for example, it is determined that the value of a single unit of local currency is equal to USD 3.00, the central bank will have to ensure that it can supply the market with those dollars. In order to maintain the rate, the central bank must keep a high level of foreign reserves. This is a reserved amount of foreign currency held by the central bank which it can use to release (or absorb) extra funds into (or out of) the market. This ensures an appropriate money supply,

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com/answersAds [Improve] Improve Answer There are a number of procedures within a process. for example. activities (Test Planning and 5 . A good illustration would be that an organization has to define. It means that you take actions to get results. In a Quality perspective. and a Procedure describes how (the steps involved) the activities of the process are to be performed. The Difference Between [Computer TerminologyThe Difference BetweenEdit categories] Siemens answers:www.siemens.comWiki AnswersCategoriesTechnologyElectronicsConsumer Electronics > What is the difference between process and procedure? user-generated content: report abusereport abuse What is the difference between process and procedure? In: Consumer Electronics. Computer Terminology. -These terms can be defined differently in terms of different scenario. the process of software testing. Procedures / actions / activities / work instructions all describe the lowest level of decomposition ie: the procedure cannot be broken down further. Gireesh Babu. A process requries a set of procedures. -In boiling it all down. there are inputs (Requirements). I have found that the best means of comparison is this: A Process defines what is to be done.• • • Technology Travel & Places WikiAnswers Local Random question Promoted questions Community forum Answers. In so doing. The actions you take are your set of procedures (ISO). Process is the set of action items to achieve the work completion and procedure is further decomposition of process to ensure the quality.

ID1039541391Melsamryantrustrecommend contributorpopularityrecommend question Can you answer these consumer electronics questions? • What are the positive and negative effects of tourism on societyWhat are the positive and negative effects of tourism on society Why do people feel the need to open a store's merchandise to try on an item that the packages states it will fitWhy do people feel the need to open a store's merchandise to try on an item that the packages states it will fit Who invented doorsWho invented doors Are guaranteed annuities judgment proof in Florida • • • Related answers: 6 . Question popularity: 18 [recommend question]. Contributor trust: 4 [recommend contributor]. Last edit by Melsamryan. See the discussion page to add to the conversation. Once the process has been accepted. Medical ElectronicsDesignwww.comProcess Analyzerswww. NEC/IEC Ads Ads First answer by ID1039541391. Note: There are comments associated with this question.eecatalog. the organization will then drill into each of the activities on the process diagram and annotate the actual steps (procedures) that will reflect the activity and produce the desired output. The objective of the process model is to show that an organization is meeting the generally prescribed testing activities in addition to performing adequate planning.com/medicalSemicon Process Equipmentwww. review and approval along the way.com Complete System Integration Shelters/Enclosures.Execution) and outputs (Test Analysis Report).analyzer-systems.waferprocess. SCS.

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2. Home » BusinessBusiness » Human ResourcesHuman Resources » Policies & ProceduresPolicies & Procedures » What Is the Difference Between a Policy & a Procedure?What Is the Difference Between a Policy & a Procedure? 11 . 4. 5. 3.• • • • • • Food Health Home Money Style More • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • This Season: Forums Feedback Members Groups eHow Blog Community Share Tax Time • • Sign In Connect 1.

com 12 .Top 5 To Try • • • • • What Is the Difference Between a Treaty & an Executive Agreement? Difference Between Strategic & Tactical Policies What Is the Difference Between Quality Procedures & Work Instructions? How to Set Policies How to Write a Policies and Procedures Manual for a Non Profit Organization Ads by Google indiafirstlife.

The statement "it is our policy to provide the best customer service in the industry" leaves a lot of unanswered questions. while procedures are tactical tools. Clarify obligations of the employees. such as the time and costs acceptable toward this end. Good policies and procedures should 1.Related Topics • • • • more » Difference Between Policy Difference Between Medicare Difference Between Hmo And Ppo Difference Between Colognes What Is the Difference Between a Policy & a Procedure? By Alfred Sarkissian. Procedures change more frequently. Characteristics 2. A policy is a type of position statement. They control the conduct of people and activities of the systems. 2. Policies are guidelines that regulate organizational affairs. Procedures outline the steps and their sequence towards attaining policies. Policies are more evergreen than procedures. eHow Contributor Alfred Sarkissian You need policies and procedures for the simple reason that without them nothing can be achieved. It clarifies the stance of the organization on an important issue. Policies are an integral part of organizational strategies. Be consistent and last beyond the term of a particular executive Differences 3. Provide insight on what the management believes is important 2. why it wants it done and how to do it. The differences between policies and procedures can be summarized as follows: 1. While policies are organization's guidelines. while procedures are laid down at lower organizational levels in line with policies Time Frame 4. Organizations will plunge into chaos without them and daily operations will halt. while procedures drive actions. Policies are generally formulated by top management. while procedures are detailed and rigid 3. because they should be adaptable to the changing operational environment and technological 13 . Function 1. It explains how the organization intends to operate. purpose of the obligations and consequences of failure to abide by them 3. Policies guide decision making. Policies and procedures reflect the way an organization operates. Procedures complement policies. They are protocols for implementation. Policies leave some room for managerial discretion. They can be both written and unwritten. procedures delineate the normal method of tackling things. They clarify what the organization wants to do. 4.

