2/17/2011

Bicycle suspension - Wikipedia, the fre…

Bicycle suspension
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A bicycle suspension is the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bikes, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, and can even be found on some road bicycles. Bicycle suspension can be implemented in a variety of ways:

A full suspension Mountain Bike

An elastomer suspension stem.

Suspension front fork Suspension stem (although these have fallen out of favor)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 1/28

2/17/2011

Bicycle suspension - Wikipedia, the fre…

Suspension seatpost Rear suspension Suspension hub or any combination of the above. Bicycles with suspension front forks and rear suspensions are referred to as full suspension bikes. Additionally, suspension mechanisms can be incorporated in the seat or saddle, or the hubs. Besides providing obvious comfort to the rider, suspensions improve both safety and efficiency by keeping one or both wheels in contact with the ground and allowing the rider's body mass to move over the ground in a flatter trajectory.

Contents
1 Front suspension 2 Rear suspension 2.1 Suspension Categories 2.2 Soft tail 2.3 Single pivot 2.4 Four-bar suspensionstopic to look up link Enter without Horst 2.5 Four-bar suspensions with Horst link 2.6 Unified rear triangle 2.7 Virtual Pivot Point 2.8 DW-link 2.9 Split pivot
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 2/28

org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 3/28 .3 Rebound 5. The suspension travel and handling en.8 Compression damping 5.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .10 Independent Drivetrain 2.6 Bob and squat 5.1 Travel 5.9 Unsprung mass 6 Mountain bikes 7 Road bikes 8 Recumbent bikes 9 Softride and Zipp 10 See also 11 References Front suspension Main article: Bicycle fork Front suspension is often implemented with a set of shock absorbers in the front fork. the fre… 2.11 Monolink 2.12 Equilink 3 Saddle suspension 4 Suspension hub 5 Terminology 5.wikipedia.2 Preload 5.Wikipedia.7 Pedal feedback 5.4 Sag 5.5 Lockout 5.

and freeride riding. When suspension forks were introduced. downhill (DH).Wikipedia. Other advances in design include adjustable travel. more travel for downhill sections).g. Typically this amount of travel is Suspension fork of a Trek now more normal for crossFuel 90 country disciplines. The amount of travel available has typically increased.wikipedia. Downhill forks can now offer in the region of 170 to 203 mm[1] of travel for handling the most extreme terrain. Advanced designs also often feature the ability to lock out the fork to completely eliminate or drastically reduce the fork's travel for en.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . For instance. manufacturers produce different forks for cross-country (XC). the fre… characteristics vary depending on the type of mountain biking the fork is designed for. allowing riders to adapt the fork's travel to the specific terrain profile (e. Suspension fork design has advanced in recent years with suspension forks becoming increasingly sophisticated. less travel for uphill sections. 80–100 mm of travel was deemed sufficient for a downhill mountain bike.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 4/28 .

org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 5/28 . en.wikipedia. Coil spring forks are often heavier than designs which use compressed air springs. the air held inside the air spring also compresses.Wikipedia. however they are more easily designed to keep a linear spring rate throughout their travel. Another advantage of this type of fork design is that the spring rate can easily be adjusted by adjusting the pressure of the air in the spring. The choice of spring material has a fundamental effect on the characteristics of the fork as a whole. the fre… more efficient riding over smooth sections of terrain. As the "spring" is provided by the compressed air rather than a coil of metal they can often be made lighter. This results in an increase in spring rate. One disadvantage of this design is the difficulty in achieving a linear spring rate throughout the fork's action. Substituting titanium coils in place of steel coils in a design can decrease the weight of the design but leads to an increase in expense. further compression of the fork requires ever increasing compression of the compressed air with the spring. This allows a fork to be effectively tuned to a rider's weight. an elastomer. Increasing the volume of the air inside the spring can reduce this effect but the volume of the spring is ultimately limited as it needs to be contained within the dimension of the fork leg. towards the end of the fork's travel.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . this makes their use more common in cross country designs. This lockout can sometime be activated remotely by a cable and lever on the handlebars. Air springs work by utilizing the characteristic of compressed air to resist further compression. The shock absorber usually consists of two parts: a spring and a damper or dashpot. As the fork compresses. or even compressed air. The spring may be implemented with a steel or titanium coil.

