European Commission DG Education and Culture

Study on Innovative Learning Environments in School Education
Final Report September 2004

European Commission DG Education and Culture

Study on Innovative Learning Environments in School Education
Final Report September 2004

Content
Summary in English Résume en Français 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 5. 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.3 Introduction Background of the study The assignment of RAMBOLL Management Report content Methodology Data-generating activities Analytical framework for analysing the use of ICT in innovative learning environments : What constitutes an innovative learning environment? The overall external structural framework The organizational/institutional setting The learning environment Actors/Individuals External structures influencing the activities of schools Special factors to be considered Political and societal tendencies National and regional ICT strategies and action plans Support and funding Infrastructure The curriculum Teacher education External supply of educational material Pedagogical styles & trends Internationalisation 1 1 2 4 5 5 5 7 10 12 14 17 17 21 22 24 25 28 31 32 32 33

The organizational/institutional settings influencing teachers‘‘ and pupils’’ work 35 Organizational framework for innovation in learning 35 Organization of teachers’’ activities –– co-operation 36 School strategies and action plans 37 Staff competence development strategies 39 School culture 42 Management style 43 Learning material 44 Technology 45 Finance 46 Architecture 47 Parents’’ involvement 48 Theories and models of Innovative Learning Environments Innovative Learning Environments –– Theoretical foundation New models or paradigms facilitated by advances in ICT From instructionism to constructionism Innovative learning environments –– new learning activities 49 49 50 51 54

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.4 6. 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7 6.3.8 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3

The organization of the learning situation 54 Encouraging joint enterprises and the shared construction of knowledge 57 Strengthening pupils’’ responsibility for their own learning process 61 Differentiating the learning process according to different learning styles and levels of knowledge 65 Involving external parties in the learning situation 70 Supporting pupils in experimenting and exploring 75 Evaluation and assessment 76 Changes in teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles 79 Shift in learning paradigm –– main findings and characteristics 82 Case studies of Innovative Learning Environments Methodological remarks Coal Tyee Elementary School, Nanaimo, British Columbia Framework conditions The organizational setting (Rules) The educational setting (Resources) The learning environment The learning situation Performance measurement and evaluation The future Sources De Lindt , the Stiphout area of Helmond Framework conditions The organisational setting (Rules) The educational setting (Resources) The learning environment The learning situation Performance measurement and evaluation The future Sources Gylemuir Primary School, the Municipality of Edinburgh Framework conditions The organisational setting The learning situation Performance measurement and evaluation The future Sources Maglegårdsskolen, Municipality of Gentofte Framework conditions The organisational setting (Rules) The educational setting (Resources) The learning environment The learning situation Performance measurement and evaluation The future Lavinia, City District of Les Corts, Barcelona Framework conditions The organisational setting (Rules) The educational setting (Resources) 83 84 86 88 90 92 94 98 102 104 105 106 108 110 111 113 115 120 120 122 123 124 127 135 139 140 140 141 143 145 148 150 152 156 157 161 162 165 169

2 Annex A: Bibliography .7 6. 8.6.6.6.3 7.4 6.7 6. 7.6.6 6.1 7.5 6.2 7. the Municipality of Stockholm 179 Additional case studies and information concerning schools using ICT for learning 198 The Future School Why try to imagine the future? Main challenges facing the schools OECD scenarios Scenarios of the Scenario and Forecast Report Imagining the future school and working out school strategies Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Recommendations for future actions and study 201 201 203 208 241 242 245 245 248 7.1 8.6.4 7.8 The learning environment 171 The learning situation 173 Performance measurement and evaluation 177 The future 177 Sources 178 Vinstagårdsskolan.5 8.6.8 6.

html . Extracts from the document are permitted provided a clear reference of the source is given.info and http://europa.Disclaimer: This study has been produced by Ramboll Management The authors of the report are chief consultant Lotte Grünbaum. More information on European cooperation in the fields of 'ICT use in education' and 'eLearning' may be found at: www.int/comm/education/policies/2010/objectives_en.eu. consultant Marianne Pedersen and chief consultant Steffen Bohni Nielsen The study does not necessarily reflect the official views of the European Commission.elearningeuropa.

