SÞC81S MLulClnL 4

Lh
vear MLulClnL

LLC1u8L nC 1
ClasslflcaLlon of 8Ml (nln/nPL8l 1he pracLlcal Culde ldemnlflcaLlonţ
LvaluaLlon and 1reaLmenL of CverwelaLh and CbeslLv ln AdulLsţ CcLober
2000)

1vpe of welahL of a bodv 8Ml ( welaLhţ ka/ helaLh m²) 8lsk of accompanvlna
dlseases
ueflclencv of welahL of a bodv Ƽ 18ţ3
normal welahL of a bodv
18ţ3Ŵ 24ţ9

Surplus welahL of a bodv
(pseudoŴ obeslLv)
23ţ0Ŵ 29ţ9 lncreased
CbeslLv of 1 dearee 30ţ0 Ŷ 34ţ9 Plah
CbeslLv of 2 dearee 33ţ0 Ŵ 39ţ9 verv hlah
CbeslLv of 3 dearee
(morbld)
ƽ 40ţ0 1he hlahesL



LESSON 1
Content module 1. Medical control during physical and sports
training
Topic 1. Modern vision of sports medicine. Main objectives and content of
medical control.
1). Historic aspect oI sports medicine.
2). Modern idea oI sports medicine (SM).
3). Motor activity in human liIe and its importance Ior health maintenance and
strengthening
4). Sports medicine (SM) key tendencies. Organization system oI medical and
physical culture service. Remedial gymnastics dispensary, Sports Medicine and
Remedial Gymnastics Centers (RG).
5). Purpose, obiectives and content oI medical control over persons engaged in
physical training and sports activities.
6). Particularities oI medical examination oI physical culturists and sportsmen.
Modern examination methods. Medical control work Iorms. Medical supervision
kinds.
7). SpeciIic nature oI medical control over diIIerent sex and age groups.
Estimation oI conditions, organization and methods oI physical training lessons.
Topic 2. omplex medical examination method. Determination and
evaluation of human phvsical development.
1). Complex method oI medical examination oI persons engaged in physical
training lessons.
2) .Key obiectives oI primary, repeated and additional medical examinations.
3) General and sports anamnesis. General medical inspection. Analysis and
evaluation oI percussion and auscultation data oI sportsmen`s heart.
4). High training physiological criteria. Human physical development and its
determining Iactors.
5). Physical development and musculoskeletal system investigation by method
oI somatoscopy and anthropometry.
6).Physical development evaluation by methods oI standards, anthropological
proIile and indexes.
Hireparypa
1.HiĈynaĉĔċa ¢iąĈyĉĔrypa ra cčČprĆnċa ĊenĆĎĆċa. HanďaĉĔċe nĆnaċċė. Hin
pen. B.B.KĉačďyĈa ra I.B.PąėĈa. K., 3nČpČnė, 1995. C. 5-14; 28-39.
2ŦnļŒļ6ņaŕ ŎusŁŋŃs¡ŋpa u upaŒļ6ņsu Łňņ¡pňŃsť vŒļ6ņuŁ/Þňĺ pļĺŦ
8ŦAŦLnuŎaņňua u lŦnŦAnaņacļņŁň ŶMŦť MļĺuŐuņaţ 1990Ŧ ŶCŦ10Ŵ24Ŧ
4ŦLňcŃlĺĿļņņŕ ¡a ňŐlņŁa ŎlsuŒņňĶň pňsuu¡Łŋţ ňcň6Ńuuňc¡ļu c¡a¡ŋpu ¡a c¡aņŋ
ňnlpņňŴpŋŏňuňĶň anapa¡ŋ /PauŒaŃsņuu nňcl6ņuŁŦ MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ +ļpļnňŁ CŦCŦ
Ŷ3anňplĿĿŕţ 3LMvŦ Ŷ2008Ŧ Ŷ20cŦ
3ŦMuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ +ļŒļŃs MŦMŦţ CňŃňuuňua MŦlŦCŋŒacņa ňŐlņŁa nňŁasņuŁlu
ŎlsuŒņňĶň pňsuu¡Łŋ ŃŔĺuņu nlĺ Œac ņauŒaŃsņuŏ saņŕ¡s sl cnňp¡uuņňi
ŅļĺuŐuņu // 3anňpňĿcŁuu ŅļĺuŐuņcŁuu ĿŋpņaŃţ 2008Ŧ ŴN ţ ŴCŦ

PealLh ls Lhe ma[or properLv of a humanţ basls of hls/her llfeţ worklna
capaclLvţ creaLlve successesţ famllv wellŴbelnaţ mood and lonaevlLallLvŦ PealLh of
Lhe people reflecLs a sLandard of llvlna and sanlLarv wellbelna of Lhe counLrvŦ lL
dlrecLlv lnfluences Lhe llfe expecLancv and labor producLlvlLvţ defenslblllLvţ
economv and welfareţ moral cllmaLe and acLlvlLv of peopleŦ
MovemenL ls Lhe naLural necesslLv of a humanţ Lhe mosL naLural reaulaLor and
sLlmulaLor of vlLal acLlvlLvŦ uurlna anLhropoaenesls Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe human
was formlna ln consLanL movemenLŦ Poweverţ nowadavs Lhe parL of muscle
forces has dramaLlcallv decreased (approxlmaLelv from 90 Ʒ up Lo 3 Ʒ)Ŧ
AuLomaLlonţ mechanlzaLlonţ and lmplemenLaLlon of lndusLrlal roboLs aL
manufacLureţ LransporL and evervdav llfeţ Lhe lncreased menLal sLress under
Lhese condlLlonsţ a deslre Lo masLer a qulcklv arowlna volume of Lhe lnformaLlon
Ŷ all Lhls lnevlLablv leads Lo a decrease ln moLlon acLlvlLvŦ Þower lnpuLs of Lhe
modern person were dramaLlcallv reduced and accordlna Lo Lhe WPC Lhev are on
Lhe verae of malnLenance of normal vlLal acLlvlLvŦ
8aneful lnfluence of hvpoklneslas on Lhe human's healLh ls proved bv numerous
experlmenLalţ cllnlcal and epldemloloalcal researchesŦ As a resulL of reducLlon of a
sLream of lmpulses from worklna muscles Lhe mosL lmporLanL llnk of moLLoŴ
vlsceral reaulaLlon ls swlLched offť a level of exchanae and consumpLlon of oxvaen
bv Llssuesţ consumpLlon of aLheroaenlc llpldsţ svnLhesls of Llssue proLelnsţ Lone of
braln corLex decreasesţ plasLlc and aeneLlc basls of a cellţ blood supplv of bralnţ
hearL and oLher vlLal oraansţ nervous and hormonal reaulaLlon become worseţ
acLlvlLv of phvsloloalcal svsLems becomes dlscordanLţ funcLlonal reserves of
oraanlsm decreaseţ desLrucLlve chanaes ln skeleLal and cardlo muscular svsLem
developţ process of cells desLrucLlon ampllflesŦ
All Lhls adverselv lnfluences Lhe proLecLlve forces of oraanlsmţ lLs lmmune
ablllLlesţ ablllLv for adequaLe adapLaLlon Lo Lhe requlremenLs of envlronmenL and
acLlon of lLs sLrona lrrlLanLsţ Lo reslsL sLressful facLorsŦ lnLellecLual and phvslcal
worklna capaclLv of Lhe human decreasesţ Lhe perlod of rehablllLaLlon ls
exLendedŦ ÞrecondlLlons Lo Lhe developmenL of varlous dlseases are creaLedŦ
Aaelna processes are becomlna more lnLenslveŦ
1he onlv wav Lo overcome a ºmoLlon hunaer" of Lhe modern personţ
hvpoklneslas ln hls/her wav of llfe ls Laklna an acLlve resLţ phvslcal Lralnlnaţ sporLsţ
LourlsmŦ 1husţ lncrease of phvslcal worklna capaclLv leads Lo lncrease of
compensaLlve ablllLles of oraanlsmţ Lherebvţ promoLlna sLablllzaLlon and
sLrenaLhenlna of healLhŦ
under Lhe usual condlLlons of llfe onlv 20Ŵ23 Ʒ of Llssues meanL Lo perform a
cerLaln funcLlon of oraanlsm are usedŦ CLher 70Ŵ73 Ʒ Lake place onlv when ralsed
requlremenLs are laldţ reflecLlna a funcLlonal reserveţ level of healLhţ funcLlon
rellablllLvŦ
under lnfluence of reaular moLlonal acLlvlLv Lhere ls reoraanlzaLlon aL all levels of
oraanlsm acLlvlLv Ŷ cenLralţ svsLemţ oraanţ cellular levelsŦ
As Lhe resulL Lhe proLecLlve forces of oraanlsmţ lLs sLablllLv Lo acLlon of varlous
lrrlLanLsţ and adverse facLors of envlronmenLţ psvhoemoLlonal overloads
essenLlallv ralseţ expresslveness of meLabollc lnfrlnaemenLs of rlsk and rlsk of
ƍwear processƍ of hearL decrease as well as probablllLv of aLherosclerosls
developmenLţ Cl (cardlac fallure)ţ adlposlsţ dlabeLesţ deaeneraLlve dlseases of
[olnLs and manv oLher lllnessesŦ ÞarameLers of llplds exchanae lmprovesţ
flbrlnolvLlc acLlvlLv of blood and llplds level of hlah denslLv lncreaseŦ
ln several monLhs of reaular Lralnlnas Lhe preclse poslLlve effecL ls observedť
complalnLs abouL healLh decrease or dlsappearţ sleep lmprovesţ worklna capaclLv
ralsesţ faLLv parL of bodv welahL decreasesţ pulse slows downţ arLerlal pressure
decreasesţ and reaeneraLlve processes acceleraLeŦ
PealLhŴlmprovlna effecL becomes apparenL even aL Lhe bealnnlna of Lralnlnas
when one ls 60Ŵ70 and more vears oldŦ
ln Lhe counLrles and realons where phvslcal Lralnlna became popularţ for Lhe
lasL 10 vears a preclse Lendencv Lo decrease ln deaLh raLe from cardlovascular
dlseases was ouLllnedŦ lL ls essenLlalţ LhaL phvslcallv acLlve people are more sLable
noL onlv aaalnsL lllnesses of blood clrculaLlonţ buL also Lo colds and lnfecLlous
dlseasesţ oxvaen lnsufflclencvţ overheaLlna and overcoollnaţ acLlon of Loxlc
subsLances and occupaLlonal hazardsŦ
uaLa on sLudles of Lhe wav of llfe of Lhe lonaŴllvers LesLlfv Lo Lhe connecLlon of
moLlonal acLlvlLv wlLh llfe spanŦ 1he more funcLlon ls Lralnedţ Lhe laLer lL ƍarows
oldƍŦ 1he adapLed Llssues wear ouL lessŦ
1he due healLhŴlmprovlna effecL ls provlded onlv wlLh versaLlle LralnlnaŦ lf for
prevenLlve measures of cardlovascular dlseases Lhe cvcllc exerclses developlna
malnlv enduranceţ accompanled bv sufflclenL enerav and hemodvnamlc shlfLs ln
oraanlsm have speclal slanlflcance ln order Lo prevenL lllnesses of [olnLsţ musclesţ
capsular llaamenLous apparaLusţ backboneţ nervous svsLemţ eLcŦ comprehenslve
exerclses are necessarvŦ 1he effecL of Lralnlnas ls Lhe mosL slanlflcanLţ lf Lhev are
carrled ouL on a reaular basls durlna Lhe whole llfeŦ Þerlods of arowLh and
formaLlon of oraanlsm and lLs aaelna have speclal valueŦ ln Lhe earlv perlods of
llfe Lhe basls of healLh and lonaevlLv ls formedŦ
8eaular phvslcal exerclses aL chlldrenƌs and Leenaae aae are lmporLanL Lo
malnLaln harmonlous phvslcal developmenLţ proporLlonal formaLlon of a skeleLonţ
muscle svsLem and lnLernal oraansţ prevenLlon of faulLs ln bearlnaţ scolloslsţ
flaLfooLţ dlsharmonv beLween lncrease ln Lhe slzes of a bodv and maLurlLv of
lnLernal oraans LhaL ls qulLe ofLen observed aL LeenaaersŴacceleraLesŦ
lncrease of sLablllLv and sLeadlness of nervous processes and menLallLv are
raLher lmporLanLţ removal of lncreased lrrlLablllLv accordlna Lo Lhe aaeţ
overcomlna of dlfflculLles of Lhe puberLv perlodŦ 1he chlldren and Leenaaers who
on a reaular basls ao ln for sporLs have boLh hlaher all parameLers of phvslcal
developmenL and areaLer annual lncreaseţ and also have conslderablv hlaher
funcLlonallLles of nervous svsLemţ breaLhŴclrculaLlon apparaLus and reslsLlblllLv of
oraanlsm Lo exhausLlonŦ
When Lhev become older phvslcal exerclses promoLe lonaer preservaLlon of
healLhţ moLor skllls and worklna capaclLvţ sofLen developmenL of aae chanaesŦ lor
Lhls reason people who reaularlv ao ln for sporL or Þ1 durlna Lhelr llves accordlna
Lo Lhe sLaLe of healLh and sLaLe of oraanlsm for Lhe mosL cases belona Lo Lhe
vounaer aae ln comparlson wlLh a ƍpassporLƍ oneŦ 1haL ls especlallv lmporLanL
Lodav when relaLlve denslLv of older people lncreases ln Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe
populaLlonŦ
lnspecLlon of sporLs veLerans has shown LhaL dlseases of cardloŴvascular
svsLem are meL more seldom Lhan wlLh Lhe populaLlon of correspondlna aae as a
wholeŦ 1he ma[orlLv of Lhem preserve a aood bearlnaţ sufflclenL moblllLv ln [olnLs
and backboneţ coordlnaLlon of movemenLsţ speed of reacLlonŦ Speedţ force and
endurance exceed Lhe averaae aae parameLers for 30Ŵ30 ƷŦ 8alsed faL depoLsţ as
a ruleţ are absenLŦ 1he moLlon skllls acqulred durlna Lhe llfe are kepLŦ
It is known that the loadings causing a necessary level oI hemodynamic and energy shiIts in
the organism provide with an expressed health-improving eIIect. As many authors think such
shiIts have to make up not less than 60-70° oI MOC.
Not only in the absence oI physical activities, but also at their insuIIicient level, greater Iatigue
takes place when strong irritants eIIect the organism owing to which the risk oI their damaging
inIluence appears to be higher.
For example, health parameters oI the students who train only under the curriculum oI
physical training in high school are worse than oI their Iellow students who additionally train in
the sport groups.
Poweverţ a deLermlnlna facLor whlch deflnes lnfluence of phvslcal Lralnlna on
human's healLh ls noL onlv Lhe volume of loadlna buL lLs conformlLv Lo
opporLunlLles of oraanlsmţ level of lLs funcLlonal readlness and speclal phvslcal
condlLlonsŦ AL such conformlLv even Lhe areaLesL loadlnas are noL a damaalna
facLor for Lhe oraanlsmŦ lf loadlna doesn'L correspond Lo Lhe opporLunlLles of Lhe
oraanlsm even aL raLher small volume and lnLenslLv lL can become harmful for
healLhŦ
Penceţ Lhe same mechanlsm Ŷ lnLeracLlon of lrrlLanL force (phvslcal loadlna)
and funcLlonallLles whlch sLlpulaLe oraanlsm readlness Lo lLs percepLlon Ŷ ls Lhe
maln facLor whlch lnfluences Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe person who ao ln for sporL and
phvslcal LralnlnaŦ
ln oLher wordsţ noL onlv phvslcal Lralnlna buL sporL as well provldes wlLh healLhŴ
lmprovlna effecL as one has Lo conslder Lhe oraanlsm funcLlonallLlesţ ranae and
level of lLs adapLlve reacLlons as Lhe mosL lmporLanL elemenL of healLhŦ An
opporLunlLv Lo adapL Lo Lhe lncreased requlremenLs of envlronmenL wlLhouL
paLholoalcal dlsplavs LesLlfles Lo a level of healLh LhaL ls raLher lmporLanL for
person's successful performance of lLs soclal and bloloalcal funcLlonsŦ 1he hlaher
ls Lhls opporLunlLvţ Lhe hlaher ls Lhe Lralnlna level LhaL ls Lvplcal for Lhe quallfled
sporLsmenŦ
1husţ Lhere ls a reason Lo conslder LhaL a healLhŴlmprovlna slanlflcance of
moLlonal acLlvlLv ls Lhe aeneral bloloalcal reaularlLv whlch acLs ln Lerms of full
conformlLv of appllcable phvslcal loadlna Lo funcLlonallLles of Lhe oraanlsmţ
raLlonal Lralnlna and healLhv wav of llfeŦ CLherwlseţ lL ls dlfflculL Lo achleve noL
onlv Lhe healLhŴlmprovlna effecLţ buL perhaps Lhe appearance of prepaLholoalcal
and even Lhe paLholoalcal condlLlons developlna due Lo phvslcal oversLralnŦ
1he ma[or wavs of malnLenance of raLher full healLhŴlmprovlna effecL of phvslcal
culLure and sporLs areť
ŴcorrecL selecLlonŤ
ŴraLlonal dosaae of phvslcal exerclsesŤ
ŴLhe areaLesL posslble ellmlnaLlon from Lhe svsLem of preparaLlon of Lhe rlsk
facLors lncreaslna probablllLv of phvslcal oversLralnŤ
Ŵoverall use of means of prlmarv prevenLlve measures and rehablllLaLlonŦ
Solution oI these problems is one oI the basic purposes oI the medical control over the
athletes and sportsmen.
Age and sexua| features of hea|thŴ|mprov|ng tra|n|ngs
1he mosL lmporLanL purpose of Lralnlnas ls Lhe lmprovemenL of morpholoalc
and funcLlonal sLaLe of oraanlsmţ lLs reslsLlblllLv Lo adverse facLors of
envlronmenLŦ Puman's healLh ls reached aL anv aaeŦ nelLher onLoaeneLlc
phasesţ nor elderlv aae prevenL Lhe oraanlsm from recelvlna a healLhŴlmprovlna
effecL of phvslcal LralnlnasŦ 1he oraanlsm ls provlded wlLh opporLunlLles of healLhŴ
lmprovlna Lralnlnas wlLh a slanlflcanL reserve Ŷ from anLenaLal sLaLus up Lo a
decllne of llfeŦ Soţ beneflclal effecL on developmenL of a noL veL born babv ls
reached owlna Lo phvslcal exerclses whlch are carrled ouL bv Lhe preananL
womanŦ 1he sLaLe of hvpoxla ln her blood whlch ls reached durlna exerclses
sLlmulaLes meLabollsm ln Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe feLusŦ 8esearches prove an
opporLunlLv Lo Lraln aL Lhe elderlv aae and conslderablv even relaLlvelv more Lhan
aL Lhe vouna aae Lo lmprove funcLlonal sLaLe of oraanlsmŦ
lor Lhe mosL effecLlve oraanlzaLlon of healLhŴlmprovlna Lralnlna lL ls necessarv
Lo conslder LhaL Lhe Lralnlna effecL for Lhe vouna people and people of elderlv aae
ls formed aL dlfferenL speedŦ 1he vounaer ls Lhe oraanlsmţ Lhe earller ln Lerms of
reaular phvslcal exerclses worklna capaclLv lncreases and Lhe perlod of exhausLlon
because of loadlnas ls shorLerŦ 1hereforeţ lL ls necessarv Lo ralse lnLenslLv verv
araduallv and LoLal amounL of loadlnas for people of elderlv aaeŦ AL Lhe same Llme
one shouldn'L dramaLlcallv lncrease loadlnas for chlldren and Leenaaersţ Laklna
lnLo conslderaLlon LhaL lL ls easllv Lo damaae Lhelr lmmaLure oraanlsmŦ 1hereforeţ
for opLlmum doslna of phvslcal acLlvlLles aL anv aae lL ls necessarv Lo be aulded bv
Lhe sLaLe of Lhe mosL senslLlve svsLem whlch ls closelv connecLed wlLh Lhe moLor
funcLlon Ŷ cardlovascular svsLemŦ
uurlna healLhŴ lmprovlna Lralnlnas lL ls necessarv Lo conslder sexual feaLures of
Lhe oraanlsm as wellŦ Women should be recommended Lo do more plasLlc
exerclses wlLhouL sharp movemenLsŦ 1he perlod of menorrhea does noL demand
Lo refuse from Lralnlna emplovmenL lf Lhese exerclses are noL connecLed wlLh
necesslLv of sLav ln waLer (swlmmlna)Ŧ
Lxerclses are forbldden ln followlna casesť
Ŵ aL lnfrlnaemenLs of ovarlan menorrheal cvcle accompanled wlLh palnsţ
plenLlful blood dlscharaeŤ
Ŵ necesslLv Lo perform Lhe maxlmal efforLs (for example ln Lerms of
compeLlLlons)Ť
Ŵ aL Lhe lnsufflclenL level of phvslcal sLaLe of oraanlsm (an lnlLlal sLaae of
Lralnlnas)Ŧ


METHODS OF THE ESTIMATION OF PHYSICAL
DEVELOPMENT

1he meLhod of lndexes (lndex keLleţ arowLhŴwelahLţ Lrlsmanţ vlLalţ power
parameLersţ Þlnveţ eLcŦ) ls applled Lo a rouah esLlmaLlonţ as ln Lhemţ usuallv are
noL consldered aaeţ sexţ occupaLlon and a klnd of sporLsŦ
1he meLhod of sLandards Ŵ an esLlmaLlon of phvslcal developmenL under
sLandards of LhaL aroup Lo whlch belonas survevedŦ

1) welahLŴ arowLh lndex ßeLle ƹ welahL of a bodv(a) /lenaLh bodles (sm)Ŧ
Average index 350-400g per 1 sm at the men.
323Ŵ373a per 1 sm aL womenŦ