while procedures maintain the flexibility of the organization in dealing with environmental change. There are no precise standards as to how detailed a policy or procedure should be. 2005 print email favorite share flag Read Next Article 14 .Starhealth.policybazaar. but this needs information and help from the organization. Considerations 5. Star Health Insurancewww. Policies are meant to anchor the organization on substantive strategic guidelines.in Cashless Hospitalization at 4800+ Hospitals & Tax Benefits. Jody R. Motor & Travel. Ambiguous policies and procedures require users to exercise discretion and sound judgment. Appropriate means fitting for the topic and audience. Westby. The level of detail should be both sufficient and appropriate for the audience and the subject matter. exercise H P Iwww. Apply Now ! Risk Cover 50Lac@Rs. Sufficient means the right type of information and the right amount of it. Get 50Lac Life Cover & Invest Rs.advancements. Unwarranted ambiguity in policies and procedures can reduce their effectiveness.441pmwww.net.hpi.441 pm.au Health Projects International Specialist Heathcare Architects ICICI Lombard Insurance™ICICILombard.com/GeneralInsurance Get Unmatched Insurance Deals for Health.Apply Now! Ads by GoogleAds by Google Resources • • • • • • International Guide to Cyber Security.com/term-insurance Secure Your Family.

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originally on 200 Pittsburgh engineers and accountants remains a fundamentally important reference in motivational study. and the design of the research itself. His undergraduate work was at the City College of New York. January 18. where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. Herzberg was later Professor of Management at Case Western Reserve University. where he was also Professor of Management. Herzberg's survey work.alphabetical index Also .businessballs community See main subjects index for more materials.fisher personality theories the psychological contract tannenbaum and schmidt continuum transactional analysis neuro-linguistic programming (nlp) See also . is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. Herzberg's considerable preparatory investigations. enabled Herzberg and 21 .archive of additions and updates And .subjects in categories Also . Frederick Herzberg's book 'The Motivation to Work'. clinical psychologist and pioneer of 'job enrichment'. 2000.kirkpatrick learning evaluation kubler-ross . Frederick I Herzberg was born in Massachusetts on April 18. While the study involved only 200 people. He died at Salt Lake City. written with research colleagues Bernard Mausner and Barbara Bloch Snyderman in 1959. He moved to the University of Utah's College of Business in 1972. first established his theories about motivation in the workplace. ideas and resources. followed by graduate degrees at the University of Pittsburgh. home » leadership/management » frederick herzberg motivational theory frederick herzberg motivational theory Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000). 1923.stages of grief leadership tips love and spirituality maslow's hierarchy of needs mcgregor x-y theory motivational theory and ideas multiple intelligences and VAK personal change .

which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory. The Managerial Choice (1982). Herzberg expanded his motivation-hygiene theory in his subsequent books: Work and the Nature of Man (1966). In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase. that the factors which motivate 22 . Herzberg's research used a pioneering approach. Herzberg commented in 1984. and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors. He first used this methodology during his doctoral studies at the University of Pittsburgh with John Flanagan (later Director at the American Institute for Research).his colleagues to gather and analyse an extremely sophisticated level of data.e. Significantly. and which incidentally remain the most popular and convenient style of surveying even today especially among those having a particular agenda or publicity aim. and Herzberg on Motivation (1983). Herzberg also prepared intensively prior to his 1959 study . as had always previously been (and still now by the unenlightened) believed. The level of preparation. which assume or prompt a particular type of response. twenty-five years after his theory was first published: "The original study has produced more replications than any other research in the history of industrial and organizational psychology. helped make Herzberg's study such a powerful and sophisticated piece of work. i." (source: Institute for Scientific Information) The absence of any serious challenge to Herzberg's theory continues effectively to validate it. Herzberg's clever open interviewing method gleaned far more meaningful results than the conventional practice of asking closed (basically yes/no) or multiple-choice or extent-based questions. who developed the Critical Incident method in the selection of Army Air Corps personnel during the Second World War. mutual understanding and alignment within the Psychological Contract. plus the 'critical incident' aspect and the depth of care and analysis during the 1959 project.. Herzberg's central theory is very relevant to modern understanding employer/employee relationships. based on open questioning and very few assumptions.not least by scrutinizing and comparing the results and methodologies of all 155 previous research studies into job attitudes carried out between 1920 and 1954. herzberg's main theory and its significance Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors. to gather and analyse details of 'critical incidents' as recalled by the survey respondents.

