ANGLO-SAXON COSTUME: A STUDY OF SECULAR.

CIVILIAN

CLOTHING

AND JEWELLERY FASHIONS

ýý

Thesis

for

the Degree of Doctor of Newcastle

of Philosophy

University

upon Tyne

Gale R. Owen 1976

BEST COPY AVAILABLE
Variable print quality

728,
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION

p. 21

RE, It Chap. 15; Colgrave and N(ynors, 1969, p. 50. (References in notes axe abbreviated to author and date; ) Hill references are given in the Bibliography. 2A recent summary may be found in There are earlier discussions p. 27. ogical evidence in Leeds, 1913; Leeds, Myres, 1969; Nyres 1970. Linguistic considered by Bennett, 1955; Do Camp, D. M. Wilson, 1971, of the archaeol1936; Evison, 1965b; evidence has been 1958; Samuels,

1971.
3 None of the runic inscriptions from pagan surviving (or Christian) Anglo-Saxon times contain information about costume. P" 44 There are earlier representations of historical figures in the heads on coins, but these are stylized, and as their designs were derived from Roman models they supply no reliable evidence about Anglo-Saxon costume. strutt, 1-86.

P"

55

1775-6, It

pp.

46-8; strutt,

1796-9, it

pp.

66 p. 7 8 9
10 p. 7 11

Strutt, Strutt,

1775-6, It p. 47. 1796-9, It PP- 32-6.

Planche, 1847, pp. 25-65"' Bch,
Fairholt, Boeckler,

1909, pp. 16-29"
1896, It P" 34, Fig. XI. 25, P" 36, rig. 27.

1926, Plate

12 R. A. Dodwell kindly discussed this illus'Professor tration with the writer and supported the suggestion of continental origin. 13 Boucher, 1967-

14 Laver, 1963a, pp. 22-8. There is no English evidence for this period in Laver, 1963b or Laver, 1964. In Laver, 1969 the period is treated with other material from "the Dark Ages and the Middle Ages".

15

Truman, 1936, pp* 11-12.

16 Yarwood, 1952, P" 40. The author described a longsleeved, knee-length garment said to be worn by men, then noted that "one or more undertunica but of similar style, usually sleeveless and unadorned, were worn".

729.

In a reconstruction 17 Quennell, 1952, p. 10, Fig. 11. of the appearance of the Anglo-Saxon male, men wore beads and pendants, and one warrior was depicted with a crystal ball in silver As the archsling suspended from his neck. (Part Two, B) will show, survey of pagan evidence aeological feminine possessions. these objects are all characteristically balls of this kind were suspended from Furthermore, crystal In the same illustration in Quennell, the belt, not the neck. men were shown wearing slashed sandals of a type which has The not been evidenced from the Anglo-Saxon period. (Quennell, illustration is omitted from the revised edition 1959) but this has not replaced earlier of the editions book (a standard reference work for schoolchildren and nonin many libraries. specialists) p. 8 18 19 7.Douglas, Baldwin 1793, p" 56, note. Brown, 1903-37, 1796-9; 1963a. III, p" 152. Truman, 1936; Laver,

Strutt, 20 1956; Laver, p. 9

Planch6,1847;

The word Ana, 21' a Latin name for a garment worn by (Part Four, B, 3) was offered as the name for the monks Truman, 1936, pp., 12,13; Anglo-Saxon woman's gown. Laver, 1963a, p. 26. ' 22 23 24 25 Stroebe, 19041960b, pp. 91-7-

D. M. Wilson,

S. C. Hawkes, 1961a, p. 107D. M. Wilson, 1971, p. 94-

P" 10

Kann, 1965; 26 See for example Cramp, 1957; pp. 60-3; Bruce-Mitford 1974, PP,. 198-209,210-213; Bruce-Mitford, and Luacombe, 1974" PART TWO: ARCAAEOLOGICAL EPIDENCE A. INTRODUCTION AND ORGANIZATION Lethbridge, 1931, PP- 4-9-

p. 15

1

2',

Smyser, 1965, PP- 97-101-

like a ceremony The Rua rite was a ship funeral, 3 in described in Beowulf and some Anglo-Saxon burials East Anglia. p. 16 4 Meaney, 1964 is arranged alphabetically under former county names, and this order has been adopted the most convenient method for the present survey. in Heaney's Gazetteer have been sions and misprints the as Omisnoted.

730"
p. 17 p. 18 5 Uyslop, 1963, pp. 190-2.

6 Some excavators have described the positions of these but objects ambiguously, for instance "near the waist", the volume of evidence indicates that they were attached In the example quoted, to the wrist of the gament. the arm of the corpse had probably been laid across the waist.
to objects "on the 7 inhere excavation reports refer it has been assumed in the present or "left", work right" left-hand that the right-or is indiside of the skeleton than the right rather or left of the grave as seen cated, is based from above during This assumption excavation. of excavated graves which accompany on the illustrations phrased in this way, and on the use of some of the reports of expressions such as "by the right arm" in descriptions the positions of grave-goods.

p.

21

B.
I

PAGANGRAVE-GOODS
Bedfordshire

23

1

Heaney, 1964, pp. 3.5-42.
This and other pagan

W. G. Smith, 1906-7, p. 59. 2 burials cited appear on Map 1.

3
44

Dunningand wheeler, 1931, PP- 193-217175; R. A. Smith,, 1886, pp. 171-3; ýp4: 0. R. Smith, 1848-80, VI9 pp. 285-99; Pitch,

Wyatt, 1863-4, pp.

201-21.

Leeds, 1948, P" 173; Gurney, 1956, pp. 120-32; Hyslop roeognised two sites Hyslop, 1963, pp. 161-200. 5
6 w. G. Smith, 1906-7, pp. 59-60.
Austin, Bagahawo and Parsons, p. 39. PP- 36-8. 1928, pp. 178-92.

in Heaney's Leighton Buzzard II9 here designated A and B.

7

Runcom, 1885-7, 9 10 11 Cooper, 1883-5, Matthews,

1962, pp. 25-47 (post-dating 1904a, pp. 189-90.

the Gazetteer

.

R. A. Smith,

12 p. 26 p. 29 13 14

Inskip,

1850, PP- 71-2. p. 369. P" 400, Plate RCI.

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, III, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,1V,

731"
II Berkshire

P. 33

1 2 3

Heaney, 1964, PP- 43-55. Leeds and Harden, 1936. Collins, 1952-3, PP- 51-4; (omitted Collins, 1959, PP- 56-9. Hewett,

HHwet7,1843 4 1844, PP- 153-5-

from the Gazetteer);

1869, pp. 417Rolleston, Akernan, 1864-7, pp. 136-8; 5 by date of 1880, pp. 405-9 (graves identified 85; Rolleston, Roman numerals were assigned to them in the discovery; 1884, pp. 638-47,656); in Rolleston; account similar Dudley Buxton, 1921, PP* 92-6.

6 7
8

Bradford and Coodohild, 1939, PP- 37-9Kirk and Marshall,
D. Atkinson,

1956, pp. 22-34-

1916, pp. 15-23-

9

Anon., 1847a, P. 254"

1889, p. 81; Monwy, 1889-91, Times Correspondent, 10 107-8; Peake and Hooton, 1915, pp. 98,108-22. pp. 11 12 3-31 Leeds, 1922-3, Underhill, p. 169. and Plate opposite p. 40-

1937, p" 39

R. A. Smith,

1906, p. 247"

14. Clutterbuck, 1848, pp. 291-2;. Akerman, 1860b, pp. 327-52; Akerman, 1863a, pp. 135-42.

15

Akerman, 1861-4, pp. 133-5"
1891-3, p. P. 103. Published as Lockridge,

Ditohfield, 16 near Vantage.

17
p. 41 18

Meaney,

1964,

52.
XIX.:

Akerman, 1806b, Plate

p. 44 p. 46 P. 49 p. 50

19 20 21 22

Brown, 1903-37, IV, pp. 648-9. Baldwin Akerman, 1863a, Plate XI, Fig. 2. Ellison, 1967a, p. 81. Byalop, 1963, PP* 190-1.

732"
III Buckinghamshire

p. 52

1
2 3 4 5 6" 7

Meaney, 1964, pp. 56-9.
Lfwnde), 1863-70, p. 164; Lowndes, 1878, pp* 23-5-

Head, 1934-40,

P" 322.

Akerman, 1863b, pp. 137-8. Cocks, 1904-9, PP- 426-7-

0uvey, 1858, PP. 108-12R. A. Smith, 19054 P-204-

Stevens, 1884, PPB. Burgess, 1878, Pp. 331-5; 8 E. Crowfoot and S. C. 61-71; Anon., 1884a, pp. 16-17; Hawkes,. 1967, PP- 44-50. 9 10 11 P. 55 12 IV H. A. Smith, 1905a, p. 197.

Akerman, 1844, PP- 545-7" H. A. Smith, Evison, 1905a, p. 195""

1967a, pp. 63-118.

Cambridgeshire

p. 56

1
2 310;

Meaney, 1964, pp. ' 60-71.
McKenny Hughes, 1909, p. 150; Meaney, 1964, p. 60. Lethbridge,, 1938, p.

C. H. Smith, 1859-63 (1864), pp. 7-9; C. C. Babington, 3 Lethbridge, C. Pox, 1923, pp. 250-2; 1848-80, VI9 pp. 155-65; 1938, PP- 310-11Do Baye, 1893, P" 48; W. K. Foster, 1880-4, pp. 5-30; 4 C. Fox, 1923, p" 255; Jessup, 1950, PP. 103,107-

5 6

Lethbridge Lethbridge,

and Palmer, 1928, pp. 78-96. 1931, pp. 47-70-

(omitted from the 1887-9, PP- 132,134 Middleton, 7 C. Pox, F. G. Walker, 1911-12, pp. 122-6; Gazetteer); 1938, PP- 311-12. Lethbridge, 1923, pp. 242-3; 8 Meaney, 1964, p. 63.

C. Fox, 1922-3, p. 37"

733"

10 C.. Pox, 1923, pp. 247-8; 1925; O'Reilly, 1932, PP- 7-8; (omitted. from tho Gazetteer .

Hollingworth Lethbridge,

and O'Reilly, 1938, P" 313.

11 McKenny Hughes, 1909, P. 151; Meaney, 1964, p. 66.

De Baye, 1893. P" 48;

12

Lethbridge,

1938, P" 315-

1854, PP- 95-115 (the volume number, XI, is Neville, 13 IX in the Gazetteer ;" Do Baye, 1893, P" 53misprinted

14

' D. M. Wilson, 1956, pp" 29-41"
l

15 16
17

E. D. Clarke, 1917, p. 342; Lethbridge, 1938, P" 316. Gurteen, 1893, P" 3;
Lethbridge,

Lethbridge, 1936.

1931-2, pp. 152-631852; Lethbridge, 1931,

I. Deck, 1851, p. 172; Neville, 18 Cambridge Museum records. pp. 71-4; 19 Lethbridge,

1938, p.

312;

Cambridge Museum records.

C. Pox, 1923, p. 244; Lethbridge, 1938, p. 311; Lethbridge pp. 167-8. and O'Reilly, 1937, 20
21 22 P. 58 Heaney, 1964, p. 69. Heaney, 1964, p. 71.

brooches to Grave 21 two oircular 23 Neville attributed but Cambridge Museum has only one annular, plus two smallf'om this grave. long and one large square-headed apparently 24 v Evison, 1967a, P. 83-

p. 69

Derbyshire

p. 72

1 2

Meaney, 1964, PP- 72-80. Bateman, 1848, pp. 101-2; Ward, 1905, p.. 270.

3 Bateman 1848, p. 27; Bateman, 1861, pp. 68-9; Jewitt, 1870, p. 209 (omitted from the Gazetteer ; Ward, 1905, p. 268. 4 5 Bateman, 1861, p. 108. Bateman, 1861, p. 51-

6
7

Bateman, 1848, pp. 91-5; M. J. Fowler, 1954, PP. 147-8Pegge, 1789, pp. 189-90.

8 Bateman, 1861, PP- 53-4; Jewitt, 1870, pp. 284-6 identhe site as Church Steradale; tifying ward, 1905, pp. 269-70.

734"

9 10

Bateman, 1848, p. 105. Bateman, 1861, p. 26.

Bateman, 1848, PP- 74-6; u 1962-3, P" 3112 13
14 15 16 17

Ward, 1905, p. 270; Ozanne, Ozanne, 1962-3, p. 38-

Posnansky, 1955a, pp, 128,135-6;.

1861, pp. 28-33; Anon., 1955-6, p. 13. Bateman,
Ward, 1905, 'p. 270; Ozanne, 1962-3, p. 39-

Bateman, 1848, p. 64. Cox, 1887, pp. 151-2; Ward, 1905, p. 266. Ward, 1905, p" 270"

Bateman, 1848, PP" 37-9;

Bateman, 1861, p. 21; Bateman, 1848, pp. 28-30; 18`` the site as M. J. Fowler, 1954, PP- 146-7, identifying Brassington Moor. 19 Bateman, 1861, p. 27-

274-5; J. Douglas, 1793, pp. 67-8; Mander, 17.75, pp. 20 Brown, 1903-37, IV9 P" 773; M. J. Fowler, 1954, pp. Baldwin 148-9; Ozanne, 1962-3, pp. 26-7.
21 Ozanne, 1962-3, p. 29. Vnlýoated site.

Ward, 1905, p" 269; Baldwin 188-9; Bateman, 1861, pp. 22 M. J. Fowler, 1954, 'p. 150Brown, 1903-37,1V, P. 772; 23 p. 76 24 25 VI P" 77 1 2 T. Wright, 1847, PP" 57-8" 1954, "p. 148"

M. J. Fowler,

Meaney, 1964, P" 78" Dorset Meaney, 1964, pp. 81-2. Wheeler, 1943, P" 78" Wheeler, 1943, P" 78, note;

Hoare, 1812, pp. 236-7; 3 Devizes Museum exhibition.

4

Hoare, 1812, p. 235.
wingrave, 1931, p. 249; wheeler, 1943, P. 78.

735.
VII Durhrm

P. 79

1

Heaney, 1964, pp. 83-4.
Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,1V,

Hodges, 1905, p. 213; 2 p. 810. 3 Hodges, 1905, P. 211; P* 810. VIII p. 80 1 Essex Meaney, 1964, PP- 85-9"

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,17,

U. Jones, Evison and Hyres, "2M. made available published information Jones, excavators.

1968, pp. 217-9; unby H. U. Jones and W. T.

H. E. Smith, 1884t p. 287; R. A. Smith, 1903, PP3 329-31; Baldwin Brownt 1903-37, IV, pp. 600-1; C. Fox, 1923, pp. 265-6. 4 N, 5 6 P. 84 7
IX

Beaumont, 1888, p. 124; PP- 599-600. Pollitt,

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, Pollitt, 1932, p. 92.

1923, PP- 114,116-23;

O'Leary, 1955, pp. 63-5,67; Lowther, 1931, pp. 23,44Gloucestershire

Evison, 1955, pp. 162-7-

p. 86

1
2 3 4

Meaney, 1964, PP- 90-3Information from S. Brown, Cheltenham Museum. 1936, p. 1671948, P- 32; Grimos, 1960, pp. 115-24.

Donovan and Dunning, B. H. St. J. O'Neil,

C. R. Smith, 1852, ppT. Wright, 1847, PP- 53-4; 5 77-82; Wylie, 1852; Ake=an, 1855b, p. 13; De Baye, 1893, 52,57Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, p. 663; Jessup, PP1950, pp. 61,129. 6 1843-9, pp. 241-2; Lycett, Playne, 1872, p. 282. T. Wright, 1849b, pp- 50-4;

Akerman, 1857a, pp. 113-5; 7 IV, p. 665.

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,

. 736.
C. R. Smith, M., 1886, pp. 158-60; 8 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37. IV, p" 658. 9 10 P. 90 11 X 92 p. 1 Greenwell, Wylie, Evison, 1877, p. 5241852, p. 82;

1852, p. 231967a, p. 82. of Wight

Hampshire and the Isle

Meaney, 1964, pp. 94-103-

1855b, PP- 34-40; 1854, pp. 2-6; Hillier, Hillier, 2 Wilkins, Bell and Locke, 1860, pp. 253-61; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,1V, P" 746.
Denaett, 1845, PP- 151-5; T.. Wright, 1847, P" 54; Pettigrew, 1855a, pp. 26-38; Hillier, 1855, pp. 186-7; R. A. Smith, 1900, C. R. Smith, 1848-80, VI, pp. 147-8; 387; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 746.50. p.

3

Sargeant, 1948, p. 12; 4 1967, p. 23Brothwell, 5 6 Kendrick Knocker,

Corney, Ashbes, Faison

and

and C. F. C. Fawkes, 1937, PP- 322-4. 1955-7, pp. 127-70.

9-44 (post-dating Hawkes, "1970, 7 Meaney and S. C. -Pp. the Gazetteer . 8 9 pp. 10 P. 94 D. M. Wilson, Dale, -1906, 1960a, p. 134; pp. 176-7; D. M. Wilson, 1961, p. 309. IV9

Baldwin

Brown, 1903-37, 1855, p. 186.

744-5.

Dennett,

1845, p. 151;

Pettigrew,

described the brooch by the chest as 11 Wilkins etal. S-shaped, one of the others as enamelled and shaped like a hare and the other two as figured in JBAA, XI, i. e. saucerBaldwin Brown described all four button brooches. shaped as button brooches. XI Hertfordshire

p. 102

1
2

Meaney, 1964, pp. 104-5T. Wright, 1849a, pp. 264-5-

Fox, 1923, p. 266 assooiated the find with an .3C. Anglo-Saxon burial recorded by Evanns, 1893, at Hitchin 257. (Evans, 1892 in Fox. ) p.

4

C. Fox, 1923, P. 266.

737.
5 6
7 XII7 p. 104 1 2

7,1939, H. C. ALcdrew. Heaney, 1964, p. "104.
Bullen, 1912-13,

P" 323-

PP. 185-7.

Huntingdonshire Moaney, 1964, pp. 106-7Tobbutt and Lethbridge, 1962, pp. 8-12.

1828, Plate LV; Walker, 1899, pp.. 344-8; Artist 3. G. W. Abbott, 1920, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 782-3; pp. 35-8.

Wyatt, 1870-3, PP- 33-4; 4 276-7.
5 6 XIII P-, 107 1 R. A. Smith, 1926, p. 277-

R. A. Smith, 1926, pp.

Meaney, 1964, pp. 194-5" Kent Meaney, 1964, pp. 108-42. ;

1849-539 'Pp- 58-9 (omitted from the Gazetteer T. Wright; 2 Stukely, 1886, p. 87; D. M. Wilson, 1969, p. 233.

Faussett, 3 IV, p. 719. 4
5

1856, pp. 144-59;

Baldwin awn,

1903-37,

Meaney, 1964, p. 109.