2) Body mass index (BMÌ) = Mass in kilograms / Height in meters squared


3) Lhe vlLal parameLer ƹ vCL (ml)/welahL (ka)
for men Ŵ 63Ŵ70 Ʒţ women Ŷ 48Ŵ30 ƷŦ

4) Lhe Þower parameLer ƹ force brushes (ka)/welahL bodles (ka) of *100 Ʒ Ŧ
normal for men 63Ŵ70 for women 48Ŵ30

5) the Index oI proportionality oI development oI a thorax (index Erisman)
arasp of a Lhorax ƹ lenaLh bodles (sm)/2
wlLh amendmenLs of +3ţ8 sm for MŤ +3ţ8 sm for WŦ

6) Lhe ÞarameLer of a forLress of a consLlLuLlon (Þlnveţ) expresses a dlfference
beLween lenaLh of a bodv and Lhe sum of welahL of a bodv wlLh a clrcle of a
Lhorax (ln a phase of an exhalaLlon)Ŧ lf Lhe dlfference ls lessţ Lhe parameLer ls
beLLer (less aL absence of adlposlLv)
1he dlfference ls less 10 Ŷ a sLrona consLlLuLlonŤ 10 Ŵ 20 Ŷ aoodŤ 20 Ŷ 23 Ŷ an
averaaeŤ 26 Ŵ 33 weakŤ more Lhan 36 Ŷ verv weakŦ



MLulCAL Ŵ ÞLuACCClCAL C8SL8vA1lCnS (MÞC)
are Lhe lmporLanL secLlon of work performed bv Lhe sporLs docLorŦ
8aslc purpose of MÞC ls Lo esLlmaLe lnfluence of phvslcal acLlvlLles on
oraanlsm of Lhose who are enaaaed ln phvslcal culLure and ao ln for sporLsţ Lo
promoLe perfecLlon of educaLlonalŴLralnlna process and recepLlon of Lhe maxlmal
hvalenlc and healLhŴlmprovlna effecL of LralnlnasŦ
MÞC have Lhe followlna Lasksť
1Ŧ An esLlmaLlon of hvalenlc condlLlons (LemperaLureţ humldlLvţ venLllaLlonţ llahL
exposureţ conformlLv of cloLhes and fooLwearţ conformlLv of slzesţ welahL and
sLaLe of sporLs equlpmenLţ safeLv precauLlonsţ oraanlzaLlon of flrsL ald)Ŧ
2Ŧ CraanlzaLlon of educaLlonalŴLralnlna processţ quallLv check of work of Lhe coach
or Leacher ln Lerms of medlclneŦ
3Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of sLaLe of healLhţ lŦeŦ reveallna of Lhe laLenL devlaLlons whlch
one falled Lo flnd aL medlcal survevţ an esLlmaLlon of dvnamlcs of sLaLe of healLhţ
dlaanosLlcs of prepaLholoalcal condlLlons and paLholoalcal chanaes arlslna aL
lrraLlonal LralnlnaŦ
4Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of funcLlonal condlLlon of Lhe sporLsman's oraanlsm ln order Lo
esLlmaLe a speclal level of phvslcal sLaLeŦ
3Ŧ An esLlmaLlon of adequacv of Lhe applled svsLem of Lralnlna Lo Lhe
morpholoalcal and funcLlonal capablllLles of Lhe sporLsman Lo lmprove Lhe
plannlna and lndlvlduallzaLlon of an educaLlonalŴLralnlna processŦ
6Ŧ An esLlmaLlon and cholce of medlcalţ pedaaoalcal and psvcholoalcal meLhods of
lmprovemenL of rehablllLaLlon processes afLer serlous phvslcal loadlnasŦ 1he
docLor vlslLlna phvslcal exerclses or sporLs Lralnlnas ouLllnes Lhe dlsclpllne of
Lhose who Lralnţ correcLness of Lhe Leacher's explanaLlonsţ lnsurance
arranaemenL aL performance of cerLaln exerclsesŦ 8esldesţ he flxes Lhe remarks of
Lhe Leacher concernlna Lhe bearlnaţ adherence Lo Lhe correcL breaLhţ use of
correcLlve and comprehenslve exerclses Lo Lhe sufflclenL exLenLţ as well as
adherence Lo Lhe rules of personal hvaleneŦ




SM has Lhe followlna Lasksť

1Ŧ CraanlzaLlon and lmplemenLaLlon of reaular medlcal supervlslon over
healLh of Lhe persons who are enaaaed ln Þ1 and ao ln for sporLŦ
2Ŧ LxplanaLlon of means and meLhods of phvslcal Lralnlnaţ developmenL of
new and Lhe mosL perfecL meLhods of medlcal supervlslon over sporLsmenţ
dlaanosLlcţ LreaLmenLţ prevenLlon of dlseases and ln[urles of sporLsmenŦ
3Ŧ Þrovlslon of hlah healLhŴlmprovlna overall performance aL Þ1 and sporLs
wlLh Lhe persons of dlfferenL aaeţ sexţ varlous professlons and wlLh a varlous sLaLe
of healLhŦ AsslsLance Lo sporL resulLs lmprovemenLŦ
4Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of Lhe mosL raLlonal hvalenlc condlLlons of phvslcal Lralnlna
and lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe measures svsLem dlrecLed Lo Lhe ellmlnaLlon of Lhe
facLors lnfluenclna adverselv on Lhe person durlna Þ1 and aolna ln for sporLŦ

1he baslc forms of work ln SM areť
1Ŧ Medlcal examlnaLlon of Lhe persons who are enaaaed ln Þ1 and ao ln for
sporLs whlch are dlvlded lnLo prlmarvţ repeaLed and addlLlonalŦ
2Ŧ AL prlmarv medlcal examlnaLlon Lhe docLor solves Lhe problem on Lhe
permlsslon Lo Lraln and ao ln for sporLŦ WlLhouL Lhe docLor's permlsslon a
coach or ÞL Leacher has no rlahL Lo allow Lhe bealnner Lo LralnŦ uurlna Lhe
medlcal examlnaLlon he/she deflnes a sLaLe of healLhţ phvslcal
developmenL and adapLaLlon of oraanlsm Lo Lhe dosed phvslcal loadlnasŦ AL
repeaLed medlcal lnspecLlons lnfluence of reaular ÞC and sporL Lralnlnas on
a sLaLe of healLhţ phvslcal developmenL and funcLlonal condlLlon of
oraanlsm of Lhe sporLsman ls deflnedŦ Such lnspecLlons are obllaaLorv for all
sporLsmen and are carrled ouL perlodlcallv 2Ŵ3 Llmes annuallv dependlna on
Lhe sLaLe of healLh and sporLs quallflcaLlonŦ

AddlLlonal medlcal lnspecLlons are oraanlzed Lo solve a problem on Lhe
sporLsmen's admlsslon Lo Lhe compeLlLlons as well as on an opporLunlLv Lo sLarL
Lralnlnas afLer Lhe underaone dlseases or ln[urlesţ afLer lona breaks of Lralnlnasţ aL
Lhe phenomena of faLlaue (under Lhe recommendaLlon of Lhe coach or under Lhe
sporLsman's requesL) Lhev are carrled ouL 3 davs before Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ
8ules of Lhe compeLlLlons on boxlnaţ maraLhon raceţ walklna and run for
Lhe dlsLance over 20 kmţ crossŴcounLrv skllna aL Lhe dlsLance of 30 km and overţ
davs lona blcvcleţ moLLo and auLo raceţ scuba dlvlnaţ maraLhon swlmmlna
sLlpulaLe medlcal lnspecLlons dlrecLlv before Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ
8esldesţ Lhev are carrled ouL ln Lhe course of Lhe compeLlLlons on boxlna and
wresLllna Ŵ before welahlna of sporLsmenŦ
3Ŧ ÞrophvlacLlc medlcal examlnaLlon of leadlna sporLsmenŦ lL malnlv means
malnlv profound medlcal examlnaLlons (ÞML) 1Ŵ 2 Llmes a vear whlch lncludes
rouLlne laboraLorv sLudles and sLudvlna of Lhelr phvslcal worklna capaclLvŦ Such
allŴround lnspecLlon helps Lo deflne a sLaLe of healLhţ funcLlonallLlesţ Lo esLabllsh
wheLher Lhe sporLsman has reached hls besL phvslcal sLaLeţ are Lhere anv earlv
slans of overŴfaLlaue as well as Lo reveal preŴpaLholoalcal sLaLe and healLh
abnormallLlesŦ
4Ŧ Þedaaoalcal Ŵmedlcal conLrol provldes wlLh supervlslon over carrvlna ouL Lhe
Lralnlnasţ dvnamlcs of funcLlonal sLaLe and deLermlnaLlon of an opLlmum level of
sporLsmen's phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ
1he alven researches are consldered aL plannlna Lhe Lralnlnaţ
lndlvlduallzaLlon of Lralnlna Lechnlqueţ deLermlnaLlon of Lhe volume and lnLenslLv
of phvslcal loadlna aL Lhe Lralnlna lessons and maLerlal Lo carrv ouL a medlcal and
sporLs consulLaLlonŦ
3Ŧ SanlLarv Ŵ hvalenlc supervlslon of places and condlLlons of carrvlna ouL Lhe
sporL Lralnlnas and compeLlLlons lncludes currenL and precauLlonarv supervlslonŦ
CurrenL supervlslon ls carrled ouL bv realonal SLS ln close conLacL wlLh Lhe sporLs
docLorsŦ
ÞrecauLlonarv supervlslon ls asslaned Lo auLhorlLles of Lhe sLaLe sanlLarv
lnspecLlonŦ
6Ŧ Medlcal malnLenance of sporLs compeLlLlons and mass klnds of ÞCŦ AL Lhe
oraanlzaLlon of anv sporLs compeLlLlon medlcal malnLenance should be
provldedŦ lf a medlcal servlce worker ls absenL Lhe head referee has no rlahL Lo
sLarL and held Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ SvsLem of precauLlonarv acLlons ls carrled ouL
wlLh Lhe purpose of sporLs ln[urles prevenLlonŦ 8ules of compeLlLlons of all
klnds of sporLs lnclude speclal resLrlcLlons dlrecLed Lo Lhe prevenLlon of sporLs
LraumasŦ
7Ŧ Medlcal and sporL consulLaLlon ls carrled ouL bv Lhe docLors for aLhleLesţ
sporLsmenţ coachesţ and for Lhose who are enaaaed ln healLh aroupsŦ
%he doctor gives advice on a mode and technique oI training, degree oI physical activity,
character and intensity oI trainings; helps to choose means and methods oI training in a correct
way.
9Ŧ 1he sanlLarv elucldaLlve work amona sporLsmen ls asslaned Lo lmprove a
Lralnlna processţ Lo lmparL hvalenlc skllls ln evervdav llfeţ workţ sLudvţ sporLs
acLlvlLles Lo Lhe sporLsmenŦ SporLs docLor's lmporLanL Lask ls Lo Leach Lhe
sporLsmen who are belna under hls/her supervlslon Lo held a selfŴconLrolţ Lo keep
a [ournal of selfŴconLrol reaularlvţ Lo complv wlLh Lhe rules of personal and publlc
hvaleneţ use lL ln a correcL wav wlLh Lhe purpose of endurance lmprovemenLţ
naLural facLors of Lhe naLureŦ


º1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________1
"1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)

_________________________________________________________º"
1he movemenL can replace anv remedlesţ buL all remedles ln Lhe
world can'L replace acLlon of movemenL"
( 1lsso xvlllţ lrance)
Modern lnLerpreLaLlon of sporLs medlclneŦ ConcepL of Lhe medlcal
conLrolŦ Modern meLhods of aLhleLes and sporLsmen examlnaLlonŦ

no lnformaLlon was kepL on Lhe developmenL of sporLsŴmedlcal knowledae ln
ukralne up Lo Lhe esLabllshmenL of Lhe SovleL auLhorlLvŦ 8v Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe
20
Lh
cenLurv Lhe facLs of a hlah level of phvslcal Lralnlna and lLs medlcal
malnLenance are provldedŦ 1he flrsL sclenLlflc research lnsLlLuLe of phvslcal
Lralnlna ln Lhe SovleL unlon was founded ln kharkov ln 1921Ŧ SclenLlflc researches
were devoLed Lo Lhe sLudles of phvslcal exerclses and acLlve lelsure lnfluence on
Lhe oraanlsm of people of dlfferenL aaeŦ
1he maln Lrend of researches ln sporLs medlclne was noL even Lhe sporL lLselfţ
buL onlv applled quesLlons of sporLs necessarv Lo malnLaln vlcLorles of Lhe
naLlonal Leams of Lhe uSS8Ŧ WlLh Lhls purpose CenLral sclenLlflc research lnsLlLuLe
of phvslcal Lralnlna renamed laLer ln an AllŴunlon one was creaLed ln 1932 ln
MoscowŦ 1he problems on healLhŴlmprovlna effecLs of phvslcal exerclses and
especlallv on lnLerrelaLlon beLween sporLs and healLh ln Lhe 20Lh vears became a
sub[ecL of sharp dlspuLe LhaL was caused bv numerous cases of healLh sLaLe
dlsorder as Lhe resulL of aolna ln for sporLs and even deaLh of sporLsmenŦ
1here are no doubLs LhaL experLs havlna comprehenslvelv consldered Lhe
known facLs and aulded flrsL for Lhe sake of healLhţ would flnd a wav ouLţ havlna
brlna sporLs and oLher phvslcal exerclses under Lhe real medlcal conLrol and
havlna offered necessarv resLrlcLlons concernlna sporL LralnlnaŦ llrsL of all lL ls
referred Lo Lhe aae resLrlcLlons Ŷ Lhelr absence meanL safeLvţ Lo harm Lhe
lmmaLure chlldrenƌs oraanlsm wlLh Lhe excesslve loadlnas for Lhe sake of shorL
bursL of Űa sporLs sLarűŦ
1he flrsL medlcalŴsporLs cenLer was founded ln klev ln 1947 whlch ln 1933 was
reoraanlzed ln a medlcal exerclses dlspensarvŦ CreaLlon of a sclenLlflcŴmedlcal
oraanlzaLlon of medlcal conLrol and phvsloLherapv exerclses ln 1939 plaved a
areaL role ln developmenL of sporLs medlclne and phvsloLherapv exerclses ln
ukralneŦ Þrofessor CŦlŦkrasnoselskvţ head of ÞL deparLmenL of klev medlcal
lnsLlLuLeţ was Lhe flrsL chalrmanŦ lar ouLslde ukralne researches of academlclan
CŦvŦlolborL and hls collaboraLors and dlsclples ln phvsloloav of Lhe rehablllLaLlon
perlod and phvsloloalcal mechanlsms of Lralnlna and overLralnlna sLaLus
(academlclan vŦvŦlrolklsţ professors vŦkachorovska[aţ LŦ!ŦLvaeneva and oLhers)
are knownŦ
ln 1969 klev sclenLlflc research lnsLlLuLe of medlcal problems of phvslcal
Lralnlna (dlrecLor lŦvŦMuravov) was creaLedŦ ln 1986 lL was closed down (because
of Chernobvl Lraaedv)Ŧ Cn lLs base Lhe ukralnlan cenLer of radlaLlna medlclne was
oraanlzedŦ
Works oI academician N.M.Amosov gave a signiIicant push to the researches oI a health-
improving orientation oI physical training and sports. %hey contributed to the development oI
methods oI health quantitative diagnostics. Since 1992 in Kiev the Ukrainian center oI sports
medicine, and since 1993 State scientiIic research institute oI physical training and sports
problems has been Iunctioning.
1odav ln ukralne Lhe docLors of medlcal sclences headlna faculLles ŰÞhvslcal
rehablllLaLlon and sporLs medlclne" work aL Medlcal unlverslLles ln klevţ
unepropeLrovskţ uoneLskţ Cdessaţ Lvovţ Slmferopol and ZaporozhveŦ

C8CAnlZA1lCn Anu CCn1Ln1 of SÞC81S
MLulClnLŤ MLulCAL LxAMlnA1lCn of A1PLL1LS Anu SÞC81SMLnŦ

SporLs medlclne ls a sclenLlflc and pracLlcal dlsclpllne wlLh lLs Lasks and
meLhodsţ Lheorv and problems of sclenLlflc researchesŦ ÞracLlcal servlce of SM has
a neLwork of medlcal and prevenLlve LreaLmenL faclllLlesţ namelv medlcal and
sporLs cablneLs and MLu (medlcal exerclses dlspensarles)Ŧ
1he purpose of SM ls allŴround asslsLance Lo developmenL of Þ1 (Þhvslcal
1ralnlna) and sporLs as Lhe means promoLlna sLrenaLhenlna of healLhţ harmonlous
developmenL of Lhe personţ preservaLlon of healLh and readlness Lo Lhe hlahŴ
efflclencv workŦ

SM has Lhe followlna Lasksť

1Ŧ CraanlzaLlon and lmplemenLaLlon of reaular medlcal supervlslon over
healLh of Lhe persons who are enaaaed ln Þ1 and ao ln for sporLŦ
2Ŧ LxplanaLlon of means and meLhods of phvslcal Lralnlnaţ developmenL of
new and Lhe mosL perfecL meLhods of medlcal supervlslon over sporLsmenţ
dlaanosLlcţ LreaLmenLţ prevenLlon of dlseases and ln[urles of sporLsmenŦ
3Ŧ Þrovlslon of hlah healLhŴlmprovlna overall performance aL Þ1 and sporLs
wlLh Lhe persons of dlfferenL aaeţ sexţ varlous professlons and wlLh a varlous sLaLe
of healLhŦ AsslsLance Lo sporL resulLs lmprovemenLŦ
4Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of Lhe mosL raLlonal hvalenlc condlLlons of phvslcal Lralnlna
and lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe measures svsLem dlrecLed Lo Lhe ellmlnaLlon of Lhe
facLors lnfluenclna adverselv on Lhe person durlna Þ1 and aolna ln for sporLŦ

1he baslc forms of work ln SM areť
1Ŧ Medlcal examlnaLlon of Lhe persons who are enaaaed ln Þ1 and ao ln for
sporLs whlch are dlvlded lnLo prlmarvţ repeaLed and addlLlonalŦ
2Ŧ AL prlmarv medlcal examlnaLlon Lhe docLor solves Lhe problem on Lhe
permlsslon Lo Lraln and ao ln for sporLŦ WlLhouL Lhe docLor's permlsslon a
coach or ÞL Leacher has no rlahL Lo allow Lhe bealnner Lo LralnŦ uurlna Lhe
medlcal examlnaLlon he/she deflnes a sLaLe of healLhţ phvslcal
developmenL and adapLaLlon of oraanlsm Lo Lhe dosed phvslcal loadlnasŦ AL
repeaLed medlcal lnspecLlons lnfluence of reaular ÞC and sporL Lralnlnas on
a sLaLe of healLhţ phvslcal developmenL and funcLlonal condlLlon of
oraanlsm of Lhe sporLsman ls deflnedŦ Such lnspecLlons are obllaaLorv for all
sporLsmen and are carrled ouL perlodlcallv 2Ŵ3 Llmes annuallv dependlna on
Lhe sLaLe of healLh and sporLs quallflcaLlonŦ

AddlLlonal medlcal lnspecLlons are oraanlzed Lo solve a problem on Lhe
sporLsmen's admlsslon Lo Lhe compeLlLlons as well as on an opporLunlLv Lo sLarL
Lralnlnas afLer Lhe underaone dlseases or ln[urlesţ afLer lona breaks of Lralnlnasţ aL
Lhe phenomena of faLlaue (under Lhe recommendaLlon of Lhe coach or under Lhe
sporLsman's requesL) Lhev are carrled ouL 3 davs before Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ
8ules of Lhe compeLlLlons on boxlnaţ maraLhon raceţ walklna and run for
Lhe dlsLance over 20 kmţ crossŴcounLrv skllna aL Lhe dlsLance of 30 km and overţ
davs lona blcvcleţ moLLo and auLo raceţ scuba dlvlnaţ maraLhon swlmmlna
sLlpulaLe medlcal lnspecLlons dlrecLlv before Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ
8esldesţ Lhev are carrled ouL ln Lhe course of Lhe compeLlLlons on boxlna and
wresLllna Ŵ before welahlna of sporLsmenŦ
3Ŧ ÞrophvlacLlc medlcal examlnaLlon of leadlna sporLsmenŦ lL malnlv means
malnlv profound medlcal examlnaLlons (ÞML) 1Ŵ 2 Llmes a vear whlch lncludes
rouLlne laboraLorv sLudles and sLudvlna of Lhelr phvslcal worklna capaclLvŦ Such
allŴround lnspecLlon helps Lo deflne a sLaLe of healLhţ funcLlonallLlesţ Lo esLabllsh
wheLher Lhe sporLsman has reached hls besL phvslcal sLaLeţ are Lhere anv earlv
slans of overŴfaLlaue as well as Lo reveal preŴpaLholoalcal sLaLe and healLh
abnormallLlesŦ
4Ŧ Þedaaoalcal Ŵmedlcal conLrol provldes wlLh supervlslon over carrvlna ouL Lhe
Lralnlnasţ dvnamlcs of funcLlonal sLaLe and deLermlnaLlon of an opLlmum level of
sporLsmen's phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ
1he alven researches are consldered aL plannlna Lhe Lralnlnaţ
lndlvlduallzaLlon of Lralnlna Lechnlqueţ deLermlnaLlon of Lhe volume and lnLenslLv
of phvslcal loadlna aL Lhe Lralnlna lessons and maLerlal Lo carrv ouL a medlcal and
sporLs consulLaLlonŦ
3Ŧ SanlLarv Ŵ hvalenlc supervlslon of places and condlLlons of carrvlna ouL Lhe
sporL Lralnlnas and compeLlLlons lncludes currenL and precauLlonarv supervlslonŦ
CurrenL supervlslon ls carrled ouL bv realonal SLS ln close conLacL wlLh Lhe sporLs
docLorsŦ
ÞrecauLlonarv supervlslon ls asslaned Lo auLhorlLles of Lhe sLaLe sanlLarv
lnspecLlonŦ
6Ŧ Medlcal malnLenance of sporLs compeLlLlons and mass klnds of ÞCŦ AL Lhe
oraanlzaLlon of anv sporLs compeLlLlon medlcal malnLenance should be
provldedŦ lf a medlcal servlce worker ls absenL Lhe head referee has no rlahL Lo
sLarL and held Lhe compeLlLlonsŦ SvsLem of precauLlonarv acLlons ls carrled ouL
wlLh Lhe purpose of sporLs ln[urles prevenLlonŦ 8ules of compeLlLlons of all
klnds of sporLs lnclude speclal resLrlcLlons dlrecLed Lo Lhe prevenLlon of sporLs
LraumasŦ
7Ŧ Medlcal and sporL consulLaLlon ls carrled ouL bv Lhe docLors for aLhleLesţ
sporLsmenţ coachesţ and for Lhose who are enaaaed ln healLh aroupsŦ
%he doctor gives advice on a mode and technique oI training, degree oI physical activity,
character and intensity oI trainings; helps to choose means and methods oI training in a correct
way.
9Ŧ 1he sanlLarv elucldaLlve work amona sporLsmen ls asslaned Lo lmprove a
Lralnlna processţ Lo lmparL hvalenlc skllls ln evervdav llfeţ workţ sLudvţ sporLs
acLlvlLles Lo Lhe sporLsmenŦ SporLs docLor's lmporLanL Lask ls Lo Leach Lhe
sporLsmen who are belna under hls/her supervlslon Lo held a selfŴconLrolţ Lo keep
a [ournal of selfŴconLrol reaularlvţ Lo complv wlLh Lhe rules of personal and publlc
hvaleneţ use lL ln a correcL wav wlLh Lhe purpose of endurance lmprovemenLţ
naLural facLors of Lhe naLureŦ