On some models. and a fork with just a single leg (also called a Lefty). and rear suspension is sometimes synonymous with full suspension. or any combination of these or other factors. as well as special forging techniques.wikipedia. the spring. Both of these systems claim to offer greater stiffness and better feel. and using Needle Bearings instead of bushings. en. Whyte and BMW. or both may be adjusted for rider weight.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .by having only one leg. The two components may be separated with the spring mechanism in one leg and the damper in the other. Some manufacturers. Suspension Categories No Suspension. terrain. especially Cannondale. riding style. have made bikes that utilize suspension forks that employ linkages to provide the mechanical action instead of relying upon telescopic fork legs.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 6/28 . it is often assumed. Others. also called a Rigid. is a mountain bike with no suspension. the damper.Wikipedia. with lighter weight . namely Proflex (Girvin).[citation needed] Rear suspension Perhaps because front suspension has been easier to implement and more readily adopted. the fre… The damper is usually implemented by forcing oil to pass through one or more small openings or shim stacks. have tried other variations including a single shock built into the steerer tube above the crown (also called a "HeadShok").

and the disc brake used on en. One of the first successful full suspension bikes was designed by Mert Lawwill. these are referred to as hardtails. but the design wasn't flawless. When a rider hit the brakes.wikipedia. A lightweight.Wikipedia. It adapted the Aarm suspension design from sports car racing. This design solved the twin problems of unwanted braking and pedaling input to the rear wheel. Input from hard braking efforts (known as brake jack) also negatively affected early full suspension designs. the fre… Hardtail. Problems remained with suspension action under acceleration. these early designs lost some of their ability to absorb bumps — and this happened in situations where the rear suspension was needed most. kickback. powerful disc brake wasn't developed until the mid 1990s. This movement was called pedal bob. and the RS-1 couldn't use traditional cantilever brakes.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . and was the first four-bar linkage in mountain biking.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 7/28 . the Gary Fisher RS-1. His bike. was released in 1990. a former motorcycle champion. Most modern mountain bikes have front suspension but no rear suspension. Early full suspension frames were heavy and tended to bounce up and down while a rider pedaled. The problems of pedal bob and brake jack began to be solved in the early 1990s. or monkey motion and took power out of a rider's pedal stoke — especially during climbs up steep hills. Full suspension mountain bike technology has made great advances since first appearing in the early A 2002 Rigid 21 speed Trek 800 Sport 1990s.

The AMP B-3 and B-4 XC fullsuspension bikes featured active Horst link/Macpherson strut rear suspensions and optional disc brakes. They tend to be extremely light en. Soft tails have no moving parts. AMP introduced the Horst link as a feature of a fully independent linkage rear suspension for mountain bikes. including the manufacture of their own cable-actuated-hydraulic disc brakes. A later model. was equipped with both the Horst link and a four-bar active link suspension featuring up to 125 mm (5 inches) of travel on a bicycle weighing around 10. It maintains pedaling efficiency and power delivery because of the solid chainstays.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 8/28 . besides the shock/elastomer.Wikipedia.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . In 1985 Leitner built a prototype mountain bike incorporating what became known later as the "Horst link". making it extremely simple.wikipedia. California. hubs. AMP research. Leitner formed a mountain bike and research company.[2] Soft tail The Soft tail (also Softail) relies on the flexing of the rear triangle and a rear shock or elastomer placed in line with the seat stays. In 1990. shocks and front suspension forks. the B-5. Soft tails are a variation of the original Amp Research Mac-Strut design (technically a 3 bar suspension design).5 kg (23 pounds). the fre… the RS-1 was its downfall. that began building full-suspension mountain bikes. For 10 years AMP Research manufactured their full-suspension bikes in small quantities in Laguna Beach. Horst Leitner began working on the problem of chain torque and its effect on suspension in the mid 1970s with motorcycles.