Ffaussetj, GfodfreyJ. Brent, 1886b, pp. 181-5; 1864-5, Pp- 330-1; Godfrey-Faussett, 1876, pp. 298-315; 1880, pp. 552-6. Godfrey-Faussett,

6 Conyngham,1844a, pp. 47-56; Akerman, 1855b, P" 9; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, p" 725; E7 son, 1965a, Pp. 215-6. Hurd and C. R. smith, 1909-11, pp. 272-82; Hurd, 1913, 7 12-26 (misprinted 1903 in the Gazetteer ; Baldwin Brown, pp. 1903-37, In, p. 108, IV9 p. 699; Evison, 1956, p" 93"

8

W. F. Shaw,1870, pp. 2-41856, pp. 162-76;

Bloxam, 1834, Pp. 46-8; Faussett, 9 R. A. Smith, 1908b, pp. 369-70.

J. Douglas, 1793, PP""3-19,23-4,32-4,53-66,74,79-80, 10 82; Fairholt, 1896, It PP. 30-1; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV9 pp. 739-40; Jessup, 1950, pp. 97-8.

738"{
11 3.2 Faussett, Evison, 1856, pp. 177-981965a, p. 214; Evison, 1968b, p. 238-

C. R. Smith, 1860, p. 46 C. R. Smith, 1858, pp. 42-9; 13 J. Brent, 1873-6, pp. 380-1; Payne, 1895, p. li; and PlateV; Payne, 1893, p" 115; R. A. Smith, Gomme, 1886, II, pp. 186-7; 1908b, p. 385Chadwick, Whiting and Stebbing, 1929, pp. 118-125; 14 D. M. Wilson, 1960a, p. 135; S. Co Fawkes, 1958, pp. 1-71; S. C. Hawkes, Davidson and C. Hawkes, 1965, pp. 18-19; Ellis the Gazetteer. 1973, pp. 194-5 (the last two items post-dating C. R. Smith, 1844, 15 J. Douglas, 1793, pp" 35-6; 1856, 134-5; C. R. Smith, 1848-80, II, p. 164; Faussett, pp" -R. A. Smith, 1908b, 1-34; p. 354; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, pp. IV, p. 706. 16 17 10 Denny, 1864r p. 101; Evison, Coatos, B. A. Smith, 1908b, ' p. 385"'

1956, pp* 90-1411867, pp. 281-2; C. it. Smith, 1886,

105-6; R. A. Smith, 1903b, pp. 377-0; Joaaup, 1950, pp" p. 103. ,
T. Wright, 1850, PP19 J. Douglas, 1793, PP- 38-47; 1856, PP- 35-94; 58-9; gkerman, 1855b, p. 64; Faussett, R. A. Smith, 1908b pp. 346-8;,; Baldwin Brown 1903-37, III, (omitted from the. Gazetteer IV, pp. 721-3. PP"-117,247,249 ,. 20 Payne, 1893, P" 149.
1955, pp. 1-40 (misprinted 1935 in the

21 Warhurst, Gazetteer).

Co R. Smith, 1848-80, It 1844, PP- 336-7; Valiance, 22 R. A. Smith, 1908b, 97-102; Payne, 1893, PP- 103-8; PP. Anon., 1926, pp. 446-7PP- 373-4; ,. 23 Gomme, 1886, Is p. 13324 Tester, Tester, 1965, pp. liv-v; 1967, p. lvii. Tester, 1966, pp. lx-lxi;

Anon., 1847b, P. 338; Anon., 1848b, p. 246; C. R. 25 Akerman, 1855b, P" 57; Smith, 1848-80, III, PP- 3-4; 190 (omitted from the Gazetteer), Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, III, p. IV, PP. 700-1.

Biumatein, 1956, p. 279; Philp, 1964, P. lix; _26 Philp, 1973, P. 164-214 (Philp, 1964'and 1973 Post-dating the Qazetteer).

739.
], Fisher, 1938, P" 1938, PP- 15-29; Crumber1an 27 Evison, 1969, P. 115; 148 (omitted from the Gazetteer); records of the Borough Museum, Dartford. Payne, 1893, p. 123; 28 1897, pp. liv-lvi. Payne, 1895, P" lv; Payne,

J. Brent, 1862-3, PPAmherst, 1859, P" xlii; 29 J. Brent, 1868, pp. J. Brent, 1864-5, pp. 157-85; 309-20; R. A. Smith, 1908b, J. Brent, 1886a, pp. 178-80; 307-17; Jessup, 1950, PpJessup, 1930, pp, 228-30; 357-61; PPDwmlingt 1959, P" 196; D. M. Wilson, 1968, 96-7,118-9; the Gazetteer). 149 (postdating p. 30 101-43; J. Douglas, 1793, pp. ' 85-6; Do Baye, 1893, p. 66. Faussett, 1856, pp.

31 Anon., 1845, p. 69; C. R. Smith, 1846, P" 399; i. Brent, 1867, PP. 409-20; C. Brent, 1883, pp. 84-6;
1886, II, p. 187; R, A, Smith, 1908b, PP- 365-7; Gomme, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 713-5" 32 176-9; 33

Conyngham,1844b, PP- 550-1; Akerman, 1855a, pp" S. Stone, 1861-4, p. 442 (omitted from the Gazetteer). R. A. Smith, 1908b, PP- 368-9; Meaney, 1964, p. 142.

p. 108
p. 109 P- 113

34
35 button

Leeds, 1936, PP- 41-78; Evison, 1965b.
Baldwin Brown mentioned only Thus Jessup. brooch, followed by Meaney, 1964, P. 115one

two square-headed 36 Baldwin Brown alone attributed brooches to this grave, omitting one of the garnet brooches mentioned by others. 37 wrongly This brooch and a buckle from the same grave were to Conyngham'a report. captioned in-the illustration

p. 118

p. 125

38 39

Meaney, 1964, p. 13-4Faueeett, 1856, p. 166.

p. 127
P- 140

40
41

1955, P" 33Warhurst,
Von Erhardt -Siebold,

1949"
190-1.

P. 147
p. 148

42
43 37, N,

Byslop, 1963, PP-

E. Powler, 1963, p. 118, though Baldwin Brown, 1903P" 457 considered that it had never been a brooch.

740.

XIV

Leicestershire

P. 150

1 2 Fetch, Smith, 3 Part

Meaney, 1964, pp. 144-50Pownall, 1864-7, p" 346; North, 1866, Pp. 300-2; R. A. North, 1874, pp. 118-20; 1870, pp. 94-5; 1945, p" 171907, pp. 232-3; Cottrill, . 1795-1815, III, J. Douglas, 1793, p. 28; Nichols, 1945, p" 18289 and Plate Xf"II, Fig. 3; Cottrill, p. II, Appendix p. 136 1907, p. 232.

It

Nichols,. 1795-1811, I, Part 4 and Plate L, Fig. 11; R. A. Smith, 1866, p. 42; 5 Marriott, Smith, 1907, p. 238; Cottrill, the Gazetteer). 6
53 (omitted Pfrom the

Ingram, 1866 p. 64; R. A. 1945, p. 18 omitted from XIV; De Baye, 1893,
1907, p. 239-

Akerman, 1855b, p. 29 and Plate
Gazetteer);

R. A.

Smith,

D. N. Wilson, 7 Gazetteer which noted Hill .

from the 1960a, p. 135 (omitted at Breedon-on-thecemetery a Christian

8

Cottrill,

1945, p. 18.

9 Pownall, 1864-7, pp. 344-6; Knight, 1874, p. 123; Knight, 1878, p. 187; R. A. Smith, 1907, pp. 230-1; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, p" 776.
10 Tailby, 65 and Plate p. Akerman, 1855b, 1800, pp. 121-2 and Pig.; R. A. Smith, 1907, p. 240. XXXII;

11
12

Akerman, Cottrill,

1855b, p. 32; R. A. Smith, 1907, pp. 238-912 (omitted 1945, p" from the Gazetteer .

13
14 possibly 15

I_.
in the G, 1945, p. 11 (not listed Cott-rill, azottoor; finds), from the cams sito as othor Loicootor D. M. Wilson, 1960a, p. 135-

1795-1811, Nichols, 1789, pp. 370-1; 16 T. Babington, III, Part II, pp. 956-7 and Plate CXXIX, Figs. 15,16; Akerman, 1855b, p. 40; R. A. Smith, 1907, pp. 225-6;

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP" 776-7;

Cottrill,

1945, pp. 20-1"

Grisley, 1858, p. 5 and Plates XXVI, XXVII; Thompson, 17 "p. 1866, p. 160; Anon., -1874, 39; Cox, 1889-91, pp. 331-5; R. A. Smith, 1907, pp. 233-6; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, 1945, p" 16. P" 777; Cottrill,

741.
18 Cottrill, 19 20 N, 21 1860, p. 311; Brigcs, 1945, P. 17. Berners, R. A. Smith, 1907, p. 232; 1907, p. 239-

1861, pp. 76-7;

R. A. Smith,

R. A. Smith, p" 777; Cottrill, Bellair$,

1907, p. 236; Baldwin 1945, p" 17"

Brown, 1903-37,

1888, P" 339;

R. A. Smith,

1907, p. 224. ;

1945, P. 19 (omitted Cottrill, 22 Meaney, 1964, P" 150. XV Lincolnshire

from the Gazetteer

p. 155

1

Meaney, 1964, PP- 151-66. P. H. Thompson, 1956, pp. 181-2;

Kendrick, 1946, p. 69; 2 Meaney, 1964, P. 161.

C. R. Smith, 1848-80 II, pp. 234,236; Bateman, 3 1859, P" 358 ("near Caistor't5; Bateman, 1860, pp. 311-12 1934, P" 144; MacLean, 1864, and Plate 23; Phillips, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 799-800; Dudley, pp. 264-5; 1949, p" 227. 1858, pp. 4 Trollops, 1872, pp. 100-1; Trollope, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, (omitted from the Gazetteer, "Yerborough... p. 196" should Phillips, 1934, PP- 139-41; 278-9; G. W. Thomas, 1887, pp. 383-406; De Baye, 1893, P" 49 PP- 798-9; in which the reference to be corrected to R. Yerburgh, excavator.

pp. 106-7),

5
p. 158 p. 160 6

Iaformation Baldwin

from G. Taylor,,

Brown,

1903-37, III,

p. 369.
that the tunioa

7 D. M. Wilson, 1960b, p. 93 suggested might have been made of leather. 8 1931, pp. 78-9 identified Lethbridge, olasp as one of two types of wrist olasp. XPI Middlesex

the spiral

p. 167

1

Heaney, 1964, PP- 167-8.

Sharpe, 1919, p. 112 and Plate opposite p. 131; 2 Vulliamy, 1930, pp. 230-1.,

3 4

Hurst, 1961, pp. 213,225-6;

Evison, 1961, pp. 226-30-

Shurlook, 1867-74, pp. 118-9; ' Sharpe, 1919, p. 112.
Vulliamy,

5

1930, pp. 231-2.

742.
XVII Norfolk

p. 169

1 2 3
4

Meaney, 1964, PP- 169-85Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 236. D. M. Wilson, 1959, p. 297Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 222.

pp. 317-21; B. Lowerison, 5 Hughes,1899-1901,. pp" 55-6; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41,pp. 222-3.

1909,

6

Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 226.

Baldwin Brown, 7 C. R. Smith, 1848-80, II, pp. 234-5; 1903-37, IV, PP- 792-3; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, pp. 230-1; by Mr, Goddard Johnson, March 1820 in the draft letter Norwich Castle Museum; Samuel Woodward correspondence, from B. Green, Norwich Castle Museum. information

8 H. Lowerison, 1907, Pp* 234-5; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 215; Rainbird Clarke, 1952, p. 158-

9 R. A. Smith, 1901a, p. 339; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 216.
10 Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, pp* 217-8" Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41,

11 R. A. Smith, p" 237. 12 Rainbird

1901a, P. 333; 1939-41,

Clarke,

p. 238.

13 C. R. Manning, 1872a, p. 292; C. R. Manning, 1872b, R. A. Smith, 1908a, 358; R. A. Smith, 1901a, pp. 339-40; P. 70, illustration; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, III, p. 360 p. (omitted from the Gazetteer), IV, p. 792; R. A. Smith, 1923, Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, pp. 223-4. 27,29,83; P. 14 Gunner, 1849, P" 405; J. G. Chester, 1854, p" 295; R. A. Smith, Legge, 1857-9, p. 292; Warner, 1869, pp. 288-9; 1901a, PP- 335-7; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 227. 15 R. A. Smith, p. 224. 1901a, p. 339; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41,

S. W. Stevenson, 16 R. A. Smith, 1901a, p. 334, note; 1847, p. crix; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 225; Rainbird Clarke, 1932-4, pp" 359-60.

17
3.8

Meaney,1964, PP-.178-9Rainbird Clarke, 1955-7, p. 406.

743"

19

Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p" 247.

Barton, 1851, p. 158; Anon., 1847c, pp. xxv-xxvi; 20 Nightingale, 1852, p. 47; Leeds, 1909, PP- 93-4; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 226.
21 Rainbird Clarke,

1939-41,P. 229.
knife mentioned by Heaney given in the only reference

Moanoy, 1964, p. 181 (the 22 is not included in the information site). cited for this burial

23 - Rainbird 1955-7, p" 406.

Clarke, 1939-41, P. 240;

Rainbird

Clarke,

24

Meaney, 1964, PP- 182-3Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, p. 240 (omitted from the

25 Gazetteer).

26

D. N. Wilson, 1957, P" 148-

Sir T. Browne, 1893, pp. 21-2; R. A. smith, 193; 27 331; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, pp. 231-2. P.
28
29

Rainbird
Rainbird

Clarke, 1939-41, P. 232"
Clarke,

1939-41, p" 233"

XVIII p. 176 1
2

Northamptonshire

Meaney, 1964, PP-'186-97Longthorpe and Wakerley. D. M. Wilson, 1969, p. 236.

3 R. S. Baker, 1880, pp. 468-70; R. A. Smith, 1902a; 237-40; Jessup, 1950, p. 121pp.
4 Gommo,1887, It p. 237; R. A. Smith, 1902a, p. 237Leeds,

5 Anon., 1899, p. 660; 1909, pp. 91-9.

Anon., 1901, pp. 5-7;

6 Wright, 1852, p. 415 (this reference,. omitted from T. identical to Barrow Furlong, teer, the Gazes evidently referred T. Wright, 1847, field, Marston St. Lawrence); to Bar-furlong pp. 56 and note, 59; Dryden, 1885, pp" 327-39" 7 Looda and R. J. C. Atkinson, 1944, PP- 100-28. I',

C. f. Woodstone, Hu. Walker, 1899, pp" 345-6; 8 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, R. A. Smith, 1926, pp. 272-4; G. W. Abbott, 1920, P" 39" pp. 782-3; 9 Beesley, 1841, p. 31.

744"
p. 486 in 1822-41, I, p. 466 (misprinted G. Baker, 10 1885, p. 337; R" A. Smith, 1902, the Gazetteer ; Dryden, pp. 235-6. 11 240-1.

Anon., 1881-3, Pp.

93-5;

R. A. Smith,

1902a, PP"

12

Meaney, 1964, p. 189.

R. A. Smith, 1902a, Dryden 1885, pp" 336-7; 13 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, pp" 780-1. pp. 233-4; 14 . Heaney, 1964, P--193-

15 16 XIX
p. 190 1 2 3 4

Hief,

1915-16, pp. 59-66.

Heaney, 1964, p. 196. Northumberland
Heaney, 1964, pp. 198-9. Keeney, 1935-6, p. 15.

Keeney, 1939, pp. 120-8. Brewis, 1936, pp. 117-21; Jobey, 1957,. pp" 282-3Baldwin

5 Knowles, Forster et al., Brown, 1903-37, IV, pp. 811-2.

1909, pp. 406-8;

Meaney's Unlooated. 6 Groenwell, 1877, p. 432. National Grid reference places the site in North Yorkshire, teer in the Gazetteer under Northumberland. it is listed although XC P. * 193 Oxfordshire

-1
2 236-8.

Heaney, 1964, pp. 203-14. Jnsham, New Wintles Pain. D. M. Wilson, 1969, pp.

S. Stone, 1856-9c, 1939, PP- 360-2;
Gazetteer).

3

Akerman,1860a, pp. 84-97; 1857o, pp. 391-8; Akerman, 443; Leeds, 1861-4,
p. 329; S. Stone,

Rowley, 1972, p. 20

p. (postdating

the

1857b, p. 144; Ake=an, Akerman, 4 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,1V, pp. 662-3.

1856-9, PP- 73-4;

5 Leeds and Riley, 1942, pp. 62-70; HilL ird, Jarman S. C. Hawker, 1969, p" 23 (postdating the Gazetteer . and

6

Anon., 1940, p. 163; Leedsand Riley, 1942, PP. 61-2.

745.

7 8

Leeds, 1939, PP- 357-8; Meaney, 1964, p. 207.

Leeds, 1940, pp* 23-9.

Kirk and Baldwin Browm, 1903-37, IV, pp. 647-8; 9 Leeds, 1952-3, pp. 63-74; S. C. Hawkes, 1961b, PP. 4-5, the Gazetteer). Evison, 1968b, pp. 238-40 (postdating 9-10;

10 S. Stone, 1859-61, pp. 100-101; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, p. 658; Rowley, 1972, p.. 20. 11 12 13 14 15 Anon., 1952-3, pp. 216-7Akerman, 1657b, Pp. 3-40-3Heaney, 1964, p" 209. Earwaker, 1873-4b, p. 171. Leeds, 19409 pp. 21-3-

16 17

Conder, 1893-5, pp.. 406-7. Earwaker, 1873-4a, PP- 125-6-

18 S. Stone, 1861-4, PS. Stone, 1856-9a, pp. 94-8; 442 (omitted from the Gazetteer ; P. Manning, 1898-9, pp. 39-40; Rowley, 1972, p. 20. 19 Harden and Treweeks, 1945, pp. 16-41. Leeds, _1916-17,

20 Kenward, 1883-5, pp. 48-63-

pp. 186-7,189;

21

Kirk and Leeds, 1952-3, pp. 69-70. Leeds, 1939,

22 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IT,, p. 658; p. 359; Meaney, 1964, p. 209.

23
24 Plate p. 208

Leeds, 1939, p" 356S. Stone, 1856-9v, III, Fig. 11. pp. 214-5; Akerman, 1860a, p. 97,

this site,. 25 Leeds, 1940, pp. 22-3, in discussing refuted the assumption that such finds represented earrings, Lethbridge's finds at Burwell, Ca, and Gurney's at citing Leighton Buzzard, Bd.

746.

xxr
p. 211 1

Rutland

Meaney, 1964, pp. 215-7-

1945, P" 15; Leeds, 1948, PP- 169-73; Cottrill, 2 Leeds and Barber, 1950, pp. 185-91886, II9 pp. 188-9; Crowther-Beynon, 1901-2, Gomme, 3 R. Maines, 1902-3, pp. 195-8 (omitted from the pp. 246-59; Crowther-Beynon, 1903, pp. 220-8; CrowtherGazetteer); Crowther-Beynon, 1907-9, PBoynon, 1904, pp. 117,152-7; 53; R. A. Smith, 1908c, pp. 96-104; Baldwin Brown, 19031945, P" 1337, IV, Pp. 778-9; Cottrill, Crowther-Beynon, 1907-9, PP. 50-1; Baldwin Brown, 4 1945, PP- 14-151903-37, N, P" 778; Cottrill, 1934, Crowther-Beynon, 1911, pp. 481-6; Phillips, 5 1945, PP147-8 (omitted from the Gazetteer ; Cottrill, pp. 14-15; Meaney, 1964, pp, 21 7.
p. 215 6 XXII p. 217 1 EVison, Somerset Heaney, 1964, pp. 218-9. 1967a, p. 85.