SM C8CAnlZA1lCn

1he sphere of acLlvlLv of SMţ alonaslde wlLh sporLsmen lnspecLlon lncludes
medlcal supervlslon over varlous conLlnaenLs of personsţ lncludlnaţ puplls of
educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons of Lhe 1
sL
Ŵ4
Lh
levels of accredlLaLlon as well as Lhe persons
enaaaed ln ÞC and sporLs ln aroups of phvslcal culLureţ sporLs aroups and clubsŦ
Medlcal exerclses dlspensarv are Lhe medlcal prevenLlve esLabllshmenLs whlch
have Lhe followlna Lasksť oraanlzaLlonalŴmeLhodlcal manaaemenL of work on
sporLs medlclne and phvsloLherapv exerclses as well as prophvlacLlc medlcal
examlnaLlon of leadlna sporLsmenŦ

CCn1Ln1 Anu ML1PCuS Cl MLulCAL 8LSLA8CP
ConducLlna lnspecLlon of Lhe sporLsman a sporLs docLor solves a number of
problemsť he deflnes a sLaLe of healLhţ phvslcal developmenLţ and funcLlonal sLaLe
of oraanlsmŦ uurlna reaular supervlslon over Lhe sporLsman Lhe docLor also
sLudles Lhe chanaes occurrlna ln Lhe oraanlsm under lnfluence of reaular sporLs
acLlvlLlesţ reveals slans of poslLlve chanaesţ orţ on Lhe conLrarvţ lnfrlnaemenLs ln
Lhe sLaLe of varlous oraans and svsLemsŦ
1he volume of medlcal lnspecLlon depends on problems and condlLlons of
lLs carrvlna ouLŦ CbllaaLorv complex whlch ls caused bv ƍMedlcalŴconLrol card of a
ÞL lnsLrucLor" (lorm 061) lncludesť medlcal anamneslsţ research of phvslcal
developmenLţ deflnlLlon of Lhe sLaLe of nervous and cardlo Ŵ vascular svsLemsţ
oraans of breaLhţ dlaesLlonţ allocaLlonţ eLcŦţ as well as carrvlna ouL of funcLlonal
LesLsŦ ln such volume medlcal lnspecLlon ls carrled ouL for all persons who are
enaaaed ln ÞC and ao ln for sporLŦ
volume of medlcal lnspecLlon of leadlna sporLsmen aL prophvlacLlc medlcal
examlnaLlon ls conslderablv expanded and held under Lhe proaram caused
bv º!ournal of dlspensarv supervlslon over Lhe sporLsman" (062ŋ)Ŧ
Medlcal conLrol provldes wlLh sLudvlna of phvslcal developmenLŦ Þhvslcal
developmenL ls consldered Lo be a complex of funcLlonal and morpholoalcal
properLles of oraanlsm whlch deflnes a phvslcal capaclLv of oraanlsmŦ
1he baslc meLhods of phvslcal developmenL research are an exLernal
examlnaLlon (somaLoskopv) and anLhropomeLrlcsŦ

An1PCÞCML18lCAL MLASu8LMLn1S
1he lenaLh of a bodv ls measured bv means of helahL meLer or anLhropomeLerŦ
Alona wlLh Lhlsţ a person who ls belna examlned sLands so LhaL heelsţ buLLocks
and shoulder blades Louch Lhe rack of Lhe helahL meLerţ and an ear Lraaus and
exLernal corner of Lhe eve lav on Lhe horlzonLal llneŦ MeasuremenL accuracv ls 0ţ3
cmŦ
ueLermlnaLlon of welahL of Lhe bodv ls held on Lhe medlcal balance ln Lhe
mornlnaţ on an empLv sLomachŦ MeasuremenL accuracv ls 30aŦ 1he clrcle of a
Lhorax ls measured ln Lhree poslLlonsť ln a quleL condlLlon (pause)ţ aL Lhe maxlmal
lnhalaLlon and maxlmal exhalaLlonŦ AL measuremenL a Lape ls lmposed aL Lhe back
under Lhe boLLom corners of Lhe shoulder bladesţ and ln fronL for men and
chlldren Ŵ on a mammlllae llneţ and for women Ŵ above mammarv alandsţ on Lhe
chesL ln a place of aLLachmenL of carLllaaes of lv rlbsŦ 1he dlfference beLween Lhe
slze of lnhalaLlon and exhalaLlon deflnes moblllLv (excurslon) of a LhoraxŦ
vlLal capaclLv of lunasŦ MeasuremenL ls made bv means of a splromeLerŦ AfLer
prellmlnarv exhalaLlon one does a deep breaLh and exhales all Lhe alr ln a Lube of
Lhe splromeLerŦ 1wo measuremenLs are carrled ouLŦ 1he areaLesL slze ls
realsLeredŦ MeasuremenL accuracv ls 100 mlŦ
lorce of musclesŦ MeasuremenL of muscular force ls held bv means of
dvnamomeLersŦ lorce of a brush ls measured bv a brush dvnamomeLer on boLh
handsŦ A person who ls belna examlned araduallv wlLhouL a spurL squeezes a
dvnamomeLerŦ 1he hand ls ln Lhe exLended poslLlonŦ 8esearch ls repeaLed 2
LlmesŦ 1he areaLesL resulL ls realsLeredŦ MeasuremenL accuracv ls 2 kaŦ 1o
deLermlne backbone force (back sLrenaLh) a handle of Lhe dvnamomeLer should
be aL Lhe level of knees of Lhe examlneeŦ 8endlna ln Lhe walsLţ wlLh Lhe
sLralahLened leas and hands Lhe examlnee araduallv sLralahLens Lhe backŦ
MeasuremenL ls repeaLed 2 LlmesŦ 1he areaLesL resulL ls realsLeredŦ MeasuremenL
accuracv ls 3 kaŦ

ML1PCuS Cl ÞP?SlCAL uLvLLCÞMLn1 LS1lMA1lCn

1he meLhod of lndexes (keLle's lndexţ arowLhŴwelahL lndexţ Lrlsman's lndexţ
vlLal and power parameLersţ Þlnve's parameLerţ eLcŦ) ls applled Lo a rouah
esLlmaLlonţ as Lhev usuallv do noL conslder Lhe aaeţ sexţ occupaLlon and klnd of
sporLsŦ
1he meLhod of sLandards ls an esLlmaLlon of phvslcal developmenL under
sLandards of LhaL aroup Lo whlch Lhe examlnee belonasŦ
1) keLle's welahLŴarowLh lndex ƹ welahL of a bodv(a) /lenaLh of a bodv (cm)Ŵ
mak|ng d|v|s|onŦ
Average index 350-400g per 1 cm Ior men.
323Ŵ373a per 1 cm for womenŦ
2) lndex of welahL of a bodv (lW8) ƹ welahL of a bodv (ka)/lenaLh of a bodv (Ņ2)
3) vlLal parameLer ƹ vCL (ml)/welahL (ka) Lhe men Ŵ 63Ŵ70 Ʒţ women Ŷ 48Ŵ30 Ʒ
4) Þower parameLer ƹ force of a brush (ka)/welahL of a bodv (ka) of *100 Ʒ Ŵ
mu|t|p|eŦ
5) Index oI proportionality oI thorax development (Erisman`s index)
alrLh of a Lhorax ƹ lenaLh of a bodv (cm)/2
wlLh amendmenLs of +3ţ8 cm for menŤ +3ţ8 cm for womenŦ
6) SLrenaLh parameLer of Lhe consLlLuLlon (Þlnve) expresses Lhe dlfference
beLween Lhe lenaLh of Lhe bodv whlle sLandlna and Lhe sum of welahL of Lhe bodv
wlLh clrcle of Lhorax (ln Lhe phase of exhalaLlon)Ŧ 1he less ls Lhe dlfferenceţ Lhe
beLLer ls Lhe parameLer (ln Lhe absence of adlposls)
1he dlfference ls less Lhan 10 Ŷ a sLrona consLlLuLlonŤ 10 Ŵ 20 Ŷ aoodŤ 20 Ŷ 23 Ŷ
averaaeŤ 26 Ŵ 33 weakŤ more Lhan 36 Ŷ verv weakŦ

1he esLlmaLlon of phvslcal developmenL parameLers bv meLhod of sLandards

We flnd a dlfference beLween lndlvldual slzes and Lhelr averaaes for Lhe alven
aaeŴsexual aroup ln Lhe LableŦ
We flnd a quoLlenL of Lhe dlvlslon of Lhe recelved dlfference lnLo Lhe value of
meanŴsquare devlaLlons (o Ŵ slama) of each parameLerŦ lf Lhe quoLlenL makes Lhe
value wlLhln Lhe llmlLs of ƾ0ţ67 o Lhe alven parameLer ls consldered Lo be averaaeŦ
lf Lhe quoLlenL ls wlLhln Lhe llmlLs of ƾ0ţ67 o up Lo ƾ2ţ0 o such parameLer ls
esLlmaLed as above or below Lhe averaaeŦ lf Lhe parameLer makes up over ƾ2ţ0 o
lL ls esLlmaLed as hlah or lowŦ Ceneral esLlmaLlon of phvslcal developmenL ls held
on Lhe basls of admlsslon of a role of svmmeLrv ln sLudvlna all naLural
phenomenaŦ lf anLhropomeLrlcal values (bodv lenaLhţ welahLţ brush
dvnamomeLrvţ eLcŦ are ln one or Lwo ad[acenL aradaLlonţ for example Ŷ averaae
and above Lhe averaae such developmenL refers Lo as opLlmalţ svmmeLrlc or
harmonlousŦ lf parameLers dlvlded lnLo Lwo and more aradaLlonsţ for example Ŷ
averaae and hlah lL ls posslble Lo draw Lhe concluslon abouL nonopLlmalţ
asvmmeLrlcal or lnharmonlous phvslcal developmenLŦ

PealLh ls Lhe ma[or properLv of a humanţ basls of hls/her llfeţ worklna
capaclLvţ creaLlve successesţ famllv wellŴbelnaţ mood and lonaevlLallLvŦ PealLh of
Lhe people reflecLs a sLandard of llvlna and sanlLarv wellbelna of Lhe counLrvŦ lL
dlrecLlv lnfluences Lhe llfe expecLancv and labor producLlvlLvţ defenslblllLvţ
economv and welfareţ moral cllmaLe and acLlvlLv of peopleŦ
MovemenL ls Lhe naLural necesslLv of a humanţ Lhe mosL naLural reaulaLor and
sLlmulaLor of vlLal acLlvlLvŦ uurlna anLhropoaenesls Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe human
was formlna ln consLanL movemenLŦ Poweverţ nowadavs Lhe parL of muscle
forces has dramaLlcallv decreased (approxlmaLelv from 90 Ʒ up Lo 3 Ʒ)Ŧ
AuLomaLlonţ mechanlzaLlonţ and lmplemenLaLlon of lndusLrlal roboLs aL
manufacLureţ LransporL and evervdav llfeţ Lhe lncreased menLal sLress under
Lhese condlLlonsţ a deslre Lo masLer a qulcklv arowlna volume of Lhe lnformaLlon
Ŷ all Lhls lnevlLablv leads Lo a decrease ln moLlon acLlvlLvŦ Þower lnpuLs of Lhe
modern person were dramaLlcallv reduced and accordlna Lo Lhe WPC Lhev are on
Lhe verae of malnLenance of normal vlLal acLlvlLvŦ
8aneful lnfluence of hvpoklneslas on Lhe human's healLh ls proved bv numerous
experlmenLalţ cllnlcal and epldemloloalcal researchesŦ As a resulL of reducLlon of a
sLream of lmpulses from worklna muscles Lhe mosL lmporLanL llnk of moLLoŴ
vlsceral reaulaLlon ls swlLched offť a level of exchanae and consumpLlon of oxvaen
bv Llssuesţ consumpLlon of aLheroaenlc llpldsţ svnLhesls of Llssue proLelnsţ Lone of
braln corLex decreasesţ plasLlc and aeneLlc basls of a cellţ blood supplv of bralnţ
hearL and oLher vlLal oraansţ nervous and hormonal reaulaLlon become worseţ
acLlvlLv of phvsloloalcal svsLems becomes dlscordanLţ funcLlonal reserves of
oraanlsm decreaseţ desLrucLlve chanaes ln skeleLal and cardlo muscular svsLem
developţ process of cells desLrucLlon ampllflesŦ
All Lhls adverselv lnfluences Lhe proLecLlve forces of oraanlsmţ lLs lmmune
ablllLlesţ ablllLv for adequaLe adapLaLlon Lo Lhe requlremenLs of envlronmenL and
acLlon of lLs sLrona lrrlLanLsţ Lo reslsL sLressful facLorsŦ lnLellecLual and phvslcal
worklna capaclLv of Lhe human decreasesţ Lhe perlod of rehablllLaLlon ls
exLendedŦ ÞrecondlLlons Lo Lhe developmenL of varlous dlseases are creaLedŦ
Aaelna processes are becomlna more lnLenslveŦ
1he onlv wav Lo overcome a ºmoLlon hunaer" of Lhe modern personţ
hvpoklneslas ln hls/her wav of llfe ls Laklna an acLlve resLţ phvslcal Lralnlnaţ sporLsţ
LourlsmŦ 1husţ lncrease of phvslcal worklna capaclLv leads Lo lncrease of
compensaLlve ablllLles of oraanlsmţ Lherebvţ promoLlna sLablllzaLlon and
sLrenaLhenlna of healLhŦ
under Lhe usual condlLlons of llfe onlv 20Ŵ23 Ʒ of Llssues meanL Lo perform a
cerLaln funcLlon of oraanlsm are usedŦ CLher 70Ŵ73 Ʒ Lake place onlv when ralsed
requlremenLs are laldţ reflecLlna a funcLlonal reserveţ level of healLhţ funcLlon
rellablllLvŦ
under lnfluence of reaular moLlonal acLlvlLv Lhere ls reoraanlzaLlon aL all levels of
oraanlsm acLlvlLv Ŷ cenLralţ svsLemţ oraanţ cellular levelsŦ
As Lhe resulL Lhe proLecLlve forces of oraanlsmţ lLs sLablllLv Lo acLlon of varlous
lrrlLanLsţ and adverse facLors of envlronmenLţ psvhoemoLlonal overloads
essenLlallv ralseţ expresslveness of meLabollc lnfrlnaemenLs of rlsk and rlsk of
ƍwear processƍ of hearL decrease as well as probablllLv of aLherosclerosls
developmenLţ Cl (cardlac fallure)ţ adlposlsţ dlabeLesţ deaeneraLlve dlseases of
[olnLs and manv oLher lllnessesŦ ÞarameLers of llplds exchanae lmprovesţ
flbrlnolvLlc acLlvlLv of blood and llplds level of hlah denslLv lncreaseŦ
ln several monLhs of reaular Lralnlnas Lhe preclse poslLlve effecL ls observedť
complalnLs abouL healLh decrease or dlsappearţ sleep lmprovesţ worklna capaclLv
ralsesţ faLLv parL of bodv welahL decreasesţ pulse slows downţ arLerlal pressure
decreasesţ and reaeneraLlve processes acceleraLeŦ
PealLhŴlmprovlna effecL becomes apparenL even aL Lhe bealnnlna of Lralnlnas
when one ls 60Ŵ70 and more vears oldŦ
ln Lhe counLrles and realons where phvslcal Lralnlna became popularţ for Lhe
lasL 10 vears a preclse Lendencv Lo decrease ln deaLh raLe from cardlovascular
dlseases was ouLllnedŦ lL ls essenLlalţ LhaL phvslcallv acLlve people are more sLable
noL onlv aaalnsL lllnesses of blood clrculaLlonţ buL also Lo colds and lnfecLlous
dlseasesţ oxvaen lnsufflclencvţ overheaLlna and overcoollnaţ acLlon of Loxlc
subsLances and occupaLlonal hazardsŦ
uaLa on sLudles of Lhe wav of llfe of Lhe lonaŴllvers LesLlfv Lo Lhe connecLlon of
moLlonal acLlvlLv wlLh llfe spanŦ 1he more funcLlon ls Lralnedţ Lhe laLer lL ƍarows
oldƍŦ 1he adapLed Llssues wear ouL lessŦ
1he due healLhŴlmprovlna effecL ls provlded onlv wlLh versaLlle LralnlnaŦ lf for
prevenLlve measures of cardlovascular dlseases Lhe cvcllc exerclses developlna
malnlv enduranceţ accompanled bv sufflclenL enerav and hemodvnamlc shlfLs ln
oraanlsm have speclal slanlflcance ln order Lo prevenL lllnesses of [olnLsţ musclesţ
capsular llaamenLous apparaLusţ backboneţ nervous svsLemţ eLcŦ comprehenslve
exerclses are necessarvŦ 1he effecL of Lralnlnas ls Lhe mosL slanlflcanLţ lf Lhev are
carrled ouL on a reaular basls durlna Lhe whole llfeŦ Þerlods of arowLh and
formaLlon of oraanlsm and lLs aaelna have speclal valueŦ ln Lhe earlv perlods of
llfe Lhe basls of healLh and lonaevlLv ls formedŦ
8eaular phvslcal exerclses aL chlldrenƌs and Leenaae aae are lmporLanL Lo
malnLaln harmonlous phvslcal developmenLţ proporLlonal formaLlon of a skeleLonţ
muscle svsLem and lnLernal oraansţ prevenLlon of faulLs ln bearlnaţ scolloslsţ
flaLfooLţ dlsharmonv beLween lncrease ln Lhe slzes of a bodv and maLurlLv of
lnLernal oraans LhaL ls qulLe ofLen observed aL LeenaaersŴacceleraLesŦ
lncrease of sLablllLv and sLeadlness of nervous processes and menLallLv are
raLher lmporLanLţ removal of lncreased lrrlLablllLv accordlna Lo Lhe aaeţ
overcomlna of dlfflculLles of Lhe puberLv perlodŦ 1he chlldren and Leenaaers who
on a reaular basls ao ln for sporLs have boLh hlaher all parameLers of phvslcal
developmenL and areaLer annual lncreaseţ and also have conslderablv hlaher
funcLlonallLles of nervous svsLemţ breaLhŴclrculaLlon apparaLus and reslsLlblllLv of
oraanlsm Lo exhausLlonŦ
When Lhev become older phvslcal exerclses promoLe lonaer preservaLlon of
healLhţ moLor skllls and worklna capaclLvţ sofLen developmenL of aae chanaesŦ lor
Lhls reason people who reaularlv ao ln for sporL or Þ1 durlna Lhelr llves accordlna
Lo Lhe sLaLe of healLh and sLaLe of oraanlsm for Lhe mosL cases belona Lo Lhe
vounaer aae ln comparlson wlLh a ƍpassporLƍ oneŦ 1haL ls especlallv lmporLanL
Lodav when relaLlve denslLv of older people lncreases ln Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe
populaLlonŦ
lnspecLlon of sporLs veLerans has shown LhaL dlseases of cardloŴvascular
svsLem are meL more seldom Lhan wlLh Lhe populaLlon of correspondlna aae as a
wholeŦ 1he ma[orlLv of Lhem preserve a aood bearlnaţ sufflclenL moblllLv ln [olnLs
and backboneţ coordlnaLlon of movemenLsţ speed of reacLlonŦ Speedţ force and
endurance exceed Lhe averaae aae parameLers for 30Ŵ30 ƷŦ 8alsed faL depoLsţ as
a ruleţ are absenLŦ 1he moLlon skllls acqulred durlna Lhe llfe are kepLŦ
It is known that the loadings causing a necessary level oI hemodynamic and energy shiIts in
the organism provide with an expressed health-improving eIIect. As many authors think such
shiIts have to make up not less than 60-70° oI MOC.
Not only in the absence oI physical activities, but also at their insuIIicient level, greater Iatigue
takes place when strong irritants eIIect the organism owing to which the risk oI their damaging
inIluence appears to be higher.
For example, health parameters oI the students who train only under the curriculum oI
physical training in high school are worse than oI their Iellow students who additionally train in
the sport groups.
Poweverţ a deLermlnlna facLor whlch deflnes lnfluence of phvslcal Lralnlna on
human's healLh ls noL onlv Lhe volume of loadlna buL lLs conformlLv Lo
opporLunlLles of oraanlsmţ level of lLs funcLlonal readlness and speclal phvslcal
condlLlonsŦ AL such conformlLv even Lhe areaLesL loadlnas are noL a damaalna
facLor for Lhe oraanlsmŦ lf loadlna doesn'L correspond Lo Lhe opporLunlLles of Lhe
oraanlsm even aL raLher small volume and lnLenslLv lL can become harmful for
healLhŦ
Penceţ Lhe same mechanlsm Ŷ lnLeracLlon of lrrlLanL force (phvslcal loadlna)
and funcLlonallLles whlch sLlpulaLe oraanlsm readlness Lo lLs percepLlon Ŷ ls Lhe
maln facLor whlch lnfluences Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe person who ao ln for sporL and
phvslcal LralnlnaŦ
ln oLher wordsţ noL onlv phvslcal Lralnlna buL sporL as well provldes wlLh healLhŴ
lmprovlna effecL as one has Lo conslder Lhe oraanlsm funcLlonallLlesţ ranae and
level of lLs adapLlve reacLlons as Lhe mosL lmporLanL elemenL of healLhŦ An
opporLunlLv Lo adapL Lo Lhe lncreased requlremenLs of envlronmenL wlLhouL
paLholoalcal dlsplavs LesLlfles Lo a level of healLh LhaL ls raLher lmporLanL for
person's successful performance of lLs soclal and bloloalcal funcLlonsŦ 1he hlaher
ls Lhls opporLunlLvţ Lhe hlaher ls Lhe Lralnlna level LhaL ls Lvplcal for Lhe quallfled
sporLsmenŦ
1husţ Lhere ls a reason Lo conslder LhaL a healLhŴlmprovlna slanlflcance of
moLlonal acLlvlLv ls Lhe aeneral bloloalcal reaularlLv whlch acLs ln Lerms of full
conformlLv of appllcable phvslcal loadlna Lo funcLlonallLles of Lhe oraanlsmţ
raLlonal Lralnlna and healLhv wav of llfeŦ CLherwlseţ lL ls dlfflculL Lo achleve noL
onlv Lhe healLhŴlmprovlna effecLţ buL perhaps Lhe appearance of prepaLholoalcal
and even Lhe paLholoalcal condlLlons developlna due Lo phvslcal oversLralnŦ
1he ma[or wavs of malnLenance of raLher full healLhŴlmprovlna effecL of phvslcal
culLure and sporLs areť
ŴcorrecL selecLlonŤ
ŴraLlonal dosaae of phvslcal exerclsesŤ
ŴLhe areaLesL posslble ellmlnaLlon from Lhe svsLem of preparaLlon of Lhe rlsk
facLors lncreaslna probablllLv of phvslcal oversLralnŤ
Ŵoverall use of means of prlmarv prevenLlve measures and rehablllLaLlonŦ
Solution oI these problems is one oI the basic purposes oI the medical control over the
athletes and sportsmen.
Age and sexua| features of hea|thŴ|mprov|ng tra|n|ngs
1he mosL lmporLanL purpose of Lralnlnas ls Lhe lmprovemenL of morpholoalc
and funcLlonal sLaLe of oraanlsmţ lLs reslsLlblllLv Lo adverse facLors of
envlronmenLŦ Puman's healLh ls reached aL anv aaeŦ nelLher onLoaeneLlc
phasesţ nor elderlv aae prevenL Lhe oraanlsm from recelvlna a healLhŴlmprovlna
effecL of phvslcal LralnlnasŦ 1he oraanlsm ls provlded wlLh opporLunlLles of healLhŴ
lmprovlna Lralnlnas wlLh a slanlflcanL reserve Ŷ from anLenaLal sLaLus up Lo a
decllne of llfeŦ Soţ beneflclal effecL on developmenL of a noL veL born babv ls
reached owlna Lo phvslcal exerclses whlch are carrled ouL bv Lhe preananL
womanŦ 1he sLaLe of hvpoxla ln her blood whlch ls reached durlna exerclses
sLlmulaLes meLabollsm ln Lhe oraanlsm of Lhe feLusŦ 8esearches prove an
opporLunlLv Lo Lraln aL Lhe elderlv aae and conslderablv even relaLlvelv more Lhan
aL Lhe vouna aae Lo lmprove funcLlonal sLaLe of oraanlsmŦ
lor Lhe mosL effecLlve oraanlzaLlon of healLhŴlmprovlna Lralnlna lL ls necessarv
Lo conslder LhaL Lhe Lralnlna effecL for Lhe vouna people and people of elderlv aae
ls formed aL dlfferenL speedŦ 1he vounaer ls Lhe oraanlsmţ Lhe earller ln Lerms of
reaular phvslcal exerclses worklna capaclLv lncreases and Lhe perlod of exhausLlon
because of loadlnas ls shorLerŦ 1hereforeţ lL ls necessarv Lo ralse lnLenslLv verv
araduallv and LoLal amounL of loadlnas for people of elderlv aaeŦ AL Lhe same Llme
one shouldn'L dramaLlcallv lncrease loadlnas for chlldren and Leenaaersţ Laklna
lnLo conslderaLlon LhaL lL ls easllv Lo damaae Lhelr lmmaLure oraanlsmŦ 1hereforeţ
for opLlmum doslna of phvslcal acLlvlLles aL anv aae lL ls necessarv Lo be aulded bv
Lhe sLaLe of Lhe mosL senslLlve svsLem whlch ls closelv connecLed wlLh Lhe moLor
funcLlon Ŷ cardlovascular svsLemŦ
uurlna healLhŴ lmprovlna Lralnlnas lL ls necessarv Lo conslder sexual feaLures of
Lhe oraanlsm as wellŦ Women should be recommended Lo do more plasLlc
exerclses wlLhouL sharp movemenLsŦ 1he perlod of menorrhea does noL demand
Lo refuse from Lralnlna emplovmenL lf Lhese exerclses are noL connecLed wlLh
necesslLv of sLav ln waLer (swlmmlna)Ŧ
Lxerclses are forbldden ln followlna casesť
Ŵ aL lnfrlnaemenLs of ovarlan menorrheal cvcle accompanled wlLh palnsţ
plenLlful blood dlscharaeŤ
Ŵ necesslLv Lo perform Lhe maxlmal efforLs (for example ln Lerms of
compeLlLlons)Ť
Ŵ aL Lhe lnsufflclenL level of phvslcal sLaLe of oraanlsm (an lnlLlal sLaae of
Lralnlnas)Ŧ

