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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the mechanisms of diﬀusion. (b) Explain how does the diﬀusion constant vary with temperature? (c) Find the value of ﬂux as given by Fick’s ﬁrst law of diﬀusion. 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diﬀusion. [5] [6] [5] [8]

(b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diﬀusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diﬀusion. [8] 3. (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction N iO + H2 = N i + H2 Oat750o C from the following data: Ni + 1/2 O2 = NiO ∆Go = −58, 450 + 2355T cal H2 + 1/2O2 = H2 O ∆Go = −58900 + 13.1T cal [8]

(b) Calculate the CO/CO2 ratio in equilibrium with Carbon at 727o C assuming that the total pressure to be 2 atm. 2C + O2 = 2CO ∆ Go 1000 = -95.3 kcal [8] C + O2 = CO2 ∆ Go 1000 = -94.0 kcal 4. (a) Discuss the signiﬁcance of knowing speciﬁc heat, thermal conductivity and melting point of a solid. What factors inﬂuence the thermal conductivity of solids? Explain them. [10] (b) A copper rod of 50 mm diameter has to be ﬁtted into a circular hole in a 70 cu-30 zinc brass plate of diameter 49.98 mm. To what temperature the brass plate has to be heated so that the copper rod just ﬁts into the hole in the brass plate. Assume room temperature to be 30o C and α = 20 × 106 o C −1 .[6] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) How Gibbs Duhem (Integration) equation related with the ideal & non-ideal solutions? [8] (b) Derive the Gibbs Duhem equation & Integration of Gibbs Duhem equation. [8] 7. (a) What is the signiﬁcance of phase rule? Discuss its applications and limitations. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 1

[8]

(b) Explain the diﬀerences between a liquidus line and solidus line. Explain how the liquidus line is obtained for an eutectic system. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain about the electrochemical cells & its classiﬁcation.

(b) How chemical / electrical energy can be calculated for any electrochemical cells. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the following diﬀusion mechanisms. i. Vacancy mechanism ii. Interstecial mechanism iii. Direct interchange mechanism. (b) At the surface of a steel bar there is one carbon atom per 20 unit cells of iron. At 1mm behind the surface, there is one carbon atom per unit cells. The diﬀusivity at 1000o C is 3 × 10−11 m2 /sec. The structure is FCC at 1000o C is (lattice constant: 3.65o A). How many carbon atoms diﬀuse through each unit cell per minute? [7] 2. (a) Give some applications of diﬀusion which are used in modern industries, along with their advantages. [6] (b) It is found that in a specimen of Iron the carbon percentage is 0.8 at a depth of 0.15 mm after 11/2 hours, when it is subjected to carburization at a temperature of 1020o C. If temperature is decreased to 880o C, calculate the time required so that at same depth same composition can be achieved. [10] 3. (a) Discus the derivation & uses of the oxygen nomographic scale in Richardsons diagram. [8] (b) Discuss in detail about the properties of a single standard free energy change/temperature line. [8] 4. (a) Why does thermal expansion occur in a material? What are the eﬀects of potential energy and the temperature on the magnitude of thermal expansion in important engineering metals? [9] (b) The coeﬃcients of expansion of a rock crystal in three orthogonal directions are 13 × 10−7 /0o C; 146 × 10−7 /0o C and 231 × 10−7 /0o C. Calculate its coeﬃcient of cubical expansion. [7] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6] [3+3+3]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) What are the properties of solution that can be studied with the help of Gibbs Duhem equation? Explain them in detail. [8] (b) Write a short notes on Sievert’s law 1 of 2 [8]

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 2

7. (a) What is the signiﬁcance of phase rule? Discuss its applications and limitations. (b) Explain the diﬀerences between a liquidus line and solidus line. Explain how the liquidus line is obtained for an eutectic system. [8+8] 8. Deﬁne the following: (a) Half cell potential (b) Decomposition potential (c) Standard electrode potential (d) Sign convention of electrode potentials (e) Nernst equation. (f) Electrical energy (g) Electrolysis (h) Cell representation ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [2+8=16]

