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# Code No: RR210201 Set No.

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II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. (a) State and prove Pascal’s law.

(b) A U-tube differential manometer connects two pipes carrying liquid of specific
gravity 2.15 at two points L and M. The pressure at L is 150kN/m2 and that
at M is 210kN/m2 . Point L is 3 m higher than point M. What would be the
deflection in the manometer which uses mercury as manometric liquid? [8+8]

## 2. (a) Briefly explain the classification of flows.

(b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if
i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant
ii. Streamlines are straight and converging
iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced
iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8]

3. (a) Write various forms of Bernoulli’s equation. What are the various application
of Momentum equation?
(b) The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 20cm and 10cm at
section 1 and 2 respectively. The rate of flow through pipe is 35 × 10−3 m3 /s.
The section 1 is 6m above datum and section 2 is 4m above datum. If the
pressure at section 1 is 40N/cm2 , find the intensity of pressure @ section 2.
[8+8]

## 4. Two reservoirs with a difference in water surface elevation of 10 m are connected

by a pipeline ABC, which consists of two pipes AB and BC joined in series. Pipe
AB is 10 cm in diameter, 20 m long and has a value of f = 0.02. Pipe BC is of 16
cm diameter, 25 m long and has a f = 0.018. The junctions with the reservoirs and
between the pipes are abrupt.

## (a) calculate the discharge,

(b) what difference in water elevations is necessary to have a discharge of 15
litres/sec. (include all minor losses). 

5. (a) What is a Weir? How are the weirs classified? What is the difference between
a sharp crested and a broad crested weir?
(b) Find the depth and top width of a V -notch capable of discharging a maximum
of 0.7m3 /sec and such that the head shall be 75 mm for a discharge of 5.6
litres/sec. Its Cd is same as that of a similar (in material and sharpness of
edges only) right angled V -notch for which Q = 1.407H 2.5 . [8+8]

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 1
6. A square plate weighing 115N and of uniform thickness and 30 cm edge is hung so
that horizontal jet 2 cm diameter and having a velocity of 15 m/s impinges on the
plate. The center line of the jet is 15 cm below the upper edge of the plate, and
when the plate is vertical the jet strikes the plate normally and at its center. Find
what force must be applied at the lower edge of the plate in order to keep plate
vertical.If the plate is allowed to swing freely, find the inclination to vertical which
the plate will assume under the action of jet. 

## 7. A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m delivers 12000 kW of power. The

outer diameter of the runner is 3.5 m and the hub diameter is 1.75 m. The guide
blade angle at the extreme edge of the runner is 350 . The hydraulic and overall
efficiencies of the turbine are 85 and 80% respectively. If the velocity of whirl is
zero at outlet, determine the runner vane angles at inlet and outlet. 

8. A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger of 7.5cm diameter and a stroke
length of 15cm. It takes its supply of water from a sump 3m below the pump
through a pipe 5m long and 4cm diameter. It delivers water to a tank 12m above
the pump through a pipe 3 cm in diameter and 15m long. If separation occurs at
7 N/cm2 below the atmospheric pressure, find the maximum speed at which pump
may be operated without separation. Assume that plunger has simple harmonic
motion. 

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 2
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) State and explain the principles involved in pressure measurement.

(b) A differential manometer is connected to pressure taps 3 m apart in a pipe
inclined at 300 to the horizontal. The manometer contains mercury and shows
a deflection of 20 cm. The pipe conveys oil of specific gravity 0.9. What is the
pressure drop? [8+8]
2. (a) Briefly explain the classification of flows.
(b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if
i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant
ii. Streamlines are straight and converging
iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced
iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8]
3. A 450 deflection angle reducing bend lies in a horizontal plane and tapers from 60
cm diameter to 30 cm diameter at the outlet. The pressure at the inlet is 15 kPa
and flow through the bend is 0.5m3 /s of water. Assuming friction loss of 20% of
kinetic energy at inlet, compute the magnitude and direction of the resultant force
exerted by water on the bend. 
4. (a) Derive Dupit’s equation for an equivalent pipe
(b) Three pipes of 400mm, 200mm and 300mm diameters have lengths of 400mm,
200mm and 300mm respectively. They are connected in series to make a
compound pipe. The ends of this compound pipe are connected with two
tanks where difference of water levels is 16m. Assume the friction factor as
0.005. Determine the discharge through the compound pipe neglecting minor
losses. [8+8]
5. Water flows at the rate of 150 litres per second through a 0.015m diameter orifice in
a 0.03m diameter pipe. If the pressure gauges fitted upstream and down stream of
the orifice indicate readings of 2 bar and 1 bar respectively, calculate the discharge
coefficient of the orifice meter. 
6. A jet of water having a velocity of 30m/s impinges on a series of vanes mounted on
the periphery of a wheel moving with a peripheral velocity of 15m/s. The absolute
velocity is directed at an angle of 300 to the direction of motion of the vanes. The
relative velocity at outlet is 95% of the value at inlet. The absolute velocity at exist
is normal to the direction of vanes. Assuming smooth entry, find the vane angles
at inlet and outlet, and the hydraulic efficiency of vanes. 