whereas the job dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job context. although as stated already the main conclusions remain consistent. and to fully appreciate the complexity and subtlety of his findings.. which incidentally is my own interpretation and not Herzberg's. and secondary factors deriving from the main stimulus. the statistics from Herzberg's study can be interpreted in many different ways in their finer details. including the obvious main perspectives: • • • • high and low attitude (basically satisfaction and dissatisfaction. which I based on an interpretation of Herzberg's work by BACIE (British Association for Industrial and Commercial 23 . main causal factors.. In addition to being really interesting and relevant to modern times. For full details of the Herzberg study figures. and Herzberg rocket diagram ppt (MSPowerpoint) format. encompassing short and long duration feelings. is also available as a doc file and a powerpoint slide: Herzberg rocket diagram doc (MSWord) format. the 2008 revised graph diagram replaces the previous Herzberg factors diagram 2003 version. identified by further probing during interviews) the interrelationship of factors These different perspectives obviously provided (and still provide) endless ways to analyse and present the results.e. (both are pdf files). also defined as motivators and hygienes or hygiene factors) short and long term duration of feelings (of high/low attitude effect) first and second level factors (i. the book contains many tables of statistics and analysis. see the Herzberg hygiene factors and motivators graph diagram (revised April 2008). by stating that the job satisfiers deal with the factors involved in doing the job. structured differently and extensively according to the variables that Herzberg considered to be important. While Herzberg's overall conclusions were clear and consistent. The graph diagram is also available in MSPowerpoint slide fomat: Herzberg's hygiene factors and motivators graph diagram ppt slide format. The 2008 graph diagram is based on the total percentages of 'First-Level' factors arising in Herzberg's 1959 research of high and low attitude events among 200 engineers and accountants. for example. and the Herzberg diagram rocket and launch pad analogy diagram." For graphical presentation of this principle. Incidentally.people at work are different to and not simply the opposite of the factors which cause dissatisfaction: "We can expand . The rocket analogy diagram.. because of the depth and layering of Herzberg's survey methodology and analysis. see Herzberg's book The Motivation to Work.

safety. He illustrated this also through Biblical example: Adam after his expulsion from Eden having the need for food. and two as a human being to grow psychologically. I am sure there are very many graphical interpretations of Herzberg's study results. but once satisfied the effect soon wears off . According to Herzberg. he was basically attempting to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace. warmth. If you use it please ensure you explain the background suitably. justice and compassion in business are now global. fairness. capable and achieving great things through self-development . Although Herzberg is most noted for his famous 'hygiene' and motivational factors theory. Many decades ago Herzberg. BACIE referenced Herzberg's book Work and the Nature of Man. Staples Press 1966. typically in businesses and organisations that lack humanity. Herzberg's ideas were developed several decades before proper consideration and description of these more recent and important organizational perspectives. one as an animal to avoid pain. He and others like him. In this respect Herzberg's concepts are just as relevant now as when he first suggested them. and Abraham. etc.the 'hygiene' needs. whereas others tended to lead to dissatisfaction ('hygiene factors'). although probably not too much in overall impression.Education). he was essentially concerned with people's well-being at work. Herzberg's ideas relate strongly to modern ethical management and social responsibility. Underpinning his theories and academic teachings. which for the reasons explained will probably vary somewhat in the detail. except that the implications of responsibility. The purpose of the diagram (either version) is to illustrate how Herzberg's research showed that certain factors truly motivate ('motivators'). appearing in their Handbook of Management Training Exercises published in 1978. like Maslow. and it remains on this website mainly because it featured here for so long. still struggle to grasp. 1959. This is remarkable. Certain parallels can clearly be seen with Maslow.satisfaction is temporary. for the good of all people at work. but the root statistics and study are found in The Motivation to Work.the 'motivational' needs. and very directly to the Psychological Contract. understood well and attempted to teach the ethical management principles that many leaders today.. poorly managed organisations fail to understand that people are not 'motivated' by 24 . Man has two sets of needs. I am unclear exactly how BACIE arrived at their figures reflected in the 2003 diagram. did not develop their theories to be used as 'motivational tools' purely to improve organisational performance. . shelter. Then as now. They sought instead primarily to explain how to manage people properly. Herzberg's research proved that people will strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs because they they are unhappy without them.

etc. which represent a far deeper level of meaning and fulfilment. Herzberg addressed money particularly (referring specifically to 'salary' in his study and analysis). This arose in relatively few cases within the study and was not considered a major factor by Herzberg. notably: • • • • • achievement recognition work itself responsibility advancement N. Herzberg identified a specific category within the study responses which he called 'possibility of growth'.addressing 'hygiene' needs. and concluded that money is not a motivator in the way that the primary motivators are. Herzberg said about 'salary': 25 . such as achievement. development. Where referring to 'growth' or 'personal growth' in terms of Herzberg's primary motivators. and not confused with the different matter of 'possibility of growth'. 'growth' should be seen as an aspect of advancement. People are only truly motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as real motivators. so it's appropriate to include it here. Examples of Herzberg's 'hygiene' needs (or maintenance factors) in the workplace are: • • • • • • • • • policy relationship with supervisor work conditions salary company car status security relationship with subordinates personal life Herzberg's research identified that true motivators were other completely different factors. Herzberg acknowledged the complexity of the salary issue (money.. advancement.B. to what extent is money a motivator? This question commonly arises when considering Herzberg's research and theories. such as achievement and recognition. earnings. etc).