61-70; Hoxne, 1929, p. 107 (omitted Horne, 1928, pp. 2 Horne, 1930, Anon., 1930, pp. 101-2; from the Gazetteer); PP- 53-4; Horne, 1933, pp" 39-63" 3 4 Gray, 1940, pp. 141-2. Horne, 1926, pp. 77-8.

Heaney, 1964, p. 219, where the site was considered 5 "Doubtful".
7OCIII p. 222 1 Staffordshire Meaney, 1964, pp. 220-3-

Jewitt, 1870, p. 258; Wedgewood,1905-6, p. 148, 2 Plate V; R. A. Smith, 1908d, pp. 210-12; Ozanne, 1962-3, Y- 43"
3 208. Batemant 1861t P. 129; ' R. A. Smitht 1908d# p.

4

Bateman, 1861, p. 148; M. J. Fowler, 1954, P" 143-

Heron, 1889, pp. 161-71; R. A. Smith, 1908d, pp. ' -5 201-3; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, Pp- 770-1.

747.
6 208; Bateman, 1861, pp. 201-2; Ozanne, 1962-3, pp. 45-6. R. A. Smith, 1908d, p.

7 Bateman, 1848, p. 73; Bateman, 1861, pp. 166-7; M. J. Fowler, 1954, pp" 142-3" R. A. Smith, 1908d, p. 212; 8 IV9 p.. 773; Ozanne, 1962-3, p. 41.
XXIY Suffolk

Baldwin

Brown, 1903-37,

p. 226

1 2

Meaney, 1964, pp. 224-36. Rainbird Clarke, 1950-2, PP- 304-6.
Lethbridge, 1931, PP- 1-46;

C. Fox, 1923, p. 265; 3 1956, p. 114. Lethbridge,

4

1-19; R. A. Smith, 1V, PP* 790-1.

Layard, 1907, PP- 325-52;
1911, PP-

330-3; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,

Layard, 1907-9, PP-

5 Warren, 1859, p. 212; Warren, 1870, p. 243; Warren, Anon., 1871, p. 259; R. A. Smith, 1911, PP- 336-7,349-50; Omam, 1931, p. 104 (omitted from the Gazetteer 1927, pp. 90-1;
Meaney and S. C. Hawkes, Gazetteer). 6 1970, p. 53, note (postdating the

;

1966, p. 1-32 postHutchinson, Le Bard, 1959, pp. 56-7; Briscoe, from Lady datin the Gazetteer ; information Lady Briscoe, Mrs, Hutchinson and A. R. Edwardson, Moyse's'Hall Museum, Bury St. Edmunds.

It now appears that there were two Lakenheath sites, dated ante 1911 and ante 1915 in the by finds one represented 1956 onwards, discovered Gazetteer at the aeroand a second [G. j Briscoe, from the 180 (omitted 1955-7, drome. Lady p. 7 189; G. BBiscoe 1958a, p. Gazetteer and ; D. M. Wilson,

[T. )

) (G.

7 J. Douglas, 1793, PP- 8, note, 82-3;. 65, note; R. A. Symith, 1911, PP- 347-89 8 9 10 345; Prigg, 1888, PP- 57-72; R. A. Smith,

Ellis,

1848, p.

1911, P" 342.

R. A. Smith, Ridgeway, Lethbridge,

1911, p. 333;

Meaney, 1964, p. 224. R. A. Smith, 1911, p.

1901-31, It p. 586; 1931, p. 1.

11 R. A. Smith, 1911, p. 344; Plate JIXIX, No. 3.
12 R. A. Smith, 1911, Ps' 344.

C. Fox, 1923, p. 269 arid

13 R. A. Smith, 1911, P. 334; how, 1910-12, pp. 1-2; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, In, p" 175.

748"
14 15 16 17 Lethbridge, Prigg, 1951, p. 18 and Fig. 14. 1911, p. 3431911, pp. 329-30-

1888, pp. 67-8; 1845, p. 206;

R. A. Smith,

T. Wright,

R. A. Smith,

Bruce-Mitford,

1972, PP- 70-9Warren, 1859, p. 204; Lethbridge, by Prigg, R. A.

18 Akerman, 1855b, p. 3; Smith, 1911, PP- 337-819 p. 230 20 Ridgeway, Fenton's 1901-31, It

P- 587;

1931, P- 81888.

notes were published

XXV" Surrey

p. 251

1

Meaney, 1964, pp. 237-45-

Lowther, 1935, P. 17; Dunning, 1933, PP- 302-3; 2 the Gazetteer). Lowther, 1963, pp. 294-6 (post-dating 3 Flower, 1874, pp. 109-17; J. C. Anderson, 1877,

1923, Pp- 38-9; min, 84,85; PPHope-Taylor, 1950, p. 170Lowther, 1931, PP- 1-50; 4 1959a, pp. 141-2. J. Morris,

Prere, 1944-5, p. 114;
1931, PP- 189-92;

Whimster,

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, 1906, pp. 49-68; 5 Bidder, 632; Martin, 1918, p. 6; Bidder, 1926-7, P- 94; Whimster, p. 1959, PP. 51-131. Bidder and J. Morris, 1931, pp. 176-80; p. 262 6 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, 1902b, p. 266. XXVI p. 265 1 Sussex Meaney, 1964, pp. 246-56. IV, P. 430, citing R. A. Smith,

Griffith, Saltzman, 1914, pp. 16-53; Griffith 2 and 1903-37, IV9 pp. 685-8; Baldwin Brown, 1915, PP- 197-210; the Gazetteer . Evison, 1965b, p. 126 (post-dating

3
4 5 R. pp. p. p.

Peters, 1963, p. 26.
R. A. Smith, 1905b, p. 336.

Read, 1896, pp. 211-14; Read, 1895, PP- 369-82; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, 1905b, PP- 343-5; A. Smith, 680-1; E. Wilson, 1940, p. 183; A. E. Wilson, 1950, A. Evison, 1965b, 174; A. E. Wilson, 1958, pp. 3-7,9-12; Worthing Museum. from L. M. Bickerton, 127; information

6 1846, p. 134; R. A. Smith, 1905b, p. 339; Martell, IV, p. 683; Anon., 1954, p. 67; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,

N. E. S. Norris,

1956, p. 11.

749. 7 8 Collyer, 1892-9, p. 180; Curwen, 1922, pp. 15-16. Sawyer, 1892, pp. 177-83; R. A; Smith, 1905b, p" 339"
Mantell, 1846, p. 133;

1824, Is PP- 46-7; 9 Horsfield, R. A. smith, 1905b, P" 33710 Vine, 1886, p. 147-

11 Anon., 1958, p. 69; Heaney, 1964, p. 256. 12 13
14 est in

D. M. Wilson,

1959, P" 300;

'

Meaney, 1964, p. 251. Horsfield, 1824, Is P" 42.

hoc De Iutarum orig-Ine sunt Cantuari et Uictuarii. insulam, ea aens guae Uectam tenet et ea qua.e usgue hodie Occidentalium Saxonum Iutarum rrovincia natio nominatur. HEI I, Chap. 15; osita contra i sam insulam Uectam.

Colgrave 15

and Mynors,

19699 P" 50-

Leeds, 1936, PP- 43-78"

16 XXVII

A. E. Wilson, 1942-3, PP--559 72. Warwickshire

p. 280

1

Meaney, 1964, pp. 257-63,217"
Fetheraton, 1864-7. p. 424; B. A. Smith, 1904b, p. 265.

Humphreys, Byºland, Barnard, Wellstood and Baxnett, 1922-3, pp. 89-116; Humphreys al., 1923-4, pp" 271-88; et Humphreys,1923, PP. 16-25; Humphreys, 1924, PP- 32-4-

3

4 Bloxam, 1834, PP. 44-6; Bloxam, 1840-50, pp. 44-6, C. R. Smith, 1848-80, 52 (calling the site Bensford Bridge); I, Pp- 36,40-41; Akerinan, 1855b, :PP- 35-6, R. A. Smith, 1904b, pp" 253-4"

5
6

Meaney, 1964, p. 260.
Pegge, 1775, pp-'371-5; R. A. Smith,, 1904b, pp. 264-5.

7 J. T. Burgess, 1876a, pp. 378-81; J. T. Burgess, 1876b, pp. 108-10; J. T. Burgess, 1876-8, pp. 78-9; R. A. Smith, 1904b, pp* 260-4; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP. 668-9.

8
9 log-lo.

welistood, 1935; Heaney, 1964, pp. 262-3.
J. H. Edwards, 1948, PP. 50-1; Leeds, 1935, PP-

750.
1852, p. 179; Akerman, 1855b, pp. 39-40; J. T. 10 Way, 1876a, P" 378; R. A. Smith, 1904b, p. 258; Chatwin, Burgess, (The 1926, PP- 39-40" 1925, pp, 268-72; Chatwin, )
Gazetteer's reference to Ant J, VIII is incorrect. Bloxam, 1850-1, 11 pp. 252-3pp. 229-30; R. A. Smith, 1904b,

Bloxam, 1840-50, p. 64; Hertford and Shirley, 1ß70-3, 12 453-4; Hertford and Shirley, 1873, PP- 482-3; R. A. PPSmith, 1904b, pp. 265-6.
13 XXYIII Information Wiltshire from W. Ford, excavator.

p. 291

1

Heaney, 1964, pp. 264-79... and
It ,

Clay, 1925-27b, pp. 432-9; M. E. Cunninton 2 1957, P" 149" Goddard, 1934, p. 243; Grinsell,

3 p. 96; Grineoll, 4'

Chaffers,

1844, P" 547;

C. R. Smith,

1848-80,

1957, pp. 160-1,243-

Clay,. 1925-27a, Pp- 94-101.
Musty,

5

1969, PP. 98-117-

6 J. E. Jackson, 1854, pp. 199-201; Co=e, 1886, II, ton, 1932-4, P. 155; Shortt, 1947190-1; M. E. Cunning, pp. 8, PP. 345-9; Akerman, 1853a, PP. *259-78; Akerrnan, 1853b, 1855b, pp. 69-70; Baldwin Brown, 1903Pp- 475-9; Akerman, 1957, 619-621; Jessup, 1950, P. 61; Grinsell, 37, IV, pp. 102-3; Evison, 1969, p. 115. PP.

7 Hoare, 1812, p. 48; Goddard,.1913-14, P. 275; M. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, P. 1648 M. E. Cunnington, 1925-7, P" 400; 1932-4, P. 169. 9 Leeds and Shortt, 1953Goddard, 1911-12, and 606-8; pp.

M. E. Cunnington,

10 M. E. C=nington 1957, P. 98Grinsell,

11
12

J. F. S. Stone, 1930-2, P" 578.
J. F. S. Stone, 1930-2, pp. 579-81-

13 Akerman, 1843-9, pp. 12-13; Anon., 1849, pp. 111-2; Akorman, 1855b, pp. 1-2; W. Cunnington, 1859-60, p. 165; Goddard, 1913-14, p. 314; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, III, PP371-2; M. E. Cunnington and Goddard, 1934, p. 241; Jessup, 1957, P" 188. 1950, 'Pp" 58, '60; Grinsell,

751.
14 Blackmoro, 1893, PP- 49-50"
1812,

15 W. Cunnington, - 1806, PP- 344-5; Hoare, H. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, P. 165pp. 100-101;

16 Hoare, 1812, p. 174; Goddard, 1913-14, P" 321; H. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, Pp- 169-70; D. H. Wilson, 1969, the Gazetteer), 241 (postdating P, 17 H. E. Cunnington, 1937-9, PP- 468-9.

18 Pitt-Rivers, pp. 156,242.

1887-1903, II9 p. 286;

Grinsell,

1957,

19 1887-1903, II9 pp. 264,284; Pitt-Rivers, Baldwin 1957, p" 40. Brown, 1903-37, IV, pp. 654-5; Grinsell,
Anon., 1961-3, p. 36; Musty and Stratton, 20 86-109 (postdating the Gazetteer . 1964, PP-

21 ' Goddard, 1894-6, pp. 104-8; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV9 pp. 655-6; Grinsell, 1957, p. 8422 May, 1859-60, p. 259; Anon., M. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, Pp- 168-9; 1911-12, Pa=ore, 611-3; pp. 1932-4, P-

393; M. E. Cunnington and Goddard, 1934, Pp. 250-2; 1957, p. 89.

Grinsell,

1957, P" 89; Grinseli, Meyrick, 1949-50, pp. 220-2; 23 information from F. K. gnnable, Devizes Museum.

24

M. E. Cunnington, 1932-4,

PP- 157,170.

25 A. C. smith, 1878-9, P" 332; N. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, 1957, PP- 165,243p. 167; Grinsell,
26 There were no grave-goods with the skeletons at Roche Court Down I, another battlefield cemetery, where the corpses had probably been stripped.. J. F. S. Stone, 1930-2, pp. 572-6; 1957, P" 128. Grinsell, 70ä7C 308 1 2 Worcestershire Heaney, 1964, pp. 280-1. Evison, 1969, p. 115 (postdating the Gazetteer .

3 4 5

Cook, 1958, pp. 58-84. $ariard,, 1925-6, pp. 129-131.

Spaok man, 1909-10, pp. 597-9"

752.
6 Baylis, 1954, PP- 40-2.

Pranks, 1864-7, p. 27; R. A. Smith, 1901b, pp. 7 Spackznan, 1909-10, p. 599; Baldwin Brown, 1903229-30; IV9 p. 667; Heaney and S. C. Hawkes, 1970, p. 37. 37, Pontine, 1864-7, P. 342; Ponting, 1867, Pp- 351-3; 8 R. A. Smith, 1901b, p. 229; Sparkman, 1909-10, p. 599; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, p. 667.
m Yorkshire

P" 313

1 2

Meaneyt 1964t pp. 282-304.
Mortimer, 1905, Pp.-94-5; Sheppard, 1907-18b,p. 311Poulson, Lukis, 1840-1, 1869-70, II9 p. 44;
R.

A. Smith, 1912, p.
Heaney, 1964, p. 283Elgee, 1933, p. 186.

92;
3 4

pp. 175-181;

Akerman, 1855b, pp. 1847, pp. 54-6; Wellbeloved, 5 13-19; C. R. Smith, 1848-80, II0 p. 166; Mortimer, R. A. Smith, 1912, pp. 84-6. 1905, pp. 286-293; Mortimer, Londesborougb, 1852, pp. 251-6; R. A. Smith, 1912, pp. 82-4271-83; pp. 6 7 Sheppard, 1940, PP- 161-41905,

Mortimer, 1905, pp. 247-57; 8 79-80; Elgee, 1933,. p. 182. PP.
9 10 Mortimer, Mortimer, 1905, pp, 264-70; 1905, p. 246.

R. A. Smith, 1912,
R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 82.

11

Elgee, 1933, pp. 184-51912, pp. 87-8;

1905, p.. 344; R. A. Sriith, 12 Mortimer, Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 806-8.

13

Sheppard, 1938-9, pp., 44-7; " Meaner, 1964, P. 293.

14 Mortimer, 1905, P" 353; R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 78; Sheppard, 1907-18b, p. 315; Swanton, 1963-6, pp. 264-86;. Swanton, 1967, pp. 43-50; letters from Rev. R. Wilton, Rolleston Papers, Ashmolean Museum.

15 16
17

Sheppard, 1906, PP- 333-8; R. A. Smith, 1912, pP" 74-5": Mortimer, 1905, p. 117; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37,
T. Wright, 1865, P" 331 and Plate 18; Gomme, 1886,

IV, P. 805.
II,

pp. 192-3;

R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 100;

Elgee, 1933, p. 182.

753"
18 Sheppard, 1938, PP- 1-23,114,165-9-

f A.7 Smith, 1911-12, pp. 146-58; R. A. Smith, 19 R. Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 805-6. 1912, pp. 89-92; MacLauchlan, 1849, p. 216; R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 20 1956-8, p. 244; 241; 100; Hildyard, 1952-5 tpostdating, Eildyard, p. the Gazetteer . Manby, 1963-6, p. 344

21 22

Manby, 1963-6, P" 340Meaney, 1964, p. 288.
" Mortimer, Greenwell, Mortimer,

23
24

1905, P" 192; R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 791877, p. 178; R. A. Smith, 1912, p.

93-

25 p. 60526

Brown, 1903-37, N, 1905, P" 144; Baldwin
1912, p. 96.

R. A. Smith,

Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 803-4; Sheppard, 27 1907-18a, pp. 258-72; Sheppard, 1907-18b, PP- 315-7"
28 29 Mortimer, 1905, p" 25p. 200; Elgee, 1933, P" 186. 1912, p. 74; 1902b, PP* village" pp. 440-1-

Mayer, 1870-1,

Sheppard, 1907, p. 64; R. A. Smith, 30 Sheppard, 1907-18b, p. 319. -'

Sheppard, Sheppard, 1902a, pp. 106-7; 31 1907, p. 63 ("in a neighbouring ShePpý, 4-5; to Sancton). 32 33 IV, Anon., 1949, P" 51; Waterman, 1948-51, Baldwin

R. A. Smith, pp. 806-7-

1912, p. 89;

Brown, 1903-37, 1912-13,

34 133-6;

R. A. Smith, 1912, pp. 93-6; Elgoe, 19339 P" 180-

Hornsby,

PP-

M. Poster, 1881, p. 13; 35 Elgee, 19339 pp. 179-8036 37 Baldwin D. M. Wilson,

R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 77;

1960a, p. 1371912, p. 98;

Bateman, 1860, p. 289; R. A. Smith, Brown, 1903-37, IV, P" 809-

p. 316

These horn brooches from Londesborough and Market 38 Weighton suggest that a ring of. deems horn found with

754.
other animal remains may have been put to excavation suggested fastener, Thun-ham,
)QCQ Discussion

date, Lamel Hill, a site of uncertain at the same use, but nothing from that that the ring might have been a clothing 1849, p" 34; Meaney, 1964, p. 293.

P" 337

1 2

D. M. Wilson,

1960b, pp. 93-

S. C. Hawkes, 1961b, p. 107IV,

P. 339

Looda, 1913. p. 81; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, 3 p. 586; D. M. Wilson, 1971, PP- 38.9"
4 24-5, 1892, Allen, 16-20. Figs. pp. 166-7; Hald, 1962, p. 22,

pp.

p. 340

5 Wild, 1968, pp. 199-207. compared Anglo-Saxon grave-finds p. 21, Fig. which he illustrated

1896, p. 34 Fairholt, with Menimane's costume, 16.

P" 341

6
7 kindly 8

Geijer,

1938, PP- 154,155,
1945, pp. 143-62. this artiole.

Figs.

499 50-

Blindheim, translated Wild,

Mrs- M. Robinson

1968, p. 204. 1964, p. 214.

P" 353

9

Werner,

10
P. 358

Leeds, 1936, PP. 44-58-

11 It should be noted that there are graves containing luxury items such as weaving swords which lack elaborate jewellery; that there are graves with numerous brooches balls, spoons and other crystal which lack gold braid, luxurious graves and that elaborately-equipped accessories; these features Nevertheless, to Kent. are not confined in significant conjoin numbers.

p. 366 p. 367 P. 369

12 13 14

Brandated,

1965, p. 1314-

Leeds, 1913, P. 39, Fig. Geijer, 1938, Plate I.

