Code No: RR411802

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the general principle underlying the development of Acid Bessemer process. [4] (b) Give the chemical reactions that are responsible for exothermicity in Acid Bessemer process. [6] (c) What is metallic yield? How do you calculate metallic yield in an Acid Bessemer converter? [6] 2. (a) How is dephosphorisation rate increased in a LDAC process? Explain it with the help of chemical reactions. [6] (b) How are the decarburisation and dephosphorisation controlled by lance-movement? [6] (c) What practice has to be followed to obtain extra low ’P’ steel in LDACprocess? [4] 3. (a) With the help of chemical reactions, explain the chemistry of steel refining process? [8] (b) Which reactions is different from all other chemical reactions during impurity oxidation in steel making? Explain? [8] 4. (a) What is meant by external desulphurisation of hot-metal? Why is it desirable? [8] (b) What is desulphurisation-index? Why is desulphurisation considered very low in steel making processes? Compare value of Ds under blast furnaces conditions and basic steel making conditions. [8] 5. (a) Explain the differences between an active-mixer and an inactive mixer. [8]

(b) What is difference in charge composition between Blast Furnace hot metal and Active Mixer-metal. [4] (c) What is the advantage of Active mixer practice over ladle desiliconisation. [4] 6. Classify scraps on the basis of chemistry from the point of view of steel making. Among the classification, which scraps lead to the problem of residuals? [8] 7. (a) Why is the secondary steel making termed as ladle-metallurgy? 1 of 2 [10]

Code No: RR411802

Set No. 1
[6] [8+8]

(b) Explain the duplexing process of secondary steel making. 8. Explain any two of the following recent trends in continuous casting. (a) Continuous - Continuous casting (b) Combination caster (c) Near-net shape casting ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is Sievert’s law? Does it apply for Basic Bessemer process? If so, how? [6] (b) What modifications need to be done to reduce nitrogen-content in Basic Bessemer steels? [4] (c) What are advantages and disadvantages of having a high nitrogen content in steels. [6] 2. (a) Explain the Rotor Oxygen process of steel making with a neat sketch of rotorfurnace. [8] (b) What are the reactions taking place in the rotor-process of steel making? [8] 3. (a) What are the different reactions taking place at slag-metal interface? How can these reactions made faster? [8] (b) Where does the Carbon-Oxygen reaction take place in a Bessemer process? Does it take place at slag-metal interface? Explain? [8] 4. (a) What are the essential conditions for desulphurisation to take place? Explain with the help of ’S’ - removal reaction? [8] (b) Explain the difference between acid -processes and basic electric process with respect to desulphurisation? [8] 5. (a) When is a open-hearth practice considered a hot-metal practice? [8]

(b) What practice needs to be followed to minimise scrap consumption in open hearths not provided with slag flushing facilities. [8] 6. (a) What are the different types of electric arc furnaces? What is the principle of each? [8] (b) Which type of arc furnace is preferred for non-ferrous and which one for ferrous alloy production? [6] (c) Why basic electric arc process is preferred over acid electric arc processes?[2] 7. (a) Describe the development of secondary steel making processes through the years? [8] (b) Explain the difference between primary steel making and secondary steel making? [8]

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 2
[8] [4]

8. (a) Explain the principle of continuous casting in detail. (b) List out the equipment needed for continuous - casting of steel.

(c) Draw a neat sketch of continuous casting-machine and mention the parts. [4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the oxidation stages-occurring in the Acid Bessemer Converter. [8] (b) Give the slag-composition obtained in a Acid Bessemer converter. [2] (c) What is the refractory-living material for Acid-Bessemer converter? Give reasons for why is it being used? [6] 2. (a) What is the purpose of third blow in a Kaldo converter just before metaltapping? [4] (b) How is the refining controlled by the speed of vessel rotation and oxygen flow rate? [4] (c) How is it possible to obtain steels with low P, S, C and N using Kaldo-process? [8] 3. (a) Explain the physics of bubble formation of carbon-monoxide the refractorymetal interface? [8] (b) With the help of diagram, explain the active-sites and inactive-sites of cobubble nucleation t refractory-metal interface. [8] 4. (a) Write the ’P’ Oxidation reaction? How is it fixed up in the slag-phase? [8] (b) Explain the formation of tricalcic phosphate and tetracalcic phosphate with the help of chemical - reactions? [8] 5. (a) Explain the differences between an active-mixer and an inactive mixer. [8] (b) What is difference in charge composition between Blast Furnace hot metal and Active Mixer-metal. [4] (c) What is the advantage of Active mixer practice over ladle desiliconisation. [4] 6. (a) Explain how the charging is carried out in a typical electric are furnace? [8] (b) Why some amount of light scrap is preferred at the bottom of arc furnace? [8] 7. Explain the Bottom-teeming method of liquid steel with the help of a neat diagram. [16] 8. Explain the following. (a) Duplex-processes of steelmaking (b) Triplex-processes of steelmaking ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8+8]

Code No: RR411802

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) How is L.D. process name come into existence? Discuss some of important characteristics of L.D. process? [6] (b) Draw a neat - sketch of water-cooled lance showing O2 -gas passage, water inlet and outlet. [6] (c) What is the disadvantage of using a lance with a cylindrical - nozzle in L.D. process. [4] 2. (a) What is Steel? Classify steels on the basis of chemical composition? [4]

(b) List any two probable ancient methods of steel making and explain any one of them. [8] (c) What do you mean by ’semis’ of steel plant products? 3. (a) What are the advantages of a thin-slag? [8] [6]

(b) When is slag said to be dry? Give an example of steel making process where a dry slag is obtained? Explain the process of dry-slag formation? [10] 4. (a) What is the most effective- dephosphoriser line, magnesium, manganese oxide, iron oxide. Arrange them in decreasing order of their dephosphorisation ability. [6] (b) How does iron-oxide increase the dephosphorisation index? Why is there a maximum dephosphorisation index at around 15% FeO? [10] 5. (a) How can you assess the Silica-content and ironoxide-content of slag in acid open hearth process? [10] (b) How can you say that metal is ready for tapping in acid open hearth process. [6] 6. Explain the different parts of furnace body of basic electric arc furnace? [16]

7. Explain the how the ladle-desulphurisation is carried out in secondary steel making? [16] 8. Write a short notes on steel production in India. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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