it meant a job well done." Many people argue nevertheless that money is a primary motivator. For instance. salary is found almost three times as often in the long-range as in the short-range attitude changes.. 28% for more challenging work. a survey by Development Dimensions International published in the UK Times newspaper in 2004 interviewed 1. etc): "Viewed within the context of the sequences of events... Examples appear in the newspapers and in other information resources every week. it meant that the individual was progressing in his work.... and 21% and more varied work... wherever you care to look.43% left for better promotion chances. we find that in the lows [events leading to dissatisfaction]. It was a form of recognition." And Herzberg concluded about salary (i.000 staff from companies employing more than 500 workers. The main reasons were lack of stimulus jobs and no opportunity for advancement .e.. salary as a factor belongs more in the group that defines the job situation and is primarily a dissatisfier.... 23% for a more exciting place to work.) And about the interrelation of salary and other factors: "."It [salary] appears as frequently in the high sequences ['sequences' refers to events causing high or low attitude feelings recalled by interviewees in the study] as it does in the low sequences. and found many to be bored. salary was mentioned in the high stories (events causing satisfaction) as something that went along with a person's achievement on the job.. It was the system of salary administration that was being described. While many of course give up their 'daily grind' jobs. For all people there are bigger more sustaining motivators than money. earnings. Pay actually came fifth in the reasons people gave for leaving their jobs. They wisely recognise that their work is part of their purpose and life-balance." (There was no such bias towards the more important long-range feelings in the high attitude events. however. lacking commitment and looking for a new job. some do not.classic Herzberg motivators . money. In contrast to this.. For most people money is not a motivator . 26 . Consider what happens when people win big lottery prize winners.despite what they might think and say. it meant more than money... Lots of other evidence is found in life. [or] it concerned an advancement that was not accompanied by a salary increase. Surveys and research studies repeatedly show that other factors motivate more than money.when salary occurred as a factor in the lows (causes of dissatisfaction) it revolved around the unfairness of the wage system within the company..

The people who are always the most unhappy are those who focus on spending their money. and a personal driver. Money. responsibility. if you lack enough for a decent civilized existence. etc . the motivation is not to make money. money is not for the vast majority of people a sustainable motivator in itself. see also • • • • • • • • • • • The Psychological Contract McGregor's X-Y Theory Adams' Equity Theory McClelland's Motivational Theory Erikson's Psychosocial Theory Ethical Management and Leadership Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory and the VAK (visual auditory kinesthetic) learning styles inventory Bloom's Taxonomy or Learning Domains Donald Kirkpatrick's Learning Evaluation Model David Kolb's Learning Styles Model Teambuilding and motivational activities. They are pursuing their dream to achieve something special for them.Others who give up their jobs do so to buy or start and run their own businesses. for example the Hellespont Swim case study and exercise search businessballs website Top of Form 27 . but beyond this. And whatever it means to them. advancement.achievement. We exist for more. whatever that might be. The lottery prize-winners who give up work and pursue material and lifestyle pleasures soon find that life becomes empty and meaningless. or you are striving for a house or a holiday. are not enough to sustain the human spirit. Money is certainly important. and spending it.not money. otherwise why don't they just keep hold of what they've got? Why risk it on a project that will involve lots of effort and personal commitment? Of course the reason they invest in a new business venture is that pursuing this sort of plan is where the real motivators are found .

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however. This makes clear that a country is able to defend its currency by the buying and selling of foreign currencies. the central bank may also intervene when it is necessary to ensure stability and to avoid inflation. to keep businesses competitive in foreign markets. Sometimes. it is less often that the central bank of a floating regime will interfere. A government has to maintain high levels of foreign reserves to keep the exchange rate fixed as well as to instill confidence on the foreign exchange markets. Floating Unlike the fixed rate. thereby halting the activity of the black market. when a local currency does reflect its true value against its pegged currency. This would make a countries export more competitive which might lead to a disagreement between countries as they might see it as an unfair trade advantage. a floating exchange rate is determined by the private market through supply and demand. In reality. Take a look at this simplified model: if demand for a currency is low. Answer Fixed vs. As this would have a deflationary effect on the economy the demand might decrease and unemployment might increase. A floating rate is often termed "self-correcting". This in turn will generate more jobs. To ensure that inflation is kept as low as possible the government is forced to take measurements. and ultimately. a "black market" which is more reflective of actual supply and demand may develop. Fixed Disadvantages The government is keeping the exchange rate fixed by manipulating the interest rates. Inflation may have a harmful effect on the demand for exports and imports. In reality this is not always the case as countries want to make speculative gains. The central bank can also adjust the official exchange rate when necessary. no currency is wholly fixed or floating. market pressures can also influence changes in the exchange rate.rket (inflation/deflation). International disagreement might be created when a country sets its exchange rate on a too low level. its value will decrease. A floating exchange rate is constantly changing. Flexible Fixed advantages A fixed exchange rate should reduce uncertainties for all economic agents in the country. In a fixed regime. the exchange rate. 32 . thus making imported goods more expensive and thus stimulating demand for local goods and services. and hence an auto-correction would occur in the market. In a floating regime. In theory a fixed exchange rate should also reduce speculations in foreign exchange markets. As businesses have the perfect knowledge that the price is fixed and therefore not going to change they can plan ahead in their productions. If the exchange is in danger of falling the government needs to increase interest rates to increase demand for the currency. Fixing the exchange rate is not easy as there are many variables which are changing over time if the exchange rate is set wrong it might be hard for export companies to be competitive in foreign countries. as any differences in supply and demand will automatically be corrected in the market. A central bank will often then be forced to revalue or devalue the official rate so that the rate is in line with the unofficial one.

