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Ms. Shilpa Jindal Ms. Alka Jindal
Abstract -Many advanced data services are driving up wireless technology, which is further boosted by growth in advanced market segments. The wireless industry is evolving from a web of independent networks into a single integrated network with multiple standards; the expectation is that WI-Fl, WI-MAX and 3G will coexist to enable a host of exerting new applications and business models. This paper focuses on concepts of WI-MAX technology, which employs microwave for the transfer of data wirelessly, and it also presents its comparison with WI-Fl, and 3G technologies. WI-MAX is delivering broadband wireless access to the masses and represents alternative to digital subscriber lines (DSL) and cable broadband access. WI-MAX is based on IEEE 802.16 standard and is scalable. It stands for wireless (WI) microwave access (MAX). WI-MAX will provide anywhere, anytime connectivity. Features of WI-MAX are OFDM i.e. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Sub Channelization, Directional Antennas and Adaptive Modulation, which make WI-MAX as the technology of today. The Benefit of WI-MAX technology is that the signals can be run very close to each other on wireless channels. Super narrow lanes can put a lot of traffic over them without disturbance. Many technologies currently available can only provide line of sight (LOS) coverage; the technology behind WI-MAX has been optimized to provide excelled non-line of sight (NLOS) coverage. Keywords-wireless broadband, wireless fidelity (WIFI), WIMAX, 3RD generation, wireless LAN, wireless MAN I. INTRODUCTION
Dr. (Mrs.) Neena Gupta
Wireless technology describes telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves, carry the signal over part or the entire communication path without cables. Wireless broadband refers to fixed wireless connectivity that can be utilized by enterprises, businesses, households and telecommuters who travel from one fixed location to another fixed location. Wireless broadband is an extension of the point-to-point, wireless-LAN bridging concept to deliver high-speed and high capacity pipe that can be used for voice, multi-media and Internet access services. Though there are many technologies available for providing broadband wireless access to the Internet, but the main focus is on WI-MAX, 3G and WIFI due to their potential benefits.  This paper presents important features of WIMAX technology and an elaborated comparison of WIMAX with other contemporary technologies i.e. WI Fl, 3G etc. Firstly the potential features, advantages, disadvantages of WIFI, WIMAX and 3g are elaborated. Subsequently their architecture is discussed and finally WIFI and WIMAX are compared with each other along with their applications and conclusions are presented.
II. OVERVIEW OF WI Fl, WI MAX AND 3G In this section, a brief overview of these technologies is
A. WI FI WI FI stands for wireless fidelity and generally refer to any type of 802.11 networks, whether 802.1lb, 802.1la, 802.11g. WI-Fl is a wireless technology that uses radio frequency to transmit data through the air. W LAN access point or hub or transmitter sends out a wireless signal that allows Wireless devices to access within a circle of roughly 100 meters. Zone around the transmitter is known as hot spot. Computers connected to WI Fl receivers near a hot spot can connect to Internet at high speeds without cable. WI-Fl refers to three types of wireless protocols that can work with each other: IEEE 802.1 lb ("Wireless B"), IEEE 802.1 la ("Wireless A"), and the newer IEEE 802.1lg ("Wireless G"). They can connect computers very fastly: 11 Mbps for Wireless B, 54Mbps for Wireless A, and 54Mbps for Wireless G.  which are described in subsequent sections. 1) 802.llb * It is the longest, well-supported, stable, and cost effective standard, runs in the 2.4 GHz range that makes it prone to interference from other devices (microwave ovens, cordless phones, etc) and also has security disadvantages * Limits to the number of access points to three. * It has 11 channels, with 3 non-overlapping, and supports rates from 1 to 11 Mbps. * Uses direct-sequence spread-spectrum technology. 2) 802.1lg * It is an extension of 802.1 lb, with the same disadvantages (Security and interference) * It has a shorter range than 802.1 lb * It is backwards compatible with 802.1 lb so it allows a Smooth transition from 1 lb to 1 Ig * It is flexible because multiple channels can be combined for Faster throughput, but limited to one access point * It runs at 54 Mbps, * Uses frequency division multiplexing technology
* It is completely different from 1 lb and 11g. * It is flexible because multiple channels can be combined for faster throughput and more access points can be collocated * It has shorter range than 1 lb and 1 Ig * It Runs in the 5 GHz range, so having less interference from other devices * It has 12 channels, 8 non-overlapping, and supports rates from 6 to 54 Mbps * It uses frequency division multiplexing technology. WI-Fl is a trademark of the WI-FT Alliance (formerly the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance), the trade organization
0-7803-91 79-9/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE.