MLulCAL Ŵ ÞLuACCClCAL C8SL8vA1lCnS (MÞC)
are Lhe lmporLanL secLlon of work performed bv Lhe sporLs docLorŦ
8aslc purpose of MÞC ls Lo esLlmaLe lnfluence of phvslcal acLlvlLles on
oraanlsm of Lhose who are enaaaed ln phvslcal culLure and ao ln for sporLsţ Lo
promoLe perfecLlon of educaLlonalŴLralnlna process and recepLlon of Lhe maxlmal
hvalenlc and healLhŴlmprovlna effecL of LralnlnasŦ
MÞC have Lhe followlna Lasksť
1Ŧ An esLlmaLlon of hvalenlc condlLlons (LemperaLureţ humldlLvţ venLllaLlonţ llahL
exposureţ conformlLv of cloLhes and fooLwearţ conformlLv of slzesţ welahL and
sLaLe of sporLs equlpmenLţ safeLv precauLlonsţ oraanlzaLlon of flrsL ald)Ŧ
2Ŧ CraanlzaLlon of educaLlonalŴLralnlna processţ quallLv check of work of Lhe coach
or Leacher ln Lerms of medlclneŦ
3Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of sLaLe of healLhţ lŦeŦ reveallna of Lhe laLenL devlaLlons wh
+lch one falled Lo flnd aL medlcal survevţ an esLlmaLlon of dvnamlcs of sLaLe of
healLhţ dlaanosLlcs of prepaLholoalcal condlLlons and paLholoalcal chanaes arlslna
aL lrraLlonal LralnlnaŦ
4Ŧ ueLermlnaLlon of funcLlonal condlLlon of Lhe sporLsman's oraanlsm ln order Lo
esLlmaLe a speclal level of phvslcal sLaLeŦ
3Ŧ An esLlmaLlon of adequacv of Lhe applled svsLem of Lralnlna Lo Lhe
morpholoalcal and funcLlonal capablllLles of Lhe sporLsman Lo lmprove Lhe
plannlna and lndlvlduallzaLlon of an educaLlonalŴLralnlna processŦ
6Ŧ An esLlmaLlon and cholce of medlcalţ pedaaoalcal and psvcholoalcal meLhods of
lmprovemenL of rehablllLaLlon processes afLer serlous phvslcal loadlnasŦ 1he
docLor vlslLlna phvslcal exerclses or sporLs Lralnlnas ouLllnes Lhe dlsclpllne of
Lhose who Lralnţ correcLness of Lhe Leacher's explanaLlonsţ lnsurance
arranaemenL aL performance of cerLaln exerclsesŦ 8esldesţ he flxes Lhe remarks of
Lhe Leacher concernlna Lhe bearlnaţ adherence Lo Lhe correcL breaLhţ use of
correcLlve and comprehenslve exerclses Lo Lhe sufflclenL exLenLţ as well as
adherence Lo Lhe rules of personal hvaleneŦ



LLC1u8L nC 2
AŦ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs dependlna on Lhe lnfluenclna facLor
1Ŧ 1esLs wlLh phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ
llŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of envlronmenLŦ
1Ŧ 8esplraLorv LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on lnsplraLlon ( ShLanae's LesL )Ť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on exhalaLlon (Cenchv's LesL )Ť
Ŵ chanae of Lhe aas sLrucLure of lnhaled alrŦ
2Ŧ 1emperaLure LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh coldnessŤ
Ŵ wlLh heaLŦ
lllŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of venous lnflow of blood Lo hearLť
1Ŧ 1esLs wlLh chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceť
Ŵ orLhosLaLlc LesL (acLlveţ passlve)Ť
Ŵ wedaeŴ sLaLlc LesLŦ
2Ŧ 1esLs wlLh efforLs maklna (valsalva's LesLţ lleck's and
8uraher's LesLs)
lvŦ Þharmacoloalcal LesLs (wlLh kalloŴblockerţ eLcŦ)
vŦ lood LesLs (allmenLarv)
Ŵ Lolerance Lo alucoseŤ
Ŵ excreLlon (llquld)ţ eLcŦ

8Ŧ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs wlLh phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ

1Ŧ uependlna on realsLraLlon Llme of parameLersť
LesLs on resLoraLlonŤ
LesLs for efforLŦ
2Ŧ uependlna on quanLlLv of Lhe execuLed loadlnať
ŴoneŴsLaae (MarLlneŴkushelevskv LesLŤ 13 secŦ runnlna on Lhe
spoLţ eLcŦ)
Ŵ doubleŴsLaae (koroLkovƌs LesL)Ť
Ŵcomblned (LeLunov 's LrlpleŴsLaae LesL)Ŧ
3Ŧ uependlna on Lhe characLer of carrled ouL movemenLsť
nonspeclflc (one uses movemenLs whlch are characLerlsLlc
pracLlcallv Lo all klnds of sporLs Ŷ runnlnaţ squaLLlna)Ť
speclflc (one uses movemenLs lmlLaLlna Lhe exacL klnd of sporLs (ln
boxlna Ű flahL wlLh a shadowűţ eLcŦ)
4Ŧ uependlna on lnLenslLv of carrled ouL loadlnasť
ŴmaxlmalŤ
Ŵsubmaxlmal (73 Ʒ and less from Lhe maxlmal ones)Ŧ
3Ŧ uependlna on condlLlons of carrvlna ouL of Lhe LesLlnať
LesLlna under Lhe laboraLorv condlLlons wlLh use of varlous klnds of
cvcloeraomeLerŤ
LesLlna under Lhe usual condlLlons of sporLs acLlvlLv or durlna
healLhŴlmprovlna LralnlnaŦ

@he requ|rements |a|d to funct|ona| testsŦ
lL ls necessarv Lo noLe LhaL funcLlonal LesLs should saLlsfv cerLaln
requlremenLsţ and namelv Lhev should be sLandard and dosed ouLŦ
Cnlv under such clrcumsLances lL ls posslble Lo compare Lhe resulLs
recelved from dlfferenL people or from one person durlna Lhe
dlfferenL perlods of Llme LhaL ls ln dvnamlcsŦ 8esldesţ funcLlonal LesLs
should be safe and aL Lhe same Llme lnformaLlve enouahţ slmpleţ
accesslbleţ Lhev should noL requlre speclal skllls Lo carrv Lhem ouLŦ
1esLs wlLh phvslcal loadlnas should ensure Lhe enaaalna as
manv muscles as lL's posslble and alve an opporLunlLv Lo measure
and chanae lnLenslLv of loadlnas ln necessarv llmlLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs wlLh Lhe maxlmal delav of breaLh are applled ln
order Lo deflne sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo hvpoxlaţ less ofLen Ŷ wlLh Lhe
purpose of reveallna of Lhe laLenL coronarv lnsufflclencvŦ
htange's test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of duraLlon of Lhe breaLh
delav afLer Lhe maxlmal lnsplraLlonŦ 1he LesL ls carrled ouL ln Lhe slLLlna
poslLlonŦ SomeLlmes before and afLer Lhe delav of breaLh an
elecLrocardloaram ls realsLeredŦ As for Lhe chlldren ShLanae's LesL can
be carrled ouL afLer 3 deep lnsplraLlonsŦ lor Lhe persons who are noL
aolna ln for sporLţ Lhe duraLlon of a delav of breaLh normallv makes 40Ŵ
60secŦţ for sporLsmen Ŷ 90Ŵ120 secŦ
Genchy test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of a delav of breaLh afLer Lhe
maxlmal exhalaLlonŦ lor Lhe persons who are noL aolna ln for sporLţ Lhls
Llme makes 20Ŵ40 secŦţ and for sporLsmen Ŷ 40Ŵ60 secŦ
1he duraLlon of Lhese LesLs ls decreaslna under Lhe decrease ln
sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo hvpoxlaŦ
Dosed out stra|n|ng effort ls of areaL lnLeresL for Lhe klnds of sporL
where Lhe sLralnlna efforL ls a componenL of sporLs acLlvlLvŦ 1hese are
welahLŴllfLlnaţ Lhrowlnaţ wresLllnaţ avmnasLlcsţ eLcŦ Maklna efforLs
reduces a venous conaesLlon of blood Lo hearL and lncreases reslsLance
of a bloodŴaroove ln vessels of lesser clrculaLlon owlna Lo whlch svsLollc
volume of blood decreases (someLlmes up Lo 13Ŵ20ml)Ŧ ln replv Lo Lhls
reducLlon Lhere ls a compensaLorv lncrease of lCCţ owlna Lo whlch one
feels Lhe decrease of MCC noL so sLronalvŦ Poweverţ slze of MCC ls noL
sufflclenL Lo malnLaln a necessarv level of 8ÞŦ Poldlna of a normal 8Þ
level ls reached bv narrowlna Lhe vessels of areaLer clrculaLlonŦ 1he
represenLed mechanlsms of lnfluence of maklna efforLs on Lhe person's
oraanlsm are Lhe basls for lleck's and 8uraher's LesLsŦ
|eck testŦ Cne who ls examlned ls offered Lo make a deep breaLh
wlLh Lhe furLher lmlLaLlon of exhalaLlon wlLh malnLenance of 40 mmŦ
haŦ pressure ln Lhe manomeLerŦ uurlna maklna efforLs ŰLo Lhe fullű for
3 secŦ wlLh lnLervals one flxes Lhe pulseŦ 1he Llme durlna whlch Lhe
examlnee ls able Lo execuLe Lhe LesL ls realsLeredŦ
Ŵexce||ent react|onť lncrease of pulse for everv 3 sec for 1Ŵ2 blows
ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ uuraLlon of maklna efforLs makes 43Ŵ33
secŦ lncrease of pulse ln comparlson Lo Lhe lnlLlal daLa proceeds
approxlmaLelv durlna 1 mlnuLeţ and Lhen lCC ls sLablllzedŤ
Ŵgood react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ4 blows for 3secŦŤ
Ŵsat|sfactory react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ7 blows for
3secŦŤ
Ŵunsat|sfactory react|onť areaLer aaln of pulseţ lŦeŦ more Lhan 7
blows per 3secŦ SaLlsfacLorv and unsaLlsfacLorv reacLlons LesLlfv Lo Lhe
lncrease ln reaulaLlon of hearL acLlvlLvŦ

Chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceŦ

Crthostat|c test Ŷalves an opporLunlLv Lo esLlmaLe Lhe exclLablllLv
of svmpaLheLlc branch of Lhe veaeLaLlve nervous svsLemŦ
When Lhe examlnee ls ln Lhe lvlna poslLlon one counLs Lhe pulse for
10 or 13 secŦ and recalculaLes lL for 1 mlnuLeŦ When Lhe 8Þ ls
realsLeredţ Lhe examlnee aeLs up carefullv and one counLs hls pulse
and measures hls 8ÞŦ AL Lhe dlfference ln a pulse raLe up Lo 12 for 1
mlnŦ Lhe reacLlon ls consldered Lo be normalţ 18 and more Ŷ
adverseŦ
JedgeŴstat|c test conslsLs ln deflnlLlon of Lhe dlfference ln a pulse
raLe aL LranslLlon from Lhe sLandlna poslLlon lnLo Lhe lvlna poslLlonŦ 1hls
characLerlzes a condlLlon of a Lone of Lhe parasvmpaLheLlc branch of
veaeLaLlve nervous SvsLem (vnS)Ŧ AL a normal Lone Lhe pulse raLe ls
reduced no more Lhan bv 6 blŦ per mlnuLeŦ 1he dlrecL reacLlon malnlv
polnLs ouL Lhe senslLlvlLv of Lhe svmpaLheLlc (orLhosLaLlc LesL) or
parasvmpaLheLlc (wedaeŴsLaLlc LesL) branches of Lhe nervous svsLemŦ
Whereas Lhe delaved reacLlon measured ln 3 mlnuLes polnLs ouL lLs
LoneŦ

Lecture N2

Cstinatien e| |nnttiena| ahi|itirs e|
a hnnan`s eruanisn hv
nrans e| |nnttiena| trsts.

1he mosL lmporLanL secLlon of sporLs medlclne ls funcLlonal
dlaanosLlcsţ and ln parLlcularţ LesLlna of funcLlonal readlnessţ
phvslcal worklna capaclLv and oLher characLerlsLlcs of funcLlonal
condlLlon of sporLsmen's oraanlsmŦ 1he above ln equal measure
concerns boLh sporLs and mass phvslcal LralnlnaŦ
lL ls known LhaL research of manv funcLlonal parameLers ls ofLen
carrled ouL ln a condlLlon of relaLlve phvsloloalcal resL LhaL ls noL alwavs
lnformaLlvelvŦ 1he essence of Lhe funcLlonal dlaanosLlcs conslsLs also ln
analvzlna Lhe mechanlsms whlch carrv ouL chanaes ln bodles and
svsLems funcLlonlna under lnfluence of varlous lrrlLanLsŦ lor Lhls reason
ln order Lo esLlmaLe funcLlonallLles of Lhe human ob[ecLlvelv and
auLhenLlcallv lL ls necessarv Lo sLudv response of Lhe bodles and
svsLems of an oraanlsm Lo anv acLlonŦ WlLh Lhls purpose durlna
funcLlonal examlnaLlon one uses funcLlonal LesLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs are preclselv dosed ouL acLlons upon an oraanlsm
of varlous facLors LhaL allow sLudvlna reacLlon of Lhe phvsloloalcal
svsLems Lo Lhls or LhaL acLlonŦ 1hev provlde wlLh an opporLunlLv Lo
recelve represenLaLlon of a sLaLe of an oraanlsm under Lhe condlLlons
of acLlve ablllLv Lo llveŦ
1he prlmarv aoals of funcLlonal researches areť
1)Ŧ ueflnlLlon and esLlmaLlon of a dearee and characLer of reacLlon of
Lhe bodles and svsLems upon Lhe lnfluenclna facLorŦ
2)Ŧ ueflnlLlon of Lhe adapLaLlon mechanlsms of an oraanlsm Lo
chanalna condlLlonsŦ
3)Ŧ 8eveallna of laLenL lnfrlnaemenLs of funcLlonţ volume and
dearee of Lhese lnfrlnaemenLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs are applled malnlv Lo esLlmaLe Lhe reacLlons of anv
separaLe svsLem ln replv Lo acLlonŦ Poweverţ Lhe ma[orlLv of Lhem
characLerlze Lhe acLlvlLv of Lhe whole oraanlsm ln aeneralŦ 1hereforeţ ln
order Lo recelve more hlahŴarade represenLaLlon of a funcLlonal
condlLlon of an oraanlsm lL ls necessarv Lo lnvesLlaaLe a number of
parameLers whlch characLerlze Lhe varlous parLles of lLs ablllLv Lo llveŦ
1he facLors lnfluenclna Lhese or Lhose parameLers can be also varlousţ
dependl
na on Lhe exacL Lasks of Lhe funcLlonal researchŦ

AŦ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs dependlna on Lhe lnfluenclna facLor
2Ŧ 1esLs wlLh phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ
llŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of envlronmenLŦ
1Ŧ 8esplraLorv LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on lnsplraLlon ( ShLanae's LesL )Ť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on exhalaLlon (Cenchv's LesL )Ť
Ŵ chanae of Lhe aas sLrucLure of lnhaled alrŦ
2Ŧ 1emperaLure LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh coldnessŤ
Ŵ wlLh heaLŦ
lllŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of venous lnflow of blood Lo hearLť
1Ŧ 1esLs wlLh chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceť
Ŵ orLhosLaLlc LesL (acLlveţ passlve)Ť
Ŵ wedaeŴ sLaLlc LesLŦ
2Ŧ 1esLs wlLh efforLs maklna (valsalva's LesLţ lleck's and
8uraher's LesLs)
lvŦ Þharmacoloalcal LesLs (wlLh kalloŴblockerţ eLcŦ)
vŦ lood LesLs (allmenLarv)
Ŵ Lolerance Lo alucoseŤ
Ŵ excreLlon (llquld)ţ eLcŦ