It simply consists of a pivot near the bottom bracket and a single swingarm to the rear axle. Santa Cruz's Superlight is such an example. Manufacturers that use a single pivot design are Trek. Haro. small boutique frame builders such as bcd and. with a single-pivot suspension. Challenges with this design are brake jacking. There are few moving parts. Some implementations use linkages to attach the rear triangle to the rear shock for a progressive spring rate. The main benefit of this design is its simplicity. en. Other implementations directly attach the rear triangle to the rear shock for a more linear rate. Trek STP and the Moots YBB. the fre… compared to other rear suspension types. relatively easy to design and has good small bump compliance. Cannondale. Soft tails are out of favor now because of the limited rear axle travel of these designs typically around 1 inch. Specialized. Orange.wikipedia. Transition. and chain growth. Single pivot The Single pivot is the simplest type of rear suspension.Wikipedia. Mountain Cycle.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 9/28 . GT.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . The Cannondale Scalpel is an exception with 4 inches of travel. The rear axle will always rotate in a part-circle A full-suspension mountain bike around the pivot point. Some examples include the KHS Team Soft Tail. K2. Morewood.

Seat-stay four-link pivot bikes perform exactly like similarly placed monopivots under acceleration and chain forces. Split Pivot and FSR four-link bikes have an advantage while braking over rough ground.wikipedia. However. many inexpensive department store bikes.e. the fre… due to its simplicity. seat-stay pivot suspension is similar looking to Horst link suspension. or Split Pivot bikes.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 10/28 . since the chain stay is the only component that affects the rear axle's arc. but having a pivot above the drop out instead of in front of the drop out (ie no Horst link and no patent problem). Placing the pivot on the seat stay (above the drop out) makes the rear axle travel path like that of a single-pivot bike. which means they aren't as neutral under Four-bar linkage rear suspension acceleration as Horst-link. Four-bar suspensions without Horst link The four-bar suspension utilizes several linkage points to activate the shock. Having the pivot in front of the drop out (i. on the chain stay) allows the linkage components to affect the path of the rear axle. dw-link.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .Wikipedia.[3] A four-bar. when brakes are mounted on the seat stays. dw-link. en. four-bar bikes. thereby allowing for a more complex arc of the axle path.

Some examples of Horst link four-bar designs include the now-discontinued AMP B-5. is located on en.Wikipedia.wikipedia.jpg) ).2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . and one at the top of the seat stay. The rear pivot though. one pivot mounted at the chain stay. Titus. KHS. Four-bar suspensions with Horst link A Horst link suspension has one pivot behind the bottom bracket. the Specialized FSR and related bikes. The bike company Specialized worked with Leitner Technologies to develop a heavier-duty version of the four-bar/Horst link suspension which was marketed as the Specialized FSR. who incorporate the design on their entire line-up. in front of the rear wheel drop-out (this pivot being the venerated "Horst link"[1] FSR rear suspension (http://www. the fre… One manufacturer well known for their long-time use of the seatstay pivot four-bar link suspension is Kona.com/files/news_images/nicolai_ion/ion. Ellsworth.azfreeride. along with other manufacturers such as Infiza and Icon. and Merida. The FSR patent describes a four-bar bicycle suspension system with the rear wheel mounted to the seatstay.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 11/28 .

