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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 PROBABILITY THEORY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State and prove Bayes theorem of probability. (b) In a single throw of two dice, what is the probability of obtaining a sum of at least 10? [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne the joint distribution function. Explain how marginal density functions are Computed given their joint distribution functions. (b) A product is classiﬁed according to the number of defects it contains (X1) and the factory that produces it (X2). The joint probability distribution is given by: X2 → X1 ↓ 0 1 2 3 1 1/8 1/16 3/16 1/8 2 1/16 1/16 1/8

(a) Find the marginal distribution of X1 (b) Find the conditional distribution of X1 when X2 is equal to 1 (c) Are the variables X1 and X2 independent? [7+9]

3. (a) Show that mean of the binomial distribution is the product of the parameter p & the number of times n. (b) Sketch the probability density function & Probability distribution function of i. Exponential distribution ii. Uniform distribution iii. Gaussian distribution 4. (a) State the condition for wide sense stationary Random process. (b) Find the Auto Correlation function for white noise shown in the ﬁgure 4b below. [8+8]

[6+10]

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Code No: RR210403

Set No. 1

Figure 4b 5. (a) Derive the relation between PSDs of input and output random process of an LTI system. (b) X(t) is a stationary random process with zero mean and auto correlation 1 RXX (τ ) e−2|τ | is applied to a system of function H (w) = jw+2 Find mean and PSD of its output. [8+8] 6. (a) What are the causes of thermal noise? (b) What are the causes of shot noise? [8+8]

7. (a) What are the important parameters that determine the overall noise ﬁgure of a multistage ﬁltering? (b) Bring out the importance of Frii’s formula. [10+6]

8. (a) A code is composed of dots and dashes. Assume that a dash is three times as long as the dot and has one-third the probability of occurrence. Find, i. The information in a dot and that in a dash, and ii. The entropy in the dot - dash code. (b) Suppose 100 voltage levels are employed to transmit 100 equally likely messages. Assume the system to be a Gaussian channel with λ = 3.5 and bandwidth B = 104 Hz. Find S/N. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210403

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 PROBABILITY THEORY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) If A and B are any events, not necessarily mutually exclusive events, derive an expression for probability of A Union B. When A and B are mutually exclusive, what happens to the above expression derived? (b) Deﬁne the term Independent events. State the conditions for independence of i. any two events A and B. ii. any three events A, B and C. (c) A coin is tossed. If it turns up heads, two balls will be drawn from box A, otherwise, two balls will be drawn from box B. Box A contains three black and ﬁve white balls. Box B contains seven black and one white balls. In both cases, selections are to be made with replacement. What is the probability that Box A is used, given that both balls drawn are black? [5+6+5] 2. (a) Two discrete random variables X and Y have joint p.m.f. given by the following table X ↓ 1 2 3 Y ← 1 1/12 1/6 1/12 2 1/6 1/4 1/12 3 1/12 1/12 0 (b) Compute the probability of each of the following events : i. X ≤ 11/2 ii. XY is even iii. Y is even given that X is even. [5+5+6] 3. (a) State and prove any four properties of mean of a random variable X (b) Prove that the density function of sum of two statistically independent random variables is the convolution of their individual density functions. [10+6] 4. A class of modulation signal is modulated by Xc (t) = AX(t)Cos(̟c t+θ) Where x(t) is the message signal and A Cos (̟c t + θ) is the carrier. The message Signal x(t) is modeled as a zero mean stationary random process with the autocorrelation function Rxx (τ ) and the PSD Gx (f ). The carrier amplitude A and frequency ̟c are assumed to be constants and the initial carrier phase θ is assumed to be a random variable uniformly distributed in the interval (−Π, Π). Further more x(t) and θ are assumed to be independent. 1 of 2

Code No: RR210403 (a) Show that Xc (t) is stationary (b) Find the PSD of Xc (t).

Set No. 2

[8+8]

5. (a) Derive the relation between PSDs of input and output random process of an LTI system. (b) X(t) is a stationary random process with zero mean and auto correlation 1 RXX (τ ) e−2|τ | is applied to a system of function H (w) = jw+2 Find mean and PSD of its output. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the external noise sources of random noise. (b) Calculate the rms noise voltage generated in a bandwidth if 15 kHz by a resistor of 2kΩ operating at 200 c. Find the noise power over this bandwidth. Find the noise PSD. [8+8] 7. In TV receivers, the antenna is often mounted on a tall mask and a long lossy cable is used to connect the antenna and receiver. To overcome the eﬀect of noisy cable, a preampliﬁer is mounted on the antenna. The parameters of the diﬀerent stages are Preampliﬁer gain = 20 dB Preampliﬁer Noise ﬁgure = 6 dB Lossy cable noisy ﬁgure = 3 dB Cable Loss = -20 dB Receiver front end gain = 60 dB Receiver Noise ﬁgure = 16 dB Determine the overall noise ﬁgure of the system. [16] 8. (a) A code is composed of dots and dashes. Assume that a dash is three times as long as the dot and has one-third the probability of occurrence. Find, i. The information in a dot and that in a dash, and ii. The entropy in the dot - dash code. (b) Suppose 100 voltage levels are employed to transmit 100 equally likely messages. Assume the system to be a Gaussian channel with λ = 3.5 and bandwidth B = 104 Hz. Find S/N. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR210403