In several situations the exchange rate change that reestablishes external balance can make an internal imbalance worse. The floating exchange rate might worsen existing levels of inflation. If a country has rising inflation and a tendency toward external deficit. the appreciation of the currency can make the unemployment problem worse. The floating exchange rate is adjusting itself to keep the current account balanced. the depreciation of the currency can intensify the inflation pressures in the country. As businesses try to plan for the future it is not easy for the businesses to handle a floating exchange rate which might vary. Flexible Disadvantages Floating exchange rates tend to create uncertainty on the international markets.answers. Then the exchange rate will fall which could lead to even higher import prices of goods and because of cost-push inflation which might drive the overall inflation rate even more. If a country has higher inflation rate than others this will make the export of the country less competitive and its imports more expensive. such as government intervention. If a country has excessive unemployment and a tendency toward surplus. While flexible exchange rates can ensure that the country achieves external balance. the country's government may need to implement domestic policy changes Read more: http://wiki. Therefore investment is more difficult to assess and there is no doubt that excursive exchange rates will reduce the level of international investment as it is difficult to assess the exact level of return and risk. To achieve internal balance. As the reserves are not used to control the value of the currency it is not necessary to keep high levels of reserves (like gold) of foreign countries. Floating exchange rates are affected by more factors than only demand and supply. Therefore they might not necessarily adjust themselves in order to eliminate current account deficits. they do not ensure internal balance.Flexible Advantages As the exchange rate does not have to be kept at a certain level anymore interest rates are free to be employed as domestic management policies(Appleyard 703).com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_and_disadvantages_of_both_a_fixed_exch ange_rate_regime_and_a_flexible_exchange_rate_regime#ixzz1EZ7SaJsZ • • • • Home About Stephen Knapp About this Blog Books by Stephen Knapp 33 . in theory.

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responsible to iron out all initial problems? Sanjay Tejwrika.22 million Indians in USA (1. Who is the GM of Hewlett Packard? Rajiv Gupta. Indian doctors. 6. Who is the co-founder of Sun Microsystems? Vinod Khosla. There are 3. Furthermore. 1. 4. it is AZIM PREMJI. The following includes a few of the points I made in answer to such questions.S. For the period of 2002-03. Who is the third richest man in the world? According to the latest report on Fortune Magazine. The U.Indian Contributions to American and Global Progress While traveling and giving lectures in India last winter (December. including those made by Indians. has doubled in the last 7 years.S. I pointed out that it is the intercultural contribution that makes the progress in America possible. authorities also appreciate this since it brings in large sums of money for the U.000 of the over half-million studying in various universities in the U. 9. which was China. 5. up from the previous year. 10.S. This means the Indian student population in the U. Indian students remain number 1 in U.000. The Sultan of Brunei is at 6th position now. a few questions that were presented to me was how America seems to be so progressive. economy. Who is the new MTD (Microsoft Testing Director) of Windows 2000. and Unix to name a few)? Arun Netravalli.S. Mr. 36 . However. constitute over five percent of all physicians in America. 2002).603. 12. In this case. numbering more than 35.. 11. Indians constitute ten percent of all medical students in America. Who is the creator of the Pentium chip (needs no introduction as 90% of the today’s computers run on it)? Vinod Dham.S.S. The Sun founder also had an Indian Professor in Computer Technologies at Louisiana State University. and Rana Talwar. who is the CEO of Wipro Industries. as if it is the Americans themselves and their lifestyle that should be followed. university enrollments. Indians are the wealthiest among all ethnic groups in America. Rajat Gupta. Pramathesh Rath has said that India (as of 2002) is the largest source of international students accounting for more than 11 percent or 67. 13.S. Who are the Chief Executives of CitiBank. 3. 8. as well as brings home to India a work force with cutting edge skills.1 web based email program)? Sabeer Bhatia. Who is the founder and creator of Hotmail (Hotmail is world’s No. Who is the president of AT & T-Bell Labs (AT &T-Bell Labs is the creator of program languages such as C. Indian students for the first time outnumbered the hitherto largest source of international students. 7. totaling 74. This accounts for a good 13% of the 586.323 international students. Another point is that three-fourths of all graduates from the prestigious IIT university in India are in the U.5% of population). It also allows the Indian talent to contribute to the U. Mckensey & Stanchart? Victor Menezes. Indians also own nearly 40% of all the small and mid-size hotels in the country. 2. the Consul General in New York. even faring better than the Caucasians and natives. C++.