The FSR system uses a wheel path that is in the middle of either squatting and lockout throughout most of the travel (circular. In the original Brain mechanism. near the rear dropout. Upward force from rough terrain displaces the weight. depending on the position of the swingarm. Ellsworth.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . opening the valve and engaging the suspension. although recent innovations from competitors have set the company back. Specialized bought several of Leitner's patents in May 1998 and other manufacturers must now pay license fees to Specialized for the use of the 'Horst link' suspension design. the fre… the chainstay both in front of and below the rear axle. The FSR proved popular. The Horst link suspension design is the most leased or "borrowed" suspension design.Wikipedia. The weight closes the shock valving and deactivates the rear shock at rest.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 12/28 . the popular FSR system works by providing a wheel path that helps prevent the suspension preload or unload (squatting and locking) during acceleration and braking. It is very popular with companies such as Norco. and became a standard for full suspension designs. an external inertia valve designed to effectively eliminate pedal bob.[4] In 2003 Specialized introduced the Brain. the weight returns to its original position through a return spring. and deactivates the shock again. when the terrain evens out. and Fuji.wikipedia. KHS. and connected to the shock directly or through a hose. The design is regarded by some as superior to single-pivot/four-bar system due to other designs having a wheel path that either squats or "locks". like single pivots). Through this pivot positioning. The system utilizes a brass weight inside a cylinder situated atop the non-drive-side chainstay. The position of the weight near the rear axle is designed to prevent downward en. Chumba.

the fre… pedaling force from affecting the mechanism while optimizing response from terrain. and as a result the suspension tends to stop working. along with persistent suspension bob in low-pivot URTs. resulting in a massive increase in unsprung weight. when the URT rider shifts any weight from the seat to the pedals. and the saddle and handlebars move as another piece. the URT design has fallen out of favor in recent years. which keeps down the number of moving parts. This was developed to address a noticeable delay in the shock activation/deactivation. The pivot is placed between the rear triangle and the front triangle so that the rear axle and bottom bracket move as one piece. he or she is essentially standing on the swingarm.[5] Unified rear triangle The "Unified rear triangle" or "URT" for short. It can be easily modified into a single-speed. This simple design uses only one pivot. A newer version of the Brain was developed that utilizes the rebound hydraulic fluid flow to return the weight to its rest position instead of relying on a return spring. On the other hand.wikipedia. riders naturally brace themselves on the pedals. sometimes called "stinkbugging".org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 13/28 . and has the benefit of zero chain growth and consistent front shifting.[6] Examples of bike with this kind of suspension include the en.[citation needed] and combined with brake dive leads to more severe pitching.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .Wikipedia. During braking. and a constantly changing saddle-to-pedal distance.[citation needed] Because of lockout and pitching. keeps the bottom bracket and rear axle directly connected at all times.

Wikipedia. three of which were originally issued to Outland Bicycles. VPP suspension is also licensed to Intense Cycles.com to be the pinnacle of cycling en. and Voodoo Canzo. is a linkage designed bike frame that is built to activate the suspension differently depending on what inputs the suspension has received.wikipedia. Virtual Pivot Point The Virtual Pivot Point or VPP. The Santa Cruz Blur and V-10 models introduced in 2001 popularized "dual short link" type suspension systems. DW-link Main article: DW-link Dave Weagle's dw-link suspension is claimed by many cycling media and user reviews at consumer sites like MTBR.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . The "Virtual Pivot Point" system owned by Santa Cruz Bicycles. The four patents cover a specific linkage configurations that are designed to aid the pedaling performance of a rear suspension bike without negatively affecting the overall bump absorption capabilities. Inc is protected by four US patents. but have the unique characteristic of having links that rotate in opposite directions. Klein Mantra. the fre… Castellano Zorro. Ibis Szazbo. Schwinn S-10.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 14/28 . Catamount MFS. Trek Y.

