Digital Rights Management | Digital Rights Management | Copyright Infringement

*Digital Rights Management* *INTRODUCTION* During the past decade, computers and the Internet have transformed the

way we work, learn, communicate and are entertained. Yet some of technology's potential to do even more has not been fully realized, because of concerns about illegal use of digital information, about confidentiality and about privacy. For example, ecommerce in music and movies has been slowed, because artists and publishers have been concerned about protecting their copyrighted works from illegal use. More broadly, businesses don't exchange digital information with customers and partners as freely as they might, because they fear it could fall into the wrong hands. These concerns reflect the increasing need of all businesses and many individual computer users to share a wide range of digital information, yet still control who can use it and how -and it is called "rights management."Digital Rights Management (DRM) is a technology that protects content owners' rights while selling and distributing the content online in a digital form. DRM introduces new possibilities for selling, distributing and consuming content and therefore does not only involve the prevention of piracy. Traditional rights management of physical materials benefited from the materials' physicality as this provided some barrier to unauthorized exploitation of content. However, today we already see serious breaches of copyright law because of the ease with which digital files can be copied and transmitted. On the Internet, DRM technology is currently used mostly for music, videos, and books. The end-user's terminal is a personal computer or a portable music player that can download DRM protected music from a PC. While there is no industry standard for DRM, IBM, Microsoft and RealNetworks have each introduced their own proprietary software platforms. Previously, Digital Rights Management (DRM) focused on security and encryption as a means of solving the issue of unauthorized copying, that is, lock the content and limit its distribution to only those who pay. This was the first-generation of DRM, and it represented a substantial narrowing of the real and broader apabilities of DRM. The second-generation of DRM covers the description, identification, trading, protection, monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights usages over both tangible and intangible assets including management of rights holders relationships. DRM limits what a user can do with that content even when he has possession of it. Rights management refers to technologies that protect digital content after it is shared or distributed. Specifically, rights management technologies enable a content owner to stipulate a set of rules, or policy rights, that govern how the content may be used, by whom, for how long, etc. The protection, achieved by encrypting the content, may be provided by software or embedded in the hardware

Traditional rights management of physical materials benefited from the materials' physicality as this provided some barrier to unauthorized exploitation of content. Digital Rights Management (DRM) focused on security and encryption as .device itself . server software and user plug-ins. *Digital Rights Management* Digital rights management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. for example. DRM products are turnkey packages that include everything needed for the operation. DRM's purpose is to prevent illegal distribution of paid content over the Internet. In general. However. and InterTrust.com 1. today we already see serious breaches of copyright law because of the ease with which digital files can be copied and transmitted. D-Lib Magazine June 2001 Volume 7 Number 6 ISSN 1082-9873 Digital Rights Management (DRM) Architectures Renato Iannella Chief Scientist IPR Systems renato@iprsystems. DRM products are available from a number of vendors. to automate the processes involved.or some combination of the two. Digimarc. Previously. DRM products were developed in response to the rapid increase in online piracy of commercially marketed material. Introduction Digital Rights Management poses one of the greatest challenges for content communities in this digital age. such as. Protection needs to be easy to update. including ContentGuard. which proliferated through the widespread use of Napster and other peer-to-peer file exchange programs. to address inevitable system breaches.

etc. 2. lock the content and limit its distribution to only those who pay. The trading systems need to manage the descriptive metadata and rights metadata (e. This includes supporting constraints over traded content in specific desktop systems/software. it is important to note that DRM is the "digital management of rights" and not the "management of digital rights". IP Asset Management: How to manage and enable the trade of content. IP Asset Usage: How to manage the usage of content once it has been traded. This includes accepting content from creators into an asset management system. parties. which covers the high-level modules or components of the DRM system that together provide an end-to-end management of rights. Execution. which covers the modeling of the entities within a DRM system as well as their relationships. protection. that is. identification. Functional Architecture The overall DRM framework suited to building digital rights-enabled systems can be modeled in three areas: • Intellectual Property (IP) Asset Creation and Capture: How to manage the creation of content so it can be easily traded. the models need to be complemented by the Functional Architecture that provides the framework for . and Code layers [HOFMEISTER]. That is. payments. The second critical architecture is the Information Architecture.. Module. there are two critical architectures to consider. • • While the above models comprise the broad areas required for DRM. but these architectures will not be discussed in this article.). In designing and implementing DRM systems. The first is the Functional Architecture. The second-generation of DRM covers the description. trading. This was the first-generation of DRM.g. DRM manages all rights. monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights usages over both tangible and intangible assets including management of rights holders relationships. This includes asserting rights when content is first created (or reused and extended with appropriate rights to do so) by various content creators/providers. not only the rights applicable to permissions over digital content. (There are many other architectural layers that also need to be considered. and it represented a substantial narrowing of the real and broader capabilities of DRM.a means of solving the issue of unauthorized copying. such as the Conceptual.) This article discusses the Functional and Information Architecture domains and provides a summary of the current state of DRM technologies and information architectures. Additionally. usages.