12. the decimal system was developed in India dating back to at least 100 BC.14. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th Century.’ 3. India was the only source of diamonds to the world. 4.500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. According to the Gemological Institute of America. To elaborate on these points: 37 . Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization). Algebra. USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless communication was Professor Jagdeesh Bose and not Marconi. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software. 6. The place value system. 14. Aryabhatta invented ‘zero. India was once the richest empire on earth. The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 5000 years ago. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. 15. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra. cataract. up until 1896. 11. 10. 1. Additional facts were recently published in a German magazine. popularize the vegetarian diet and yoga. 7. C. 16. Let’s not forget that it was such spiritual visionaries as Srila A. fractures and urinary stones. the largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Indians used numbers as big as 1053. Chess was invented in India. According to the Forbes magazine. India invented the numerical system. The world’s first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. India never invaded any country in her last 1000 years of history. and he explained the concept of what is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana. 13. and helped change the public’s view of spirituality. and others who first brought notice of the true glories of Indian Vedic philosophy to the American public. which deals with WORLD HISTORY FACTS ABOUT INDIA. 9. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. More than 10. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. 5. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago. and make “Hare Krishna” a household word. trigonometry and calculus came from India. British scholars have last year (1999) officially published that Budhayan’s works date back to the 6th Century. Although western media portrays modern images of India as poverty stricken and underdeveloped through political corruption. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India. The very word “Navigation” is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. Vivekananda. 8. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like cesareans. which is long before the European mathematicians.

Some may dispute the facts. The world’s first university. and calculus originated in India. In regard to games. The place value system and the decimal system were developed in India in 100 BC. during the Vedic period. Furthermore. which follows. Sushruta. long before the European mathematicians. June 22. The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 6.000 BC. 38 . by the Institute for Rewriting Indian (and World) History.” But when many cultures were nomadic forest dwellers over 5. a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was constructed on the hills of Raivataka in Chandragupta Maurya’s time. the largest unit in use is tera. there is no doubt that the game of chess is an Indian invention in the form of Shatranj or Astha Pada.25875684 days by Bhaskaracharya in the 5th century. urinary stones. Over 125 surgical instruments were in use. by Maxwell Pareira. The first man on Everest was Tenzing Norgay. until 1896 India was the world’s only source of diamonds. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India’s wealth. The use of anesthesia was also known in ancient India. plastic surgery. conducted complicated procedures dealing with cataracts. A century-old suspicion that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. 1999. And the forensic use of fingerprints was discovered and developed in Calcutta. and reproduced in the Annual Research Journal – 2000. fractures. while Hindus (the then inhabitants of the land of Sapta-Sindhu) used units as big as 10 raised to the power of 53 with specific names as early as 5. as explained in Proof of Vedic Culture's Global Existence. Today. The quadratic equation was solved by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. artificial limbs. According to the Saka King Rudradaman I. The solar year was calculated as 365.500 years ago. A 1987 report in Forbes magazine said Sanskrit was the most suitable language for computer software. And Nature has reported that a Danish physicist and his team in the US have slowed down light from the speed of 300. dating from the 4th century BC. the father of surgery.000 km per second to 71 km per hour. not Sir Edmond Hillary. established in Takshila in 700 BC. is accepted as the mother of all European languages. hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. India established the Harappan culture in the Indus Valley.000 years ago. Although modern images of India show poverty and underdevelopment. The very word “navigation” is derived from the Sanskrit naugatih. The Greeks and Romans contented themselves with rather small numbers. the earliest dam for irrigation was built in Saurashta.600 years ago. who also discovered the Pythagorean Theorem in the 6th century. or 10 to the power of 12. According to the Gemological Institute of America. Polo originated in Manipur. trigonometry. had 10.000 years ago. using the Bose Einstein Condensate to stall it in its path. through Latin. “India never invaded any country in the last 10.500 students from all over the world studying more than 60 subjects. like.000 years of her history. innovated by Aryabhatta. it was the richest country on earth until the arrival of the British. is acknowledged as one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. The value of pi was first calculated by Bodhayana. The large university at Nalanda. [Further research has placed the dates mentioned in this paragraph as actually being much earlier for some of these inventions. caesarean section and brain surgery 2. Algebra.] Ayurveda is the oldest school of medicine codified by Charaka 2. Jagadish Bose and not Marconi now stands proven.A similar article to the one above was originally sent into the Indian Express newspaper. India contributed to the number system by the numeral 0. And Sanskrit.