P. 371

15

Werner, 1964, P. 214.

P. 372 P. 375 p. 377

16 17 18

fiald, 1950, p. 23, Fig. 15, p. 25, Fig. 16. Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV, PP- 454-5,459-60. E. g. Beowulf, lines 1162-3; Judith, lines 36-7;

Dobbie, 1953, Pp. 36,100.

755"
p. 388
P. 395

19
20 21

Lethbridge,

1931, p. 60.
5, No. 16. 55A. 2.

Schumacher, 1935, Plate Girke, 1922, II9 Plate

P" 396

22 23 24

kigelhardt,

1866, p. 40, Plate

Glob, 1969, p. 133Engelhardt, 1866, p. 40, Plate 1.

25
P" 398

Hald, 1950, P. 337, Fig. 389.

"Paired"ornaments 26 appear at the shoulders of male 1903b, pp. 255-6 Allen, figures in Pictish sculptures, and Plate LII, Fig. 266B; pp. 260-1, Fig. 270; P. 340 belong to the Christian The sculptures and Fig. 355" appear to represent period, however, and the figures ecclesiastics. References to chiefs as ring-givers 27 are frequent Beowulf, in Old F glish literature, e. g. 'beaga bryttan', line 35; Robbie, 1953, p" 4.

p. 404

p. 405 p. 406
p.

28 29

Beowulf, lines

1192-6,3009;

Robbie,

1953, PP- 37,93"

Heaney, -1964, p. 20.
Ibid. THE EIGGTH TO ELEVENTHCENTURIES D. M. Wilson, D. M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 141-2 and Plate 1964a, p. 8. XIX.

407

30
C.

p. 408

1 2

3
P. 409 4 5 P- 410 6

Dolley,

1966,. p. 491964a, pp. 208-11 and Plate 1964a, pp. 211-4XLIII.

D. M. Wilson, D. M. Wilson,

D. M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 86-8 (Page, 1964, pp. 86-8), n47 and Plates XXXI, 0CCII. 7 D. M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 35-6,178-9 and Plate XXXII.

8

D. --M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 35-6,163

and Plate 7IXVIII.

9
10

R. A. Sttith, 1923, p. 101.
D. M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 47.8, Fig. 5"

756.
11 p" 41]. p. 412 12 Bruce-Mitford, 1956, pp. 171-31943, PP- 58-9" R. A. Smith,

Peers and Radford,

13 Longstaff, 1912, p. 97"

1848, pp. 220-1 and Plate;

14 Geijer, 1938, PP. 154-5, Pigs. 49,50 Shetelig, 1945, PP- 38-9Nos. 3,5,6;

and Plate 40,

15

D. N. Wilson, 1964a,pp. 7,17,139-40 and Plate XIX.

16 The origins of these brooches have been disputed. D. M. Wilson, 1958b, pp. 95-100, considered that Anglo-Saxon the decoration inspired of a tenth-century group he art De Paor, 1962, pp. 189-90 restated called "Anglo-Irish". Graham-Campbell, the possibility of Scandinavian influence. 1972, PP. 113-4, supported Wilson's suggestion of Anglo-Saxon In publishing Pictish influence. a group of eighth-century, D. M. Wilson, 1973, PP- 99-103 showed the interpenannulars, between English, Irish relationship and Pictish art. P. 413 17 18 Allen, Allen, 1892, p. 167. 1892, p. 166.

On the Cross of Allen, 1892, pp. 164-6 and rigs. 19 in Lucas, 1973, Pig. 118 opposite Muiredach (shown clearly p. 162) Christ is represented wearing a penannular brooch shoulder of a garment which opens: down the on the right It is worn over a longer front and which has wholes. the baptism of Christ Two figures, onlookers-to garment. depicted on the West Cross at Kells, wear brooches in The outer costumes. over similar positions corresponding in this case are cloaks rather than coats, being garments The hands protrude from the front without armholes. (Lucas, p. 162. ) opening.

P. 414

20

D. M. Wilson,

1964a, pp. 132-4 and Plate

XVIII.

21 405-6.
p. 415

Cramp, 1964, P" 91;

see also Bailey,

1967-70, PPpin of the

Kendrick, 1938, p. 170 assumed the right-hand 22 to be an addition. He considered that the function pins was to decorate "shrines or bindings". 23 Peers and Radford, 1943, pp. 63-4, Fig. 14.

24 25
26

D. 'M. Wilson, 1964a, pp. 182-3 and Plate XX VI. Waterman, 1959, p. 68.
Addyman and Hill, 1969, p. 68.

757.
p. 416 27 28 Peers and Radford, Dunning, 1943, p. 60.

1952, PP- 77-80-

29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 p. 417 37 38 39 40

J. Walker, 1945, P. 81. Boon, 1959, P" 831952, p" 80. , Lethbridge, Lethbridge, R. A. Smith, Ravenscroft, 1931, P" 481936, p. 21. 1923, P. 113, Fig. 1907-8, p. 6. 1943, PP- 59-60. XXVIII. 139-

Peers and Radford, D. M. Wilson, D. M. Wilson,

1964a, pp. 161-3 and Plate 1964a, p. 62. 1943, PP- 55-6.

Peers and Radford, D. M. Wilson,

1964x, p. 63-

41
42 43

D. M. Wilson, 1965, pp. 263-4.
Peers and Radford, D. M. Wilson, 1943, pp. 62-3XXVIII.

1964a, p. 161 and Plate

p. 418

44
45 46

1959, p. 68. Waterman,
Peers and Radford, Ravenscroft,
Bradley,

1943, pp. 68-706. p.

1907-8,

47
p. 419 48 49

1974, P. 37.
1964a, pp. 117-9 and Plate B. D. M. Wilson, 1964b, XI.

D. M. Wilson,

Omam, 1931, p. 107, Fig.

D. M. Wilson, 50 pp. 265-8.

1964a, p. 56;

51 52

- Omam,1931, pp- 104-8R. A. Smith, 1912, p. 100.

758.
53 54 R. A. Smith, vullianY, 1912, pp. 101-2.

1930, p. 262.

D.

SIIRVIVITtG RETUINS OF GAM'IENTS

p. 421
P- 422

1

Battiscombe, 1956, PP- 375-525-

that the archaeologists It is unlikely 2 used this tern (wool) in which the fibres fabric in the technical sense of a during manufacture, of the yarn have been laid parallel Brearley, in a textile smoother than a woollen. resulting 1964, P" 1.

p" 423

3 4

Bald, 1950, pp. 426,442. Hoffmann, ' 1964.

p. 425

'These impressions are unlike those created during 5 which have been found on some Scandinavian manufacture, 1973, p" 27 and note. Arrhenius, brooches. 6 R. A. Smith, 1863-4, pp. 286,289,291-8; Fitch, This, and the locations 1904a, p. 181; Jessup, 1950, P. 35" leather finds, textile appear on Map 1. and of other

P. 427

7
8 9

Hyslop, 1963, pp. 181,198Loods, 1948, P. 173; Matthews, $yalop, 1963, pp. 179i 181-

1962, pp. 28-9,31-2.

on loan 10 Ashmolean Museum records and exhibition from Abingdon Museum; Leeds and Harden, 1936, PP- 35, 36-7,43,45,46,48,5011 68-72; 12 E. Crowfoot, 1958, p. 37; Hoffmann 1964, p. 166. Ashmolean Museum records Henahall, 1959, pp.

and exhibition.

13

D. Atkinson,

1916, p. 17-

Museum of Archaeology and Cambridge University 3.4 (Hereafter and on the Ethnology records and exhibition. Museum.) to Cambridge chart, abbreviated 15 16 17 Ashmolean Museum records Akexznan, 1860b, P. 342. Head, 1934-40, P. '322.
0

and exhibition.

18

Ake=ant 1844, P. 546,. Plate.
..,I.

759.
19 Be Burgess, 1878, PP- 332-3; Anon., 1884a, pp. 16-17; Stevens, 1884, pp. 63,65; R. A. Smith, 1905a, Baldwin Broom, 1903-37, III9 PP- 385-7, IV, Ppp. 200-1; 640; Plenderleith, 1956, p. 378 and note; E. Crowfoot and S. C. Hawkes, 1967, pp. 42,44-50,66-7; Appleyard and Wildman, 1969, p. 631C. C. Babington, 20 Ashmolean Museum records records and exhibition; Crowfoot. 1859-63, p. 9 and Pig. B; Cambridge Museum and exhibition; from E. unpublished information

21 W. K. Foster, 1880-4, pp. 11,16-30; G. M. Crowfoot, 1951, PP. 30-2; E. Crowfoot, 1958, p" 37; Ashmolean Museum Cambridge Museumrecords and records and exhibition;
exhibition; 22 unpublished information from E. Crowfoot. Lothbridgo, 1931, pp. 48,50,60-

23 G. M. Crowfoot, 1951, pp. 28-30; G. M. Crowfoot, 1952, p. 191; G. M. Crowfoot, 1956b, P" 434, note.
24 Ashmolean Museum records and exhibition.

1968, P" 49; Ashmolean Museum records 25 T. Briscoe, Cambridge Museum records and exhibition; and exhibition; from E. Crowfoot. unpublished information

26 27

D. M. Wilson, 1956, pp. 34,36,37. Neville, 1852, pp. 9,19.
Ward, 1905, p" 269;

28 Bateman, 1861, pp. 28-30; Anon., 1955-6, p. 1329 Bateman, 1861, pp. 68-9.

30 G. M. Crowfoot, 1955b, pp. 141,144; 1956, PP- 52-3Jewitt, 1870, pp. 284-6; 31 Ward, 1905, pp* 269-70. 32 Bateman, 1861, p. 26.

E. Crowfoot,

Bateman, 1861, PP- 53-4;

G. M. Crowfoot, 1955a,PP. 136-7; R. A. Bower, Derby Museum and Art Gallery.

33

information from

Read, 1893-5, p" 252; E. Crowfoot, 1958, PP- 36-7; 34 Henshall, 1959, P" 71; Hoffmann, 1964, pp., 204,246,2529E. Crowfoot, 1967, p. 37; E. Crowfoot, 1966, pp. 29,30; Appleyard and Wildman, 1969, p. 631.

.. y

760.
35 36 Jones, 37 38 39 40 Ashmolean Museum records and exhibition.

Unpublished information from-and by courtesy of T. including E. Crowfoot's report on Grave 117. excavator, H. E. Smith, 'Unpublished R. D. Abbott, Clinch, 1884b, p. 322. information from E. Crowfoot.

1962, p. 197-

1909, p. 186.

41 'Unpublished information from M. C. Macfarlane, Hampshire County Museum Service.

42 Knocker, 1955-7, pp. 121,127,128; 1955-7, p. 170.

E. Crowfoot,

43 44

Biddle, 1965, p. 256. Hillier, 1855b, P. 36.

1855a, p" 30; 45 Dennett, 1845, P. 154; Hillier, 1956, p. 378 and note; Plenderleith, E. Crowfoot and S. C. Hawkea, 1967, pp. 51,7146 47 Bullen, 1912-13, p. 185-

G. W. Abbott,

1920, p. 36. 1856, pp. 152, from information

48 J. Douglas, 1793, p" 74; Faussett, 154; Lethbridge, 1931, p. 65; unpublished E. Crowfoot.

1876, PP- 304,306-7,309-14; 49 Godfrey-Faussett, R. A. Smith, 1908b, P" 342; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, N, p. 717; Jessup, 1950, p. 127; E. Crowfoot and S. C. from Bawkes, 1967, pp. 51,67-8; unpublished information E. Crowfoot. 50 Conyngham, 1844a, P. 56.

J. Douglas, 1793, P" 74, note; 51 pp. 169-7352 P" 34; J. Douglas, E. Crowfoot

Faussett,

1856,

Jessup, 1950, 1793, PP- 5-6,24,33; and S. Co Hawkes, 1967, pp. 50,68-9.

C. R. Smith, 1848-80, II, p. 164; E. Crowfoot, 1967, 53 (miaprintod? Woodenaboroughin tho Cazotto: r. ) pp. 37-8.

-41

761.

54

E. Crowfoot,

1958, P. 37-

55 Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, N, P" 736; Plenderleith, 1956, p. 378; E. Crowfoot and S. C. Hawker, 1967, p. 69; Ashmolean'Nuseum records E. Crowfoot, 1969, pp. 209-10; and exhibition. 56 36-7, Chadwick, 1958, PP. 17,22,25; Pig-109 Plate Ic. E. Crowfoot, 1958,

B. A. Smith, 1908b, 57 J. Douglas, 17939 PP- 89-90; 378; Baldwin Brown, 1903-37, IV9 p. 629; Jessup, 1950, P" P. 34. 58 Evison, 1956, p. 120.

59 E. Crowfoot and S. C. Hawkes, 1967, pp. 51,69-70; from E. Crowfoot. unpublished information

60 61
62

Paussett,

1856, PP" 44-5,53,64,65,70,73,91-2. E. Crowfoot and

S. C. Hawkes, 1967, pp. 50,70Anon., 1847a, p. 254"

Warhurst, 1955, PP- 7-8,32;

63 C. R. Smith, 1848-80# III, from E. Crowfoot. information

pp. 15-16;

unpublished

64 unpublished Crumberlandj7,1938, pp. 17,20,21,23; including roport information from Borough Museum, Dartford, by E. and G. M. Crowfoot. 65 Jessup, 1950, PP- 34-5; Chadwick, 1958, P. 31-

66 1856, pp. 107,110,111,112,118,122,123, Paussett, 1931, P" 57; unpublished 125,132,133; Lethbridge, information from E. Crowfoot. 67 J. Brent, 1867, pp. 411-12; Hawkes, 1967, p. 71. 68 69 Plate Unpublished information I, E. Crowfoot and S. C. Unlocated.

from E. Crowfoot. Part II,

1795-1811, Nichols, L, Pig. 11.

Appendix p. 136 and hhppleyard and.

D. M. Wilson, 1957, pp. 147-8; 70 wildmau, 1969, p. 632.

F. H. Thompson, 1956, p. 184; 71 1956a, pp. 188-9.

G. M. Crowfoot,

G. V. Thoma8 1887, pp. 387,391,393-4,396,398-9, 72 , 401; T. Briscoe, 1968, pp. 46-7.
.-a

762.
73 Unpublished information from E. Crowfoot.
from G. Taylor, excavator,

74 information Unpublished including by E. Crowfoot. report

75
76 77 and Art

G. C. Chester, 1859, pp" 361-2.
Unpublished Information Gallery. information from E. Crowfoot. King's Lynm Museum

from the Curator,

78
79.

Hughes, 1899-1901, p. 319; B. Lowerison, 1909, p" 55"
Information from Norwich Castle Museum.

80 C. R. Smith, 1848-80, II, pp. 234-5; Norfolk and Norwich Castle Museum, A Catalojue of Antiquities, 1853, p. 24; Rainbird Clarke, 1939-41, pp" 230-1. 81 Ellis 82 Central 83 84 Unpublished information from E. Crowfoot Clarke, Town Clerk, Thetford. and W.

Leeds, 1909, P" 95; information from R. Moore, Museum and Art Gallery, Northampton. Unpublished Unpublished information information from E. Crowfoot. from E. Crowfoot. Unlocated.

85 p. 15.
p. 428 86 87 88 89

MacLaughlan, 1867, p. 26, note 8;
Ashmolean Museum records Unpublished information

Keeney, 1935-6,

and exhibition. from E. Crowfoot. and exhibition.

Ashmolean Museum records Harden and Treweeks,

1945, P" 35"

90
91 92 93

Leeds, 1916-17, pp. 53-4Akerman, 1860a, p. 97, Plate Information from Rutland III, No. 11.

County Museum, 0akham.

Bateman, 1861, p. 148.

Lethbridge, 1931, pp. 4,21-3,33,35,39,42; 94 Chadwick, 1958, P" 3195 2t 11; G. M. Crowfoot, 1952, p. 191; Layard, 1907-9, from E. Crowfoot. unpublished information PP-

763.
Hoffmann, 1964, PP- 204,252; E. Crowfoot, 96 pp* 29-32 with correotions supplied by E. Crowfoot. 1966,

97

G. M. Crowfoot, 1951, pp. 26-8.

G. M. Crowfoot, 1952, pp. 189-91; E. Crowfoot, 98 1966, p. 30; Ashmolean Museum records and exhibition.

Francis, 1863, p. 62; Davis, 1861-4, p. 181; 99 Bruce-Mitford, 1952-4, PP. 5,15"
100 G. M. Crowfoot, 1943, PP- 87-8, Plate 70QCa; Bruce1950, p. 166; Jessup, 1950, P" 35; Henshall, 1959, Mitford, E. p. 71; Hoffmann, 1964, pp. 185,204,246,252,372; E. Crowfoot, 1967, pp. 38-9; Crowfoot, 1966, pp. 29,30; Appleyard and Wildman, 1969, p. 631101 Prigg, 1888, pp.

58,60,63,64,68-

102 Information from A. R. Edwardson, Moyses Hall Museum, Bury St. Edmunds. 103 Hope-Taylor, 1950, p. 170-

104 Griffith and Salzman, 1914, PPinformation from Lewes Museum.

34,35,39-40,44-5;
Gallery, Worthing,

105 Information from the Museum and Art of Southampton. and D. Leigh, University 106 Meaney, 1964, p. 256.

107 Information from W. M. Shortt, and Museum, Coventry.

Herbert

Art

Gallery

108
109

1923-4,

p. 285.

et L., Humphreys al., 1922-3, pp. 114-5; Humphreys a: et
1935excavator and from J. p"

Wellstood,

110 Morris, 111 163;

Information from W. Ford, County Museum, Warwick.

Hoare, 1812, p. 79; M. E. Cunnington, 1932-4, information from F. K. Amiable, Devizes Museum.

21,22,25,26,29,32,34,37,51; 61;. Hoffmann, 1964, p. 204. p.

112

Leedsand Shortt,

1953, pp. 8-9,12,13,16,17,
G. M. Crowfoot,

1953,

113
114

J. F. S. stone, 1930-2, pp. 578p 579-80.
Hoare, 1812, pp. 100-101.

764.
115 Plate Pitt Givers, 1887-1903, II9 pp., 266-7 and Pigs., 1931, P" 70"' CL, 31; Lethbridge, 1964, pp. 89,91; E. Crowfoot,

116 Musty and Stratton, 1964, p. 1083.17 118 119 120 Mortimer

Museum, Hull,

records

and exhibition. VIII.

Akerman, 1855b, p. 16 and Plate C. R. Smith, Greenwell, 1848-80, II,

p. 166.

1877, p. 178-

121'
122 123

Sheppard, 1938-9, p" 46.
Mortimer Anon., Museum, Hull, 1949, p" 51records and exhibition; records and exhibition.