to ensure that content being created from existing content includes the rights to do so. The . Rights and descriptions of the Works.to enable the monitoring of the usage of content where such tracking is part of the agreed to license conditions (e. then printing will not be allowed.g. Rights Creation . Tracking Management .to allow for content to be processed through a series of workflow steps for review and/or approval of rights (and content).) Trading functions . • The IP Asset Usage module supports: • Permissions Management . the user has a license to play a video ten times).to allow rights to be assigned to new content. (See the Information Architecture section of this article for more details.. The Functional Architecture stipulates the roles and behavior of a number of cooperating and interoperating modules under the three areas of Intellectual Property (IP): Asset Creation. This module may also need to interoperate with the trading system to track usage or to record transactions if there is payment due for each usage. For example. such as specifying the rights owners and allowable usage permissions. The IP Asset Creation and Capture module supports: • Rights Validation . including payments from licensees to rights holders (e. and Usage. if the user only has the right to view the document. royalty payments).to enable the usage environment to honor the rights associated with the content.to enable the access/retrieval of content in potentially distributed databases and the access/retrieval of metadata. the content may be encrypted/protected or packaged for a particular type of desktop usage environment. In some cases. The metadata covers Parties. these three modules provide the core functionality for DRM systems. Management. For example..g. • Together.to enable the assignment of licenses to parties who have traded agreements for rights over content. Rights Workflow .the modules to implement DRM functionality (see Figure 1). • • The IP Asset Management module supports: • Repository functions . the content may need to go through fulfillment operations to satisfy the license agreement.

The Information Architecture provides this. The primary reason for this model is that it provides the greatest flexibility when assigning rights to any combination or layering of Users and Content. The basic principle of the <indecs> model is to clearly separate and identify the three core entities: Users.1 Modeling the entities It is important to adopt a clear and extensible model for the DRM entities and their relationship with other entities. consumer personalization. the industry will move towards such standardization. . The Core Entities Model also does not constrain Content from being used in new and evolving business models. However. Existing work in this area includes the <indecs> project [INDECS]. Ideally. the modules would support interoperability. DRM systems must support the most flexible information model possible to provide for these complex and layered relationships. For example. and they would also need to operate within other. Additionally. and obligations between the Users and the Content. Content. from a rights holder to an end-consumer. The Functional Architecture is only part of the solution to the challenges of DRM. The Rights entity is an expression of the permissions. Rights Management can become complex remarkably quickly. and Expressing the rights statements 3. updates. constraints. trust. As a result. these modules would be engineered as components to enable systems to be built in a modular fashion. standard formats. a DRM trading protocol is under development in the OpenEBook Forum's Rights & Rules Working Group for ebook vendors [OEBF]. this implies a set of common and standard interfaces/protocols between the modules that does not yet exist.modules have been described only at a high level. and Rights as shown in Figure 2. etc. Information Architecture The Information Architecture deals with how the entities are modeled in the overall DRM framework and their relationships. etc.) and Digital Asset Management modules (such as version control. 3. The main issues that require addressing in the development of a DRM Information model include: • • • Modeling the entities Identifying and describing the entities. existing e-business modules (such as shopping carts. As DRM matures. Users can be any type of user.). openness and other such principles described in an article by John Erickson in D-Lib Magazine's April 2001 issue [ERICKSON]. Content is any type of content at any level of aggregation.

e. Again. Expression.DRM Information Architecture . Manifestation.Figure 2 .. Such a model will enable clearer (i. more explicit and/or appropriate) attribution of rights information. The key principle in the modeling of Content is that Content contains many "layers" from various intellectual stages or evolution of its development. The Content itself also needs to be modeled. the IFLA model allows Content to be identified at the Work.Core Entities Model This model implies that any metadata about the three entities needs to include a mechanism to relate the entities to each other. At each of these layers. For example. . different rights and rights holders may need to be supported as shown in Figure 3. there has been some existing work in this area from the International Federation of Library Associations [IFLA]. and Item layers.

would be the idea of the events that took place in an isolated Benedictine monastery and include descriptions of the concepts and main ideas.DRM Information Architecture . features. As an example. or characters. On the other hand. defined as Manifestation (the digital embodiment of an expression of a work) and Item (a single exemplar instantiation of a manifestation). by Umberto Eco. the other layers of Content. reflect physical or digital form.Figure 3 .Content Model The layers of the Content defined as Work (a distinct intellectual or artistic creation) and Expression (the intellectual or artistic realization of a work) reflect scholarly or creative content. The Work. The Expressions of the Work could then include: • • • The original text by Umberto Eco The English translation of the original text The screenplay by Andrew Birkin The Manifestations of the "English translation" Expression could include: • • • The hardcover book published by Harcourt Brace in 1983 The softcover book published by Harvest Books in 1994 The digital audio book published by Audio Renaissance in 1995 The Items of the "book" Manifestations could include: • • A physical hardcover book purchased from Book-A-Zone retail store A digital file purchased from Digital-Word e-book online store . consider "The Name of the Rose".