these were referred to as Personal Communication Systems (PCS) and used technologies such as TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access).S. WI-Fl commonly uses WEP (wired equivalent privacy) protocol for protection.11 requirements into a functional WiFi building block. mobile services based on digital mobile technologies are known as second generation (2G) of wireless services. 4) Frequency under considerations Three Frequencies under consideration for WI max 5. bringing the possibility of mobile devices using the technology. IT is referred to as first generation wireless.  B. It is possible to move without breaking the network connection while connected on a WI-Fl network. while GSM was deployed as the common standard in Europe. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). Sometimes Users cannot configure it properly.. By adopting 802. * Many reliable and bug-free WI-Fl products on the market. The FCC licensed two operators in each market to offer AMPS service in the 800-900MHz bands. Mobile services began to emerge in the 1940s. 3G can use a variety of present and future wireless network WiMAX. which can be easily breakable even when properly configured. which is crowded with other devices such as blue tooth. WI-Fl networks have limited range.that tests and certifies equipment compliance with the 802.Such as ITU. 5 MHz. and requires less regulatory controls in many countries.5GHz and 3.16e A more recent development which will operate in the 2GHz . can also cause degradation in performance. wireless networking at distances of a few kilometres * It Uses OFDM (which allows for non line-of-sight communications and addresses multipath issues) * It Includes TDD and FDD duplexing support * It has flexible channel sizes (3.5GHz have been targeted for licensed use throughout the world WiMax Regulatory Task Force coordinates with Radio Regulators across the World and WiMax representation at International Bodies . A typical WI-Fl home router using 802. were based on the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) technology. * Power consumption is fairly high compared to other standards.1 Ii protocol makes available a better security scheme for future use when properly configured. The WiFi building blocks are: Antenna Access Point (AP) Router Internet access 2) WiMax Promises Up to a ten (10) mile range without wires Broadband speeds without cable or TI Handles "last mile" access in remote areas Licensing and equipment due in 2005 Affordable technology . though many systems still employ WEP.1 lb or 802.S. making battery life and heat a matter of concern.16 1) Features of WiMax Uses Microwaves For The Wireless Transfer Of Data * It stands for Wireless (WI) microwave access (MAX) * It is used for high-speed.11b standards of WI-Fl use the 2. 3G (3rd generation) 3G stand for 3rd generation mobile telephone systems. microwave ovens. The Wi-MAX standard has fragmented into two variants: 802. Other devices. an acronym that stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and is based on point to point broadband wireless access and working on the group no. Newer wireless solutions are providing support for the superior WPA (WI Fl protected access) protocol (implementation of the 802. ARCHITECTURE A.1 Ii protocol). Block diagram shows mapping of the IEEE 802. Disadvantages of WI-FI * The 802. III. CEPT. WI FI 1) WI FI building block. which can transfer at up to 70Mbps over distances of as much as 30 miles using the 10GHz and 66GHz spectrums. Evolution Of 3G The first mobile services were analog. allows for a more dynamic network to be grown. However the fact that it is unlicensed limits the transmission distance 2. 16 of IEEE 802i. In the next section the architecture of various technologies is described. In the 1990s.11g and 802. IEEE 802. ERO and FCC C. 802. * Competition amongst vendors has lowered prices considerably since their inception.8GHz unlicensed (same as for WiFi).S.6GHz licensed bands. and cordless phones.. WRC. 3G combines highspeed mobile access with Internet Protocol (IP) based services. It is a technology for mobile service providers. 10 MHz)  * * * * * technologies. which use microwave frequencies such as certain types of cell phones. the first mass market mobile services in the U.  From 1995 to 1997. Advantages of Wi-Fi * It Uses an unlicensed portion of the broadcast spectrum.4 GHz spectrum. the FCC auctioned off PCS spectrum licenses in the 1850 to 1990 MHz band. It may cause degradation in performance. CDMA and TDMA were deployed in the various parts of the U..e.1 lx standards.1 Ig have a range of 150 ft (46 m) indoor and 300 ft (92 m) outdoors. The next or Third Generation (3G) mobile technologies hopes to support higher bandwidth digital communications and are expected to be based on one of the several standards included under the ITU's IMT-2000 umbrella of 3G standards. * It frees network devices from cables. WI MAX 3) Standard based. In the U.16a The original Wi-MAX standard.5MHz.