Mortimer Museum, Hull, 124 Meaney, 1964, p. 296. 125 Hornsby, 1912-13,

p. 134unpublished Jessup, Plate information

D. M. Wilson, 126 from E. Crowfoot. 127 R. A. Smith,

1960a, p. 137; 1911-12, p. 150;

1950, P. 35. ICXXb; Hoffmann,

128 G. M. Crowfoot, 1943, pp. 86-7, 1964, p" 248; Jessup, 1950, P. 35-

129 Stead, 1956-8, PP- 519-21; E. Crowfoot, 1956-8, 525; Thornton, 1956-8, PP" 525-30; B. M. Haines, 1956-8, p" MacGregor, 1973, 530; Richardson, 1959, pp" 63-4,86-90; P" pp. 20-4,34.
p. 429 130 131

Hald, 1950, p. 442.
E. Crowfoot, Hoffmann, Gerefa, 1966, p. 29. 1964, p. 203. Liebermann, 1903-16, It p. 455"

p. 435

132 133 134

15;

Hoffmann,

1964, pp. 251-2.

p. 437 p" 438

135 136 137 138

Hoffmann, 1964, pp. 229,235" Walters, 1914, P. 74, No. 497"

Hoffnnann, 1964, pp* 238,239,249. Geijer, 1938, PP* 41-3"
I

765139
140 141-

Gesta, II,
Notably Geijer,

para. 9;

Portz,

1829, P. 752, line

41-

Pirenne,

1909, pp. 308-15-

1965, PP- 130-2.

p. 440 P. 441
P. 450

142 143
144

Geijer,

1938, PP- 154,155,

Figs- 499 50.

Schumacher, 1935, Plate 8, No. 29.
Wild, 1968, p. 207, Fig. 26.

P. 451 P- 452

145 146 147

Glob, 1969, PP- 31,68,80,129,133, Gudj6nsson, 1962, pp. 65-71-

Plates 7,45-

E. Crowfoot and S. C. Hawkes, 1967, p. 48.
E. Crowfoot E. Crowfoot Plenderleith, S. C. Hawkes, 1967, pp. 60-4,72-84and and S. C. Hawkes, 1967, pp. 55,60-1. 1956, pp. 377-8-

p. 453

148 149 150

P. 455

151 152

Wells, 1964, p. 51Wells, 1964, p. 78-

P. 456

153

Blindheim, 1959, pp. 85-6.

154 Bronze Age (? ) shoes Hald, 1972. Examples include from Wendelspang Mose,. Denmark, with front gathering seam, 69, Fig. 69, p. 72, Pig. 75; Age shoes in Viking p. lacing, Novgorod, U. S. S. R., with decorative p. 141, Fig. 174; p. 154, Figs. shoes from Drumacoon Bog, Ireland,

185,186, p. 172, Fig. 200, with and the Faroe Islands, lacing puckering; and Peruvian shoes with functional down the front, continued round the ankle to draw the shoe tight, p. 203, Fig. 236.
PART THREE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART

A. p. 459 1

INTRODUCTION:SOURCES ORGANIZATION AND Brown, 1972, pp. 219-46.

2

D.

Wright, H.

1967,

PP-

75-6.

If no reference has been given to a published 3 (which is not reproduced illustration version of an there is normally no adequate illustration among the Plates) from MS Cotton Claudius Biv Illustrations available. are reproduced in Dodwell and Clemoes, 1974.

766.
p. 460 4 5 MoreY, 1942, p" 204Woodruff, 1930, p. 21.

6 13-15-

Wormald, 1952, pp. 20-1,24;

Wormald, 1959, PPDodwell*and Clemoes,

7 Dodwoll, 1971, pp. 319-28; 1974, pp. 71-3.
p. 461

8 The method of illustrating each month by figures Eagglish. occupations was not originally engaged in appropriate 'J. C. Webster, 1938, It derived from late antique art. PP- 53-6 suggested that the calendars in English MSS Cotton Julius Avi and Cotton Tiberius By resemble the Utrecht Psalter in style and are based on an original conHe has not suggested a direct model, ceived at Rheims. however, and has shown that the Tiberius introduced artist in the arrangement of the scenes. some innovations 9 The kaglish worship of the Tapestry has been Stenton, 1965, p. 11; Wormald, 1965, PPestablished. 29-3310 Christie, 1938.

p. 462

p. 463
p- 464

11

Gjaerder,

1964, PP- 95-114-

12 A corpus of Anglo-Saxon ivories was published by Beckwith, 1972, pp. 9-71. The ascription of some of the items in this work to the Anglo-Saxon period may be questionable. 13 after Beckwith, the present Becker, 1972, PP- 13-18. study was completed. Davidson, 1973, appeared

p. 465

14 21-2,

S. C. Hawkes, Ellis rig. 3. Evison,

C. Hawker, 1965, pp. *

15
16

1965a, pp. 214-5, Fig. 2.
1964a, pp. 211-14.

D. M. Wilson,

p. 466

17
18
Be

Hinton,

1974, pp. 1-7-

Hinton, 1974, pp. 29-48.
ILLUMINATED MANIISCRIPTS THE BAYEUX AND TAPESTRY woodruff, 1930, p. 21.

P. 467

1

Laver, 1963a, p. 26.

767.

P" 468

3 4

_" Wormald, 1952, frontispiece. Gollancz, 1927, p. 51Wormald, 1958, p. 14Goldsmidt, 1928, It Plate 62. Wormald, 1959, Plate 6.

P" 469
P. 470

5
6 7

P" 472

8

9 10 P. 473 -11
12 P" 474 13
14

Stenton, 1965, No. 33Gollancz, 1927, P" 454

Wormald, 1952, Plate 21.
Stenton, 1965, No. 52. Fairholt,
Planche,

1896, P. 46.
1847, p. 38, Fig.

15 The supposed mitten covers the left hand of the Virgin, The other hand is bare and and is painted blue. the fingers distinguished. The shape of the left clearly hand does resemble the modern mitten, since the fingers are grouped together and the thumb separate, but it should be noted that the covering of the arm is also painted blue, and is decorated in the same technique as the blue-painted hand. The artist two schemes: the may have conflated bare hand (hence the shape of the hand is visible); and the hand covered by the robe (hence the hand is painted blue and patterned). P. 475 16 Wormald, 1952, Plate 21.

17

Nevinson, 1965, p" 73-

18 Apart from the Mainz relief, trousers are also to be seen on a bronze medallion of Domitian: Graeber, 1874, Plate T.

p. 476

19 20

D. H. Wright, D. H. Wright,

1967, PP- 73-5, 1967, fol. 31.

fol.

30v-

p. 477

21 22

Malone, 1963. Wormald, 1952, Plate 27a.

768.
p. 478 1924-38, Norris, 23 to be imaginative appear rather than reproductions illustrations It p" 261. Norris's from various sources, conflations of Saxon art.

P. 479

24 25 26

Wormald, 1945, Plate 4iio. Stenton, 1965, No. 5. Strutt, 1796-9, it p. 5. Not shown in colour.

p. 480

27 28

Stenton, 1965, No. 8. Nevinson, 1965, P. 37"

P. 481

29

Strutt, 1775-6,*I,
Planche,

P"

47"
note. Stubbs, 1887-9, It

30

1847, pp. 25-6, III9 Para.

De G stir, 31 P- 305.

245;

32 33 p. 482 34 35 36 37
p. 483 38 39 40 P. 484 P. 485 41 42

Truman, 1936, P. 14. Yarwood, 1952, P" 40" Wormald, 1952, Plate Wormald, 1952, Plate Ealart, 1902-16, III, 20. 13b. p. 18.
/ /

Geijer, 1938, pp. 138-9, Plate 1, lower pair.
Nevinson, 1965r p" 74Stenton, 1965, No. 34. Stenton, 1965, Plate Y. Stenton, 1965, No. 35Wormald, 1952, Plate 13b.
l

p, 486
p" 487

43
44

Stenton, 1965, No. 16.
Sullivan, 1952, Plate XIV.

45 Novinson, 1965, p. 73 considered the only true to be those on a marginal representations of trousers (No. 12 and (Stenton, No. 23) and Turold's figure groom He dismissed the examples considered here Plate III). as tunics depicted in such a way as to resemble trousers, linen breeches but believed that all men wore sack-like though manuscript illustrations under the tunics, of these than the twelfth century. are no earlier

46

Stenton, 1965, Nos. 15,17,31;

possibly

No. 10.

769.

47 48 49
50 51

stenton,

1965, No. 67-

Stenton, 1965, No. 33Stenton, 1965, No. 35"
Fairholt, Stenton, 1896, P" 53# Fig-, 401965, No. 1039"

p. 488 P. 489

52

Wormald, 1952, Plate

53 C. P. the Franks Casket, Section D, 2. Elaborate leggings are worn by Magi figures mosaic on a sixth-century 1957, in the church of S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna: Bovini, fol. 25Plate 21; and in the Benedictional of St. Ethelvold, 54 Truman, 1936, p. 13. Wormald, 1952, Plate Wormald, 1952, Plate 13b. 39-

p. 490 p. 491

55 56

57 58
p- 492 59 60

D. H. Wright, Gollancz,
Gollancz, Gollancz,

1967, p. 70;

fol.

30v-

1927, PP- 54,571927, p. 511927, P" 54"

C.

SCULPTURE 1927-9, pp" 238-40, Plate opposite

p. 495

1 Collingwood, p. 238, a. 2

Schumacher, 19359 Plate

15, No. 50-

3 Dr. R. N. Bailey kindly discussed the dates of the under consideration with the writer. sculptures Fig1916-17, pp. 102,103, Parker and Collingwood, 4 Loki). Berg, 1958, pp. 27-43 suggested a complex 4 (sigyn, for the woman at the crucifixion. identity 5 6 Lang, 1972, Plate D. M. Wilson XXI, Pig. 1. 1966, Plate 1966, Plate XXPI. XXIV,

and Klindt-Jensen, and Iflindt-Jensen,

D. M. Wilson 7 o, d, e.

770.

1907, pp. 153,160, Collingwood, 8 opposite pp. 152,160.

Plate

and Fig.

9 10 P- 496 11 12 13 14

Lam, 1972, Plate XXI, Fig. 2. Lang, 1972, pp. 242-5Zang, 1972, pp. 241-2. Collingwood, 1914-15, pp. 204,205, Pig. a.

Collingwood, 1914-15, pp. 241, Pig* c, 242. Talbot-Rice, 1952, p. 90.

15

Kendrick, 1938, PP- 180-1.

dated the piece to the first Kendrick 16 of the quarter 1952, pp. 90-1, to the late Talbot-Rice, century, ninth Cramp, 1972, pp, 139-41, rejected a tenthcentury. ninth date in favour century. of one of the early ninth century

P. 497

The shoes closely 17 Cramp, 1972, p. 141, note. find. Prenoh archaeological resemble a seventh-century 18 19 20 21 22 23 Cramp, 1972, P. 140Kendrick, Forbes, Calverley, 1938, P. 1801967, pp. 34-71899, Plate opposite 10. p. 71-

Cramp, 1965, p. 10, Plate Hodges, 1905, P. 233" Raw, 1967, PP- 391-4Collingwood, 1914-15,

'498 p.

24 25 26 27 28

pp. 237-9" Plate VIII, S.

Routh, '1937, pp. 19-20, Collingwood, Comp, 1908-9,

p. 171-

1967, p. 13.

P. 499

29
30

Cramp,1967, p. 12.
Routh, 1937, p" 33, Plate XVI, C; Talbot-Rice, p. 141.

A similar garment is worn by a figure on the west 31 Parker and Collingwood, 1916-17, face of the cross: lol, Fig. 3. P,

771.

32 33 34
p. 500

Routh, 1937, p. 37, Plate XVII, B. Le Blanc smith, 1904, pp" 233-4, Pig. 1. Guest, 1930, PP- 159-60, Fig. 1.
1903b, P. 325. Examples include Allen, 1903b, p. 306, Fig. 321. a relief

Allen, 35 from Murthly:

36

Hodges, 1905, p" 230, Fig.
XXXII, Fig. 1, right-

Clapham, 1927, p. 223, Plate 37 hand figure. 38 39 40 41 42 p. 501 43 44 45 46 47 48 p. 502 49 50 51 52 Routh, Routh, Routh, Raleigh Routh, Parker 1937, p" 7, Plate 1937, p. 20. 1937. P" 32, Plate Radford, II,

B.

XV, B. Plate 2.

1957, PP- 3-5, ii).

1937, p. 11 (Fragment and Collingwood, 1914-15,

1916-17,

pp. 98, Fig* Fig,, ee. la.

It

99,

Collingwood,

pp. 229,230,

Foote and D. M. Wilson, Brondsted, 1965, p" 33-

1970, p. 276, Plate

Clapham, 1951, PP- 194-5, Collingwood, Hastings Allen, 1914-15,

Plate

VIa. c, 242, V, Fig. 2.

pp. 241, Fig.

and Romans, 1946, p. 179, Plato 1893, pp" 22-3, 1914-15, 1910-11, Plate X-

Collingwood, Collingwood,

PP- 139,141,140, pp" 273,274, Fig.

Fig. q.

d.

53
p"

Clapham, 1951, Plates in,

Yib.
in a loin cloth to be related
t

503

54 Depictions Christ of the crucified have not been included as they are unlikely to Anglo-Saxon costume.

55
56

Hodges, 1905, p" 234"
Collingwooa, 1910-11, p. 290, Fig. 1.

772"
57 1906-7, pp. 380,381, Fig. d, 385Collingwood,

58
59 Fig.

Collingwood,1911, pp. 464,
Kendrick and Raleigh 1, Plate VI9 At C. Collingwood, Allen, Radford,

Fig-

a,

466.

1943, pp. 15-16,

60
P. 504 61

1914-15,p. 239LIV, Fig. 278.

1903b, p. 268, Plate

62 It is possible that these figures were intended to The figure of a man on be naked apart from their belts. buckle from Finglesham, K, wears a a seventh-century buckled belt and helmet but otherwise is clearly unclothed. S. CO The figure belongs to a Scandinavian tradition. Davidson, and C. Hawkes, 1965, pp. 18,20,27. Hawker, Ellis 63 Lang, 1973, pp. 17-20.

64 p. 505 65 66
67

Collingwood, 1914-15, p. 140,. Pig. b. Collingwood, 1910-11, p. 290, Fig. 1. Allen, 1893, Plate III.
1914-16, p. 205, Fig. a-

Collingwood,

68 p. 506 69 70

Collingwood, 1906-7, pp. 344,352,353, Lang, 1972, p. 19.
Collingwood, Fyson,

Fig- Y"

1923,

p"

3,

Fig-

4-

71
72 73 74
D. p. 508

1960, p. 151, Fig. 5-

Collingwood, 1910-11, pp. 266,267, Fig. 4Collingwood, 1906-7, pp. 406, Fig. It 407Clinch, 1909, pp. 22-3.
THE FRANKSCASWR AND OTHM IVORIES

The significance 1 side of of the scenes on the right 1966, pp. 119-26 is Ball, the Casket have been disputed. the most recent study before Booker, 1973"

2 p. 509 3

Allen, 1903b, pp. 310-11, Fig. 325. Beckwith, 1972, p. 25, No. 24..

773"
Beckwith, 1972, PP- 47-8, No. 54. Beckwith, 1972, PP- 52,55,
Beckwith, Beckwith,

4 5
6

No. 75Nos. 84,82.

1972. PP-

57-8,

P-. 511 p. 512
P. 513

7 8

1972, PP. 53,55, No. 78.

Raw, 1967, p" 394, Plate 45a.

9A similar cloak, worn over a long gown, appears on the figure of a woman leaving the ark, on a stone sculpture 1963, Plate 9b. Zarnecki, of the Norman period at Lincoln. E. METALWORK but dispossibility Bruceat the neck. It 2. C. Hawkes, 1965, p., 22, Ia.

p. 515

1 Bruce-Mitford considered this missed it since no pallium was visible 1956, p. 176. Mitford, 2 3 4 Fig. Hinton, Evison, 1974, P. 2; Plate

1965aß p. 215, Fig. Davidson,

S. C. Hawkes, Ellis 3.

PART FOUR: LITERARY AND LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE A. INTRODUCTION: SOURCES AND ORGANIZATION

p. 517

1 Peterson and Hutton, W. E. Anderson, 1936-65.
2 Waitz, 1878.

1914;

H. J. Edwards, 1917;

Cet9rwot r9+ e;

Literary 3 Ehwald, 1919; A Coigrave, 1956; works: Colgrave and Nynors, 1969. Letters: Haddan and Stubbs, 1869-78; Tangl, 1916; Caspar, 1928. 4 5 6 Domesday Book, 1783-1816; Coxe, 1841-2; Kluge, '1885b. Stubbs, Hofineister, 1934-

1887-9.

78
9 10

G==sway,

1939.

Nordal, 1933K. H. Jackson, 1969. Pertz, 1829.

774.
p. 518 11 12 13 Skeat, 14 15 Whitelock, Liebermann, 19301898-1916.

Thorpe, 1844-6; Goodwin, 1848; R. Morris, 1874-80; 1881-1900; Herzfeld, 1900; Bethurum, 1957. Kluge, 1885o. 1922,

S. T. Crawford,

16

Skeat, 1871-87. 1909;

Each Gospel is paginated individually. Spelman, 1640 (without
Schipper, 1885-8;

17 Lindelöf, Kubai, 196518 19 20 21 p. 519

page numbers);
1899; Hecht, *1916. 1900.

Sweet, 1871;

Sweet, 1883; Schröer,

H. Logeman, 1888; Cockayne, 1864-6. Goolden, 1958"

Napier,

22 For example, T. Wright, 1884,124, line 27-125, line 33; 267, line 43-268, line 6. All citations refer to Volume I of this work, which has been abbreviated to W The first elsewhere. number in each citation refers to the column; pages are unnumbered. 23 24 25 26 Noa. IV and V in W. WW, 151, line WW, 107, line WW, 124, line 5-153, 26-108, 27-125, line line line 22. 2. 33-

27

WW,313, lines

17-25.

Vocabulary No. X.

28 WW,Vocabulary No. VIII. The Cleopatra glossaries have been edited in Stanford University Theses: Stryker, 1951; Quinn, 1956.
29 30 WW, 267, line WW, 262, lines WW, 293, line 43-268, 7-33. 36-294, line 20. Vocabulary No. IX. line 6.

31

32 The manuscript, which may have been the source of the Junius copy, was rediscovered after the publication between the two were published of WW. The discrepancies

by Kluge, 1885a, and the entire

glossary

edited in a Stanford

775"
1955" Cited as Junius/ Kindschi, University Thesis: BM in the present work, except in cases of disagreement between manuscripts. P" 520 33 34 35 36 37 p. 521 Mostly Lindsay, Lindsay, in Napier, 1911. 1921. No. XI. No. VI. Edited by Oliphant, 1966. 1900.

WW, Vocabulary WW, Vocabulary

1822-98; Toller and Campbell, Bosworth and Toller, 38 1970 have also been 1972. Sweet, 1897 and Clark-Hall, taken into account.
I

p. 522 P. 524 .

olthausen, 40 41 42 Souter, 1968:

19341959, p" 12, para. 7-

Campbell, Skeat,

1871-87.

Du Cange, 1882-7; Lewis and Short, 1917; 1949; Latham, 1965; Oxford Latin Dictionary,

B. p. 525 1 2 3 p. 526 4

LITERARY EVIDENCE Gallic Gallic War, IV9 para. War, VI, 17; 17; para. Peterson Peterson 1; 21; H. J. Edwards, 1917, p. 182H. J. Edwards, 1917, P" 346. 1914, pp, 286,288. 1914, p. 288. 5, lines 21-7; 1936-65, It

Germania, Germania,

and Hutton, and Hutton,

Letters, 5 W. B. Anderson, 6 P. 80. P.