. vCard [VCARD] is the most well-known metadata standard for describing people and (to some extent) organizations. following the <indecs> model should take precedence. and any other rights-related information about Users and Content. 3. Identification should be accomplished via open and standard mechanisms for each entity in the model. Content should be described using the most appropriate metadata standard for that genre (for example. Another aspect that may affect rights is when Content is made of many parts. Some of these parts may have different rights associated with them that need to be recognized in the aggregated content. different rights holders can be recognized.g. constraints. the EDItEUR ONIX standard [ONIX] for books (physical and electronic) and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Information Model [IMS] for educational learning objects). the ONIX standard has elements for a number of rights holders (e. An additional and important part of the Rights model is to articulate the role that the User has undertaken with respect to Content.The important point in this style of content modeling is that at any of the points in the IFLA model. Open standards such as Uniform Resource Identifiers [URI] and Digital Object Identifiers [DOI] and the emerging ISO International Standard Textual Work Code [ISTC] are typical schemes useful for Rights identification. Because of that. Hence. In such cases. (The latter poses a problem in setting multiple prices depending on what rights are traded). A comprehensive list of roles can be found in the MARC Relators code list [MARC]. For example.2 Identifying and describing the entities All entities need to be both identified and described.3 Expressing rights statements The Rights entity allows expressions to be made about the allowable permissions. as this will lead to confusion regarding where to describe such rights expressions. To describe Users. they are also modeled to understand the relationships within the rights expressions. This has been evidenced in the Open Digital Rights Language [ODRL] and a paper by Carl A.. It is also critical that such metadata standards do not themselves try to include metadata elements that attempt to address rights management information. the Rights entity is critical because it represents the expressiveness of the language that will be used to inform the rights metadata. Authors and Publishers) and Territories for rights and single Price information. Rights expressions can become complex quite quickly. 3. Both the entities and the metadata records about the entities must be identifiable. obligations.

e. if a right is not explicit in an expression. For an example of a rights language. a Rights expression may say that a particular video can by played (i.Gunter et al.restrictions on the permissions Obligations . and Sue (the rights holders) receive a percentage of the fee..what you have to do/provide/accept Rights Holders . [GUNTER]. John. constraints. rights . usages) .what you are allowed to do Constraints . a usage permission) for a maximum of 10 times (i. it means that the right has not been granted. Mary. As shown in Figure 4. an obligation to pay).e. This is a critical assumption made by Rights languages and should be made clear to all Users..e.. Usually.DRM Information Architecture ..who is entitled to what Figure 4 .Rights Expression Model For example. Each time the video is played. As such terms may vary across sectors. see the Open Digital Rights Language [ODRL].e. ODRL lists the many potential terms for permissions. a time constraint) for a $10 fee (i. Rights expressions should consist of: • • • • Permissions (i. a count constraint) in any semester (i. and obligations as well as the rights holder agreements.e..

and security options for the ebook. a number of pages can be specified as a free preview. OzAuthors is a service provided by the Australian Society of Authors in a joint venture with IPR Systems.languages should be modeled to allow the terms to be managed via a Data Dictionary and expressed via the language. Their goal is to provide an easy way for Society members (including Authors and Publishers) to provide their content (ebooks) to the market place at low cost and with maximum royalties to content owners. In this example. Each time the ebook is sold. and their percentage of the royalty split. . pricing. A typical example from the E-book sector is the OzAuthors online ebook store [OZAUTHORS]. The second part of the interface allows the content provider to specify all the rights holders. Figure 5 shows the OzAuthors' interface for the specification of Rights information. the "Usage Rights and Pricing" allows the content provider to specify “Read” and/or “Print” permissions. Additionally. Example of DRM Implementation Second generation DRM software is now providing some of the Architectures described in this article in deployed solutions. the rights holders will automatically receive the indicated amount. their roles. 4.

Solutions to DRM challenges will enable untold amounts of new content to be made available in safe. Digital Rights Management is emerging as a formidable new challenge.Rights Interface All of this information is encoded in XML using the ODRL rights language. and it is also important that all communities be heard during these standardization processes in industry and sector-neutral standards organizations. and the World Wide Web Consortium [W3C] held a DRM workshop recently. and it is essential for DRM systems to provide interoperable services. The OpenEBook Forum [OEBF] and the MPEG group [MPEG] are leading the charge for the ebook and multimedia sectors. and will set the stage for complete and automatic interoperability. and trusted environments. 5. Industry and users are no . Their work will be important for the entire DRM sector. Conclusion DRM standardization is now occurring in a number of open organizations. The Internet Engineering Task Force [IETF] has also commenced work on lower level DRM issues. This encoding will enable the exchange of information with other ebook vendors who support the same language semantics. open.Figure 5 .OzAuthors .

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