Of the Fortune 500 companies. 27. There are 8. Six Indian ladies have won Miss Universe/Miss World titles over the past 10 years. 4. 22. Indian Railways is the largest railway network in the world under single management. with 2002 production of 1. also known as Benares. 25. Indian Railways is the largest employer in the world. 19. 24. Growing at 6%. is second only to NYSE. 6. There are 3. at more than 6. The organized lottery market in India is US$7bn (2% of GDP). The Indian city of Varanasi. 21. in 25 years Indian GDP on a PPP basis will be at the same level the US is at today. continuously inhabited city in the world today. India has the third-largest army in the world. India’s film industry overshadows Hollywood.500 Indian restaurants in the UK. 220 outsource their software-related work to India. According to the Gemological Institute of America. 26. 14. India was the only source of diamonds. Bank deposits in India roughly equal 50% of its GDP OE again. Indians account for 45% of H1-B visas issued by the US every year. 16. Four out of 10 Silicon Valley startups are run by Indians. 39 . India has the third-largest investor base in the world. held every 12 years in the city of Allahabad.7m units. it attracted 27 million people on the main holy days in January. India is the only country to have built a super computer indigenously.22 million Indians in the US. Nine out of every 10 stones sold in the world pass through India. in 2001. attracts 25 million people OE more than the population of 185 of the 227 countries in the world.5 million strong. 8. India is the world’s premier centre for diamond cutting and polishing. with nearly 400m voting in the last national elections. No other country has won more than twice. with a staff of 1. India has the second-largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world. The number of companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. among the highest in the world. nearly 1.Some additional facts about India are the following: 1. 2. 23. 20. 29. accounting for more than 30% of global production and 25% of consumption. It is the second-largest cement-producing country in the world. India is home to the largest number of pharmaceutical plants (61) approved by USFDA outside the US. 12. and 71 million over the course of the 6 weeks of the whole festival. India is the largest producer and consumer of tea in the world. is the oldest. up until 1896. The Kumbh Mela festival. 17. 30. 7. India has the highest number of annual bulk drugs filings (77) with USFDA. 15% of the country’s total dining-out establishments. 3. 18.000. 28. India consumes a fifth of the world’s gold output. producing more than 110m tonnes.6 million people. 15. Other than US and Japan. 13. With 800 movies per year. India is the largest democracy in the world. India’s Hero Honda is the world’s largest motorcycle manufacturer. In fact. 11. 5.

33. Indians are the richest immigrant class in the US. India is the cradle of the human race. it clearly means that we are not working up to our potential.000 bank branches in India – among the highest in the world. it is India. 32. with nearly 200. if we don’t see even a glimpse of that great India in the India that we see today.31. Mark Twain. the grandmother of legend and the great grand mother of tradition. India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border. only to have had it stifled and squashed by its conquerors over the centuries. From a sample of 2004 US Census based surveys. and that if we do. [Much more information of this kind is presented in Stephen Knapp's book "Proof of Vedic Culture's Global Existence. Albert Einstein. without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. it could again become a global influence if allowed to do so. We owe a lot to the Indians. (Former Chinese ambassador to USA) ALL OF THE ABOVE IS JUST THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG. the birthplace of human speech. The State bank of India is the world’s largest Bank in terms of branches.000 millionaires. French scholar Romain Rolland.389. THE LIST COULD BE ENDLESS. With all this evidence anyone can see the potential India and her people have exhibited in the past. Hu Shih.518 compared to the national average of $44."] ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE AFFECTS OF IMMIGRANTS ON THE AMERICAN ECONOMY A team of student researchers in the Master of Engineering Management program of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University led by Executive in Residence/Adjunct Professor 40 . 34. If there is one place on the face of the earth where all dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence. Additional and Interesting Quotes About India. BUT. Asians are the highest earning subgroup with a median income of $57. There are over 70. India is ranked the sixth country in the world in terms of satellite launches. which is something that is again gradually happening after a long struggle toward freedom. Nonetheless. who taught us how to count. we could once again see India as an ever shining and inspiring country setting a bright path for rest of the world to follow. the mother of history.