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The common features in all of the theoretical definitions of innovative learning environments are their emphasis that a learning environment is a place or community in which a number of activities are occurring with the purpose of supporting learning. So what is perceived as an innovative Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In addition. The study was carried out between August 2002 and December 2003. The reason for this broad conception is that it was found that a broad analysis model was needed in order to be able to capture the many elements that are potentially involved when talking about the development of innovative learning environments. and the constructivist/constructionist concept of knowledge and learning on the other. Even though global common features do exist. The conception of learning environment in the present study adds a sociological dimension to these common features as learning environments are understood as different learning situations which are characterized by activities taking place between teachers and pupils in a framework that comprises a number of structural factors consisting of resources and rules.Summary in English RAMBOLL Management has carried out a ““Study on Innovative Learning Environments in School Education”” for DG Education and Culture. The following is a summary of the findings. They also emphasize the constructionist view of learning and the use of ICT. different learning traditions. The study included both theoretical and empirical investigation. conclusions and recommendations of the study: What is an Innovative Learning Environment? The concept or notion of a learning environment as a separate topic has become current in educational discourse in close connection with the emerging use of ICT for educational purposes on the one hand. The objectives of the study were to provide: A general description of the current situation in the European Union concerning the creation of new and innovative learning environments An in-depth study of innovative learning environments through case studies A future-oriented analysis identifying trends in school development A set of recommendations for future action and study The study has been carried out within the elearning initiative and elearning Action Plan and hence with a special focus as to the role of new information and communication technologies in the new learning environments. different policies and different ways of managing school systems exist throughout Europe. Innovative learning environments can be defined and described in numerous ways. and that actors can draw upon a number of resources when doing so. The purpose of the study was to provide DG Education and Culture with a comprehensive analysis and report concerning the existing innovative trends in theories behind and practices in innovative learning environments in school education throughout the European Union. there are major differences in researchers’’ perceptions concerning innovative learning environments. depending on the frame of reference being used.

The model intends to encompass and present both the driving forces and the barriers that affect the development of innovative learning environments. Using this framework. including curricula. The educational setting comprises the pedagogical and didactical methods in use. The starting point of the model is that a particular innovative learning environment exists within a given overall societal framework.learning environment in one country might not be viewed as such in another. local school strategies. So. it was decided not to choose or apply a single definition of Innovative Learning Environments. and vice versa. The organizational/institutional setting in which learning takes place 3. viewed as the individuals involved in the learning activities. funding. Rules are not to be regarded simply as rigid rules to be strictly followed by individuals. The organisational setting involves the economy and the funding of the learning environment. how head teachers manage schools. 2. Instead. this external structure consists of the national school policies. 1. how teachers sanction pupils’’ actions. Structures in this regard are considered to consist of rules and resources. an interpretive framework for understanding the term rather than a specific definition was used. for example Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and the development of educational material. the management and administration. and its strategies for accommodating the knowledge society. The overall external structural framework such as national school policies. Most importantly. The overall structural framework gives rise to both constraints and opportunities in relation to the application of new pedagogical practises and the use of ICT in learning. Other general framework conditions may also play an important part in understanding the development and characteristics of a particular innovative learning environment. and the content and learning objectives of the instruction being delivered. Rules vary according to the context. The model also presumes that innovative learning environments can be analysed in terms of both their educational and their organisational settings. how teachers interpret legislation and the curriculum. the country’’s general level of technological development. It was assumed that in principle all learning environments can be analysed using this general model. It assumes that changes can happen at all of the four levels described and that changes at the four different levels create or influence new challenges and possibilities when they change existing structures. Hence. etc. they should be interpreted as (mainly culturally-bound) habits and practices. Examples of the practical manifestation of rules are teacher’’s and pupils’’ roles in the learning environment. how teachers and pupils communicate. precisely because a given pedagogical tool or application of ICT in learning might be innovative in one setting but might not be considered to be so in another. how teachers cooperate. in order to analyse and describe new learning environments. the technological infrastructure. it was made possible to capture different modes of innovation in learning and in the use of ICT in schools. Actors/individuals. The learning environment in which learners and teachers interact and in which pedagogical theories and practises and ICTs are used in different ways to improve learning 4. the roles of the teachers and pupils. The model assumes that four levels of focus are important for the description and understanding of innovative learning environments.