1 lb standard This standard defines 11 channels The RF reach of each channel is about 160 ft in doors or about300ft outdoors. This arrangement is referred to as a Basic Service Set (BSS). Here subcarriers (fig 5) are overlapping. and information is sent on Parallel overlapping subcarriers. two or more stations can talk to each other without an AP. G WiMAX is based on point to point broadband wireless access and working on the group no. Access to the wired network (Internet) is accomplished at the station that has the Internet access port. This arrangement is referred to as an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). In multi carrier (fig 4) modulation signal bandwidth is divided into parallel subcarriers or narrow strips of bandwidth.16  WiMAX is known as one of the broadband fixed wireless access solutions for the "Last mile"and designed to address the MAN market. *QOS .802. 16 of IEEE 802i.e. B. OFDM uses subcarriers that are mathematically orthogonal. WI MAX User ACCESS POINT devicecI User (AP) . Infrastructure network This configuration consists of multiple stations connected to an AP. OFDM is a modulation or multiplexing method. Sub-channels allow optimizing at the frequency level. i. WI Fl supports various network types: * Hub and spoke * Mesh network. Another alternative would be to assign those sub channels to a different user who may have better channel conditions for that particular sub-channel. This property reduces interference caused by adjacent carriers Fig 4 Multi carrier Fig 5 Single carrier * Sub Channelization: Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) in a multipath environment that gives OFDMA advantages as the flexibility to change the modulation for specific.11 A. and 11). resulting in improvements to the uplink budget and providing greater range. A network can be configured in two basic ways: * Ad hoc (Peer-to-peer) network * Infrastructure network Ad hoc (Peer-to-peer) network In this configuration.e. IEEE 802. 6. andi tare typically used to cover a large area 2) Wifi Network Cell Fig 2: channel allocation for WI FI 3) Network architecture A network is established when a station(s) and APs have recognized each other and established a communication link. Next WIMAX is discussed. Channels 1. There are three non-overlapping channels (channels. from which information can be extracted individually.OTHERS Fig 1: WI FI Sketch SECURITY dcvicc2 WIFI network cell for 802. This Technique is known as Space . 1) WiMAX network architecture WiMAX architecture is similar to the cellular telephony in that a service area is divided into cells WiMAX is able to operate in a Line Of Sight (LOS) and near or non LOS (NLOS) access approach. 1. This allows users to concentrate transmited power on Specific subchannels. The AP acts as a bridge to the wired network. * OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) OFDM is a technique which is based on multi carrier modulation (MCM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). 6.B.
town hall meetings could enjoy high 'virtual' attendance. Various standards FOR WI Fl. Differences between WIFIAnd WIMAX They offer alternatives to the last-mile wire line network. WI FI VS 3G 1) Similarities In tisarea both urs are experiencing a weak signal. . the data GHz). With OFDMA. WI MAX is Easier to install than WI-Fl (no need for careful alignment of access points) . Wi-Fi communities are taking advantage of this vast capacity to build their own Wi-Fi broadband private virtual network 2) Web-based events. while the bottom indicates which sub-carriers are then chosen for each Signal. both rely on similar network connections and will allow channel sizes to be decided based on requirements transmission support infrastructure. Wi-Fi can cost effectively be deployed in weeks. Fig(6) shows selection of sub channels depending on the received signal strength. The two technologies differ with respect to their stage of Visitors and residents can travel around the community and development in a number of ways. while WiFi 11 Mbps 802. ) Avoids need to install cable drops to each device when compared to wire line alternatives.1 1 hotspots. One advantage Wi-Fi has is the inherent enormous bandwidth access when compare to the legacy Internet accesses. User I Use 2 devices.16 (Wi 70 Mbps WAN (Fixed)Quality of Service (QoS) 11 GHZ 50 Km max) Congestion Management. Fig 6: Sub Channels Facilitates mobility. Web-based hosting events offer several possibilities for communities to merchandize their goods and services.11 a 5. Emerging WI-FI broadband applications Industry structure 1) The Benefits of Wi-Fi / WiMAX in rural regions: WI-Fl deployment in rural communities offers opportunity on many Status oftechnology development is different. This has important implications Mobile). When the signal qualih oik Both are wireless: Both technologies are wireless that In this case a third usr could utiize this chan. Based on geographical locations with the potential of eliminating the impact of deep fades. rate offered by WiFi (11Mbps) is substantially higher than the WI-Fl has a range of about 100m. In a wireless community. we consider several of the important ways in to DSL and TI level services for last mile broadband access it which the WiFi and 3G approaches to offering broadband will act as a backbone technology for 802. WIMAX works in the licensed spectrum (10-66 GHz with Both offer broadband data service some systems operating in bands between 2 GHz and 11 Both 3G and WIFI support broadband data service. whereas WiFi comes out of the data communications industry Table 1: WIFI AND WIMAX (LANs). 802. The signals on the top indicate the received signal strength. These are discussed in the maintain Internet access through their handheld wireless following subsections.11 b 2. WiMax will provide couple of 100 Kbps expected from 3G services. A.1 Ig 2. the client device chooses sub channels. which is a by-product of the computer industry Standard Max Freq. Video chat is a powerful tool for increasing interaction between users in a public setting It encourages participants to interact in a friendly social setting.4 GHZ LAN (FixedCost of Service Mobile) -100 m 5 GHZ. services over several kms. (2 ') Both are access technologies IV COMPARISONS Both 3G and WiFi are access or edge-network technologies. Application Area Spectrum policy and management throughput Bands One of the key distinctions between 3G and WiFi is that 3G and 54 Mbps 802. Voice over Wi-Fi is an emerging application that has been referred to as the "killer application". and business potentials. art.goal of easy self-installation Current business modelsldeployment are different.4 GHZ LAN (Fixed uses unlicensed shared spectrum. WIMAX is designed to provide a higher level of reliability and quality of service than WiFi DIFFERENCES 2) WiMAX is a MAN protocol that will be a wireless altemnative In this section.100 m for 54 Mbps 802.mile. WI MAX 3G represent an extension of the mobile service provider model.el this chanrel is awkded for User 1. Beyond WI-Fl channels occupy a fixed width of the spectrum WiMax the last. wireless access services are substantively different.5 GHZ LAN (Fixed & Mobile)-100 m other mobile technologies use licensed spectrum. * * * * * B. fronts.Division Multiple Access (SDMA). Those Sub-channels on which the user experiences fading are avoided and power is concentrated on channels with better channel conditions. Such community sites could attract new customers and potential visitors can familiarize themselves with community interests. 3) Video chat. 4) Wi-Fi Killer application. talents. WiFi works in the unlicensed ISM band.