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 2
7. Draw the constant head characteristic curves for Hydraulic turbines. 

## 8. (a) Explain the function of air vessel in a reciprocating pump

(b) A three throw pump has cylinder bore 80 cm and stroke 60 cm. The pump is
required to deliver 100 lps at a head of 130 m. Friction losses in the suction
and delivery pipes are 1m and 18 m respectively. The velocity of water in the
pipe is 1 m/s. If the efficiency is 90% and slip is 2%, determine the speed and
power required to drive the pump. [8+8]

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 3
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Obtain expressions for excess pressure inside a water droplet and a soap bub-
ble.
(b) A plate of 1m2 area having mass 1.53 kg slides down an inclined plane with a
velocity of 0.5 m/s. The angle of inclination of plane with respect to horizontal
is Sin−1 (5/13). The thickness of oil film between the plate and plane is 1.5
mm. Calculate the viscosity of oil. [8+8]

## 2. (a) Derive the continuity equation for one-dimensional flow.

(b) Distinguish between stream line, path line and streak line. [8+8]

## 3. (a) Explain the different forms of energy in a fluid.

(b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of
flow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of
one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 300 with horizontal.
Determine the difference in pressure between the two points, assuming the
specific weight of the liquid as 7.85kN/m3 . [8+8]

## 4. (a) Derive an expression to compute loss of head for sudden expansion

(b) Determine the wall shearing stress in a pipe of diameter 100mm which carries
water. The velocity at the pipe centre and 30mm, from the pipe centre are 2
m/s and 1.5 m/s respectively. The flow in pipe is assumed to be turbulent.
[8+8]

5. (a) Explain the working principle of an orifice meter with a neat sketch.
(b) An orifice meter with orifice diameter 15cm is inserted in a pipe of 30cm
diameter. The pressure gauges fitted upstream and downstream of the orifice
meter give readings of 14.715N/cm2 and 9.81N/cm2 respectively. Find the
rate of flow of water through the pipe in liters/so Take Cd = 0.6. [8+8]

## 6. Using impulse-momentum, derive an expression for the force exerted by a moving

jet of fluid on a stationary curved vane. 

7. Draw the general layout of a Hydro-Electric Power plant and explain the working.


8. (a) What are the different heads and efficiencies used in Centrifugal pumps. Ex-
plain.
(b) Obtain the equation for minimum starting speed of a Centrifugal pump. [8+8]

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 3
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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 4
II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Mention two important properties of fluid which affect fluid motion to a con-
siderable extent. Elaborate your answer.
(b) A gas bubble 10 mm in diameter rises uniformly through a liquid of specific
gravity 1.5 at a speed of 0.3 cm/s. What is the viscosity of liquid? [8+8]
2. (a) Briefly explain the classification of flows.
(b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if
i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant
ii. Streamlines are straight and converging
iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced
iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8]
3. (a) Explain the different forms of energy in a fluid.
(b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of
flow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of
one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 300 with horizontal.
Determine the difference in pressure between the two points, assuming the
specific weight of the liquid as 7.85kN/m3 . [8+8]
4. (a) Derive Dupit’s equation for an equivalent pipe
(b) Three pipes of 400mm, 200mm and 300mm diameters have lengths of 400mm,
200mm and 300mm respectively. They are connected in series to make a
compound pipe. The ends of this compound pipe are connected with two
tanks where difference of water levels is 16m. Assume the friction factor as
0.005. Determine the discharge through the compound pipe neglecting minor
losses. [8+8]
5. A pitot tube is mounted on an airplane to indicate the relative speed of the plane.
What differential pressure intensity will the instrument register when the plane is
traveling at a speed of 220km/hr in a wind blowing at 40km/hr against the direction
of motion of the plane? Take specific weight of air as 11.9N/m3 . 
6. A jet of water having a velocity of 30m/s strikes a series of radial curved vanes
mounted on a wheel, which is rotating at 200 rpm. The jet makes an angle of 200
with the tangent to the wheel at inlet and leaves the wheel with a velocity of 5m/s
at an angle of 1300 to the tangent to the wheel at outlet. Water is flowing from
outward in a radial direction. The outer and inner radii of the wheel are 0.5m and
0.25m respectively. Determine;

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Code No: RR210201 Set No. 4
(a) Vane angles at inlet and outlet,
(b) Work done per unit weight of water and
(c) Efficiency of the wheel. 

7. Draw the general layout of a Hydro-Electric Power plant and explain the working.


8. The impeller of a centrifugal pump has 1.2 m outside diameter. It is used to lift
1800 litres of water per second against a head of 6 m. Its vanes make an angle
of 1500 with the direction of motion at outlet and runs at 200 rpm. If the radial
velocity of flow at outlet is 2.5 m/s, find the manometric efficiency. Also find the
lowest speed to start the pump, if the diameter of the impeller at inlet is equal to
half the diameter at exit. 

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