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 PROBABILITY THEORY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne Probability density function and obtain the relationship between probability and probability density. (b) Consider the probability density f (x) = ae−b|x| where x is a random variable Whose allowable values range from x = −∞to∞. Find i. the CDF F (x) ii. the relationship between a and b. and iii. the probability that the out come x lies between 1 and 2.

[7+9]

2. (a) Derive an expression for the average value and variance associated with the Gaussian probability density function. (b) The average life of a certain type of electric club Rs.1200 hours What percentage of this type of bulbs is expected o fail in the ﬁrst 800 hours of working? What percentage is expected to fail between 800 is 1000 hours? Assume a normal distribution with σ=200 hours. [8+8] 3. (a) State and Prove any four properties of characteristic function. [10+6]

(b) Find the density function of the distribution for which the characteristic function is −t2 σ 2 ∅(t) =e− 2 4. X(t) is a zero mean stationary Random process with an Auto correction function Rxx (τ ). By integration X(t) form a Random variable Y as [8+8] 1 Y = 2T

T 2T

**21 x(t)dt show thatE(Y ) = µx = 0 and σ yT
**

0

(1 −

τ ) Rxx (τ )dτ 2τ

−T

5. (a) Derive the relation between PSDs of input and output random process of an LTI system. (b) X(t) is a stationary random process with zero mean and auto correlation 1 RXX (τ ) e−2|τ | is applied to a system of function H (w) = jw+2 Find mean and PSD of its output. [8+8] 6. Write short notes on

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Code No: RR210403 (a) Flicker noise (b) Partition noise (c) Johnson’s noise

Set No. 3

[5+5+6]

7. (a) What are the precautions to be taken in cascading stages of a network in the point of view of noise reduction? (b) What is the need for band limiting the signal towards the direction increasing SNR. [8+8] 8. (a) Obtain the Shannon - Hartley law giving the, relation amongst channel capacity, bandwidth and signal to noise ratio of a continuous system. (b) Consider a message sequence having alphabets Q1 , Q2 , Q3 and Q4 with probabilities 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/8 respectively. i. Calculate the entropy of the message sequence, ii. Find the information rate of the message rate is 1 message / second, iii. What is the rate at which binary signals are transmitted if the signal is sent after encoding Q1 , Q2 , Q3 and Q4 is 00, 01, 10 and 11. [8+2+3+3] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR210403

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 PROBABILITY THEORY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between mutually exclusive events and independent events. (b) A letter is known to have come either from LONDON or CLIFTON. On the postmark only the two consecutive letters ‘ON’ are legible. What is the Chance that it came from London? Give step-by-step answer. (c) Show that the chances of throwing six with 4,3 or 2 dice respectively are as 1:6:18. [4+6+6] 2. (a) Derive an expression for the average value and variance associated with the Gaussian probability density function. (b) The average life of a certain type of electric club Rs.1200 hours What percentage of this type of bulbs is expected o fail in the ﬁrst 800 hours of working? What percentage is expected to fail between 800 is 1000 hours? Assume a normal distribution with σ=200 hours. [8+8] 3. (a) State and prove any four properties of mean of a random variable X (b) Prove that the density function of sum of two statistically independent random variables is the convolution of their individual density functions. [10+6] 4. (a) If the auto correlation function of a wss process is R(τ ) = k .e−k(τ ) , show that 2 its spectral density is given by S(ω) = 2 1+( ω ) k (b) Find the PSD of a random process x(t) if E[x(t)] = 1 and Rxx (τ ) = 1 + e−α|τ | [8+8] 5. A Random process n(t) has a power spectral density g(f) = η/2 for α ≤ f ≤ α Random process is passed through a low pass ﬁlter which has transfer function H(f)=2 for −f m ≤ f ≤ fm and H(f)= 0 otherwise. Find the PSD of the waveform at the o/p of the ﬁlter. [16] 6. (a) Calculate the equivalent noise bandwidth of an RC Low pass ﬁlter. How it is related to its 3 db bandwidth. (b) Find the PSD of the noise voltage across the terminals 1 & 2 for the following ckt ﬁgure6b. [8+8]

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Code No: RR210403

Set No. 4

Figure 6b 7. (a) Evaluate the equivalent noise temperature of a two porr device with a matched source and a matched load. (b) Bring out the signiﬁcance of noise ﬁgure in determining the performance of a communication system. [8+8] 8. (a) Describe the channel capacity of a discrete channel. (b) Explain Shannon - Fano algorithm to develop a code to increase average information per bit. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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