8Ŧ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs wlLh phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ

3Ŧ uependlna on realsLraLlon Llme of parameLersť
LesLs on resLoraLlonŤ
LesLs for efforLŦ
6Ŧ uependlna on quanLlLv of Lhe execuLed loadlnať
ŴoneŴsLaae (MarLlneŴkushelevskv LesLŤ 13 secŦ runnlna on Lhe
spoLţ eLcŦ)
Ŵ doubleŴsLaae (koroLkovƌs LesL)Ť
Ŵcomblned (LeLunov 's LrlpleŴsLaae LesL)Ŧ
7Ŧ uependlna on Lhe characLer of carrled ouL movemenLsť
nonspeclflc (one uses movemenLs whlch are characLerlsLlc
pracLlcallv Lo all klnds of sporLs Ŷ runnlnaţ squaLLlna)Ť
speclflc (one uses movemenLs lmlLaLlna Lhe exacL klnd of sporLs (ln
boxlna Ű flahL wlLh a shadowűţ eLcŦ)
8Ŧ uependlna on lnLenslLv of carrled ouL loadlnasť
ŴmaxlmalŤ
Ŵsubmaxlmal (73 Ʒ and less from Lhe maxlmal ones)Ŧ
3Ŧ uependlna on condlLlons of carrvlna ouL of Lhe LesLlnať
LesLlna under Lhe laboraLorv condlLlons wlLh use of varlous klnds of
cvcloeraomeLerŤ
LesLlna under Lhe usual condlLlons of sporLs acLlvlLv or durlna
healLhŴlmprovlna LralnlnaŦ

@he requ|rements |a|d to funct|ona| testsŦ
lL ls necessarv Lo noLe LhaL funcLlonal LesLs should saLlsfv cerLaln
requlremenLsţ and namelv Lhev should be sLandard and dosed ouLŦ
Cnlv under such clrcumsLances lL ls posslble Lo compare Lhe resulLs
recelved from dlfferenL people or from one person durlna Lhe
dlfferenL perlods of Llme LhaL ls ln dvnamlcsŦ 8esldesţ funcLlonal LesLs
should be safe and aL Lhe same Llme lnformaLlve enouahţ slmpleţ
accesslbleţ Lhev should noL requlre speclal skllls Lo carrv Lhem ouLŦ
1esLs wlLh phvslcal loadlnas should ensure Lhe enaaalna as
manv muscles as lL's posslble and alve an opporLunlLv Lo measure
and chanae lnLenslLv of loadlnas ln necessarv llmlLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs wlLh Lhe maxlmal delav of breaLh are applled ln
order Lo deflne sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo hvpoxlaţ less ofLen Ŷ wlLh Lhe
purpose of reveallna of Lhe laLenL coronarv lnsufflclencvŦ
htange's test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of duraLlon of Lhe breaLh
delav afLer Lhe maxlmal lnsplraLlonŦ 1he LesL ls carrled ouL ln Lhe slLLlna
poslLlonŦ SomeLlmes before and afLer Lhe delav of breaLh an
elecLrocardloaram ls realsLeredŦ As for Lhe chlldren ShLanae's LesL can
be carrled ouL afLer 3 deep lnsplraLlonsŦ lor Lhe persons who are noL
aolna ln for sporLţ Lhe duraLlon of a delav of breaLh normallv makes 40Ŵ
60secŦţ for sporLsmen Ŷ 90Ŵ120 secŦ
Genchy test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of a delav of breaLh afLer Lhe
maxlmal exhalaLlonŦ lor Lhe persons who are noL aolna ln for sporLţ Lhls
Llme makes 20Ŵ40 secŦţ and for sporLsmen Ŷ 40Ŵ60 secŦ
1he duraLlon of Lhese LesLs ls decreaslna under Lhe decrease ln
sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo hvpoxlaŦ
Dosed out stra|n|ng effort ls of areaL lnLeresL for Lhe klnds of sporL
where Lhe sLralnlna efforL ls a componenL of sporLs acLlvlLvŦ 1hese are
welahLŴllfLlnaţ Lhrowlnaţ wresLllnaţ avmnasLlcsţ eLcŦ Maklna efforLs
reduces a venous conaesLlon of blood Lo hearL and lncreases reslsLance
of a bloodŴaroove ln vessels of lesser clrculaLlon owlna Lo whlch svsLollc
volume of blood decreases (someLlmes up Lo 13Ŵ20ml)Ŧ ln replv Lo Lhls
reducLlon Lhere ls a compensaLorv lncrease of lCCţ owlna Lo whlch one
feels Lhe decrease of MCC noL so sLronalvŦ Poweverţ slze of MCC ls noL
sufflclenL Lo malnLaln a necessarv level of 8ÞŦ Poldlna of a normal 8Þ
level ls reached bv narrowlna Lhe vessels of areaLer clrculaLlonŦ 1he
represenLed mechanlsms of lnfluence of maklna efforLs on Lhe person's
oraanlsm are Lhe basls for lleck's and 8uraher's LesLsŦ
|eck testŦ Cne who ls examlned ls offered Lo make a deep breaLh
wlLh Lhe furLher lmlLaLlon of exhalaLlon wlLh malnLenance of 40 mmŦ
haŦ pressure ln Lhe manomeLerŦ uurlna maklna efforLs ŰLo Lhe fullű for
3 secŦ wlLh lnLervals one flxes Lhe pulseŦ 1he Llme durlna whlch Lhe
examlnee ls able Lo execuLe Lhe LesL ls realsLeredŦ
Ŵexce||ent react|onť lncrease of pulse for everv 3 sec for 1Ŵ2 blows
ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ uuraLlon of maklna efforLs makes 43Ŵ33
secŦ lncrease of pulse ln comparlson Lo Lhe lnlLlal daLa proceeds
approxlmaLelv durlna 1 mlnuLeţ and Lhen lCC ls sLablllzedŤ
Ŵgood react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ4 blows for 3secŦŤ
Ŵsat|sfactory react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ7 blows for
3secŦŤ
Ŵunsat|sfactory react|onť areaLer aaln of pulseţ lŦeŦ more Lhan 7
blows per 3secŦ SaLlsfacLorv and unsaLlsfacLorv reacLlons LesLlfv Lo Lhe
lncrease ln reaulaLlon of hearL acLlvlLvŦ

Chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceŦ

Crthostat|c test Ŷalves an opporLunlLv Lo esLlmaLe Lhe exclLablllLv
of svmpaLheLlc branch of Lhe veaeLaLlve nervous svsLemŦ
When Lhe examlnee ls ln Lhe lvlna poslLlon one counLs Lhe pulse for
10 or 13 secŦ and recalculaLes lL for 1 mlnuLeŦ When Lhe 8Þ ls
realsLeredţ Lhe examlnee aeLs up carefullv and one counLs hls pulse
and measures hls 8ÞŦ AL Lhe dlfference ln a pulse raLe up Lo 12 for 1
mlnŦ Lhe reacLlon ls consldered Lo be normalţ 18 and more Ŷ
adverseŦ
JedgeŴstat|c test conslsLs ln deflnlLlon of Lhe dlfference ln a pulse
raLe aL LranslLlon from Lhe sLandlna poslLlon lnLo Lhe lvlna poslLlonŦ 1hls
characLerlzes a condlLlon of a Lone of Lhe parasvmpaLheLlc branch of
veaeLaLlve nervous SvsLem (vnS)Ŧ AL a normal Lone Lhe pulse raLe ls
reduced no more Lhan bv 6 blŦ per mlnuLeŦ 1he dlrecL reacLlon malnlv
polnLs ouL Lhe senslLlvlLv of Lhe svmpaLheLlc (orLhosLaLlc LesL) or
parasvmpaLheLlc (wedaeŴsLaLlc LesL) branches of Lhe nervous svsLemŦ
Whereas Lhe delaved reacLlon measured ln 3 mlnuLes polnLs ouL lLs
LoneŦ

@est of 20 squatt|ng sets for 30sec (Mart|ne Ŵ kushe|evsky)

ln 1ţ3Ŵ2 mlnuLes when a cuff of LonomeLer ls flxed on Lhe lefL hand
one calculaLes Lhe pulse raLe ln Lhe slLLlna poslLlon aL resLŦ 1he
pulse raLe ls counLed conLlnuouslv bv 10 second pleces before lLs
sLablllzaLlon and lLs Lrlple recurrence of Lhe same frequenclesŦ AfLer
LhaL 8Þ ls measuredŦ
1hen Lhe examlnee ls offered wlLhouL removlna Lhe cuff of a
LonomeLer Lo do 20 squaLLlna seLs durlna 30sec wlLh Lhe sLralahLened
hands forwardŦ 1he raLe can be seL bv Lhe meLronomeŦ Cnce afLer Lhe
kneeŴbends Lhe examlnee slLs downţ swlLches on Lhe sLopŴwaLch and
durlna Lhe flrsL 10sec counLs up Lhe pulseŦ uurlna Lhe Llme (30 sec)
whlch has remalned before a oneŴmlnuLe reaeneraLlve perlod 8Þ ls
measuredŦ Slnce Lhe bealnnlna of a LwoŴmlnuLe reaeneraLlve perlod Lhe
pulse raLe ls counLed bv 10 sec Llme pleces before Lhe Lrlple
recurrence of Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ 8Þ ls measured aL Lhe end of Lhe LesLŦ
1he crlLerlon for an esLlmaLlon of Lhe LesL ls exclLablllLv of pulseţ
characLer of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on loadlna and Llme of pulse resLoraLlon Lo
Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ
LxclLablllLv of pulse ls lncrease of pulse ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal oneţ
expressed ln Ʒť normallv 60Ŵ80 ƷŦ
CharacLer of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on loadlna ls expressed bv one of flve
posslble LvpesŦ
1Ŧ @he normoton|c typeŦ Alonaslde wlLh Lhe hearL acceleraLlon
Lhls Lvpe ls characLerlzed bv Lhe dlsLlncL lncrease of svsLollc
pressure (no more Lhan 30 Ʒ from Lhe lnlLlal one)Ť dlasLollc
pressure does noL chanae or sllahLlv aoes downŤ pulse pressure
lncreasesŦ
2Ŧ @he hyperton|c typeŦ lL's characLerlzed bv Lhe more expressed
hearL acceleraLlon ln comparlson Lo Lhe normoLonlc Lvpeţ abrupL
lncrease of Lhe svsLollc 8Þ (buL noL more Lhan 60Ŵ80 Ʒ of Lhe lnlLlal
one) and dlasLollc 8ÞŦ 1hls ls observed aL Lhe lnlLlal sLaae of
neuroclrculaLorv asLhenla accordlna Lo Lhe hvperLonlc Lvpeţ aL Lhe
overLralnlnaŦ
3Ŧ @he hypoton|c type of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv slanlflcanL
hearL acceleraLlon (exclLablllLv more Lhan 100 Ʒ)ţ svsLollc 8Þ poorlv
or does noL ralse aL allţ Lhe pulse pressure aoes downŦ Such
reacLlon ls caused bv Lhe decrease of Lhe conLracLlle funcLlon of
hearLŦ
4Ŧ @he dyston|c Lvpe of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv occurrence of
an ºlnflnlLe Lone"phenomenonţ lŦeŦ dlasLollc 8Þ ls equal Lo zeroŦ lL
LesLlfles Lo Lhe asLhenla of an oraanlsm (overfaLlaue)Ŧ
3Ŧ @he stepŴbyŴstep type of react|on ls characLerlzed bv Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe svsLollc pressure dlrecLlv afLer Lhe loadlna ls lower Lhan ln
Lhe 2
nd
or 3
rd
mlnuLe of Lhe reaeneraLlve perlodŦ 1hls Lvpe ls Lvplcal
for overfaLlaue and overLralnlna)Ŧ
As Lo Llme of Lhe pulse raLe resLoraLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal value afLer 20
squaLLlna seLs lL does noL exceed 3 mlnuLes for Lhe healLhv personsŦ
1he esLlmaLlon of Lhe resulLs of LesLs wlLh sLandard phvslcal acLlvlLles
ls carrled ouL bv sLudvlna Lhe Lvpes of reacLlon of cardlovascular
svsLem on phvslcal loadlnaŦ Cccurrence of Lhls or LhaL Lvpe of
reacLlon ls connecLed wlLh Lhe chanae of haemodvnamlcs whlch
arlses ln an oraanlsm aL performance of muscular workŦ


9hys|o|og|ca| changes of haemodynam|cs at phys|ca| |oad|ngsŦ

Þhvslcal loadlnas requlre subsLanLlal lncrease of funcLlon of Lhe
cardlovascular svsLemŦ 1hls funcLlon lnfluences areaLlv Lhe
malnLenance of worklna muscles wlLh sufflclenL amounL of oxvaen
and dlscharae of carbonlc acld and oLher producLs of Llssue
meLabollsm from LlssuesŦ 1haL ls whv Lhere ls a compllcaLed
complex of neurohumoral processes whlch ls obLalned ln an
oraanlsm wlLh Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe muscular workŦ Cn Lhe one handţ
Lhls process due Lo acLlvaLlon of Lhe svmpaLhoadrenal svsLem leads
Lo Lhe lncrease of Lhe baslc parameLers of svsLem of blood
clrculaLlon Ŷ lCCţ Svţ M8vţ svsLemlc arLerlal pressureţ volume of
clrculaLlna bloodţ eLcŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ lL provldes wlLh Lhe
chanaes of Lhe Lone of vessels ln bodles and LlssuesŦ 1he chanaes of
Lhe vascular Lone are shown ln decrease of a Lone and accordlnalvţ ln
expanslon of vessels of a perlpheral vascular channel slmulLaneouslv
wlLh Lhe lncrease of Lhe Lone and narrowlna of flne vessels of
lnLernal bodlesŦ 1he aboveŴsLaLed chanaes of Lhe Lone of Lhe vessels
provlde wlLh Lhe raLlonal redlsLrlbuLlon of a realonal bloodŴaroove
beLween funcLlonallv acLlve and lnacLlve bodles aL loadlnasŦ AL Lhe
funcLlonallv acLlve bodles Lhe blood clrculaLlon conslderablv
lncreasesţ for exampleţ ln skeleLal muscles bv 13Ŵ20 Llmes (alona
wlLh Lhlsţ Lhe quanLlLv of funcLlonlna caplllarles can lncrease bv 30
Llmes)ţ ln a skln (Lo malnLaln an adequaLe heaL exchanae) bv 3Ŵ4
Llmesţ ln lunas Ŷ bv 2Ŵ3 LlmesŦ ln funcLlonallv lnacLlve bodles (llverţ
kldnevsţ bralnţ eLcŦ) Lhe bloodŴaroove conslderablv decreasesŦ lf aL
Lhe sLaLe of phvsloloalcal resL Lhe bloodŴaroove ln lnLernal bodles
makes abouL 30 Ʒ of M8v lL can decrease Lo 3Ŵ4 Ʒ from M8v aL
Lhe maxlmal phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ


C|ass|f|cat|on of phys|ca| exerc|ses accord|ng to the b|ochem|ca|
changes under the muscu|ar work
Sub[ecL Lo Lhe amounL of Lhe muscles whlch are lnvolved ln conLracLlon
processesţ phvslcal work can be local (less Lhan 1/4 of all muscles of Lhe
bodv)ţ realonal and alobal (more Lhan 3/4 of all muscles of Lhe bodv are
lnvolved)Ŧ
locol wotk (releaslna of Lhe Lrlaaer aL Lhe shooLlnaţ chess pleces
movlnaţ eLcŦ) can cause chanaes aL Lhe worklna muscleŦ Poweverţ ln
aeneral blochemlcal chanaes are lnslanlflcanL ln Lhe bodvŦ
keoloool wotk (elemenLs of dlfferenL avmnasLlc exerclsesţ klck aL
Lhe ball sLandlna on Lhe spoLţ eLcŦ) causes much areaLer blochemlcal
chanaes Lhan local muscular work LhaL depends on Lhe parL of
anaeroblc reacLlons ln lLs eneraeLlc malnLenanceŦ
lobol wotk (walklnaţ runnlnaţ swlmmlnaţ skl raceţ skaLlnaţ eLcŦ)
causes areaL blochemlcal chanaes aL all oraans and Llssues of Lhe bodvŦ
Clobal work causes conslderable lnLenslflcaLlon of acLlvlLv of Lhe
resplraLorv and cardlovascular svsLemsŦ Muscles are beLLer supplled
wlLh oxvaenŤ Lhereforeţ Lhere ls a areaLer parL of aeroblc resvnLhesls of
A1Þ ln Lhelr eneraeLlc malnLenanceŦ
1he realme of muscular acLlvlLv lnfluences meLabollc chanaes of Lhe
bodvŦ 1here are stotlc ooJ Jvoomlc realmes of workŦ 5totlc (lsomeLrlc)
realme of muscular conLracLlon leads Lo Lhe crossŴclamplna of Lhe
caplllarles under Lhe conslderable force of conLracLlon andţ henceţ Lo
Lhe deLerloraLlon of oxvaen and nuLrlenL subsLances supplv Lo Lhe
musclesŦ under such klnd of work anaeroblc reacLlons are lnvolved Lo a
areaL exLenLŦ uvoomlc (lsoLonlc) realme of work provldes wlLh much
beLLer supplv of oxvaen Lo Lhe Llssues as muscles conLracLed ln a
broken manner acL as a pecullar pump pushlna blood Lhrouah Lhe
caplllarlesŦ ln order Lo have a resL afLer Lhe sLaLlc work one doesn'L
need a resL buL dvnamlc work (for exampleţ ln order Lo have a qulcker
resL a welahLllfLer havlna llfLed a conslderable welahL should walk a
llLLle)Ŧ
Chanaes of blochemlcal processes ln Lhe bodv depend on Lhe
lnLenslLv of Lhe execuLed muscular work and lLs duraLlonŦ Alona wlLh
Lhlsţ Lhe hlaher Lhe lnLenslLv lsţ and henceţ fasLer Lhe spllLLlna of A1Þţ
Lhe lesser ls Lhe opporLunlLv Lo saLlsfv Lhe eneraeLlc requesL aL Lhe
expense of resplraLorv oxldaLlve processes and Lo a areaLer exLenL Lhe
processes of anaeroblc resvnLhesls of A1Þ aeL lnvolvedŦ
Alona wlLh Lhe lncrease of lnLenslLv of Lhe execuLed work Lhe level
of oxvaen consumpLlon and speed of aeroblc enerav supplv lncrease up
Lo Lhe maxlmal valuesŦ 1he lnLenslLv under whlch MCC ls reached ls
called crlLlcal (W
crlL
)Ŧ 8efore reachlna Lhe crlLlcal lnLenslLv anv lncrease
of work dlfflculLv ls accompanled wlLh proporLlonal lnLenslflcaLlon of
aeroblc processes of resvnLhesls of A1ÞŦ AfLer reachlna Lhe crlLlcal
lnLenslLv Ŷ onlv due Lo Lhe anaeroblc processes developmenL of whlch
bealn under Lhe lnLenslLv less Lhan a crlLlcal oneŦ lnLenslLv of Lhe
exerclse under whlch Lhe lnLenslflcaLlon of anaeroblc reacLlons ls
revealed ls called anaeroblc exchanae Lhreshold (W
AL1
)Ŧ 1hose who do
noL ao ln for sporL AL1 ls noLlced under 30ţ0Ʒ of crlLlcal lnLenslLvŦ As for
sporLsmen of dlfferenL klnds of sporL Ŷ 60ţ0Ŵ73ţ0Ʒţ and Lhose who do
endurance exerclses Ŷ 83ţ0Ŵ90ţ0ƷŦ AfLer AL1 lncreased a parL of
anaeroblc reacLlons ln Lhe eneraeLlc malnLenance of work lncreases
abrupLlv due Lo Lhe speed aaln of alvcolvslsŦ Penceţ alvcolvsls as Lhe
mechanlsm of enerav producLlon plavs lLs leadlna role under Lhe
lnLenslLv LhaL makes up 60ţ0Ŵ83ţ0Ʒ of Lhe maxlmal oneŦ 1he lnLenslLv
under whlch Lhe areaLesL developmenL of Lhe alvcolvLlc process ls
reached ls called exboostloo loteosltv (W
exh
)Ŧ Maxlmal lnLenslLv whlch ls
posslble for a human ls known as moxlmol oooetoblc loteosltv (W
ma