show a significant contribution by immigrants of Indian origin: **Indian immigrants have founded more engineering and technology companies in the US in the past decade (1995-2005) than immigrants from the U. Indian immigrants established 34% of the immigrant founded software companies from 1995 to 2005. Israel and Korea trail at 6%. computer and hardware design and service companies in addition to engineering services. ** While in New Jersey. the UK. and China-born founders together accounted for just over 50% of all the immigrant start-ups from 1995 to 2005. 2007. integrated system design. the share of Indian start-ups was a whopping 47 per cent.K. which accounted for 46% and 43%. Florida with 18 per cent.and Taiwan-born) entrepreneurs are heavily concentrated in California. in Texas. The results released on January 4. Just under a quarter of the immigrants who founded companies in this field are from India. China. of their startups.. In biosciences. ** Immigrant groups from India. Indian and U.K. prepackaged software. India-. New York with 14 per cent and Massachusetts with 10 per cent. These contributions were trailed by those of immigrant founders from the Philippines (10%) and Taiwan (10%). Taiwan and Japan combined. In addition. has documented the economic and intellectual contributions of immigrant technologists and engineers to US competitiveness — to understand the sources of US global advantage as well as what the US can do to keep its edge. This was followed by California with 20 per cent. France. Mainland China and Taiwan founded innovation/manufacturing related service companies in similar proportions over the past decade (accounting for 42% to 46% of all engineering and technology companies founded by each group). Entrepreneurs from India and the U. In the computers/communications field. **Indian immigrants are the primary founders of immigrant companies in the innovation/manufacturing-related services fields. with 49% of Mainland Chinese and 81% of Taiwanese companies located there. but they were minimally represented in hardware-oriented sectors such as semiconductors and computers/communications. with Indians having sizable concentrations in California. **Chinese (Mainland. research and testing. Taiwan-. within the software field. The innovation/manufacturing-related services field includes a variety of electronics. Of all immigrant-founded companies. it stood at 25 per cent. Texas and New Jersey and the British in California and Georgia. 41 . entrepreneurs tend to be dispersed around the country. **Almost 80% of immigrant-founded companies in the US were within just two industry fields: software (33%) and innovation/manufacturing-related services (46%). UK. The Indian immigrant group contributes as well to the biosciences and computers/communications fields but is not a dominant force.Vivek Wadhwa. 26% have Indian founders. Indiaand China-born immigrant entrepreneurs each founded 15% of the immigrant founded semiconductors companies from 1995 to 2005. followed at a considerable distance by Taiwan and China at 6% each. processing services and information retrieval companies. Finally. Immigrant founders from China and Taiwan started companies in a broader range of industries. gravitated as well toward the software industry. and Sociology Professor Gary Gereffi. and were more likely to start computers/communications (with 25% and 27% respectively) and software companies (19% and 17%). The software field contains computer programming services. Research Scholar Ben Rissing. they were more likely to be founders of semiconductor companies (8% and 7%) than their Indian or UK counterparts. respectively. India and Germany each contribute 10% of the companies founded by immigrants.K.

**Silicon Valley’s immigrant entrepreneurs led the nation in the 1990s by starting dynamic technology businesses that generate substantial wealth and employment in the US. For example. the growth of Indian entrepreneurship reflected the influx of Indian scientists and engineers to the region.5% of all Silicon Valley startups.3% of all engineering and technology companies established in the U. 18. compared with the North Carolina average of 13. Indians constitute the largest immigrant founding group. As these entrepreneurs collaborate with former classmates and colleagues in once peripheral economies like India and China. These immigrant-founded businesses are unevenly located across the country. the population of Indian scientists and engineers (S&E) in Silicon Valley grew by 646% (while the total foreign-born S&E workforce grew by 246% and the region’s total population of S&E. followed by the Canadians and British.9. California and New Jersey represented hot spots for immigrant-founded engineering and technology business. Washington and Ohio possessed relatively low percentages of immigrant founded businesses.S.K. Indians were second. Some immigrant groups displayed tendencies to start businesses in a particular state. **The key to maintaining US competitiveness in a global economy is to understand America’s strengths and to effectively leverage these. the largest group of immigrant non-citizen inventors were Chinese (Mainland and Taiwan-born). – and that their contributions have increased over the past decade.9% and 5. **This research shows that immigrants have become a significant driving force in the creation of new businesses and intellectual property in the U.**Based on an analysis of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) patent databases. **There was at least one immigrant key founder in 25. 6. and immigrants from China and Taiwan were key founders in 12.1%. each with 15%. with 25% of startups. The new study found that from 1995 to 2005. ** In Research Triangle Park. Indian immigrants outpaced their Chinese counterparts as founders of engineering and technology companies in Silicon Valley.S. Indians were key founders of 15. Immigrants from the U. this pool of immigrant-founded companies was responsible for generating more than $52 billion in 2005 sales and creating just under 450. technology and economic opportunities in the country.7% of startups had an immigrant as a key founder.K.S. **Between 1990 and 2000. China... from all over the world to take advantage of the business. grew by only 103%). Saxenian reported that 17% of Silicon Valley startups from 1980-1998 had a Chinese founder and 7% had an Indian founder. These immigrants come to the U. respectively. Almost 26% of all immigrant-founded companies in the last ten years were founded by Indian immigrants. 81% of businesses founded by Taiwanese immigrants were located in California.000 jobs as of 2005. Today they are contributing to the creation of new centers of technology and skill in their home countries.8%. **A comparison with Saxenian’s 1999 findings shows that the percentage of firms with Indian or Chinese founders in the Silicon Valley had increased from 24% to 28%. they are providing access to the markets and know-how that are critical to success in today’s global economy. both native and foreign-born. Skilled immigrants are one of America’s greatest advantages. 42 . followed by immigrants from Germany and the U.8% of all immigrant-founded businesses. and Taiwan contributed to 7. between 1995 and 2005 inclusive. In short. Together.

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