It represents an Extension of the existing service provider industry to new services. WI MAX is used to cover large area. Service/Business Model 3G is more developed than WiFi as a business and service model. WiFi Provides a lower layer data communications service. Nlobihtvvs. CDMA 2000 2mbps Cell phone companies Yes Several km Range. WiFi is one of the family of continuously evolving 802._ VIS Mlobility .11 Max speed Operations License Coverage area Advantages Disadvantage WCDMA. expensive 54mbps Individuals No About 100m Speed. the technologies can coexist. In contrast. Embedded Supportfor Services Difference between 3G and WiFi is their embedded support for voice services. there is still uncertainty as to which of these (or even if multiple ones) will be selected by service providers. formal standards picture for 3G is more clear than for WLAN. which overcome the disadvantage of WI Fl as discussed in the paper.. Whereas. TABLE 2: 3 G AND WIMAX 3g WI MAX IEEE 802.2004  RFM (RF Monolithics.16 Standard Max speed WCDMA. long range Interference V CONCLUSION WiFi is good for competition and has an extension to WI MAX. Communicating with a 3G base station at a long distance but with reduced bandwidth or Communicating with a WiFi base station at a short distance but at a much higher data rate will both consume batteries quickly. In contrast. For 3G. there is only limited progress with respect to service Deployment. McKnight Wireless Internet Access: 3G vs. there is a relatively small family of Internationally sanctioned standards collectively referred to as WCDMA. Standardization Broadly. with IP running over WiFi it is possible to support Voice-over-IP telephony. 3. cheap Short range C. Large base of WiFi networking equipment has installed that is growing rapidly as WiFi vendors have geared up to push wireless home networks using the technology and are unlicensed. GENEVA 2001-2002 W VI REFERENCES LowigM _th/S-Mobilit :BdVyt Fig 8: Band-width i. which is itself one of many WLAN technologies that are under development 4. so voice services are an intrinsic part of 3G.inc) WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)  Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless Technical White Paper A Technical Overview and Comparison of WiMAX and 3G Technologies December 2004  William Lehr Lee W. Batndwi2th  Al Prendergast Why Wi-Fi? LV-CCLD August 12. at least with respect to WLAN equipment.1. For example. Success of WiFi is potentially good for multimedia content. CDMA2000 Operations License Coverage area Advantages Disadvantage Yes Several km Range. WI MAX VS 3G The differences between WIMAX and 3G are shown in the table.nd dth TABLE 2: 3G AND WIFI 3g Standard WIFI IEEE 802. mobility Slow. mobility 2mbps Cell phone companies 10 to 100mbps Individuals Slow. Another potential advantage of 3G over WiFi is that 3G offers better support for Secure/private communications than does WiFi. At a long distance but with reduced bandwidth one can communicate with 3G efficiently. However. which has become commoditized. 2. WiFi? August 23. WiFi and 3G complement each other for a mobile provider. expensive Yes/no Several km Speed. 2002  IMT -2000. WiFi is more developed with respect to the upstream supplier markets. Ba. Deployment Status While 3G licenses have been awarded in a number of markets at a high cost. 3G is expressly designed as an upgrade technology for wireless voice telephony networks. Hence depending on the requirements. On the other hand WiFi can be used to Communicate at a short distance but at a much higher data rate.1 Ix Wireless Ethernet standards.
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