212. The dw-link design as implemented on an Iron Horse Sunday. Turner Suspension Bicycles. Trek Bicycle Corporation released a version of the Split Pivot design called en. showing the location of the is protected by patents in virtual pivot point the USA and Europe.717.[8] The Split Pivot design was awarded it's first patent in the USA on May 18. The Split Pivot suspension is also described in patent applications in the USA (US2008/006772 A1 and US 2008/00738 A1) and Europe (WO2008/027277 A2). As with Dave's dw-link design.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 15/28 . and Pivot Cycles. the fre… suspension performance Diagram of the dw-link suspension. speculation that Cycles Devinci from QC. the Split Pivot design has been licensed within the bicycle industry.[7] Split pivot DW-Link inventor David Weagle applied for patents on a concentric rear axle pivot rear suspension system called Split Pivot in 2006. Canada would be a Split Pivot partner was confirmed on the cycling news site pinkbike. Weagle's patent applications were filed. The dw-link is licensed to Ibis.Wikipedia. 2010. today.com. with licensing companies releasing new models in 2010 and beyond. US Patent 7. In June 2010. Independent Fabrication.wikipedia.[9][10] The Split Pivot System was designed to allow the separation of braking and acceleration forces in a bicycle suspension. After Mr. with patent coverage in more countries than any other bicycle suspension in existence today.

073.950. Other systems mount the shock to one end on the swing-arm. the fre… active braking pivot (ABP) in early 2007.[10] Independent Drivetrain The Independent Drivetrain (AKA IDrive) Pat # 6. This allows the suspension to remain active while braking — hence the term.099. The independent drivetrain system was a direct result of the en. This means as one part of the suspension compresses the shock. and the other to a fixed mount on the frame. Split Pivot patent applications predate all patent applications filed by Trek. the ABP system uses a rear pivot concentric to the rear axle. active braking pivot. This allows Trek engineers more freedom to more accurately and precisely tune the system's leverage ratio. was the 4th commercialized suspension design developed by pioneering MTB suspension designer Jim Busby Jr.Wikipedia. The full floater system mounts the rear shock to two moving points in the suspension (rocker link and an extension of the chainstay).010 / 6.wikipedia.[9][10] Trek also introduced a full floater system to go along with the ABP.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 16/28 . ABP reduces brake feedback that is typically felt by the rider as suspension stiffening. This functionality is also described in David Weagle's Split Pivot patent applications. Trek's design allowed their new full suspension system to look very similar to previous models. the other end of the shock moves as well. In identical fashion to the Split Pivot design. but dramatically improved their ride quality.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .

the fre… limitations encountered with the GT LTS (links tuned suspension) 4 bar linkage design used by GT Bicycles from 1993 to 1998. It is a licensed variant of the Independent Drivetrain suspension system Pat # 6. pedal forces do not induce undesired suspension compression or extension nor does suspension activity produce pedal actuation through chain growth. By using this isolated BB construction. Klein Palomino. The suspension is more active when in the saddle. This isolation allows the BB to move in such a manner as to neutralize the unwanted characteristics of chain growth at the pedal. Some may call this a "modified URT" but in reality it is a highly reconfigured 4 bar if examined theoretically.099.Wikipedia. as pressure on the cranks actively works against the suspension. en. and Seven Duo. The defining feature of Independent Drivetrain is the isolation of the bottom bracket (crank) from the front or rear triangle.073. because of this property. and that the saddle to bottom bracket distance changes as the suspension is compressed. which is similar to the angle of attack of the front suspension. The monolink design varies from the Independent Drivetrain original design in that it uses a shock body that is integrated into the rear triangle.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . although not as large as a URT design.010 / 6. It was designed by Paul Turner. However. ML8. Examples are the Maverick ML7/5. there is less bob in out of the saddle sprints. Monolink The "Monolink" made by Maverick Bikes uses 3 pivot points and places the bottom bracket on a floating linkage between the front and rear triangle. The monolink design is also unique in having a rearward axle path.wikipedia.950.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 17/28 .

wikipedia.[12] Some. cheapest. but en. Felt contends that this system "equalizes" movement of the suspension in response to chain forces by linking the motion of the upper and lower linkages. The system is a "Stephensonstyle six-bar" The Optima Stinger recumbent with rear suspension suspension system:[11] the Equilink ties the lower link (between the rear triangle and main frame) to the upper rockers. argue it works on the same principle of the dwlink. that is it creates a dropping rate of chain growth as it moves through its travel. the fre… Equilink The "Equilink" suspension system was developed by Felt Bicycles for their full suspension line. however.Wikipedia. This style of suspension is the oldest.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 18/28 .[citation needed] Saddle suspension Suspension may be added at the saddle either with a suspension saddle or a suspension seatpost. and simplest.