No. IX, para. Book VIII, 1936-65, II9 p. 446. 238-42;

Poems. V. lines

W. B. Anderson,

527

7 p. 82. 8

Poems, V,

lines 243-5; W. B.
1869-78,

Anderson,

1936-65, It

Baddan and Stubbs,

III,

p. 497"

9 p. 528 10

_;,
Vim,

It Para. 34; para. 23;

Pertz,

1829, P. 747, lines

18-26.

Pertz,

1829, p. 455, lines

32-5.

776.
1829, P" 456, line 3111.

11 P. 529 12 -13 14 P. 530 15 16 17

Vita, fiesta,

para. I,

23;

Pertz, 34;

para.

Pertz,

1829, P" 747, lines

Smalley. Do Gstir,

1974, P. 90. III, para. 245; Stubbs, 1887-9, II, p. 305-

J. Stevenson, Historia, HE, IV,

1854, p" 234, note. 22; Waitz, 1878, p. 155-

IV9 para. Chap. 19;

Colgrave

and Njynors, 1969, P" 392.

18 Napier, 1883, p. 170, lines 9-10. Bethurum, 1957, p. 38, noted that this piece is not a homily, but one of three to a penitential items included by Napier which are related edict of Ethelred. by editors The length marks inserted of Old English in the and Old Norse texts have been omitted from quotations present work for the sake of consistency. 19 P. 531 20 21 22 p" 532 23 24 Whitelock, 1930, p. 86, line 1869-78, 2. III, P. 434. 25,32-45-6. /

Haddan and Stubbs,

Tang]., 1916, No. 116, p. 250, lines Tang]., 1916, No. 125, p. 263, lines Whitelock, 1930, P" 4, lines It P. 416.

25-6,28-9.

Coxe, 1841-2,

25 26 27
28 29 lines

Do C ntin,

II,

para. 183;

Stubbs, 1887-9, I, p. 222. 159-60.

Garmonaway,1939, P" 33, lines Battiscombe,
Vita Tangl, 18-20. Sancti

1956, pp. 470-525Guthlaci, 7QCYIII; Colgrave, 18; 1956, P" 94" No. 63, p. 131,

1916, No. 76, p. 159, line

p" 533

36 31 32

Tangl, 1916, No. 116, p. 251, lines Ibide Tangl, 1916, No. 114, p. 247, lines

14-15.

21-2.

33

Hofmeister, 1934, p" 1452, para. 3, lines 18-19.

777"

34

Jellema, 1955, P" 31Domesday Book,

35 36

1783-1816,

It

p. 263, left.

Round,

1909, P" 4671969, p. 151. interpolation is The lullaby into the seventh-

K. H. Jackson, 37 probably a ninth-century century composition.

38 39

De Virgn{tate, Whitelock,

LVIII;

Ehwald, 1919, p. 318, line 7.

3.

1930, P" 14, line

40
0

Whitelock, 1930, p. 15, line 6.
XVI; Colgrave, 1940, p. 212. 1969, p. 14-

Vita Sancti Cuthberti 41 (tinctura coccinei colons. P. 534 42 HE, I, Chap. 1;

Colgrave

and 1 jnors,

43 44 45
46 variety 47 48 p. 535 49 50 536 p51 52

Do Vintinitate,

LVIII;

Ehwald, 1919, p. 318, line

2.

Vernon, 1964, p. 212. Fgilssa-gal LXVII; Nordal, 1933, P. 213that this

Miss H. MacLean provided the information Iceland. exists in present-day Caspar, 1928, No. 36, pp. 293-4. DeGestis, Vita Sancti I. para. Cuthberti 82; Stubbs, 1887-9,

It

PP,, 82-3.

XVIII; III, III,

Colgrave, P" 378P. 369.

1940, p. 218.

Hadrian and Stubbs, Hadrian and Stubbs, Ibid.

1869-78, 1869-78,

BE, IV, Chap. 25; 53 424,426 p" 537 54 lines 55 p" De Virginitate, 2-5.

Colgrave and Mynors, 1969, pp* Fhwa1d, 1919, p" 318, p. 520.

LYIII;

Haddan and Stubbs, 1869-78, III,

538

56

Haddanand Stubba, 1869-78, III,

pp" 493-4"

778.
57 Haddan and Stubbs, 1869-78, III, Crane, P" 458" 1967, pp. 12-13, suggested that since the lay habit worn the ninth century was short, it was the scantiness until of English clothing which outraged the legates.

P. 539

58 59
60

D. M. Wilson, 1966, p. 175Rees, 1963, p. 168; Barrow, 1969, pp. 1-28.
Germania, 10; Kluge, Peterson and Hutton, 1914, p. 276.

P. 540

61

1885b, pp. 62-3.

C. ' I P. 542

LINGUISTIC EPIDEKCE Materials

1 Stroebe, 1904, p. 34 inoluded'Iivre' among her list of garment names, but as citations suggest it applied to penitential garments it has been omitted from the present discussion. 2 3 BL , p. 410. WW, 262, line WW, 294, 27-

4
5 6 7

line 19.
21. 18-19. Goodwin, 1848, p. 26. Rule, 'Be Muneca Cynne'; Schroer, 1885-8,

WW, 328, line WW, 151, lines Gum, IV;

8 Benedictine P" 139,. line 149 WW9262, line

28;

294, line

20.

p" 543

10 11
12 13 14

A. H. Smith, 1968, p. 44, line WW,294, line
Napier, Neritt,

3; 10.

P" 45, line

3-

13;

187, line

1900, p. 192, line 1954, P" 17-

37 and note.

BIW, p. 203-

Mark, 15,46 (Lindisfaxne and Rushworth); 15 1871-87, p. 131, glossing sindone.
John, 13,4 16 glossing linteum. (Ruahworth); Skeet, 1871-87,

Skeat,
P. 125,

779"
BTS 'heafod-lin'o

17 p. 544 18 19 20 21 22

See BTD 'bisoop-heafod-lin', WW, 151, line WW, 151, line WW, 152, lines Leviticus, HE, IV, 8,7; Chap. 19; 16. 193-4Crawford, Schipper,

1922, p. 292. 1899, P" 443, lines 2516-8.

23
24 25

P. HEM, 357Luke, 16,19; Skeat, 1871-87, Skeat, 1871-87, p. 164p. Luke 165285. Salisbury

H. Logeman, 1891" P" 37" line 26 Cathedral IS.

p" 545

27
28

HEW, 107. p.
WW, 328, line 20.

29
30 31 32

W, 151, lines
Bombix,

14-15oUe sid-wyrm', WW, 360, line 13.

tsioluc-wyrm

HEW, p. 292. Garmonsway, 1939, P" 33, line 159-

33 34
35 36 37 38 39 II

Cookayne, 1864-6, III, " W, 195, line 16.

p. 174, line

29.

Garmonsway, 1939, P. 33, line Napior, 1900, p. 14, line 12. 13II9 460;

159WW, 151, line 9-

WW, 151, lino WW, 151, line

Cockayno, 1864-6, Outer garments

p. 106, line

22.

p" 546

1 "2
3

WW,212, line Meritt,
W,

26.

1968, pp. 19-20.
26; WW, 492, line 12; WW, 503, line 17.

445, line

780.

4

2"Zeritt,

1968, p. 22.

5 P. 547 6

Etymologiae, =, 196, line WW9 39-

xxiv,

19;

Lindsay, 1911, II.

There is no indication Campbell, 1959, PP- 214-5" 7 /1C/ was fronted as in words which were early that initial Campbell, p. 211, nor was the following loans from Latin, vowel modified according to usual OE sound changes, Campbell, p. 201. 8 9 10 11 P. 548 12 Serjeantson, 1935" P" 282.

OIDt, "chasuble". Napior, 1916, p. 64, lino 3322.

Kemble, 1848, p. 152,. line BTD, p. 497. 1919, p. 443. 1930, p" 4, lines it

Streitberg, 13 own cloak. 14 15 16 Whitelock, Skeat, Lindsay,

St. Paul writing 26,28. 36.

of his

1881-1900,

p. 416, line 15-

1921, p. 102, line

3.7
18 19

ww, 439, line 2.
Lindsay, 1921, p. 129, line 7ww, 397, line 39.

20
21

ww, 377, lines 22-3ww, 187, line 14.

Kluge, 1885a, p. 451 Ww, 153, line 9 'fotsiS'; 22 BTS accepts the meaaing "reaching down to the 'fotsid'. XIX, roc, 26: linus; vestis Etymolo feet" from Isidor , C. f. Ltibke, 1891, __ga guae ab umbilico usgue ail pedes producitur. P- 39923 Matthew, 5,40; Skeat, 1871-87, p. 51-

P. 549

24 25 26

Rule, VII;

Schrder, 1885-8, p. 28, lines 14.

5-6.

H. Logeman, 1888, p. 32, line !, 5,10;

Sweet, 1883, p. 234, line

22.

781.

27 28

Thorpe,

1844-6,

II9

p. 82, line

22.

Cockayno, 1861, p. 42.

29 30
31 32 33 34 p. 550 35

Herzfeld,

1900, p. 192, line

1.

BTD, p. 497Gal, Gollancz, line 2081; Gollancz, 1940, p. 782081. 5316. 5.

1940, p. 125, note to line 36; IX; Napier, Thorpe,

WW, 513, line Confessionale, BTD, p. 734-

1900, p. 134, line 1840, p. 348, note

36 37
38 39 40 P. 551 41 42 43 steort',

Cockayne,1864-6, It p. 346, line 17W, 363, line 13Confessionale. WW, 214, line Confessionals, WW, 188, line HEW, p. 169. WW, 438, line 16: 1 us 'honsteorc', "the train of a dress". BTS 'hopIX; 36; IX; 14Thorpe, 1840, p. 34824.

WW, 212, line Thorpe,

1840, P" 348-

44

Napier, 1916, p. 48, lines

11,24. line 633; Robinson,
1957, P" 725-

45 The Canon's Yeoman's Prologue, 1957, P. 214.
46 P- 552 47 48 49 50 BTD, p. 737; Cleasby, Thorpe, 1844-6, It Vigfusson

and Craigie, 19. 5-7.

P" 456, line III,

Cockayne, 1864-6, Luke,. 20,46;

p. 200, lines 1871-87, 21.

Skeat,

Pp. 198,199-

Sweet, 1871, p. 82, line

51 52 53
54

Sweet, 1871, P. 82, line WW,107, line 26.

9.

Psalms, 101,27;
Skeat, 1881-1900,

Lindelöf,
It

1909-14, It p. 160.
227, p. 209, note.

p. 208, line

782.

55 56 57

HEW, p. 262. Cockayne, 1964-6, Campbell, III9 p. 202, line 26.

-

1959, p. 216.

p. 553

58

W, 327, line 23-

Skeat, Mark, 16,5, Luke, 15,22, Luke, 20,46; 59 1871-87, pp. Mark 130,131, Luke 156,157,198,199"
60 WW, 188, line 14.

61 The semantic range of "mantle" should be noted, including: OF]) 1 "a loose sleeveless cloak of varying length", 3 "a kind of woollen cloth; a blanket of this material., ". 62 P. 554 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Zupitza, 1887, p. 8, line 38. 28. 2. 1035140-

WW, 151, line WW, 124, line WW, 268, line Napier,

1900, p. 28, line 2. Crawford, Crawford,

WW, 328, line Judges, Genesis, 4,18; 9,23;

1922, p. 404. 1922, p. 108.

70 HE, IV, Chap. 31; 4736-40-71 72 P. 555 73 III, his Colgrave Thorpe, and Fiore, 1844-6, II,

Schipper, 1899, P" 540, lines
1969, pp. 444. p. 166, line 21.

Skeat, 1867-85, C Text, Passus XVII, lines 73-6; 284, C. E. B Text, XIV, line 233, 'the straw is p. Skeat, II, p. 248. schetes',

74

J. Wright, 1898-1905,

VI,

P" 479-

1898-1916, I, p. 108. C. f. Lieberman, Inq 44,1; 75 'gafol-tiningO, "barley paid as rent", BTD Igafol-beret, for fencing due as 'gafol'-". "material

783"
76
77 78 P- 556 79 80

BTD, P" 577Gesta, It para. 34; 28; 8,9. 35. Portz, Lindsay, 1829, p. 747, lines 1921, p. 108, line 24-5261.

WW, 436, line WW, 439, lines WW, 278, line

HE, IV, Chap. 31; 81 4736-40"
82 83 A 1fred, 42,7; 2.

Schipper, 1899, p" 540, lines
1898-1916, It p. 76.

Liebermann,

WW9205, line

84
85 86 87 88 89 Psalm,

195, line 3WW,
Leviticus, 4,17; 2. 80. 126. 1871-87, p. 51; Crawford, 1922, p. 290.

WW, 268, line Lindsay, Lindsay,

1921, p. 104, line 1921, p. 132, line

Skeat, Rushworth, Matthew, 5,40; 103,7; Kuhn, 1965, p. 99.

p. 557

90
91 kind 92

Lindisfatne,

Matthew, 27,31;

Skeat, 1871-87, p. 235"
1957, P" 498: "a

Cleasby, Vigfusson and Craigie, of cloth or linen jerkin". Napier, 1900, p. 133, line insertion Campbell, 5276.

93 Unhistorio uncommon in OE.

of the letter 1959, p. 26.

(h)

is not

94

Matthew, 5,40;

Skeat, 1871-87, PP- 50,51-

95 Matthew, 27,28 (Rushworth) and 31 (Lindisfarne); Skeat, 1871-87, pp. 232,233,234,23596 97 98 WW,212, line WW9 328, line HEW,p. 62. 24; 18. WW,214, line 36.

p" 558

99

Napier, 1916, p. 64, line 31.

"

784.

100
101 102

HEW, 153p.
Lindsay, Napier, 1921, p. 87, line 1900, p. 39, line 1851471.

103 Thorpe, 1840, p. 348; line 36.
104 P. 559 105 WW, 445, line Gudj6nsson, 26;

WW9 212, line
12;

24;

WW,214,.
17-

WW, 492, line

WW, 503, line

1962, p. 68.

106
107
108

BTD,p. 773OED, "Pilch"
HEW, p. 246.

1.

109 110

WW, 328, line Bouterwek,

11. 28-9.

1858, p. 20, lines

111 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Earle, 1892-9, I, Plummer and 112 113 114 P. 560 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 HEW, p. 262. Cockayne, 1864-6, WW, 125, line WW, 152, line WW, 328, line WW, 328, line WW, 125, line Stroobo, Stroobo, Stroebe, 18, 1. 18. 17. 6. III,

for 1075, D version; p. 209.

'/p.

200, line

12.

1904, p. 10. 1904, p. 11. 1904, P" 5539-

WW, 151, line

123 WW,210, lines 24-6; 3725, P" 144, line 242.
p. 561 124 125 Lindsay,

Napier,

1900, p. 99, line

1921, P. 102, line 2.

15.

WWr 439, line

785"
126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 p. 562 135 136 WW9377, lines Lindsay, Lindsay, 22-3. 57, p. 208, note. 60.

1921, p. 157, line 1921, p. 157, line 6.

Sweet, 1871, p. 36, line WW9210, lines 24-6.

Sweet, 1871, p. 196, line Psalms, 108,28;

21.

Spelman, 1640-

Campbell,

1959, pp. 200-1.

HEW, p" 219. Whitelock, Whitelock, 1930, P" 14, lines 1930, p. 10, line 10-11. 8.

137 138 139
140 141

W, 42, note. Stroebe, 1904, p. 11HEW,p. 244.
Lindsay, C. f. 1921, p. 144, line 670, p. 147, line 832.

Stroebe,

1904, p. 48, note.

142 143
144

WW,470, lines Stryker,
Beowulf,

3,4-

1951, p. 363line 2258; Dobbie, 1953, P" 70Plummer

145 Anglo-Saxon and Earle, 1892,1,

Chronicle for 937,. A version; 109, and note 14p.

146

Stroebe, 1904i pp" 11,39-

Campbell doubted that a word 147 Csunpboll, 1959, p. 220" have been borrowed through of such origin must necessarily monastio channels. p. 563 148 Matthew, 5,40; Skeat, 1871-87, lines PP- 50,51. " Robinson, 1957,

149 Canon's Yeoman's Tale, p. 217. 150 p. 121. -BTD,

879-82;

151

Bouterwok, 1853, P" 456"

786.
152 153 154 155 156 P- 564 157 158 Napier, Joshua, Psalms, Thorpe, Napier, 1900, p. 57, line 7,21; 108,29; 1844-6, II, Crawford, Lindelöf, 21171922, p. 3881909-14, 26. It P" 180.

p. 500, line 147121.

1900, P. 39, line

Whitelock, Napier

1930, p. 62, line

and W. H. Stevenson, "spine",

1895, p. 23, line thrycg-h wrt, "hair

22. from

159 BTD 'hrycg-ban', an animalts back". 160

Sweet, 1885, p. 111, line

1.

Matthew, 27,28 161 232,233,234,235162 163 164 WW, 153, line Napier, 9.

and 31;

Skeat, 1871-87, pp.

1900, p. 39, line 1853, P" 4401874-80,

1471.

Bouterwek,

165 R. Morris, p. 204, line 9. 166, p. 565 167 168 169 Goolden, Lindsay,

p., 215, line 2. 112.

6;

Herzfeld,

1900,

1958, p. 20, line 1921, p. 32, line 19. 3-

WW, 362, line WW, 268, line

170
171 172 173 174

Bouterwek, 1853, P" 456.
Napier, 1900, p. 57, line 44. H. Logeman, 1888, p. 32, line 5,40; Skeat, 1871-87, P. 50142117.

WW, 81, line Rule, VII;

Matthew,

175 176 177 .

Schroer, 1885-8, p. 28, line

5-

Skeat, 1871-87, p. Matthew 51Zupitza, 1887, p. 16, line 421 and note.

787.
178 67p.
179 180 181 182
III

H. Logeman, 1891, P" 37, line
Psalms, Zupitza, Zupitza, Thorpe, 101,27; Lindelöf,

271;

Stroebe, 1904,
I, p. 160.

1909-14, 1.

1880, p. 41, line 1887, p. 15, line 1844-6, II,

392 and note.

line. p. 2++e, i3.

Body garments

p. 566

I 2

Leviticus,

8,7; 24.

Crawford,

1922, p. 292.

WW, 327, line Kluge,

P" 567

3 4 5 6

1885c, p. 119, para. 2. 39. 2.

13-

WW, 407, line WW9151, line WW, 127, line

0

7
P. 568 8

1908, col. 34Mayhew,
The Miller's Tale, lines 3235-7; Robinson, 1957, P" 49"

9
10 11 12 13 p. 569 14 15 16 p. 570 17 3.8 19 _20

WW, 513, line 36.
Napier, 1900, p. 134, line XIX, xxii, 24-6. 3725" 242. "24; 5316. Lindsay, 1911, II.

Et7mologiae, WW, 210, lines Napier, Napier,

1900, p. 99, line 1900, p. 144, line 3018. Hecht,

WW, 379, line WW, 362, line Dialogues, I;

1900, p. 68, lines 29; Lindsay,

5-8-

ºmolo. ae, XIX, xxii, Meritt, 1959, P" 39-

1911, II.

