# Code No: RR411812

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss the history of X-radiations. Describe the methods for X-ray production. [16] 2. (a) Draw the following planes and directions in a tetragonal unit cell (001), (011), (113), [110], [201], [101]. Show cell axes. (b) Rubidium is a BCC crystal. The angle of diﬀraction for (321) set of planes is at 270 for the ﬁrst order reﬂection. The wavelength of X-rays used is 0.0711nm. Calculate the interplanar distance of the planes. What is the atomic radius of Rubidium atom? [8+8] 3. Write short notes on the following: (a) Multiplicity factor (b) Lorentz factor. 4. (a) Describe how powder photograph is taken? (b) Describe how powder pattern of Cubic crystals can be analyzed. [8+8] [8+8]

5. Giving the principle, Describing the design and with a neat sketch explain the working of focusing Cameras. [16] 6. (a) What is the principle involved in Diﬀractometre with monochromatic crystal. (b) With a neat sketch explain the working of above Diﬀractometre. [8+8]

7. A Transmission pinhole photograph is made of a sheet of Aluminum 0.5 mm thick with Cu Kα radiation. Consider only the (111) reﬂection which occurs at 2θ = 38.40 . Imagine the sheet to be divided into four layers, the thickness of each being equal to one fourth of the total thickness. Calculate the fraction of the total diﬀracted energy for each layer. [16] 8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the frequency (per second) and energy per quantum (in joules) of x-ray beams of wavelength 0.71A0 (Mo Kα ) and 1.54A0 (Cu Kα )? [7] (b) Calculate the velocity and kinetic energy with which the electrons strike the target of an X-ray tube operating at a voltage ‘V’. Determine the shortwavelength limit of the continuous spectrum emitted and the maximum energy per quantum of radiation? [9] 2. (a) Explain the phenomenon ‘scattering by a unit cell’ with neat sketch. [9]

(b) Structure factor is independent of the shape and size of the unit cell. Explain. [7] 3. (a) Describe Laue method of X-ray diﬀraction. [9]

(b) What does the each intense point in X-ray diﬀraction represent in Laue pattern? Explain. [7] 4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer diﬀraction pattern look? (b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful? [4] [6]

(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Diﬀractometer with examples. [6] 5. Compare the following: (a) Powder method and Laue method (b) Debye-Scherrer Camera and Guinier Camera. [8+8]

6. (a) Cu Kα radiation is incident on a Xenon ﬁlled proportional counter. Calculate the ratio of average pulse size in the escape peak to that in the normal peak. (b) Write a note on energy-intensive Diﬀractometry. [8+8]

7. What is the basic principle involved in crystal structure determination? Explain various steps involved in determination of unknown structures. [16] 8. Write notes on the following: (a) Focussing Cameras (b) Techniques used in stress measurements. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain with a neat sketch, the order of reﬂection. [7]

(b) The atomic radius of Molybdenum atom is 0.1363 nm. Compute the interatomic spacing for (111) set of planes in the molybdenum crystal. The crystal structure of molybdenum is bcc. What is the interplanar spacing for (220) set of planes? [9] 2. (a) In a drawing of a hexagonal prism, indicate the following planes and directions: (1210), (1012), (1011), [110], [111], [021]. Show cell axes. (b) What is Stereographic Projection? Show the lattice reorientation caused by turning on stereographic projection. [8+8] 3. (a) Describe Laue method of X-ray diﬀraction. [9]

(b) What does the each intense point in X-ray diﬀraction represent in Laue pattern? Explain. [7] 4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer diﬀraction pattern look? (b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful? [4] [6]

(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Diﬀractometer with examples. [6] 5. (a) With a neat sketch explain back-reﬂection Lane method. (b) A Powder specimen in the form of a rectangular plate has a width of 0.45 in., measured in the plane of the diﬀractometre circle, which has a radius of 4.37 in. If it is required that the specimen entirely ﬁll the incident beam at all angles and that measurements must be made to angles as low as 2θ = 120 , what is the maximum divergence angle that the incident beam may have? [8+8] 6. What is the principle involved in transmission Laue method? With a neat sketch explain the transmission Laue method? [16] 7. With an example discuss the structure determination in detail. 8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16] [16]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is electromagnetic radiation? Explain the properties of Electromagnetic radiation (b) Write short notes on Stereographic projections. [8+8]

2. (a) For BCC Iron, compute (i) the interplanar spacing (ii) the diﬀracting angle for the (220) set of planes. The lattice parameter of Iron is 0.2889 nm. Assume that a monochromatic radiation having a wavelength of 0.1541 nm is used and the order of reﬂection is done. (b) (i) Calculate the interplanar spacing for (110) and (221) sets of planes in Aluminum (ii) When a monochromatic X-ray beam of X-rays of wavelength 0.1542 nm is used, the ﬁrst order reﬂection from (113) set of planes occurs at θ . What is the value of θ ? [8+8] 3. Explain the following: (a) Measurement of X-ray intensity (b) Stereographic projection (c) Resolving power of a Camera. 4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer diﬀraction pattern look? (b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful? [6] [5] [5] [4] [6]

(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Diﬀractometer with examples. [6] 5. (a) The transmission Laue Pattern is made up of Copper Crystal with a specimen to ﬁlm distance of 4 Cm. The (111) planes of the Crystal make an angle 4o with the incident beam. What minimum tube voltage is required to produce (111) reﬂection? (b) Why is a diﬀractometer used for the measurement of the intensity of X-rays. Explain the general features of this diﬀractometre. [8+8] 6. Write notes on the following: (a) Depth of X-ray penetration (b) Crystal orientation (c) Special diaﬀractometer. [6] [5] [5]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 4

7. A Transmission pinhole photograph is made of a sheet of Aluminum 0.5 mm thick with Cu Kα radiation. Consider only the (111) reﬂection which occurs at 2θ = 38.40 . Imagine the sheet to be divided into four layers, the thickness of each being equal to one fourth of the total thickness. Calculate the fraction of the total diﬀracted energy for each layer. [16] 8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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