Terminology A leather suspension saddle by Brooks England mounted on a suspension seatpost. Preload Preload refers to the force applied to spring component before external loads. Suspension hub Suspension may be provided in the hub of a bicycle wheel. Travel Travel refers to how much movement a suspension mechanism allows.[13] One manufacturer offers 12 mm to 24 mm of travel. the fre… it is also the least effective as all of the bicycle's weight is unsprung weight. are applied.wikipedia. It usually measures how much the wheel axle moves. More preload makes the suspension sag less and less preload makes the en. Several terms are commonly used to describe different aspects of a bicycle suspension.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 19/28 .2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .Wikipedia. such as rider weight.

wikipedia. en. Sag is often used as one parameter when tuning a suspension for a rider. Adjusting preload affects the ride height of the suspension. More rebound damping will cause the shock to return at a slower rate. Rebound Rebound refers to the rate at which the suspension component returns to its original configuration after absorbing a shock. Sag Sag refers to how much a suspension moves under just the static load of the rider. the fre… suspension sag more.Wikipedia.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . This may be desirable during climbing or sprinting to prevent the suspension from absorbing power applied by the rider.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 20/28 . Lockout Lockout refers to a mechanism to disable a suspension mechanism to render it substantially rigid. which vary the rebound speed. Spring preload is adjusted until the desired amount of sag is measured. The term also generally refers to rebound damping or rebound damping adjustments on shocks. Some lockout mechanisms also feature a "blow off" system that deactivates the lockout when an appropriate force is applied to help prevent damage to the shock and rider injury under high unexpected loads.

Both are undesirable characteristics as they rob power from pedalling. Many suspension systems incorporate anti-bob. usually rear. lockouts function by allowing no compression. and it can be felt as a torque on the crankset opposite to forward pedalling. anti-squat. responds to rider pedalling. en. The amount of damping is determined by the resistance through the valve. or "platform" damping to help eliminate bob.[14] Pedal feedback Pedal feedback describes torque applied to the crankset by the chain caused by motion of the rear axle relative to the bottom bracket. Compression damping Compression damping refers to systems that slow the rate of compression in a front fork shock or rear shock. Compression damping is usually accomplished by forcing a hydraulic fluid (such as oil) through a valve when the shock becomes loaded. the fre… Bob and squat Bob and squat refer to how a suspension. and bob refers to repeated squat and rebound with each pedal stroke.wikipedia. Squat usually refers to how the rear end sinks under acceleration.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 21/28 . a higher amount of damping resulting from greater resistance in the valve. Many shocks have compression damping adjustments which vary the resistance in the valve.Wikipedia. Often.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .[14] Pedal feedback is caused by an increase in the distance between the chainring and rear cog.

2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . the wheels are sprung to some extent as well. By raising themselves off their saddles. the fre… Unsprung mass Main article: Unsprung mass Unsprung mass is the mass of the portions of bicycles that is not supported by the suspension systems.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 22/28 . The exception to this is that on recumbent and tandem bicycles where the riders are either unable to lift themself out of their seat or unable to see in advance when that will be needed. making their mass be sprung mass. but all of the mass of the bicycles remains unsprung mass. Even then. the riders' mass can no longer be expected to be supported by their knees over road irregularities. bikes are so light compared to their riders that travel is a much bigger motivator than unsprung mass in determining where to put the suspension and how much to use. and none in the saddles.Wikipedia. riders may provide suspension with their knees. At the other extreme are full suspension mountain bikes. very little in the tires. as mountain bikes have large lowpressure tires which allow much more travel than small highpressure road tires. In general. At one extreme are road bicycles with no suspension in the frames. With front and rear suspensions the only parts unsuspended are the wheels and small parts of the front forks and rear chain-stays. Mountain bikes en. These bicycles generally have some sort of suspension system to reduce unsprung mass.wikipedia.