under such lnLenslLv Lhe enerav aeneraLlon speed ln creaLlne
phosphoklnase reacLlon reaches Lhe maxlmal valuesŦ
Work lnLenslLv ls relaLed Lo lLs duraLlon ln a reverse proporLlonŦ
Moreoverţ alona wlLh Lhlsţ Lhe more Lhe lnLenslLv lsţ Lhe fasLer
blochemlcal processes are carrled ouLţ Lhe laLLer cause faLlaue and
cessaLlon of workŦ
ÞursuanL Lo Lhe work lnLenslLv and mechanlsms of enerav supplv
all cvcllc exerclses (accordlna Lo vŦSŦlarfel's classlflcaLlon (1973)) are
dlvlded lnLo four zonesť max|ma|ţ submax|ma|ţ great and moderateŦ
1he Lermlnal work duraLlon aL Lhe zone of maxlmal lnLenslLv makes up
23Ŵ30 secţ aL Lhe zone of submaxlmal lnLenslLv Ŷ from 30 Lo 3Ŵ3
mlnuLesţ aL Lhe zone of areaL lnLenslLv Ŷ from 3Ŵ3 Lo 30 mlnuLesţ aL Lhe
zone of moderaLe lnLenslLv Ŷ from 30Ŵ60 mlnuLes Lo 4Ŵ3 hoursŦ
1he work aL Lhe zone of max|ma| |ntens|ty ls malnlv supplled bv
enerav due Lo A1Þ and phosphocreaLlneţ and parLlallv Ŷ due Lo
alvcolvslsŦ Poweverţ alvcolvsls speed aL Lhls zone does noL reach
maxlmum values LhaL's whv Lhe conLenL of lacLlc acld ln blood usuallv
does noL exceed 1Ŵ1ţ3 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ Alona wlLh Lhls alucose conLenL ln blood
does noL chanae conslderablv wlLh Lhe resL level (even lf lL lncreases
onlv due Lo Lhe presLarLlna reacLlon as Lhe moblllzaLlon of llver
alvcoaen almosL doesn'L Lake placeŦ Cxvaen requesL mav make up 7Ŵ14
lţ oxvaen debL Ŷ 6Ŵ12 lţ lŦeŦ 90ţ0Ŵ93ţ 0Ʒ of oxvaen requesLŦ
LneraeLlc malnLenance of work at the zone of submax|ma|
|ntens|ty ls malnlv carrled ouL due Lo Lhe anaeroblc alvcolvsls LhaL
causes areaL accumulaLlon of lacLlc acld ln blood (lLs concenLraLlon can
reach 2ţ3 a l
Ŵ1
and more)Ŧ under such work oxvaen requesL can reach
20Ŵ40 lŦ 1he level of meLabollc cosLs can exceed Lhe maxlmum of
aeroblc mechanlsm of enerav producLlon bv 4Ŵ3 LlmesŦ 8v Lhe end of
work Lhe parL of aeroblc reacLlons ln lLs enerav supplv lncreasesŦ
Cxvaen debL aL Lhls zone of lnLenslLv ls Lhe mosL slanlflcanL as Lo Lhe
absoluLe values (up Lo 20 l) and makes up 30ţ0Ŵ90ţ0Ʒ of oxvaen
requesLŦ MoblllzaLlon of llver alvcoaen lnLenslflesŦ 1he level of alucose
ln blood can reach 2 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ under Lhe lnfluence of producLs of anaeroblc
decomposlLlon Lhe permeablllLv of cell membranes for proLelns
lncreases LhaL causes Lhelr conLenL lncrease ln blood and Lhelr
appearance ln urlne where Lhelr concenLraLlon reaches 1ţ3ƷŦ
under Lhe muscle work at the zone of great |ntens|ty aeroblc
sources of enerav plav Lhe maln role under Lhe sufflclenLlv hlah level of
alvcolvsls developmenLŦ 1he parL of anaeroblc processes ln work enerav
supplv decreases qulcklv wlLh lLs duraLlon lncreaseŦ under such work
oxvaen requesL mav reach 30ţ 0Ŵ130ţ0 lţ and level of enerav
consumpLlon mav exceed Lhe maxlmum of aeroblc enerav producLlon
bv 1ţ3Ŵ2 LlmesŦ ConLenL of lacLlc acld ln blood makes up 1ţ3Ŵ1ţ8 a l
Ŵ1
ţ
conLenL of alucose Ŷ approxlmaLelv 1ţ3 a l
1
ţ conLenL of proLeln ln urlne
ls less Lhan under Lhe work of submaxlmal lnLenslLvŦ
1he leasL lnLenslve exerclses at the zone of moderate |ntens|ty are
carrled ouL aL Lhe maxlmum of aeroblc enerav producLlonŦ Cxvaen
requesL mav reach 300Ŵ1300 lţ oxvaen debL does noL exceed 3 lŦ
ConLenL of lacLlc acld ln blood makes up 0ţ6Ŵ0ţ8 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ ln Lhe course of
work lL can be exLracLed bv Llssues and oxldlze ln Lhem aeroblcallvŦ As a
resulL of lnLenslfled usaae of alvcoaen reserves ln llver Lhe conLenL of
alucose ln blood becomes less Lhan 0ţ8 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ ulslnLearaLlon producLs of
proLelns appear ln urlne ln a conslderable amounLŦ Craanlsm
experlences a areaL loss of waLer and mlneral salLsŦ
under endurance Lralnlna aeroblc processes of bodv enerav supplv
plav a areaL roleţ henceţ phvslcal exerclses wlll malnlv develop LhemŦ
1hese phvslcal exerclses relaLe Lo Lhe zone of areaL and moderaLe
lnLenslLv wlLh work level as W
AL1
and W
crlLŦ
uevelopmenL of speclal hlahŴ
speed endurance ls provlded bv a hlah level of aeroblc and alvcolvLlc
processes durlna Lhe workŦ 1hls ls reached bv usaae of exerclses whlch
malnlv relaLe Lo Lhe zone of submaxlmal lnLenslLv wlLh work level as
W
exh
Ŧ ln order Lo lmprove Lhe moLlve quallLv of maxlmal force and
qulckness Lhe exerclses of Lhe zone of maxlmal lnLenslLv wlLh Lermlnal
and perlLermlnal work level as W
ma
should be applled as Lhev exerL Lhe
areaLesL lnfluence over developmenL of creaLlne phosphaLe mechanlsm
of A1Þ resvnLheslsŦ
ln recenL vears an exacLer classlflcaLlon of cvcllc phvslcal exerclses
has been developedŦ Accordlna Lo ?ŦMŦkoLs (1986) phvslcal exerclses
are dlvlded lnLo 8 aroupsť Lhree Ŷ anaeroblc and flve Ŷ aeroblc onesŦ
ooetoblc exetclsesť 1 Ŷ exerclses of maxlmal anaeroblc lnLenslLv
(up Lo 13Ŵ20 seconds)Ť 2 Ŷ close Lo maxlmal (up Lo 20Ŵ43 seconds)Ť 3 Ŷ
submaxlmal anaeroblc lnLenslLv (up Lo 43Ŵ120 seconds)Ŧ
etoblc exetclsesť 1 Ŷ exerclses of maxlmal aeroblc lnLenslLv (3Ŵ10
mlnuLes)Ť 2 Ŷ close Lo maxlmal (10Ŵ30 mlnuLes)Ť 3 Ŷ submaxlmal (30Ŵ80
mlnuLes)Ť 4 Ŷ averaae (80Ŵ120 mlnuLes)Ť 3 Ŷ low aeroblc lnLenslLv (more
Lhan 2 hours)Ŧ












CCn18CL CuLS1lCnS
1Ŧ WhaL ls Lhe basls for Lhe classlflcaLlon of phvslcal exerclses as Lo
Lhe zones of relaLlve lnLenslLv?
2Ŧ WhaL are Lhe pecullarlLles of oxvaen and eneraeLlc malnLenance
of Lhe bodv under Lhe work aL dlfferenL zones of lnLenslLv?
3Ŧ WhaL blochemlcal chanaes occur ln blood under Lhe carrvlna ouL
of phvslcal exerclses aL dlfferenL zones of lnLenslLv?
4Ŧ WhaL ls an lnLerconnecLlon beLween Lhe blochemlcal processes of
enerav exchanae and work lnLenslLv on Lhe levels of W
AL1
ţ W
crlLţ

W
exhţ
W
ma
?
3Ŧ Clve a blochemlcal characLerlsLlc of Lhe chosen klnd of sporLs
Laklna lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe classlflcaLlon of phvslcal exerclses as
Lo Lhe zones of relaLlve work levelŦ
6Ŧ Clve Lhe arounds for Lhe necesslLv Lo applv Lhe maln Lralnlna
exerclses (as Lo Lhe chosen klnd of sporLs) sub[ecL Lo Lhe dvnamlcs
of blochemlcal processes of enerav supplv under Lhe dlfferenL
lnLenslLv (W
AL1
ţ W
crlLţ
W
exhţ
W
ma


Lesson 2
Content modu|e 1Ŧ Med|ca| contro| dur|ng phys|ca| and sports tra|n|ng
@op|c 3Ŧ lnvestiootions ond evo/uotion of functiono/ stote of
cordiovoscu/orţ respirotory ond veoetotive nervous systems by functiono/
testsŦ
1) ConcepLlon abouL funcLlonal LesLs and Lhelr slanlflcance ln funcLlonal
dlaanosLlcsŦ Þrlnclple Lasks of funcLlonal lnvesLlaaLlonŦ
2) ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLsŦ Ceneral requlremenLs for funcLlonal LesLsŦ
3) luncLlonal LesLs wlLh holdlna of breaLh (u¡aņĶļţ lļņŒlŴCa6pasļ)ţ loadlna and
breaLhlna LesLsŦ
4) 1esLs wlLh chanae of bodv poslLlon (orLhosLaLlcţ cllnosLaLlc)Ŧ Þrocedure and
evaluaLlonŦ
3) ClasslflcaLlon of phvslcal exerclses (maxlmalţ submaxlmalţ opLlmalţ mlnlmal)Ŧ
6) AsslanmenL of slnaleŴsLepţ doubleŴţ LrlŴsLep and comblned funcLlonal LesLsŦ
1esLs of MarLlneŴkushelevskll and LeLunovŦ AcqulremenL of procedure of MarLlneŴ
kushelevskll's funcLlonal LesLsŦ
7) LvaluaLlon of LesLs' resulLs wlLh sLandard phvslcal exerclsesŦ 1vpes of reacLlons
of cardlovascular svsLem on funcLlonal LesLs wlLh sLandard phvslcal exerclsesŦ

@op|c 4Ŧ 4no/ysis of resu/ts of comp/ex physico/ exominotionŦ Medico/
commentŦ
1) Analvsls of resulLs of complex phvslcal examlnaLlonŦ Medlcal commenL
accordlna Lo Lhe resulLs of examlnaLlon of aLhleLes and sporLsmenŦ
2) ClasslflcaLlon on medlcal aroupsŦ Aae llmlLs for chlldren's sporL acLlvlLvŦ
3) uocLor's recommendaLlons ln reaards Lo Lhe Lralnlna of womenŦ CrlenLed
Lerms of conLlnuaLlon of phvslcal exerclses afLer lllnessŦ
õ
1)ŦnlŁŋuaŃsņa ŎlsŁŋŃs¡ŋpa ¡a cnňp¡uuņa ŅļĺuŐuņaŦ PauŒaŃsņļ uuĺaņņŕŦ Þlĺ
pļĺŦ 8Ŧ8ŦßŃanŒŋŁa ¡a lŦ8ŦLsŕŁaŦ ßŦţ 3ĺňpňurŕ 1993Ŧ ŶCŦ 40Ŵ43Ŧ
2)ŦnļŒļ6ņaŕ ŎusŁŋŃs¡ŋpa u upaŒļ6ņsu Łňņ¡pňŃsť vŒļ6ņuŁ/Þňĺ pļĺŦ
8ŦAŦLnuŎaņňua u lŦnŦAnaņacļņŁň ŶMŦť MļĺuŐuņaţ 1990Ŧ ŶCŦ 23Ŵ28ţ 36Ŵ37Ŧ
3)ŦnļŁŐlŕŦ
4)Ŧ4ŋņŁŐlňņaŃsņl npň6u u cnňp¡uuņlu ŅļĺuŐuņl /Mļ¡ňĺuŒņl pļŁňŅļņĺaŐliŦ
MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦ Ŷßuiuţ 2003Ŧ Ŷ37cŦ
3)ŦMļĺuŒņļ sa6ļsnļŒļņņŕ ŎlsuŒņňĶň uuŏňuaņņŕ ŋ ņauŒaŃsņuŏ saŁŃaĺaŏ lŴlv
pluņlu aŁpļĺu¡aŐli /PauŒaŃsņuu nňcl6ņuŁŦ MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ +ļpļnňŁ CŦCŦţ Ŵ
3anňplĿĿŕţ 3LMvŦ Ŷ2008Ŧ Ŷ30cŦ6)ŦCnňp¡ u ňsĺňpňuu¡ļŃsņaŕ ŎusuŒļcŁaŕ
¡pļņupňuŁa Ŀļņuuņ /vŒļ6ņňļ nňcň6uļŦ MuŏaŃŔŁ LŦnŦ Ŷ3anňpňĿsļţ 3lMvţ
1999ţ Ŵ22 cŦ

@est of 20 squatt|ng sets for 30secŦ (Mart|nŴ kushe|evsky)

1hrouah 1ţ3Ŵ2 mlnuLes afLer Lhe flxlna a cuff of LonomeLer on Lhe lefL handţ Lhe calculaLlon of
Lhe pulse raLe ln resL slLLlna poslLlon ls bealnsŦ 1he pulse raLe ls counLed conLlnuouslv on 10
second pleces before lLs sLablllzaLlon and lLs Lrlple recurrence of Lhe same frequenclesŦ AfLer LhaL
Lhe 8Þ ls measuredŦ
1hen Lhe examlnee ls offeredţ noL removlna a cuff of a LonomeLer Lo make
20 kneeŴbends durlna 30secŦ wlLh forward sLralahLenlna handsŦ 1he raLe can
be seL bv meLronomeŦ Cnce afLer kneeŴbends Lhe examlnee slLs downţ swlLches
a sLopŴwaLch and durlna Lhe flrsL 10sec counLs up Lhe pulseŦ lor Lhe Llme (30
sec) whlch have remalned before Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe reaeneraLlve perlodţ Lhe
8Þ ls measuredŦ lrom Lhe bealnnlna of 2Ŵnd mlnuLe of Lhe reaeneraLlve
perlodţ Lhe pulse raLe ls counLed on 10 sec Llme pleces before Lhe Lrlple
recurrence of lnlLlal slzeŦ 1he 8Þ ls measured ln concluslon of Lhe LesLŦ
1he crlLerlon for an esLlmaLlon of Lhe LesL areť exclLablllLv of pulseţ characLer
of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on loadlna and a Llme of reaeneraLlve pulse Lo lnlLlal slzeŦ
LxclLablllLv of pulse ls lncrease of pulse ln relaLlon Lo lnlLlalţ expressed ln Ʒť
ln norm of 60Ŵ80 ƷŦ
CharacLer of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on loadlna ls expressed one of flve posslble LvpesŦ
1Ŧ @he normonon|c typeŦ Alonaslde wlLh lncrease of pulse raLe ls
characLerlzed bv dlsLlncL lncreaslna of svsLollc pressure (no more Lhan 30 Ʒ
from lnlLlal)Ť dlasLollc pressure does noL chanaes or sllahLlv aoes downŤ
pulse pressure lncreasesŦ
2Ŧ@he hyperton|c typeŦ lL's characLerlzed bv more expressedţ Lhan aL
normoLonlc Lvpeţ lncrease of pulse raLe ţ sharp lncrease of Lhe svsLollc 8Þ
( buL noL more Lhan 60Ŵ80 Ʒ from lnlLlal) and Lhe dlasLollc 8ÞŦ 1hls ls
observed ln Lhe lnlLlal sLaae of neuroclrculaLorv asLhenla on hvperLonlc
Lvpeţ aL overLralnlnaŦ
3Ŧ@he hypoton|c type of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv slanlflcanL lncrease of
pulse raLe (exclLablllLv more Lhan 100 Ʒ)ţ Lhe svsLollc 8Þ poorlv or does
noL ralse aL allţ Lhe pulse pressure aoes downŦ Such reacLlon speaks
decrease conLracLlle funcLlons of hearLŦ
4Ŧ@he dyston|c Lvpe of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv occurrence of a
phenomenon of ºlnflnlLe Lone"ţ Lhe dlasLollc 8Þ ls equal Lo zeroŦ lL LesLlfles
abouL Lhe asLhenla of an oraanlsm (overfaLlaue)Ŧ
3Ŧ@he step type of react|on ls characLerlzedţ LhaL Lhe svsLollc pressure
lmmedlaLe afLer loadlna ls belowţ Lhan on 2Ŵnd or 3Ŵrd mlnuLe of Lhe
reaeneraLlve perlodŦ lL ls characLerlsLlc for over faLlaue and over Lralnlna)Ŧ
As Lo Llme of resLoraLlon of Lhe pulse raLe Lo lnlLlal slze afLer 20 kneeŴbendsţ for healLhv persons lL
does noL exceed 3 mlnuLesŦ
1he esLlmaLlon of Lhe resulLs of LesLs wlLh sLandard phvslcal acLlvlLles ls carrled ouL bv scruLlnv of
Lhe Lvpes of reacLlon of cardlovascular svsLem on phvslcal loadlnaŦ Cccurrence of Lhls or LhaL Lvpe of
reacLlon ls connecLed wlLh Lhe chanae of haemodvnamlc whlch arlses ln an oraanlsm aL
performance of muscular workŦ



Cstinatien e| |nnttiena| ahi|itirs e|
a hnnan`s eruanisn hv
nrans e| |nnttiena| trsts.

1he mosL lmporLanL secLlon of sporLs medlclne ls
funcLlonal dlaanosLlcsţ and ln parLlcularţ LesLlna of
funcLlonal readlnessţ phvslcal worklna capaclLv and
oLher characLerlsLlcs of funcLlonal condlLlon of
sporLsmen's oraanlsmŦ 1he above ln equal measure
concerns boLh sporLs and mass phvslcal LralnlnaŦ
lL ls known LhaL research of manv funcLlonal
parameLers ls ofLen carrled ouL ln a condlLlon of relaLlve
phvsloloalcal resL LhaL ls noL alwavs lnformaLlvelvŦ 1he
essence of Lhe funcLlonal dlaanosLlcs conslsLs also ln
analvzlna Lhe mechanlsms whlch carrv ouL chanaes ln
bodles and svsLems funcLlonlna under lnfluence of
varlous lrrlLanLsŦ lor Lhls reason ln order Lo esLlmaLe
funcLlonallLles of Lhe human ob[ecLlvelv and auLhenLlcallv
lL ls necessarv Lo sLudv response of Lhe bodles and
svsLems of an oraanlsm Lo anv acLlonŦ WlLh Lhls purpose
durlna funcLlonal examlnaLlon one uses funcLlonal LesLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs are preclselv dosed ouL acLlons upon
an oraanlsm of varlous facLors LhaL allow sLudvlna
reacLlon of Lhe phvsloloalcal svsLems Lo Lhls or LhaL
acLlonŦ 1hev provlde wlLh an opporLunlLv Lo recelve
represenLaLlon of a sLaLe of an oraanlsm under Lhe
condlLlons of acLlve ablllLv Lo llveŦ
1he prlmarv aoals of funcLlonal researches areť
1)Ŧ ueflnlLlon and esLlmaLlon of a dearee and characLer
of reacLlon of Lhe bodles and svsLems upon Lhe
lnfluenclna facLorŦ
2)Ŧ ueflnlLlon of Lhe adapLaLlon mechanlsms of an
oraanlsm Lo chanalna condlLlonsŦ
3)Ŧ 8eveallna of laLenL lnfrlnaemenLs of funcLlonţ
volume and dearee of Lhese lnfrlnaemenLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs are applled malnlv Lo esLlmaLe Lhe
reacLlons of anv separaLe svsLem ln replv Lo acLlonŦ
Poweverţ Lhe ma[orlLv of Lhem characLerlze Lhe acLlvlLv
of Lhe whole oraanlsm ln aeneralŦ 1hereforeţ ln order Lo
recelve more hlahŴarade represenLaLlon of a funcLlonal
condlLlon of an oraanlsm lL ls necessarv Lo lnvesLlaaLe a
number of parameLers whlch characLerlze Lhe varlous
parLles of lLs ablllLv Lo llveŦ 1he facLors lnfluenclna Lhese
or Lhose parameLers can be also varlousţ dependlna on
Lhe exacL Lasks of Lhe funcLlonal researchŦ

AŦ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs dependlna on Lhe
lnfluenclna facLor
3Ŧ 1esLs wlLh phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ
llŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of envlronmenLŦ
1Ŧ 8esplraLorv LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on lnsplraLlon ( ShLanae's
LesL )Ť
Ŵ wlLh a delav of breaLh on exhalaLlon (Cenchv's LesL

Ŵ chanae of Lhe aas sLrucLure of lnhaled alrŦ
2Ŧ 1emperaLure LesLsť
Ŵ wlLh coldnessŤ
Ŵ wlLh heaLŦ
lllŦ 1esLs connecLed wlLh chanae of venous lnflow of
blood Lo hearLť
1Ŧ 1esLs wlLh chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceť
Ŵ orLhosLaLlc LesL (acLlveţ passlve)Ť
Ŵ wedaeŴ sLaLlc LesLŦ
2Ŧ 1esLs wlLh efforLs maklna (valsalva's LesLţ
lleck's and 8uraher's LesLs)
lvŦ Þharmacoloalcal LesLs (wlLh kalloŴblockerţ eLcŦ)
vŦ lood LesLs (allmenLarv)
Ŵ Lolerance Lo alucoseŤ
Ŵ excreLlon (llquld)ţ eLcŦ

8Ŧ ClasslflcaLlon of funcLlonal LesLs wlLh phvslcal
acLlvlLvŦ

9Ŧ uependlna on realsLraLlon Llme of parameLersť
LesLs on resLoraLlonŤ
LesLs for efforLŦ
10Ŧ uependlna on quanLlLv of Lhe execuLed loadlnať
ŴoneŴsLaae (MarLlneŴkushelevskv LesLŤ 13 secŦ
runnlna on Lhe spoLţ eLcŦ)
Ŵ doubleŴsLaae (koroLkovƌs LesL)Ť
Ŵcomblned (LeLunov 's LrlpleŴsLaae LesL)Ŧ
11Ŧ uependlna on Lhe characLer of carrled ouL
movemenLsť
nonspeclflc (one uses movemenLs whlch are
characLerlsLlc pracLlcallv Lo all klnds of sporLs Ŷ
runnlnaţ squaLLlna)Ť
speclflc (one uses movemenLs lmlLaLlna Lhe exacL klnd
of sporLs (ln boxlna Ű flahL wlLh a shadowűţ eLcŦ)
12Ŧ uependlna on lnLenslLv of carrled ouL loadlnasť
ŴmaxlmalŤ
Ŵsubmaxlmal (73 Ʒ and less from Lhe maxlmal ones)Ŧ
3Ŧ uependlna on condlLlons of carrvlna ouL of Lhe
LesLlnať
LesLlna under Lhe laboraLorv condlLlons wlLh use of
varlous klnds of cvcloeraomeLerŤ
LesLlna under Lhe usual condlLlons of sporLs acLlvlLv or
durlna healLhŴlmprovlna LralnlnaŦ