HEW, p. 286.

21 22

Serjeantson, R. Morris,

1935, P. 103" 1868-73, Second Series, p. 139"

788.

P" 571

23 24 25 26

Napier,

1900, P. 99, line 1. 12. 17-

3725-

WW, 125, line WW, 328, line WW, 187, line

27 28 29
30 31 32 33

Lindsay, 1921, p. 19, line WW,349, line 267, line WW9
Rule, Rule, LV; LV;

75512.

35; 43-

352, line

Schroer, Schroer,

1885-8, 1885-8,

p. 89, line p. 91, lines 15;

10. 3-49.

H. Logeman, 1888, p. 91, line Skeat, 1881-1900, II,

p. 92, line 160-2.

p. 408, lines

p" 572

Beoý 1i, lines 2755,1511,2539,1505,550; 34 1953, PP. 85,47,79,47,19.

Dobbie,

35
36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Beowulf, lines 1504,1895; Robbie, 1953, PP- 46,58"
BTD, p. 506Lindsay, 1921, p. 41, line 9. 24-6. 109. 514-

WW, 276, line W, 210, lines

Lindsay,

1921, p. 32, line 18.

WW, 362, line Napier,

1900, P. 134, line

5316.

43
44 45 P" 573 46

P. HLW, 154. Napier, 1900, p. 99, line 3725. 1114-15.

W. S. Logeman, 1891, P" 443, lines Kluge, 18850, p. 127, para. 101..

47
48

Napier, 1900, p. 99, line 3725.
WW, 210, lines 24-6.

49

ELV, P" 303"

789"
50 51 52 P. 574 Mayhew, 1908, col. MTD, p. 886. Mayhew, 1908, col. Tale, 416. subdivision 416. 420; Robinson, 1957, 418.

The Paxson's 53 P. 240. 54 55

Mayhew, 1908, col. WW, 268, line 1.

56 57 58
Skeat,

151, line 8. WW,
Libor Scintillarum, Genesis, 37,31
1871-87,

XLIII;

Rhodes, 1889, P" 143" Crawford, 1922, p. 174.

and 33;

59

Matthew,5,40, Luke, 3,11
Rle, LV;

and 6,29, John, 21,7; John 182. pp. Matthew 50, Luke 38,66,

60 line
61 62 63 P. 575 64 65 66 67

H. logeman, 1888, p.. 91, line
Skeat, 1871-78, p. 50-

15, P" 92,

9.
Matthew,. 5,40; 0rosius, Meritt, 5,10;

Sweet, 1883, p. 234, line

23-

1959, P" 401930, P" 14, lines X0CYII; Thorpe, 1014-151840, p. 358.

Whitelock,

Confessionale, Whitelock, HEW, p. 68.

1930, p. 14, line

68 69 70
P", 576 71 Skeat, 72

Serjeantson, Serjeantson, WW,107, line

1935, p" 278" 1935, p" 281" 26.
John, 21,7; 66,182.

Luke, 3,11 and 6,29, Matthew, 5,40, 1871-87, 'pp. Matthew 50, Luke 38, John Whitelock, 1930, p. 14, lines 7,16.

73

Whiteloak,

1930,P" 15.

790"
74 75
76 2516-8. P: 578 77 78
Thorpe, Campbell, 1865, p. 538. P" 312.

1959,

HE, N,

Chap. 19;

Schipper,

1899, P" 443, lines

Thorpe,

1865, p. 5381930, P" 15Metres of Boethius, 2. 25; Krapp,

Whitelock,

C. f. 'cynegerela', 79 1933, P" 191, line 2380 Whitelock,

1930, p. 86, line

81
82

Orosius, It
B Text,

1;

Sweet, 1883, p. 18, line
79-80; t, Skeat, line 778;

21.
1867-85, p. 61.

Passus, V, lines line

Parliament, 83 1957, PP- 313,572" p. 579 84 IV p. 580 1 2 3 4 5 6 p. 581 7 8 9 10 11 Genesis,

235, Rom

Robinson,

38,14;

Crawford,

1922, p. 175"

Loin and leg coverings Lindsay, 1921, p. 108, line 12. 1956, pp. 218-21. 287-

WW, 433, line Russell-Smith, Stroebe,

1904, pp. 11,66. 1-2. 3-5. 7Crawford, 1922, p. 89. 96. 26-7.

WW, 153, lines WW, 125, lines WW, 328, line Genesis, Lindsay, 3,7;

1921, p. 158, line III,

Cockayne, 1864-6, HEW, p. 31-

p. 198, lines

12
13 P. 502 14

ELV, P" 35;
Lindsay, Iüugo,

BTD, p. 126.
287; 102. WWº 433, line 12.

1921, p. 108, line 1885o, p. 127, Para.

791.
15 16 17 18 P. 583 19 20 21 Tolkien, 1962, p. 214, lines Krapp, 2. 15-16 (f. 113b).

Psalms, 108,28; WW, 125, line KEW, p. 325WW, 582, line WW, 775, line WW, 734, lines 3318.

1933, p. 94-

23-4. P. 478, note; Mayhew, 1908,
1940,

way, 1843-659 UI9 22 ' col. 441, lines 4-5.
23 Cuthbert Vita Sancti was "shod"

Cuthberti calciatus

XVIII; Colgrave, with the tibracis.

p.

218.

24 25 p. 584

Tolkien,

1962, p. 214, lines

15-17 (f. 113b). V, p. 355"

C. Babington

and Lumby, 1865-86,

OED "hose: for the leg; 26 an article of clothing sometimes reaching down only to the ankles as a legging or sometimes also covering the foot like a long gaiter, C. f. M 'hose': la "a legging or stocking stocking". lb of woven cloth or leather, with or without feet,, "; "a close-fitting garment resembling tights, worn by men and boys. "; 2 "armour for the lower legs, leg guards, maves'". 27 WW, 327, line 29.

28
29

HEW, 171; BTD,p. 554. p.
W. S. Lo. Seman, 1891, p. 443, line 1115-

30 Rule, LV; Schröer, 1885-8, p. 92, line 3; H. Logeman, 1888, P" 93, line 9; Rule, 'Be Muneca. Cynne', Schroer, 1885-8, p. 136, line 2331 32 33 Rule, Kluge, LV; Schroer, 1885-8, p. 89, line 10414.

18850, p. 127, Para. 31-

WW, 125, line BTD,

P- 585

34 35

635p.

1939, P" 35, line 172. Garmonsway,

792"
36 deleted 'Meoning' in TCS. a supposed The citation in BTD is cognate listed (WW, 234, line 22),

fas cellas, 37
38 39

'weoningas' is to a variant 37-

form of 'wining'.

WW,197, line
Holthausen, WW, 125, line

1916.17, p. 330, line 9.

110.

40 line
p. 586

Rule, LV; 3.

Schröer, 1885-8, p. 91, line
Junius read

6;

p. 92,

1955, P" 88. Kindschi, 41 WW, 125, line 18. 42 43 44 Lindsay,

'roco',

1921, p. 165, line XIX, xxciv, 12;

394Lindsay, 1911, II.

Etymologiae, Serjeantson,

1935, P. 273-

45 46
47 p. 587 48

BTD, p. 893Schlutter,
Serjeantson, Napier,

1913, PP- 45-6.
1935, p. 278. 'Celia', 4822. "a kind (? ): of shoe

1900, p. 124, line

49

BTD, P. 5540

50

ww, 152, line 39.

51 BTD 'sceanc'; I"a shank shin, the leg from the knee to the foot" (several citations ; II" the upper part of the leg (a$eohsceanoa)" (one citation only).

52 53
54
p. 588

WW, 467. line 29. WW,234, line 22.
WW,125., lines
Kluge,

14t 16.
" 103.

55 56
57

18850, p. 127, para.

p" HEW, 398-

BTD, p. 1234Holthausen,

5859

1916-17, 330, line 110. p.

153, line 3" WW,

793"
Y p. 589 1 Shoes WW, 125, line 23.

2 II. 3 4 5 6 7 p. 590 8 9 10 11 12 13 P. 591 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Etymologiae,

XIX, miv,

13;

Lindsay,

1911.,,

Meritt,

1954, pp" 109-10-

Lübke, 1891, p. 401. WW, 125, lines Kindschi, 23-33-

1955, p" 89XIX, xmciv, XIX, xociv, XIX, xx civ, 1857-73, 31-2. I, 6; 13; 7; Lindsay, Lindsay, Lindsay, 26, line 1911, II. 1911, II. 1911, II. 24.

Etymologiae, Etymologiae, Etymologiae, T. Wright,

co].

WW, 125, lines Kindschi, Schreier,

1955, p" 891885-8, p. 88, lines It 13-142.

Cockayne, 1864-6, WW, 327. line Luke, 3,16; 31.

p. 396, line

Skeat,

1871-87,

p. 41171-

Garmonsway, 1939, p" 35, line WW, 283, line IM, 197, line WW, 362, line WW, 125, line WW, 414, line 181338. 24. 31-

23 24 25

Lindsay, 1921, p. 171, line WW,277, line WGf,125, line 30. 30. '

708-

"

ALL MISSING PAGES ARE BLANK

IN

ORIGINAL

796"
26 27 28 29 Lindsay, 1921, p. 165, line 29. 394-

P. 592

WW, 277, line OWED "alipshoe". J. Wright,

1898-1905,

Y, p. 522.

30 P. 593 31
32' 33 34 35 36

Campbell, 1959, P" 214WW,125, line
Ga=onsway, Kluge, Lindsay,

26.
1939, P" 35, line 17191. 306.

1885c, p. 126, para. 1921, p. 136, line 31. "rough, hairy,.

WW, 468, line BTD 'ruh', I.

shaggy".

37

Macpherson, 1795, II9 P" 189, lines

271-4.

p. 594

38

HLw,p. 155.
'heming1, "the skin of the shanks"

IUD lists 39 only and omits this citation.

40

Raid, 1972, pp. 175-6.
WW, 125, line Herrtage, J. Wright, Leigh, 33.

.

41.
42 43 44

1881, p. 3051898-1905, Y, P. 131, "rivlin".

1974, P" 13.

45 46 47
48

Hald, 1972, p. 176. J. Wright, 1898-1905, Y, p. 131, "rival".

Lucas, 1956, p. 375Hald, Hald, 1972, p.

175"
179"

p. 595

49
50 51 52

1972, P"

Hald, 1972, p. 175Hal d, 1972, pp. 166-7Hald, 1972. P" 176.

797.
53 54 55 Etymo1o9ia, e, XIX, xxxiv, Steinmeyer, 0,, "crank". 13; Lindsay, 2. 1911, II.

1889, p. 250, line

P" 596

56 57
vi

Mark, 6,9;

Skeat, 1871-87, p. 42.

Serjeantson, 1935, p. 282.
Headgear

P. 597
P" 598

1 Theristrum. P. 175"
2 Skeat,

Genesis, 38,14;
II,

Crawford; 1922,
1425.

1881-1900,

p. 308, line

3
4

1999 line 13WW,
WW, 152, lines 28-9.

5
6

Tolkien, 1962, p. 215, lines 22-3.
Luke, 19,20; Skeat, 1871-87, p. 185-

7 Lindisfarne,, PP- 111,175.
8 WWt 514, line p" 408" HEW, Dialogues,

John, ll,
1.

44, John", 20,7;

Skeat, 1871-87,

/

p. 599

9
10 11 12

XVII; 2531-

Hecht,

1900, p. 216, lines

12,15-

WW, 327, line WW, 124, line

13 WW, 124, line 32. BTD 'ge-regaian', "to put, dispose, adorn". C. f. Stroebe, 1904, p. 24, note. 14 15 600 p. 16 WW, 328, line WW, 152, lines WW, 200, line 10. 28-9. 13-

17
18 -19 20

HEW,pp" 42,43"
Onions, 1966, "hood".

HEW, p. 167Lindsay, 1921, p. 32, line 107.

798"

21 22 23 24 25 601 p. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

WW9199, line WW, 362, line Kluge,

18. 17121. 1840, p. 348, note 6. 106.

1885o, p. 129, para. IX; Thorpe,

Confessionals. Kluge,

1885c, p. 127, para. 1957, p. 216. 20,16; Crawford,

Bethurum, Genesis,

1922, p. 237-

HEW, p. 242. WW, 107, line WW, 152, line WW9462, line WW, 108, line Napier, 37. 13. 30. 1. 14.,.

1900, p. 186, line 2.

WW9205, line

602 p.

35 36
37 38

Bouterwek, 1853, p" 486. Bouterwek, 1853, p" 526.
Skeat, 1891-1900, 2. It p. 172, line 36.

WW, 205, line

39
40 41 42

WW,195, line
Leviticus, ii:, IV,

3Crawford, Sohipper, 1922, p. 290. 1899, p" 442, line 2501-

4,17; Chap. 19;

HEW, p. 408-

43
44 603 p. 45 46 47

Lindeldf,
R. Morris, Tolkien, C. f.

1927, p. 106.
1874-80, 61, line p. 16. .

1962, p. 215, lines

22-3.

Kluge,

1685c, p. 129, para. 127.

126.

Kluge,

1885o, p. 129, para.

799"
604 p. 48 49 50 51 52 Whitelock, Whitelock, Christ, line 1930, p. 14, lines 1930, p" 28, lines 68; 15-16,174-51936, P" 5-

Krapp and"Dobbie,

WW, 152, lines WW, 107, line

25-6. 32.

53 54 55 56 57
58

Lindsay, 1921, P" 33, line WW,362, line WW,199, line WW,125, line 107, line WW9
Bouterwek,

137-

36. 312. 35-

1853, P" 526.

605 p.

59
60 61
62 63
64 65 66

204, line 19. WW,
Napier, 1900, p. 147, line 439. HEW, 305p.
Thorpe, 1844-6, II, WW,514, line
Napier,

p. 28, lines

17-18.

9.
28.

1900, p. 219, line 1517-

WW9125, line WW, 411, line

67
68 69 70 606 p. 71 72

f,

P. 373.
1921, p. 184, line 1921, p. 173, line 1900, p. 218, line 42. 41176. 45. 26.

Lindsay, Lindsay, Napier,

WW, 400, line WW,,400, line

73 74

Bouterwek, 1853, P" 488Bouterwek, 1853, P" 525"

800.

75 26-27.
76 77 78 79 80 81

'Be Muneca Cynne';

Schroer, 1885-8, p. 135, lines
16. 124-

Sweet, 1871, p. 123, line Lindsay, 1921, p. 32, line 22. 20.

WW, 153, line WW, 3139 line Lindsay,

1921, p. 115, line 20-1.

227-

WW, 443, lines

82 83
84 85 86 607 p. 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 608 P, 95 96 97

Napier, 1900, P" 133, line WW,5099 line
WW, 118, line HEW, p. 146. WW, 107, line WW, 107, line Whitelock, Thorpe, 29. 36.

5242.

314.

1930, p. 14, line

17.

1865, P" 538" 1935, p" 278-

Serjeantson, Kluge,

1885a, p. 450242320.

WW, 152, line WW, 152, line WW, 188, line Kluge, Napier, Napier,

1885a, p. 4501900, p. 147, line 1900, p. 133, line 440. 5242.

98 99 100

Leviticus,

89 13;

Crawford, 1922, p. 292.

BTD, P" 565HEW, p. 177.

801. 101 Poclrnee, 1960, p. 43"

OED "houve: 102 a covering for the head; a turban, the quilted a cap, a skull-cap; a coif, skull-cap worn under a helmet".

A Text, Prologue, line 103 1867-85, I, PP- 5,42. 104 Twice metaphorically, Robinson, 1957, PP- 429,464"
105 106 107 108 609 p. 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 Reeve's Prologue, Judith, Lindsay, line

84, III, Troilus,
3911;

line III,

276; line

Skeat, 775, V. line 469;

Robinson,

1957, P" 55"

Chaps. l0 and 16; 1921, p. 110, line 21. 6. 5,7"

Coverdale, 9.

1847-

WW, 442, line WW, 268, line WW, 268, lines BTD, p. 846. WW, 107, line WW,125, Bouterwek, Bouterwek, line

378.

1853, P" 506. 1853, P" 526. 293-

H. Logeman, 1891. P" 37, line BTD, p. 1230.

118 OED "wimple; formerly a garment of linen or silk, worn by women, so folded as to envelop the head, chin,. sides of the face and neck".

610 p.

119 Tho CnnterburyTales, Robinson, 1957, P" 18120 121 122 Tolkien, Napier, Napier'

The General Prologue,

line

151;

1962, p. 215, line 1900, p. 146, line 1900, p. 124, line 16.

253894821-

WW, 223, line _123

124

WW,107, line

28; Kluge, 1885a, p. 450 tk aeuingc'.

802.

125 126 611 p. 127 128

WW, 223, line WW, 107, line Napier,

16. 381200; Bouterwek, 1853, P" 435.

1900, p. 33, line

Bouterwek, Accessories

1853, PP- 513,526.

VII
612 p. 1 2 3 4. 5

WW, 210, lines WW9120, lines WW, 120, line Bouterwek, W,

36-717-2319.

1853, P" 50124-

371, line

613 p.

6 7
8 9 10 11 12

Mayhew, 1908, col. 421. WW,359, line
Napier,

7"
486.

1900, p. 14, line 15Crawford,

WW, 192, line Joshua, 9,4-5;

1922, P" 3911-2. 1933, P" 191, line 10-

Whitelook,

1930, p. 6, lines 25;

Metres of Boethius,

Krapp,

(medical). 13 "carbuncle" Antrax and 'angseta' mean Stroebe, 1904, p. 31, note, suggested that such disparate "ulcer" terns were linked by the two meanings of clavus, as well as "band". 614 p. 14 15 WW, 152, fines Kluge, 33-5,41-2; WW, 124, line 1536.

1885c, p. 119, para.

16
17 18 19 20 .

WW, 86, line 36.
Lindsay, Lindsay, 1921, p. 28, line '1921, p. 108, line Colgrave II, 181. 287; WW, 433, line 12.

M9 V, Chap. 12; Thorpe, 1844-6,

and Ignore, 18.

1969, P. 496.

p. 354, line

so3.
21 22 Rule, LV; Schröer, 431885-8, p. 92, line 3-

WW, 152, line

Stroebe, 1904, pp. 30-1; 23 60-1. pp.
p. 615 24 25 26 27 28 29 616 p. 30 Lindsay, 1921, p" 110, line 23,24. 3512;

c. f. Arnoldson, 1915,
16.

WW, 442, lines WW, 124, line Rectitudines, Kluge, Guthlac,

Liebermann,

1898-1916,

It

p. 450-

1885o, p. 127, para. XI;

108.

Goodwin, 1848, PP" 54,56" Dobbie, 1942, p" 56, line 17-

Maxims, II;

31 '32
33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40

Beowulf, line Beowulf, line
Birch, 1885-93,

2085; 2076;
It

Dobbie, 1953, pp" 64,225Robbie, 1953, p" 64"

No. 159, p., 229.

O'Loughlin, Hald, Hald, Haid, Hald,

1964, PP" 4-5-

1972, p. 26. 1972, p. 22, Fig. 1972, p. 24. 1972, p" 251848-80,1V,
p. 7.

10.