and improved feel. mountain bikes started to have front suspension Rear suspension of a Trek Fuel 90 forks. This made riding on rough terrain easier on a rider's arms. In the past. RST. DT Swiss and Maverick. Many lock out the rear suspension while the rider is pedaling hard or climbing.wikipedia. White Brothers. Fox Racing Shox. In the early 1990s. and almost all mountain bicycle riders use a suspension fork. Magura. Marzocchi. the fre… Many newer mountain bikes have a full suspension design. Most suspension frames and forks have about 4-6 inches (100-150 mm) of suspension travel. Soon after. More aggressive suspension frames and forks made for downhill racing and freeriding have as much as 8 or 9 inches (200 or 230 mm) of suspension travel. in order to improve pedaling efficiency.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 23/28 . increased amount of suspension travel. mountain bikes had a rigid frame and a rigid fork. Some Cycle manufacturers (notably Cannondale and Specialized) also make their own suspension systems to fully complement and integrate en. The first suspension forks had about 1½ to 2 inches (38 to 50 mm) of suspension travel.Wikipedia.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . some frame designers came out with a full suspension frame which gave riders a smoother ride throughout the ride. Many riders still prefer to ride a hardtail frame. Newer suspension frame and fork designs have reduced weight. Well-known suspension fork manufacturers include Manitou. Rock Shox. and (to a lesser extent) Suntour.

org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 24/28 .Wikipedia.wikipedia. because the front wheel is often smaller than the rear wheel and bumps are unduly felt without it. there may still be some pedalling-induced bounce. the fre… the bike set-up. Road bikes Although much less common. particularly the Soft Tail variety mentioned above.a (Suspension Performance Advantage) rear suspension. Where the bottom bracket is significantly lower than the seat base. en.p. Virtually all bicycles produced by Alex Moulton bicycles also have very effective full suspension. This is usually the case provided the bottom bracket is higher than the seat's base height. Recumbent bikes Many recumbent bicycles have at least a rear suspension because the rider is usually unable to lift themselves off of the seat while riding. offered on some of their Pilot models. Short-wheelbase recumbents benefit from front suspension. due to the low unsuspended mass of the small wheels and high pressure tires. One example is Trek Bicycle Corporation's s.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . but the system was removed for the 2008 model year. a characteristic of the unconventional design of these bicycles. forwards rather than downwards. Single pivot is usually adequate when the pedaling thrust is horizontal .that is. some road bicycles do incorporate suspensions.

See also Bicycle Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics Bicycle fork Bicycle frame Hybrid bicycle Motorcycle fork Mountain bike Recumbent bicycle Road bicycle Suspension (motorcycle) en.Wikipedia. Softride ceased bicycle production in 2007. Softride produced its first full-fledged mountain bike. Originally intended for the use in mountain bikes.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . a contemporary competing beam bicycle. The original SRS systems consisted of two foam filled fiberglass boxes bonded together with a viscoelastic layer.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 25/28 . the PowerCurve. The Softride Suspension System is used almost exclusively for triathlon racing. rather than in flex of the beam itself. the fre… Softride and Zipp The Softride Suspension System was launched at the Interbike 1989 bike show. During 1996 Softride released its first aluminum frame road bike.[15] A very closely related suspension design to the Softride is the Zipp 2001. where the suspension was in the hinge.wikipedia. the Classic TT. in 1991.