@he requ|rements |a|d to funct|ona| testsŦ
lL ls necessarv Lo noLe LhaL funcLlonal LesLs should
saLlsfv cerLaln requlremenLsţ and namelv Lhev should
be sLandard and dosed ouLŦ Cnlv under such
clrcumsLances lL ls posslble Lo compare Lhe resulLs
recelved from dlfferenL people or from one person
durlna Lhe dlfferenL perlods of Llme LhaL ls ln dvnamlcsŦ
8esldesţ funcLlonal LesLs should be safe and aL Lhe
same Llme lnformaLlve enouahţ slmpleţ accesslbleţ
Lhev should noL requlre speclal skllls Lo carrv Lhem ouLŦ
1esLs wlLh phvslcal loadlnas should ensure Lhe
enaaalna as manv muscles as lL's posslble and alve
an opporLunlLv Lo measure and chanae lnLenslLv of
loadlnas ln necessarv llmlLsŦ
luncLlonal LesLs wlLh Lhe maxlmal delav of breaLh are
applled ln order Lo deflne sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo
hvpoxlaţ less ofLen Ŷ wlLh Lhe purpose of reveallna of Lhe
laLenL coronarv lnsufflclencvŦ
htange's test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of duraLlon of
Lhe breaLh delav afLer Lhe maxlmal lnsplraLlonŦ 1he LesL ls
carrled ouL ln Lhe slLLlna poslLlonŦ SomeLlmes before and
afLer Lhe delav of breaLh an elecLrocardloaram ls
realsLeredŦ As for Lhe chlldren ShLanae's LesL can be
carrled ouL afLer 3 deep lnsplraLlonsŦ lor Lhe persons
who are noL aolna ln for sporLţ Lhe duraLlon of a delav of
breaLh normallv makes 40Ŵ60secŦţ for sporLsmen Ŷ 90Ŵ
120 secŦ
Genchy test conslsLs ln realsLraLlon of a delav of
breaLh afLer Lhe maxlmal exhalaLlonŦ lor Lhe persons
who are noL aolna ln for sporLţ Lhls Llme makes 20Ŵ40
secŦţ and for sporLsmen Ŷ 40Ŵ60 secŦ
1he duraLlon of Lhese LesLs ls decreaslna under Lhe
decrease ln sLablllLv of an oraanlsm Lo hvpoxlaŦ
Dosed out stra|n|ng effort ls of areaL lnLeresL for Lhe
klnds of sporL where Lhe sLralnlna efforL ls a componenL
of sporLs acLlvlLvŦ 1hese are welahLŴllfLlnaţ Lhrowlnaţ
wresLllnaţ avmnasLlcsţ eLcŦ Maklna efforLs reduces a
venous conaesLlon of blood Lo hearL and lncreases
reslsLance of a bloodŴaroove ln vessels of lesser
clrculaLlon owlna Lo whlch svsLollc volume of blood
decreases (someLlmes up Lo 13Ŵ20ml)Ŧ ln replv Lo Lhls
reducLlon Lhere ls a compensaLorv lncrease of lCCţ owlna
Lo whlch one feels Lhe decrease of MCC noL so sLronalvŦ
Poweverţ slze of MCC ls noL sufflclenL Lo malnLaln a
necessarv level of 8ÞŦ Poldlna of a normal 8Þ level ls
reached bv narrowlna Lhe vessels of areaLer clrculaLlonŦ
1he represenLed mechanlsms of lnfluence of maklna
efforLs on Lhe person's oraanlsm are Lhe basls for lleck's
and 8uraher's LesLsŦ
|eck testŦ Cne who ls examlned ls offered Lo make a
deep breaLh wlLh Lhe furLher lmlLaLlon of exhalaLlon wlLh
malnLenance of 40 mmŦ haŦ pressure ln Lhe manomeLerŦ
uurlna maklna efforLs ŰLo Lhe fullű for 3 secŦ wlLh
lnLervals one flxes Lhe pulseŦ 1he Llme durlna whlch Lhe
examlnee ls able Lo execuLe Lhe LesL ls realsLeredŦ
Ŵexce||ent react|onť lncrease of pulse for everv 3 sec
for 1Ŵ2 blows ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ uuraLlon of
maklna efforLs makes 43Ŵ33 secŦ lncrease of pulse ln
comparlson Lo Lhe lnlLlal daLa proceeds approxlmaLelv
durlna 1 mlnuLeţ and Lhen lCC ls sLablllzedŤ
Ŵgood react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ4 blows
for 3secŦŤ
Ŵsat|sfactory react|onť lncrease of pulse reaches 3Ŵ7
blows for 3secŦŤ
Ŵunsat|sfactory react|onť areaLer aaln of pulseţ lŦeŦ
more Lhan 7 blows per 3secŦ SaLlsfacLorv and
unsaLlsfacLorv reacLlons LesLlfv Lo Lhe lncrease ln
reaulaLlon of hearL acLlvlLvŦ

Chanae of Lhe bodv poslLlon ln spaceŦ

Crthostat|c test Ŷalves an opporLunlLv Lo esLlmaLe
Lhe exclLablllLv of svmpaLheLlc branch of Lhe veaeLaLlve
nervous svsLemŦ
When Lhe examlnee ls ln Lhe lvlna poslLlon one counLs
Lhe pulse for 10 or 13 secŦ and recalculaLes lL for 1
mlnuLeŦ When Lhe 8Þ ls realsLeredţ Lhe examlnee aeLs
up carefullv and one counLs hls pulse and measures hls
8ÞŦ AL Lhe dlfference ln a pulse raLe up Lo 12 for 1 mlnŦ
Lhe reacLlon ls consldered Lo be normalţ 18 and more
Ŷ adverseŦ
JedgeŴstat|c test conslsLs ln deflnlLlon of Lhe
dlfference ln a pulse raLe aL LranslLlon from Lhe sLandlna
poslLlon lnLo Lhe lvlna poslLlonŦ 1hls characLerlzes a
condlLlon of a Lone of Lhe parasvmpaLheLlc branch of
veaeLaLlve nervous SvsLem (vnS)Ŧ AL a normal Lone Lhe
pulse raLe ls reduced no more Lhan bv 6 blŦ per mlnuLeŦ
1he dlrecL reacLlon malnlv polnLs ouL Lhe senslLlvlLv of
Lhe svmpaLheLlc (orLhosLaLlc LesL) or parasvmpaLheLlc
(wedaeŴsLaLlc LesL) branches of Lhe nervous svsLemŦ
Whereas Lhe delaved reacLlon measured ln 3 mlnuLes
polnLs ouL lLs LoneŦ

@est of 20 squatt|ng sets for 30sec (Mart|ne Ŵ
kushe|evsky)

ln 1ţ3Ŵ2 mlnuLes when a cuff of LonomeLer ls flxed on
Lhe lefL hand one calculaLes Lhe pulse raLe ln Lhe
slLLlna poslLlon aL resLŦ 1he pulse raLe ls counLed
conLlnuouslv bv 10 second pleces before lLs
sLablllzaLlon and lLs Lrlple recurrence of Lhe same
frequenclesŦ AfLer LhaL 8Þ ls measuredŦ
1hen Lhe examlnee ls offered wlLhouL removlna Lhe
cuff of a LonomeLer Lo do 20 squaLLlna seLs durlna 30sec
wlLh Lhe sLralahLened hands forwardŦ 1he raLe can be seL
bv Lhe meLronomeŦ Cnce afLer Lhe kneeŴbends Lhe
examlnee slLs downţ swlLches on Lhe sLopŴwaLch and
durlna Lhe flrsL 10sec counLs up Lhe pulseŦ uurlna Lhe
Llme (30 sec) whlch has remalned before a oneŴmlnuLe
reaeneraLlve perlod 8Þ ls measuredŦ Slnce Lhe bealnnlna
of a LwoŴmlnuLe reaeneraLlve perlod Lhe pulse raLe ls
counLed bv 10 sec Llme pleces before Lhe Lrlple
recurrence of Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ 8Þ ls measured aL Lhe end
of Lhe LesLŦ
1he crlLerlon for an esLlmaLlon of Lhe LesL ls
exclLablllLv of pulseţ characLer of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on
loadlna and Llme of pulse resLoraLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal slzeŦ
LxclLablllLv of pulse ls lncrease of pulse ln relaLlon Lo
Lhe lnlLlal oneţ expressed ln Ʒť normallv 60Ŵ80 ƷŦ
CharacLer of Lhe 8Þ reacLlon on loadlna ls expressed bv
one of flve posslble LvpesŦ
1Ŧ @he normoton|c typeŦ Alonaslde wlLh Lhe hearL
acceleraLlon Lhls Lvpe ls characLerlzed bv Lhe dlsLlncL
lncrease of svsLollc pressure (no more Lhan 30 Ʒ from
Lhe lnlLlal one)Ť dlasLollc pressure does noL chanae or
sllahLlv aoes downŤ pulse pressure lncreasesŦ
2Ŧ @he hyperton|c typeŦ lL's characLerlzed bv Lhe
more expressed hearL acceleraLlon ln comparlson Lo
Lhe normoLonlc Lvpeţ abrupL lncrease of Lhe svsLollc
8Þ (buL noL more Lhan 60Ŵ80 Ʒ of Lhe lnlLlal one) and
dlasLollc 8ÞŦ 1hls ls observed aL Lhe lnlLlal sLaae of
neuroclrculaLorv asLhenla accordlna Lo Lhe hvperLonlc
Lvpeţ aL Lhe overLralnlnaŦ
3Ŧ @he hypoton|c type of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv
slanlflcanL hearL acceleraLlon (exclLablllLv more Lhan
100 Ʒ)ţ svsLollc 8Þ poorlv or does noL ralse aL allţ Lhe
pulse pressure aoes downŦ Such reacLlon ls caused bv
Lhe decrease of Lhe conLracLlle funcLlon of hearLŦ
4Ŧ @he dyston|c Lvpe of reacLlon ls characLerlzed bv
occurrence of an ºlnflnlLe Lone"phenomenonţ lŦeŦ
dlasLollc 8Þ ls equal Lo zeroŦ lL LesLlfles Lo Lhe asLhenla
of an oraanlsm (overfaLlaue)Ŧ
3Ŧ @he stepŴbyŴstep type of react|on ls characLerlzed
bv Lhe facL LhaL Lhe svsLollc pressure dlrecLlv afLer Lhe
loadlna ls lower Lhan ln Lhe 2
nd
or 3
rd
mlnuLe of Lhe
reaeneraLlve perlodŦ 1hls Lvpe ls Lvplcal for
overfaLlaue and overLralnlna)Ŧ
As Lo Llme of Lhe pulse raLe resLoraLlon Lo Lhe lnlLlal
value afLer 20 squaLLlna seLs lL does noL exceed 3
mlnuLes for Lhe healLhv personsŦ
1he esLlmaLlon of Lhe resulLs of LesLs wlLh sLandard
phvslcal acLlvlLles ls carrled ouL bv sLudvlna Lhe Lvpes
of reacLlon of cardlovascular svsLem on phvslcal
loadlnaŦ Cccurrence of Lhls or LhaL Lvpe of reacLlon ls
connecLed wlLh Lhe chanae of haemodvnamlcs whlch
arlses ln an oraanlsm aL performance of muscular
workŦ


9hys|o|og|ca| changes of haemodynam|cs at phys|ca|
|oad|ngsŦ

Þhvslcal loadlnas requlre subsLanLlal lncrease of
funcLlon of Lhe cardlovascular svsLemŦ 1hls funcLlon
lnfluences areaLlv Lhe malnLenance of worklna muscles
wlLh sufflclenL amounL of oxvaen and dlscharae of
carbonlc acld and oLher producLs of Llssue meLabollsm
from LlssuesŦ 1haL ls whv Lhere ls a compllcaLed
complex of neurohumoral processes whlch ls obLalned
ln an oraanlsm wlLh Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe muscular
workŦ Cn Lhe one handţ Lhls process due Lo acLlvaLlon
of Lhe svmpaLhoadrenal svsLem leads Lo Lhe lncrease
of Lhe baslc parameLers of svsLem of blood clrculaLlon
Ŷ lCCţ Svţ M8vţ svsLemlc arLerlal pressureţ volume of
clrculaLlna bloodţ eLcŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ lL provldes
wlLh Lhe chanaes of Lhe Lone of vessels ln bodles and
LlssuesŦ 1he chanaes of Lhe vascular Lone are shown ln
decrease of a Lone and accordlnalvţ ln expanslon of
vessels of a perlpheral vascular channel slmulLaneouslv
wlLh Lhe lncrease of Lhe Lone and narrowlna of flne
vessels of lnLernal bodlesŦ 1he aboveŴsLaLed chanaes of
Lhe Lone of Lhe vessels provlde wlLh Lhe raLlonal
redlsLrlbuLlon of a realonal bloodŴaroove beLween
funcLlonallv acLlve and lnacLlve bodles aL loadlnasŦ AL
Lhe funcLlonallv acLlve bodles Lhe blood clrculaLlon
conslderablv lncreasesţ for exampleţ ln skeleLal
muscles bv 13Ŵ20 Llmes (alona wlLh Lhlsţ Lhe quanLlLv
of funcLlonlna caplllarles can lncrease bv 30 Llmes)ţ ln a
skln (Lo malnLaln an adequaLe heaL exchanae) bv 3Ŵ4
Llmesţ ln lunas Ŷ bv 2Ŵ3 LlmesŦ ln funcLlonallv lnacLlve
bodles (llverţ kldnevsţ bralnţ eLcŦ) Lhe bloodŴaroove
conslderablv decreasesŦ lf aL Lhe sLaLe of phvsloloalcal
resL Lhe bloodŴaroove ln lnLernal bodles makes abouL
30 Ʒ of M8v lL can decrease Lo 3Ŵ4 Ʒ from M8v aL
Lhe maxlmal phvslcal acLlvlLvŦ


C|ass|f|cat|on of phys|ca| exerc|ses accord|ng to the
b|ochem|ca| changes under the muscu|ar work
Sub[ecL Lo Lhe amounL of Lhe muscles whlch are lnvolved
ln conLracLlon processesţ phvslcal work can be local (less
Lhan 1/4 of all muscles of Lhe bodv)ţ realonal and alobal
(more Lhan 3/4 of all muscles of Lhe bodv are lnvolved)Ŧ
locol wotk (releaslna of Lhe Lrlaaer aL Lhe shooLlnaţ
chess pleces movlnaţ eLcŦ) can cause chanaes aL Lhe
worklna muscleŦ Poweverţ ln aeneral blochemlcal
chanaes are lnslanlflcanL ln Lhe bodvŦ
keoloool wotk (elemenLs of dlfferenL avmnasLlc
exerclsesţ klck aL Lhe ball sLandlna on Lhe spoLţ eLcŦ)
causes much areaLer blochemlcal chanaes Lhan local
muscular work LhaL depends on Lhe parL of anaeroblc
reacLlons ln lLs eneraeLlc malnLenanceŦ
lobol wotk (walklnaţ runnlnaţ swlmmlnaţ skl raceţ
skaLlnaţ eLcŦ) causes areaL blochemlcal chanaes aL all
oraans and Llssues of Lhe bodvŦ Clobal work causes
conslderable lnLenslflcaLlon of acLlvlLv of Lhe resplraLorv
and cardlovascular svsLemsŦ Muscles are beLLer supplled
wlLh oxvaenŤ Lhereforeţ Lhere ls a areaLer parL of aeroblc
resvnLhesls of A1Þ ln Lhelr eneraeLlc malnLenanceŦ
1he realme of muscular acLlvlLv lnfluences meLabollc
chanaes of Lhe bodvŦ 1here are stotlc ooJ Jvoomlc
realmes of workŦ 5totlc (lsomeLrlc) realme of muscular
conLracLlon leads Lo Lhe crossŴclamplna of Lhe caplllarles
under Lhe conslderable force of conLracLlon andţ henceţ
Lo Lhe deLerloraLlon of oxvaen and nuLrlenL subsLances
supplv Lo Lhe musclesŦ under such klnd of work
anaeroblc reacLlons are lnvolved Lo a areaL exLenLŦ
uvoomlc (lsoLonlc) realme of work provldes wlLh much
beLLer supplv of oxvaen Lo Lhe Llssues as muscles
conLracLed ln a broken manner acL as a pecullar pump
pushlna blood Lhrouah Lhe caplllarlesŦ ln order Lo have a
resL afLer Lhe sLaLlc work one doesn'L need a resL buL
dvnamlc work (for exampleţ ln order Lo have a qulcker
resL a welahLllfLer havlna llfLed a conslderable welahL
should walk a llLLle)Ŧ
Chanaes of blochemlcal processes ln Lhe bodv
depend on Lhe lnLenslLv of Lhe execuLed muscular work
and lLs duraLlonŦ Alona wlLh Lhlsţ Lhe hlaher Lhe lnLenslLv
lsţ and henceţ fasLer Lhe spllLLlna of A1Þţ Lhe lesser ls Lhe
opporLunlLv Lo saLlsfv Lhe eneraeLlc requesL aL Lhe
expense of resplraLorv oxldaLlve processes and Lo a
areaLer exLenL Lhe processes of anaeroblc resvnLhesls of
A1Þ aeL lnvolvedŦ
Alona wlLh Lhe lncrease of lnLenslLv of Lhe execuLed
work Lhe level of oxvaen consumpLlon and speed of
aeroblc enerav supplv lncrease up Lo Lhe maxlmal valuesŦ
1he lnLenslLv under whlch MCC ls reached ls called
crlLlcal (W
crlL
)Ŧ 8efore reachlna Lhe crlLlcal lnLenslLv anv
lncrease of work dlfflculLv ls accompanled wlLh
proporLlonal lnLenslflcaLlon of aeroblc processes of
resvnLhesls of A1ÞŦ AfLer reachlna Lhe crlLlcal lnLenslLv Ŷ
onlv due Lo Lhe anaeroblc processes developmenL of
whlch bealn under Lhe lnLenslLv less Lhan a crlLlcal oneŦ
lnLenslLv of Lhe exerclse under whlch Lhe lnLenslflcaLlon
of anaeroblc reacLlons ls revealed ls called anaeroblc
exchanae Lhreshold (W
AL1
)Ŧ 1hose who do noL ao ln for
sporL AL1 ls noLlced under 30ţ0Ʒ of crlLlcal lnLenslLvŦ As
for sporLsmen of dlfferenL klnds of sporL Ŷ 60ţ0Ŵ73ţ0Ʒţ
and Lhose who do endurance exerclses Ŷ 83ţ0Ŵ90ţ0ƷŦ
AfLer AL1 lncreased a parL of anaeroblc reacLlons ln Lhe
eneraeLlc malnLenance of work lncreases abrupLlv due Lo
Lhe speed aaln of alvcolvslsŦ Penceţ alvcolvsls as Lhe
mechanlsm of enerav producLlon plavs lLs leadlna role
under Lhe lnLenslLv LhaL makes up 60ţ0Ŵ83ţ0Ʒ of Lhe
maxlmal oneŦ 1he lnLenslLv under whlch Lhe areaLesL
developmenL of Lhe alvcolvLlc process ls reached ls called
exboostloo loteosltv (W
exh
)Ŧ Maxlmal lnLenslLv whlch ls
posslble for a human ls known as moxlmol oooetoblc
loteosltv (W
ma
)Ŧ under such lnLenslLv Lhe enerav
aeneraLlon speed ln creaLlne phosphoklnase reacLlon
reaches Lhe maxlmal valuesŦ
Work lnLenslLv ls relaLed Lo lLs duraLlon ln a reverse
proporLlonŦ Moreoverţ alona wlLh Lhlsţ Lhe more Lhe
lnLenslLv lsţ Lhe fasLer blochemlcal processes are carrled
ouLţ Lhe laLLer cause faLlaue and cessaLlon of workŦ
ÞursuanL Lo Lhe work lnLenslLv and mechanlsms of
enerav supplv all cvcllc exerclses (accordlna Lo
vŦSŦlarfel's classlflcaLlon (1973)) are dlvlded lnLo four
zonesť max|ma|ţ submax|ma|ţ great and moderateŦ 1he
Lermlnal work duraLlon aL Lhe zone of maxlmal lnLenslLv
makes up 23Ŵ30 secţ aL Lhe zone of submaxlmal lnLenslLv
Ŷ from 30 Lo 3Ŵ3 mlnuLesţ aL Lhe zone of areaL lnLenslLv Ŷ
from 3Ŵ3 Lo 30 mlnuLesţ aL Lhe zone of moderaLe
lnLenslLv Ŷ from 30Ŵ60 mlnuLes Lo 4Ŵ3 hoursŦ
1he work aL Lhe zone of max|ma| |ntens|ty ls malnlv
supplled bv enerav due Lo A1Þ and phosphocreaLlneţ and
parLlallv Ŷ due Lo alvcolvslsŦ Poweverţ alvcolvsls speed aL
Lhls zone does noL reach maxlmum values LhaL's whv Lhe
conLenL of lacLlc acld ln blood usuallv does noL exceed 1Ŵ
1ţ3 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ Alona wlLh Lhls alucose conLenL ln blood does
noL chanae conslderablv wlLh Lhe resL level (even lf lL
lncreases onlv due Lo Lhe presLarLlna reacLlon as Lhe
moblllzaLlon of llver alvcoaen almosL doesn'L Lake placeŦ
Cxvaen requesL mav make up 7Ŵ14 lţ oxvaen debL Ŷ 6Ŵ12
lţ lŦeŦ 90ţ0Ŵ93ţ 0Ʒ of oxvaen requesLŦ
LneraeLlc malnLenance of work at the zone of
submax|ma| |ntens|ty ls malnlv carrled ouL due Lo Lhe
anaeroblc alvcolvsls LhaL causes areaL accumulaLlon of
lacLlc acld ln blood (lLs concenLraLlon can reach 2ţ3 a l
Ŵ1