C. R. Smith,
Stein, 1968,

p.

208.

617 p.

41 IV Ethelred, 2,10; ' Liebermann, 1898-1916, p. 234"' Loyn, 1962, p" 93 Liebermann dated this c. 991-1002. the last years of the suggested a later date, possibly Caut (1016-35). reign of 42 43 44 WW, 328, line JElfred, 66,1; 13Liebermann, 1898-1916, It p. 84-

BTS, P" 173 ('earn-stoc').

804.

E. g. Brussels Codex: Bouterwek, '1853, 45 Digby-MS; Napier, 1900, p. 133, line 5240. 46 VIII 619 p. 1 2 Kluge, 1885c, p. 127, para., 107.

p. 526;

General terms John, 19,5; WW, 151, line Skeat, 51871-87, p. 165.

3
4 5 6 7 8 620 p*9

ww, 346, line 19;
Matthew, Napier, Matthew, 27,28;

349, line 21. ,
Skeat, 1871-87, 74. p. 51P. 233-

1900, p. 187, line 5,40; Skeat,

1871-87, 9. 1871-87,

Sweet, 1871, p. 134, line Matthew, 5,40; Skeat, 21-34-

P. 51-

WW, 151, lines WW, 430, line R. Morris,

10
11

33p. 121, line 24.

1874-80,

12
3.3 14 15

R.

Morris,

1874-80,p. 213, line 331874-80, P"

R. Morris,

99,

line

19. 1840, p. 358.

Confessionale, Judith, line

XC(VII; 282;

Thorpe,

Dobbie,

1953, p. 107.

Thorpe, 1844-6, II9 P" 338, line 28; from HE, III, 16 Chap'.. 19, Colgrave and Mynors, 1969, p. 274. "'
17 18 Genesis, Loc. 37,29; Crawford, 1922, p. 174.

19 20 21 22

Skeat, 1881-1900,It p. 178, lines 156,159124, line 30. WW, 327, lines 19-20. -WW, 151, line 7. WW,

805.
621 P, 23 24 25 Genesis, 41,42; 22,5; Crawford, 19229. p. 1841922, P" 355-

Deuteronomy, Napier,

Crawford, 27.

1916, p. 64, line

E. g. Iazanon's Brut, lines 23759-60: 26 Madden, 1847, u, rugge a real swipe deore'; E. g. 27 'a ecchroud'; 28 29 Piers Plowman, A Text, Prologue, Skeat, 18 7-85, It p. 16. it 66, line p. 1.

'warp on his P. 575" line 2:

WW9151, line Thorpe,

1844-6,

30
31 32

Thorpe, 1844-6, It p. 400, lines
Psalms, 101,27; Lindelöf,

19,21.
It p. 160.

1909-14, 89.

Garmonsway, 1939, p. 26, line

33 34

Genesis, 45,22; WW,124, line 27.

Crawford, 1922, p. 198.

35
36 37 p. 622

Bouterwek, 1853, P" 492.
Skeat, Skeat, 1902, p. 12, line 1902, p. 12, line 24. 17-

38

Robertson, Robertson, Whitelock,

1939, P" 100, line 24-

39 40
41 42 43
44 45

1939, P" 170, line 231930, p. 14, line 17-

Beowulf, line 453; Dobbie, 1953, P" 16. 124, line 33WW, 151, line 35WW,
Genesis, 45,22; Whitelock, Crawford, 1922, p. 198. 8-13.

1930, p. 64, lines

623 p.

46 47

HLV, PP- 378,379E. q.

Jobn,13,4;

1871-87, Pp. Matthew59, Mark 39, John 125. Skeat,

Lindisfasme Matthew, 6,25,

Mark, 5,27,

so6.

48

Napier,

1900, p. 169, line

314.

49
50

Psalms, 103,7;
E'thelberht, ii,

Krapp, 1933, p. 77.
Liebermann, 97-8; 1898-1916, I, p. 6.

59-60; lines

51 Maxims I, p. 160. 52 53 54 624 p. 55 Beowulf, HE, I,

Krapp and Robbie, 1953, p" 111899, p. 18, line

1936,

line

292;

Dobbie,

Chap. 6;

Schipper,

256.

Apot hogems, 80; Napier,

Kemble, 1848, P. 268. 3364-

1900, p. 90, line

56 57 58 59 60 61
62 63 64 65 66 67 p. 625 68 69 70 71

Psalms, 107,27; WW,346, line W, 374, line 430, line +º, Meritt, 18. 41. 32.

Lindelbf,

1909-14, It p. 160.

1959, P. 701415-17. 1936, p. 61.

WW,389, line
Rypins, thlac, Gu Matthew,

1924, p. 26, lines line 11,8; 419;

Krapp and Robbie, 1871-87,

Skeat, Skeat, Skeat,

pp. 90,91-

Luke, 15,22; Mark, 12,38; Bethurum, R pins, Goolden, Goolden, Goolden,

1871-87, 1871-87,

p. 156. p. 100-

1957, p" 216. 1719-20. 2.

1924, p. 26, line 1958, p. 18, lines 1958, p. 22, line 1958, p. 22, line

9.72

435, line 15WW,
West SaxonGospels, -Mark, 16,5; 73 p. 130. Skeat, 1871-87,

807. 74
75 76

W, 513, line 27.
Pastoral Rule, LV; Care; Sweet, 1871, p. p. 134, 91, line 133-4-

Schroer,

1885-8,

lines

626 p.

77 78 79 80 1122-381 82 83 84 85 86

tholred,

6;

Liebermann,

1898-1916,

It

P. 238-

HER, P" 134. 41 234, lines W, HE, III, 18-20. Schipper, 1899, p" 237, lines

Chap. 11;

Bouterwek, Lindsay,

1853, P" 4801921, p. 177, line 2. 16-28. 31,3330-1It p. 444. 228.

WW, 370, line

Kemble, 1848, P. 152, lines Or_ sius, Orosius, IV, III, iv; X; 1,1;

Sweet, 1883, p. 164, lines Sweet, 1883, P. 138, lines Liebermann, 1898-1916, (? ),

p.

627

87

Rectitudines,

88 C. f. the look-out 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 II,

BTS 'frip-scip', "a guard-ship (? ) ". for hostile vessels line 2155; Dobbie, ).

a ship on

Beowulf,

1953, p" 67-

HEWt p. 146 ('hmteru' Thorpe, Thorpe, 1844-6, 1844-6,

Is p. 330, lines It p. 404, line

13-14. 5-

Exodus, 21,4; Thorpe, 1844-6,

Crawford, It line

1922, p. 2648-9. p. 236.

p. 374, lines 30778;

Lazamon's Brut, Piers p. 235-

Madden, 1847, III, 1; Skeat,

Plowman, B Text,

XIV, line

1867-85,

97

Mayhew, 1908, col.

216.

last OED "hater" 1, "clothes, 98 clothing collectively" 2,, "a garment, vestment", in the nineteenth century, recorded the' Promntorium Pte. last citation

808.

628 p.

99

BTD, P. 94116 I3as waepelsan', with footnote 1951, p. 38, read +1a but Stryker, Kuhn, 1965, P. 99'sceorp'. 1874-80, line 250; p. 111, lines Krapp, 34-5-

WW, 343, line 100 "read 140 waefelsan""; swxpel san'. 101 102 103 104 105 106 IX p. 629 1 2 3 4 line 5 6 Psalms, 103,7; BTD, p. 829 R. Morris, Andreas,

1932, P. 10.

Thus Kindschi, Etymologiae, Clasps WW, 152, line WW, 313, line Zupitza, Bouterwek, 5126. HEW, p. 70; Germania 17;

1955, p. 47, note. XIX, xcii, 26; Lindsay, 1911, II.

3722. 3Napier, 1900, p. 130,

1880, p. 44, line 1853, P. 523; BTS, p. 146. Peterson

and Hutton,

1914, p. 286. Napier,

WW9152, line 37; 7 1900, p. 130, line 5126. WW, 313, line 23.

Bouterwek,

1853, P" 523;

9
630 p. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Napier,

1900, p. 147, line

424"

WW,152, line
Bouterwek, Bouterwek, Whitelock, Whitelock, Whitelock,

37;

W, 313-, line

22.

1853, P" 4341853, P" 458. 1930, p. 64, line 1930, p. 10, line 1930, p. 14, lines B7D, P. 778. 11. S. 11-12.

HEW, P. 249;

809.
17 18 19 20 21 22 p. 631 23 24 Whitelock, 1930, p. 50, line 2531916.

WW, 360, line Napier, Lindelöf,

1900, p. 169, line 1927, P" 4" 7-

WW, 403, line Lindsay,

1921, p. 77, line 33-4-

170-

WW, 238, lines Lindsay,

1921, p. 28, line

197-

25
26 27 28 29 30 31,432,
X

WW, 358, line WW, 195, line Lindsay,

3436. 319-

1921, p. 163, line

BTD, p. 901. Lindsay, Lindsay# 1921, p. 105, line 1921, p. 107, line lines
Discussion

122. 237.

16-17.

632 p. 633 p.

1

There is an index

to the OE words in Appendix

2.

2 Words cognates, but sidered here, in exclusively

introduced by the Vikings might also have such this origin for the terms conseems unlikely 'bratt' since none but the Celtic occur texts from areas of Viking settlement.

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WAY, A., 1852. Arch J,

medieval

Anrrlicus, Promntorium Parvulorum sive C. alfridus, 3 vols., Camden Society, XXVp LIV9 LXXXIX9 London.
a Saxon brooch found in Warwickshire",

"Notice of IX, p. 179.

The Labors of the Months in Antique and WEBSTER,J. C. 9 1938, Studies in the Humanities. Mediaeval Art, North Western University IVY Evanston and Chicago. WEBSTER,L., L., WEDGLVOOD, 1967. 1905-6. See ELLIS DAVIDSON, H. R., WEHSTER,L., "Notes on Celtic
of

1967.

remains
the

Transactions House, Barlaston", Club, XL, pp. 148-150. Field

North

found at the Upper
Staffordshire

WE LB

C., 1847. LOVED,

Notes in WRIGET9T.,

1847, PP. 54-6" London.
W., *

WELLS, C., 1964.

Bones. Bodies and Disease,

J., RYLAND, J. F. C., 1922-3; 1923-4. SeeEU WELLSTO0D, S, BARNARD,E. A. B., WELLSTO0D,F. C., BARNETT, T. G., 1922-3,
1923-4"

"The Anglo-Saxon WELLSTOOD, F. C., 1935" cemetery at Stratford-uponAvon", Report of the Proceedint*s of the Annual Ileetinp of the Birthplace Trustees Weds. April and Guardians of Shakespeare's

24.

No page numbeM
MTE

"Frankish royal tombs in the Cathedrals of J., 1964. XXXVIII, pp. 201-16. Antiquity, Cologne and Saint-Donis",
R. E. M. t 1931. See DIINNING, G. C. 9 WHEELER, R. E. M. 1931. t Dorset, Maiden Castle, Report of the Society of London, XII. of Antiquaries Research

Wem,

WHEELER, R. E. M. 9 1943" Committee of the

D. C. v 1931. WEMßSTER, WHITELOCK, D., 1930.

Surrey,

London. Wills, Cambridge. revised

Anglo-Saxon

The Beginnings WHITELOCK, D. p 1965. Harmondsworth. edition,

of EneTlish Society,

"Jutish cemetery near W. Wj3lTIl'iG, W., STEBBIlQG, P. D., 1929. T, Pinglesham, Kent", Arch Cent, XZ, pp. ' 113-25.

663.
WILD, J. P.,
the WILIZAN, WILKINS,

1968.
1969.

"Clothing

in the North-West
Jahrbiicher,

Roman Empire",

Bonner

CLVIII,

provinces
pp.

166-240. 1969. 4 vols.,

of

A. B., D. AIMLondon.

See APPLEYARD, H. M., Concilia Ma nae Britanniae

WILDMAN, A. B., et Hiberniae,

"Examination of the largest WIIXfl S, E., KELL, E., LOGS, J., 1860. barrow in the Anglo-Saxon cemetery on Bowcombe Down, Isle of Wight, JBAA=, XVI, pp. 253-61. E. See SINGER, C., HOLMYARD, J., WILIIAMS, T. F., 1956-70. HALL, A. R., WILLIAMS, T. F., eds., 1956-70. "Report WILSON, A. E., 1940. Sussex, August 1939", on the excavations on Highdown Hill, Ste, LXX}CI, PP- 173-203. in early S_ AC,

"Sussex, Kent and the continent WILSON, A. E., 1942-3" Sx AC, L=II, Saxon times", pp. 55-72. "Excavations WILSON, A. E., 1950. LXXXIX, pp. 163-78. on Highdown Hill,
Anrloý-Saxon

1947",

A Guide to the WILSON, A. E., 1958. No. 1. Museum Publications,

Collection,

Worthin

WILSON, D. M., 1956. at Melbourn WILSON, D. M., ed.,
tied Arch, It

L ijJ9
1957.
pp.

"The initial excavation of an Anglo-Saxon cemetery PCaAS, XLIX, pp. 29-41. Cambridgeshire", "Medieval
147-51"

Britain

in 1956.

Pre-Conquest",

'Medieval WILSON, D. M., ed., 1958a. Med Arch, II, pp. 183-90.

Britain

in 1957"

Pre-Conquest",

brooches "A group of penannular WILSON, D. T1., 1958b. ThirViking Con, ess, pp. 95-100. period",

of

the

Viking

"Medieval WILSON, D. M., ed., 1959" Ned Arch, III9 pp. 295-302. "Medieval WILSON, D. M., ed., 1960a. Tied Arch, IV, pp. 134-9" WILSON, D. Hot 1960b. London.

Britain Britain

in 1958- Pre-Conquest", in 1959"

Pre-Conquest",

The Anglo-Saxons

(Ancient

Peoples

and Places),

"Medieval WILSON, D. M., ed., 1961. Med Arch, V, pp. 309-12.

Britain

in 1960.

Pro-Conquest",

864.
Ornamental Alo-Saxon WILSON, D. M., 1964a. Museum, London. the British Metalwork 700-1100 in

WILSON, D. M., 1964b. pp. 265-8. WILSON, D. Not 1965.

"A ring

of Queen Arnegund",

Germania, XLII,

Appendix to BIDDLE, m. 0 1965, pp. 262-4. Britain in 1965. Pro-Conquest",

"Medieval WILSON, D. N., ed., 1966. Ned Arch, X, pp. 168-76. WILSON, D. M., 1968. "Anglo-Saxon

Vor - tnd Fxihaeschichte, Studien zur europAischen See CLAUS, M., HAARNAGEL, W., RADDATZ, K., eds.,

carpenters'

tools",
pp. 1968. 143-150.

"Medieval WILSON, D. N., ed., 1969. Had Arch, XIII, pp. 230-43" WILSON, D. M., 1970.
WILSON, D. M., WILSON, D. M., WILSON, D. M., 1971. 1973.

Britain

in 1968.

Pre-Conquest",

See FOOTE, P. G., WILSON, D. N.,
The Anglo-Saxons, See SMALL, A., , 0. ) 1966. revised THOMAS, A. Viking edition, C., Art,

1970.
Harmondsworth.

WILSON, D. M.,, 1973" London.

KLINDT-JE1TSE

burial "An Anglo-Saxon WINGRAVE, W., 1931. on Hardown Hill", History Proceedings and Archaeological of the Dorset Natural Sooiot LIII, pp. 247-9" ,

The Illustrated H., 3.930. WOODRUFF, Cambridge, U. S. A. WOOLF, H. B., 1949.

Manuscripts

of Prudentius, 1949" A. D.

See KIRBY, T. A.,

WOOLF, H. Be, eds.,

in English "Decorated initials WORNALD,F., 1945" 900-1100", Arch, XCI, pp. 107-135.
WORNALD, F., Cep 1952. es, English London. Drawings of the Tenth

manuscripts
and Eleventh

"The decoration", F., 1958WORNALD, Be, ed., 1958. See COLORAVE, F., WOBMALD, 1959" The Benedictional

The Paris

Psalter,

pp. 14-15London. pp. 25-36. ,

of St.

Ethelwold,

The Bayeux Tauest "Style and design", WORNALD,F., 1965. See STEMON, Sir F. M., ed., 1965. WRIGHT, D. H., WRIGHT, J., ed., London. ed., 1967. The Vespasian Psalter, FRED. Me Dictionary,

1898-1905.

The English Dialect

6 vols.,

865.
WRIGHT, T., 1845, The Archaeolop*ical Album, London.

WRIGHT, T., II9

"Discoveries 1847. PP- 50-9.

of Anglo-Saxon

antiquities",

_-,

"On some early notices relating WRIGHT, T., 1849a. St. Albans", Arch, X)CC[II, pp. 262-8. of

to the antiquities

"Saxon remains found in Gloucestershire", WRIGHT,T., 1849b. IV, pp. 50-4. WRIGHT,T., 1849-53"
WRIGHT, T., 1852.

_,

Untitled,
The Celt,

PSAý, II,

PP- 58-9"

the Roman and the Saxon, London. A Volume of Vocabularies
jewellery JBAA1, =,

WRIGHT, T., ed., 2 vols.,

1857-73. Liverpool.

(and A Second Volume,

WRIGHT, T., 1865. East Riding

"On Anglo-Saxon of Yorkshire",

found at Seaver pp. 329-32.

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the

Anglo-Saxon WRIGHT, T., ed., 1884. 2nd edition, ed. and collated

and Old Ennlish vocabularies, London. R. P. Walcker, 2 vols.,

See GREIN, C. W. M., WÜLCKER,R. P., WÜLC"iM, R. P., 1872-1933" HECHT, H., eds., 1872-1933" WtLCKER, R. P., WYATT, J., ed., 1884. Untitled, See WRIGHT, T., ed., 1884.

1870-3.

PSA49 V, pp. 33-5" at Kempston, Beds. ", _, Oxford.

"Saxon Antiquities WYATT, J., 1886. II9 PP. 171-3. WYLIE, W. M., 1852. yARWOOD,D., 1952. Fairford English Later Graves,

Costume, London. English Romanesque Sc pture 1140-1210,

ZARIJECKI, G., 1953" London.

ttomnnnnqtin Scutptur. n at Lincoln XZKIP Gag 1963. ZARNi, 1.incoln Mi.nni: nr 1'. -mphlntn, 2nd Sorionp No. 2v ZUPITZA, 3.9 od. v 1880. Elfries

Cnthnýirnl. ý Lincoln. Berlin. decua"g

Grammatik und Glossar,

"Altenglische ZIIPITZA, Jag 1887. ZfdA, XXXI, pp. 1-27.

Glossen zu Abbos Clericorum

FIGURES

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XXXII

TO MS Cotton

Tiberius

Dv fol.

34

XXX1II

BM MS Cotton

Tiberius

By fol.

47

XXXIV

BM MS Cotton

Tiberius

Cvi

fol.

9

XXXV

IE24MS Cotton

Tiberius

Cvi

fol.

13

XXXVI

Gosforth

Cross

XXXVII

Sculpture

from

Codford

St.

Peter

I

XXYVIII

Sculpture

from

Slýi3burn

XXXTX

Sculpture

from

Middleton

XL

Franks

Casket,

front

XLI

Franks

Casket,

left

side

XLII

Alfred

Jewel

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