^ "SUPER MONSTER 2003" (http://www.com/~/twest/mtb/index.Wikipedia. 2. ^ "Scott USA Genius" (http://www.wikipedia. en.php? Itemid=67&id=36&option=com_content&task=view) 4.com/company/history.com) .specialized.com/Template/detailSPAForksMTB. Retrieved 2008-12-23.co. http://cdn.Suspension – the inns and outs (http://everythingbicycling. ^ "Specialized Suspension Sciences" (http://cdn.com/Template/detailSPAForksMTB.com/news/newsarchive/012406_scott/) .dw-link. http://www.com/~/twest/mtb/index.html#HighPivotURTs) . the fre… Suspension (vehicle) Swingarm References 1.asp) 3. ^ "dw-Link" (http://www.marzocchi. 5.com. Retrieved 2009-03-15.marzocchi.com/bc/microsite/suspension/suspension. Retrieved 2009-03-15. http://www.bikemag. http://www. ^ Everything Bicycling . 6.rdrop.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 26/28 .rdrop.bikemag.asp? IDFolder=208&LN=UK&Sito=usa%2Dmtb&IDAnno=2147&IDO ggetto=56226) .2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . http://www. 7.ht ml.ht ml) . Retrieved 2008-03-14.html#HighPivotURTs.asp? IDFolder=208&LN=UK&Sito=usa%2Dmtb&IDAnno=2147&IDO ggetto=56226. ^ "Mountain Bike Rear Suspension Design: High Pivot URTs" (http://www.za/index.com/bc/microsite/suspension/suspension.specialized. ^ AMP Research > History (http://ampresearch.com/news/newsarchive/012406_scott/.dw-link.

10.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&p=1&S1=20080073868&OS =20080073868&RS=20080073868. ^ "Split Pivot" (http://www.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser? Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2 Fsearchbool.cyclingnews. the fre… 8.wikipedia. Retrieved 2009-03-15.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension .uspto. 2006).html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=2008006777 2&OS=20080067772&RS=20080067772. ^ Huang. http://www. 27/28 en. Retrieved 2009-03-15.splitpivot.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser? Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearc hadv.cyclingnews. http://appft1.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&p=1&S1=20080073868&OS =20080073868&RS=20080073868) .uspto.Wikipedia.com/tech/2006/shows/interbike06/? id=results/interbike064) . Retrieved 2009-03-15.com) .uspto. http://appft1.com.split-pivot. ^ a b c "US Patent & Trademark Office. Patent Application Database: 20080073868" (http://appft1. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-03-15. Patent Application Database: 20080067772" (http://appft1. James (September 25-29. 9.gov/netacgi/nphParser? Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearc hadv.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser? Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2 Fsearchbool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=2008006777 2&OS=20080067772&RS=20080067772) . "Felt Equilink design offers another viable rear suspension alternative" (http://autobus. http://autobus. ^ a b "US Patent & Trademark Office. 11.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension .com/tech/2006/shows/interbike06/? id=results/interbike064.

Retrieved 2009-10-06.Wikipedia. ^ a b Phillips. Mountain Bike (Rodale): 39–45. Archived from the original (http://www.com/about_softride. http://web.asp) on 2007-01-01. ^ "ABOUT SOFTRIDE" (http://web.asp) . Matt (April 2009).wikipedia. a non-profit organization. http://www.velovision. en. 14.velovision.feltracing. See Terms of Use for details.org/web/20070101020935/http://www. "You Don't Know Squat".uk/cgibin/show_comments.org/web/20070101020935/http://www.aspx? catid=1540.c om/about_softride. ^ "Equilink Suspension Overview" (http://www.archive.softride.feltracing. the fre… 12.uk/cgi-bin/show_comments.1730&pageid=809) . ^ "VeloVision Issue 10" (http://www. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2007-01-18. additional terms may apply.archive. Retrieved from "http://en.asp.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension" Categories: Cycling equipment | Cycle types This page was last modified on 16 February 2011 at 00:13.pl? storynum=507. http://www. Text is available under the Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike License..softride.co.1730&pageid=809.co.wikipedia.softride.org/wiki/Bicycle_suspension 28/28 .aspx? catid=1540.2/17/2011 Bicycle suspension . Retrieved 2009-04-17.com/09/content.com/09/content. 13.pl?storynum=507) .c om/about_softride. 15. Inc.

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