and more)Ŧ under such work oxvaen requesL can reach
20Ŵ40 lŦ 1he level of meLabollc cosLs can exceed Lhe
maxlmum of aeroblc mechanlsm of enerav producLlon bv
4Ŵ3 LlmesŦ 8v Lhe end of work Lhe parL of aeroblc
reacLlons ln lLs enerav supplv lncreasesŦ Cxvaen debL aL
Lhls zone of lnLenslLv ls Lhe mosL slanlflcanL as Lo Lhe
absoluLe values (up Lo 20 l) and makes up 30ţ0Ŵ90ţ0Ʒ of
oxvaen requesLŦ MoblllzaLlon of llver alvcoaen lnLenslflesŦ
1he level of alucose ln blood can reach 2 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ under Lhe
lnfluence of producLs of anaeroblc decomposlLlon Lhe
permeablllLv of cell membranes for proLelns lncreases
LhaL causes Lhelr conLenL lncrease ln blood and Lhelr
appearance ln urlne where Lhelr concenLraLlon reaches
1ţ3ƷŦ
under Lhe muscle work at the zone of great
|ntens|ty aeroblc sources of enerav plav Lhe maln role
under Lhe sufflclenLlv hlah level of alvcolvsls
developmenLŦ 1he parL of anaeroblc processes ln work
enerav supplv decreases qulcklv wlLh lLs duraLlon
lncreaseŦ under such work oxvaen requesL mav reach 30ţ
0Ŵ130ţ0 lţ and level of enerav consumpLlon mav exceed
Lhe maxlmum of aeroblc enerav producLlon bv 1ţ3Ŵ2
LlmesŦ ConLenL of lacLlc acld ln blood makes up 1ţ3Ŵ1ţ8 a l
Ŵ
1
ţ conLenL of alucose Ŷ approxlmaLelv 1ţ3 a l
1
ţ conLenL of
proLeln ln urlne ls less Lhan under Lhe work of
submaxlmal lnLenslLvŦ
1he leasL lnLenslve exerclses at the zone of
moderate |ntens|ty are carrled ouL aL Lhe maxlmum of
aeroblc enerav producLlonŦ Cxvaen requesL mav reach
300Ŵ1300 lţ oxvaen debL does noL exceed 3 lŦ ConLenL of
lacLlc acld ln blood makes up 0ţ6Ŵ0ţ8 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ ln Lhe course of
work lL can be exLracLed bv Llssues and oxldlze ln Lhem
aeroblcallvŦ As a resulL of lnLenslfled usaae of alvcoaen
reserves ln llver Lhe conLenL of alucose ln blood becomes
less Lhan 0ţ8 a l
Ŵ1
Ŧ ulslnLearaLlon producLs of proLelns
appear ln urlne ln a conslderable amounLŦ Craanlsm
experlences a areaL loss of waLer and mlneral salLsŦ
under endurance Lralnlna aeroblc processes of bodv
enerav supplv plav a areaL roleţ henceţ phvslcal exerclses
wlll malnlv develop LhemŦ 1hese phvslcal exerclses relaLe
Lo Lhe zone of areaL and moderaLe lnLenslLv wlLh work
level as W
AL1
and W
crlLŦ
uevelopmenL of speclal hlahŴ
speed endurance ls provlded bv a hlah level of aeroblc
and alvcolvLlc processes durlna Lhe workŦ 1hls ls reached
bv usaae of exerclses whlch malnlv relaLe Lo Lhe zone of
submaxlmal lnLenslLv wlLh work level as W
exh
Ŧ ln order Lo
lmprove Lhe moLlve quallLv of maxlmal force and
qulckness Lhe exerclses of Lhe zone of maxlmal lnLenslLv
wlLh Lermlnal and perlLermlnal work level as W
ma
should
be applled as Lhev exerL Lhe areaLesL lnfluence over
developmenL of creaLlne phosphaLe mechanlsm of A1Þ
resvnLheslsŦ
ln recenL vears an exacLer classlflcaLlon of cvcllc
phvslcal exerclses has been developedŦ Accordlna Lo
?ŦMŦkoLs (1986) phvslcal exerclses are dlvlded lnLo 8
aroupsť Lhree Ŷ anaeroblc and flve Ŷ aeroblc onesŦ
ooetoblc exetclsesť 1 Ŷ exerclses of maxlmal
anaeroblc lnLenslLv (up Lo 13Ŵ20 seconds)Ť 2 Ŷ close Lo
maxlmal (up Lo 20Ŵ43 seconds)Ť 3 Ŷ submaxlmal
anaeroblc lnLenslLv (up Lo 43Ŵ120 seconds)Ŧ
etoblc exetclsesť 1 Ŷ exerclses of maxlmal aeroblc
lnLenslLv (3Ŵ10 mlnuLes)Ť 2 Ŷ close Lo maxlmal (10Ŵ30
mlnuLes)Ť 3 Ŷ submaxlmal (30Ŵ80 mlnuLes)Ť 4 Ŷ averaae
(80Ŵ120 mlnuLes)Ť 3 Ŷ low aeroblc lnLenslLv (more Lhan 2
hours)Ŧ












CCn18CL CuLS1lCnS
7Ŧ WhaL ls Lhe basls for Lhe classlflcaLlon of phvslcal exerclses as Lo
Lhe zones of relaLlve lnLenslLv?
8Ŧ WhaL are Lhe pecullarlLles of oxvaen and eneraeLlc malnLenance
of Lhe bodv under Lhe work aL dlfferenL zones of lnLenslLv?
9Ŧ WhaL blochemlcal chanaes occur ln blood under Lhe carrvlna ouL
of phvslcal exerclses aL dlfferenL zones of lnLenslLv?
10Ŧ WhaL ls an lnLerconnecLlon beLween Lhe blochemlcal
processes of enerav exchanae and work lnLenslLv on Lhe levels of
W
AL1
ţ W
crlLţ
W
exhţ
W
ma
?
11Ŧ Clve a blochemlcal characLerlsLlc of Lhe chosen klnd of
sporLs Laklna lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe classlflcaLlon of phvslcal
exerclses as Lo Lhe zones of relaLlve work levelŦ
12Ŧ Clve Lhe arounds for Lhe necesslLv Lo applv Lhe maln
Lralnlna exerclses (as Lo Lhe chosen klnd of sporLs) sub[ecL Lo Lhe
dvnamlcs of blochemlcal processes of enerav supplv under Lhe
dlfferenL lnLenslLv (W
AL1
ţ W
crlLţ
W
exhţ
W
ma







LLC1u8L nC 3


DEFINITION MCO

MCC ls Lhe quanLlLv of oxvaen consumed bv Lhe examlnee ln currenL of 1
mlnuLe ln condlLlons when Lhe furLher lncrease Lhe lnLenslLv of loadlna does
noL cause a aaln of consumpLlon of oxvaenŦ
lor lLs deflnlLlon use dlrecL and lndlrecL meLhodsŦ
More ofLen Lhe examlnee carrles ouL sLeplna loadlna of lncreaslna lnLenslLv on
cvcloeraomeLrŦ AL each sLep of loadlna Lhe exhaled alr ls collecL and spend lLs
analvslsŦ
lndlrecL meLhods are based on exlsLlna llnear dependence beLween capaclLv of
loadlna and lCC or consumpLlon of oxvaenŦ
MCC ƹ 2ţ2 x ÞWC170 + 1070 Ŷ for Lhe sporLsmen of l raLe caLeaorv and above
MCC ƹ 1ţ7 x ÞWC170 + 1240 Ŵ for persons of lŴll raLe caLeaorvŦ
1he share values of MCC cannoL be used for comparlson of worklna
capaclLv of dlfferenL sporLsmen slnce consumpLlon of oxvaen ln a areaLer dearee
depends on welahL of a bodvŦ 1herefore relaLlve value of consumpLlon of oxvaen
whlch recelve bv dlvlslon of slze MCC lnLo welahL of a bodv (ln ka) ls usuallv
applledŦ CC depends on a sex and ageŦ
AL Lhe personsţ are noL aolna ln for sporLs Lhe slzes of MCC are wlLhln Lhe
llmlLs of 25 Ŵ 51 m|/m|n/kg Ŵ for menŤ and 29 Ŵ 43 m|/m|n/kg Ŷ for womenŦ
1he sporLsmen slze of MCC ls more hlaherŦ
AL sLaverlna runnersţ sklersţ blcvcllsLsţ oarsmen and oLher sporLsmen of
exLraŴclassţ Lralnlna on ƍenduranceƍţ Lhe relaLlve consumpLlon of oxvaen reaches
80 ml/ka ln 1 mlnuLe and moreŦ
ueflnlLlon of MCC ls of areaL lmporLance ln sporLsŦ llrsL of all aL prlmarv
selecLlon ln klnds of sporLs on endurance of Lhe persons havlna areaL values of
MCCŦ 8esldes LhaLţ Lhls parameLer ls Lhe crlLerlon of efflclencv of Lhe varlous
Lralnlna meLhods of and allows Lo predlcL Lhe resulLs of compeLlLlonsŦ

Lesson 3
Content modu|e 1Ŧ Med|ca| contro| dur|ng phys|ca| and sports tra|n|ng
@op|c 5Ŧ ueterminotion ond evo/uotion of oenero/ workino obi/ity ond
oerobic productivityŦ 1o/eronce to physico/ exercisesŦ
1) ConcepL of aeneral phvslcal ablllLv for workţ aeroblc producLlvlLv and Lolerance
Lo phvslcal exerclsesŦ ulrecL and lndlrecL meLhods for deLermlnaLlon of phvslcal
acLlvlLvŦ
2) Functional strength tests (loading tests). Indications and contraindications Ior
prescription oI loading tests and conditions demanding special consideration
during testing. %esting conditions.
3) 1vpes and sLarL value of loadlnaŦ Cllnlcal and funcLlonal characLerlsLlcs of
Lolerance Lhreshold Lo phvslcal exerclsesŦ
4) Submaxlmal LesL ÞWC
170
Ŧ

Þrocedure and prlnclples of esLlmaLlon of phvslcal
ablllLv for work durlna execuLlon of ÞWC
170
LesL

(aL blcvcle and sLep exerclses)Ŧ
3) ueLermlnaLlon of maxlmum oxvaen consumpLlon (MCC)Ŧ CalculaLlon of MCC
accordlna Lo AsLrand nomoaram and ÞWC
170
valueŦ

6) navakkl LesLţ Parvard sLepŴLesLŦ

7) Cooper LesLť procedure and evaluaLlon of LesLlna resulLsŦ
8) luncLlonal classes (classes of phvslcal condlLlon) accordlna Lo Lhe capaclLv of
loadlna execuLed durlna Lhe LesLlna of phvslcal ablllLv for work and aeroblc
producLlvlLvŦ
@op|c 6Ŧ Ouontitotive evo/uotion of /eve/ of mon´s physico/ heo/thŦ
ueve/opment of individuo/ sport ond recreotiono/ reoimensŦ
1) CuanLlLaLlve evaluaLlon of level of phvslcal (somaLlc) healLhŦ
2) ConcepL of ºquanLlLv" of man's phvslcal (somaLlc) healLhŦ ºAdapLlve" (vŦÞŦ
kaznacheveva and 8ŦMŦ 8avevsklv) and ºeneraeLlc" (CŦLŦ Apanasenko) concepLs of
deLermlnaLlon of healLh's quanLlLvŦ
3) 1he express LralnŴesLlmaLlon of a level of phvslcal healLh of Lhe populaLlon aL
rouLlne lnspecLlons (on CŦLŦApanasenkoţ 1992)Ŧ ConcepL abouL º a safe level of
healLhŦ Medlcal valeoloav and sanoloavŦ
4)Ŧ ConcepL abouL bloloalcal aae of Lhe personţ a Lechnlque of lLs deflnlLlon and an
esLlmaLlon (on vŦÞŦvo[Lenkoţ 1991)Ŧ ulfferenLlaLed recovervŴlmprovlna lmpellenL
modes ln an pracLlce of prevenLlve medlclneŦ
5) Boundary and training FCC depending on a physical condition.

.
õ
1)ŦnlŁŋuaŃsņa ŎlsŁŋŃs¡ŋpa ¡a cnňp¡uuņa ŅļĺuŐuņaŦ PauŒaŃsņļ uuĺaņņŕŦ Þlĺ
pļĺŦ 8Ŧ8ŦßŃanŒŋŁa ¡a lŦ8ŦLsŕŁaŦ ßŦţ 3ĺňpňurŕ 1993Ŧ ŶCŦ 43Ŵ60Ŧ
2)ŦnļŒļ6ņaŕ ŎusŁŋŃs¡ŋpa u upaŒļ6ņsu Łňņ¡pňŃsť vŒļ6ņuŁ/Þňĺ pļĺŦ
8ŦAŦLnuŎaņňua u lŦnŦAnaņacļņŁň ŶMŦť MļĺuŐuņaţ 1990Ŧ ŶCŦ 28Ŵ36Ŧ
3)ŦnļŁŐlŕŦ
4)ŦnccŃļĺňuaņuļ ŎusuŒļcŁňu pa6ň¡ňcnňcň6ņňc¡u u ŅaŁcuŅaŃsņňĶň
nň¡pļ6Ńļņuŕ ŁucŃňpňĺaŦ /vŒļ6ņňļ nňcň6uļŦ MuŏaŃŔŁ LŦnŦţ LpaĿņuŁňu AŦPŦ Ŷ
3anňpňĿsļŦ 3lMvţ 2000Ŧ Ŷ18cŦ
3)Ŧ8uuŒļņņŕ ŎlsuŒņňi npaŐļsĺa¡ņňc¡l ŋ cnňp¡cŅļņlu /MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ LpaĿņlŁňu
AŦMŦţ nňsňuuu 8ŦlŦ ¡a lņŦ //MļĺuŒņl nļpcnļŁ¡uuuŦ 2001Ŧ Ŷ1Ŧvlţ ŴN3Ŧ ŶCŦ99Ŵ103Ŧ
6)ŦLļŕŁl uĺňcŁňņaŃļņņŕ uuŁŃaĺaņņŕ npļĺŅļ¡ŋ ºnlŁŋuaŃsņa ŎlsuŒņa ŁŋŃs¡ŋpa
¡a cnňp¡uuņa ŅļĺuŐuņa" /MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ lļpacuŅļņŁň kŦÞŦ //3anňpňĿcŁuu
ŅļĺuŐuņcŁuu ĿŋpņaŃţ 2002Ŧ ŴN1Ŵ2Ŧ ŶCŦ72Ŵ73Ŧ
7)ŦCŐlņŁa ¡a lņ¡ļpnpļ¡aŐlŕ pļsŋŃs¡a¡lu npň6u ÞWC
170
npu npňŏňĺĿļņņl
c¡ŋĺļņ¡aŅu ŅļĺuŒņňĶň ŋņluļpcu¡ļ¡ŋ ¡ļŅu º8usņaŒļņņŕ ŎlsuŒņňi
npaŐļsĺa¡ņňc¡l" /MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ nňsňuuu 8ŦlŦ //3anňpňĿcŁuu ŅļĺuŐuņcŁuu
ĿŋpņaŃţ 2002ţ ŴN4Ŧ ŶCŦ77Ŵ78Ŧ
8)ŦLļŕŁl lņc¡pŋŅļņ¡aŃsņl Ņļ¡ňĺu ĺňcŃlĺĿļņņŕ cļpŐļuňŴcŋĺuņņňi cuc¡ļŅu
cnňp¡cŅļņluţ uň npňnňņŋŔ¡scŕ c¡ŋĺļņ¡aŅ nlĺ Œac saņŕ¡s sl cnňp¡uuņňi
ŅļĺuŐuņu /MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦţ nňsňuuu 8ŦlŦ ¡a lņŦ //3anňpňĿcŁuu ŅļĺuŐuņcŁuu
ĿŋpņaŃţ 2003Ŧ ŴN2Ŵ3Ŧ ŶCŦ122Ŵ123Ŧ 9)Ŧ4ŋņŁŐlňņaŃsņl npň6u u cnňp¡uuņlu
ŅļĺuŐuņl /Mļ¡ňĺuŒņl pļŁňŅļņĺaŐliŦ MuŏaŃŔŁ £ŦnŦŦ Ŷßuiuţ Ŵ2003Ŧ Ŷ37cŦ



@he test of def|n|t|on of phys|ca| work|ng capac|tyţ 9JC170


1he name of Lhe LesL ÞWC 170 ls an abbrevlaLlon of Lhe Lnallsh
Lerm º phvslcal work capaclLv"Ŧ ÞWC 170 ls a phvslcal work capaclLv wlLh Lhe
pulse raLe of 170 beaLs/mlnŦ Þhvslcal work capaclLv ln Lhe LesL ÞWC 170
ls expressed ln amounLs of phvslcal loadlna capaclLv when lCC reaches 170 beaLs/mlnŦ 1hls LesL ls recommended bv WPC for a
deflnlLlon of phvslcal work capaclLv for healLhv people and paLlenLs( º1he chronlcle of WPC"ţ 1971ţ 23/8ţ ÞŦ380)Ŧ A pulse raLe of 170
beaLs/mln characLerlzes an opLlmum funcLlon
mode of cardloŴresplraLorv svsLemŦ
1he prlnclple of Lhe ÞWC170 LesL ls based on exlsLence of llnear
dependence beLween amounL of capaclLv of execuLed work and lCC
beLween 110Ŵ170 beaLs/mlnŦ 1hls llnear connecLlon ls broken afLer aeLs 170
beaLs/mlnţ
and oraanlsm passes on anaeroblc Lvpe of breaLhŦ
lL ls used Lhe maLhemaLlcal meLhod of exLrapolaLlon for calculaLlon
phvslcal loadlna capaclLvť Lwo polnLs connecL bv a dlrecL llneţ Lhen a Lhlrd
polnL ls lavlna on Lhls sLralahL llneŦ 1he dlaaram form wlLh aboveŴ sLaLed
prlnclple was developed bv vŦ vŦ volkov eL alŦ (1973)Ŧ 1here are Lwo polnLs
puL ln places crosslnaŦ 1Ŧ pulse ( lÞ1 and lÞ2) amounLs realsLered accordlnalv
afLer reallzaLlon of Lhe flrsL and Lhe second loadlnasŤ 2Ŧ loadlna capaclLv ( n1
and n2)Ŧ


1he capaclLv of loadlnas ls on absclss axls (horlzonLal)ţ lCC ls on ordlnaLes
axls (verLlcal)Ŧ 1he recelved Lwo polnLs connecL bv a sLralahL llneţ whlch
conLlnues Llll crosslna wlLh Lhe Lop horlzonLal llneţ approprlaLe lCCƹ170
beaLs/mlnŦ 1he place of crosslna our llne wlLh Lhe Lop nomoaramm
scale wlLh speclfv raLed ÞWC170 amounLŦ
















1echnlque Lhe carrvlna ouL Lhe
ÞWC170
LesLŦ
1he examlnee ls offered Lo execuLe conslsLenLlv Lwo loadlnas of Lhe
moderaLe lnLenslLv ( for example 300 and 1000 kam/mln) wlLh frequencv of
roLaLlon of pedals 60 Ŷ 80 revoluLlons per mlnuLe dlvlded bv a Lhree Ŷ
mlnuLe resL lnLervalŦ Lach loadlna proceeds 3 mlnuLesţ ln lLs end Lhe lCC
ls deflned durlna 30 secŦ bv Lhe ausculLaLlon or bv Lhe LCC realsLraLlonŦ
ÞWC170
calculaLlon can be carrled under Lhe vŦLŦkarpman's formula (
1974)ť
Pwc170 ƹ w1 + {w2Ŷw1) x {170 Ŵ f1) / {f2 Ŵ f1)
w1 ooJ w2 Ŵ loadlna capaclLvŤ f1 ooJ f2 Ŷ polse tote oftet tbe fltst ooJ
secooJ loadlnasŦ
1he examlnaLlon of Lhe paLlenLs wlLh Lhe cardlovascular paLholoavţ
weakened personsţ people of Lhe senlor aae aroups and chlldren ls carrled
ouL wlLh loadlnas LesL wlLh smaller lnLenslLvţ loadlnas are leadlna Lo lCC 130
beaLs/mln and 130 beaLs/mlnŦ ln Lhese cases Lhe ÞWCŴ deflnlLlon formula
chanae number º170" Lo º130" or º130" and Lhen Lhe LesL LlLle
ÞWC130
and ÞWC130Ŧ
1he quanLlLv of Lhe flrsL loadlna depends on human phvslcal Lralnlnaţ aaeţ
sexţ bodv welaLhţ healLh condlLlonŦ WPC recommendaLlonsť for women
lnlLlal loadlna should be 130
kam/mlnţ men 300 kam/mlnŦ 1he examlnaLlon of
Lhe paLlenLs wlLh Lhe cardlovascular paLholoav usuallv bealns wlLh loadlna of
30Ŵ73 kam/mlnŦ
AL Lhe healLhv vouna personsţ noL aolna ln for sporLs men Lhe slzes of ÞWC170
ranaed wlLhln Lhe llmlLs of 830Ŵ1100 Ŵkam/mln for menţ aL women Ŵ 430Ŵ
830 kam/mln ţ on 1 ka of welahL make accordlnalv 14ţ4 and 10ţ2Ŧ kam/mlnŦ
1he areaLesL slzes of ÞWC170 are marked aL represenLaLlves of Lhe cvcllc
characLer klnds of sporLsţ pavlna speclal aLLenLlon Lo developmenL of enduranceŦ


Taken from Joe Average's guide to coaching young athIetes.

Should you as the coach decide to test your athletes, ensure that you have permission from the school
or parents and have consulted a qualified practitioner or developmental fitness specialist on exactly
>> ONLÌNE FORUM!!

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