2 of 2

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain under what conditions can Fick’s ﬁrst law be used to solve diﬀusion problem. [8] (b) In a diﬀusion anneal, to what level should the initial temperature of 900o C be increased to double the depth of penetration? Do = 0.4m2 /sec and ε = 100 KJ/mol. [8] 2. (a) ‘Diﬀusion is faster in large-angle grain boundaries than in small-angle boundaries’. Explain with suitable examples. [6] (b) Consider a diﬀusion couple set up between pure tungsten and tungsten -1 atom %. Thorium alloy. After several minutes of exposure at 20000 C, a transition zone of 0.1mm thickness is established. What is the ﬂux of thorium atoms at this time if diﬀusion is due to [10] i. volume diﬀusion ii. grain boundary diﬀusion iii. surface diﬀusion. (Assume any missing data). 3. (a) Discus the derivation & uses of the oxygen nomographic scale in Richardsons diagram. [8] (b) Discuss in detail about the properties of a single standard free energy change/temperature line. [8] 4. (a) Discuss the meaning of partial molal heat capacity at constant pressure. Explain the equations which relate this quantity to [10] i. the heat capacity Cp and ii. the enthalpy H of the solution. (b) A glass rod and a steel rod of equal lengths at 273 k, diﬀer in length by 1.2 mm at 373 k. If the coeﬃcients of linear expansion of glass rod and the steel are 8 × 10−6 /0o C and 12 × 10−6 /0o C respectively, calculate the lengths of the rods at 0o C. [6] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) How Gibbs Duhem (Integration) equation related with the ideal & non-ideal solutions? [8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 3

(b) Derive the Gibbs Duhem equation & Integration of Gibbs Duhem equation. [8] 7. (a) What is the signiﬁcance of phase rule? Discuss its applications and limitations. (b) Explain the diﬀerences between a liquidus line and solidus line. Explain how the liquidus line is obtained for an eutectic system. [8+8] 8. Deﬁne the following: (a) Half cell potential (b) Decomposition potential (c) Standard electrode potential (d) Sign convention of electrode potentials (e) Nernst equation. (f) Electrical energy (g) Electrolysis (h) Cell representation ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [2+8=16]

2 of 2

Code No: RR311804

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne the term ‘diﬀusion’. Explain the engineering importance of diﬀusion. Explain the various applications of diﬀusion. [8] (b) There is 0.19% of Cu at the surface of some aluminium and 0.18% copper, 1.2 mm underneath the surface. What will be the ﬂux of copper atoms be from the surface inward at 500o C (Al is Fcc and lattice constant is 4.05o A). (Do = 0.15 × 10−4 m2 /sec, Q = 30,200 cal/mole; E = 0.210 × 10−18 J/atom.[8] 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diﬀusion. [8] (b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diﬀusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diﬀusion. [8] 3. (a) What is the importance of equilibrium constant & how this can be calculated from standard free energy changes? [8] (b) Deﬁne equilibrium constant & how this can be inﬂuenced on the extraction process. [8] 4. (a) Explain Einstein’s theory of speciﬁc heat and the Debye correction. [8] (b) Explain the phenomenon of thermal expansion that occurs when a metal is heated. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Raoult’s law and Henry’s laws. [6] (b) What is a solution. Compare and contrast ideal solutions and regular solutions. [6] (c) Explain the conversion of composition for weight percentage and to atomic percentage. [4] 6. (a) Explain the diﬀerence of crystal imperfect as on the stability of crystal disorders. [8] (b) What is the importance of Gibbs Duhem equation on Metallurgical processes? [8] 7. (a) What is the signiﬁcance of phase rule? Discuss its applications and limitations. (b) Explain the diﬀerences between a liquidus line and solidus line. Explain how the liquidus line is obtained for an eutectic system. [8+8] 8. (a) Diﬀerentiate between electrochemical cells & electrolytic cells. (b) Explain in detail about the concentration cells. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8] [8]

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