These might consist of money. certain differences did exist. guides and supervisors for students. hence on working with the communication and collaboration skills of the children. In conclusion. at the same time there is an increased focus on social participation.communication between a class and teacher A might be very different from the communication between the same class and teacher B. This aspect seems to be closely linked to a second substantial feature in the new learning paradigm. whereas throughout the European Union the acceptance of the shift in pedagogical ideas and objectives was widespread. organisational. namely the differentiated learning approach which emphasises the need to plan learning differently for different pupils allowing them to work according to their individual learning style and learning pace. an important aspect of the migration towards another learning paradigm is a shift in focus away from content and the ability to reproduce facts and knowledge towards the creation of knowledge. Authoritative resources are those vested in individuals. It was found that even if only minor differences of perception existed across countries concerning the new possibilities. buildings and learning material. First they relate to a change in the focus on the pupils’’ as individuals and their opportunities for becoming more active and taking more responsibility for their own learning process. Innovative Learning Environments were seen and analysed as the on-going results of a mix of societal. the shift in the learning paradigm in terms of the actual dissemination and prevalence of the new learning activities actually being undertaken in schools proved to be limited. The way the paradigm shift actually occurs was found to be contextdependent. Experimenting and exploring are important aspects of this active construction of knowledge. there is a change in the perception of the appropriate role of the teacher from a ‘‘teacher to pupils’’ process of knowledge processing to more ‘‘group-based’’ or ‘‘pupil to pupil’’ processes where the teachers act more systematically as advisors. institutional and individual change processes. Resources are of two kinds. for example the right to lead by virtue of occupying a managerial post or being the best in a given field through the possession of particular knowledge or skills. This new learning paradigm represents a shift away from instructionism towards constructivism. Allocative resources are material. That is. Towards a new learning paradigm The findings of the study suggested a clear move towards a new learning paradigm. In practice. as well as providers of the frameworks for the learning process of their students. Fourthly. computer equipment. The possession of resources is not crucial. A perception based on a more broad perception of intelligence than the traditional literary intelligence. both working alone or together with peers. the constructionist visions for the future education system seem to be globally shared. Thirdly. in this study. Fifthly. authoritative and allocative. Pupils should be active participants in constructing knowledge through their own learning process. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The common perceptions relate to a number of potential changes. but the ability to use them is.

it is a major goal which is jointly recognised as representing a priority need among both central and local government politicians. but as one that has broader ramifications encompassing lifelong learning and a general adaptation to the requirements of the knowledge society. school management. There is a general awareness in all Member States that ICT potentially has an important part to play in promoting social inclusion and equal opportunities. and that the ICT infrastructure of schools has been improved considerably in the past few years. the organizational/institutional setting and the learning situation in which learners and teachers interact and in which Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Within the European Union. the new learning paradigm involves the belief that learning will benefit from reorganizing the learning situation in ways that transcend the traditional curriculum-bound ways of thinking. parents and pupils. It was found that in all the Member States there is a strong tendency in the direction of integrating ICT into education. particularly in relation to the shortages generally observed among the southern European countries. In addition. This means that even where the integration of ICT in schools is not yet underway. Instead. and therefore represented innovative learning environments in their particular contexts. The purpose of the case studies was to study examples of how innovative learning theories are being implemented in practise in different national contexts. multidisciplinary approaches and in radically modified time planning and organization of both learning and teachers’’ work. The study however concludes. that this could be the case. The role of ICT in the new learning paradigm Finally.Sixthly. The findings of the study confirm a strong public involvement in promoting the integration of ICT in learning in the school environment. which was developed for the study. a case study was carried out in Canada. As far as many of the informants of the study were concerned. the study has also demonstrated that there are considerable differences in the level of infrastructure that exist among the Member States. Case studies of innovative learning environments Six best practice case studies were undertaken as part of the study. Great Britain (Scotland). case studies were carried out in Denmark. The case studies were carried out within the overall framework analysis model. teachers. it is concluded that ICT could either support and preserve traditional methods. Considerable emphasis is therefore being placed on ICT in education as a key instrument in meeting the EU goals of being at the forefront of the knowledge society of the future. or else be a means of or a support for changing the pedagogical methods and the organization of the learning situation. each case study comprehends an analysis of the interrelated effects of the interaction of the overall external structural framework. ICT is the initiator of a revolution within the education system. that the use of ICT holds a great potential for supporting or even being the transforming agent for the above mentioned shifts towards a new learning paradigm. school administrators. but that it is by no means inevitable. The concept is not exclusively regarded as a learning tool that is confined to educational settings. which were selected on the grounds that they were considered innovative in their own national settings. Nevertheless. Holland. it seems to be commonly perceived. Hence. The case study objects are concrete schools. Spain (Catalonia) and Sweden.

parents’’ attitude. visions and concrete objectives for their development. They also exemplified reorganised learning environments in which the teachers were experimenting with different compositions of pupil groups in different learning situations. Interestingly. none of them was found to have developed specific ICT strategies. but this is rather the result of the external structures such as national or regional ICT strategies. Factors such as local school strategies. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . A distinction is drawn between three different models of school organisation. problem-solving and shared responsibility. secure and comfortable. which encompass values. In addition –– and just as importantly –– some of them have reorganized their teachers’’ activities quite radically due to the fact that traditional classroom-based teaching has been modified away from individual working towards team-based work and collaboration and at some of the schools in new physical spaces. While it was found that the traditional school usually represents the bureaucratic system. supervision and regularity. since all of them emphasized the importance of holistic values. It was not the intention to base any generalisations on the case studies. the organisational setting has to be involved. School strategies and action plans In all 6 case schools they have developed strategies and action plans. control. The new modes of organization of the teachers’’ activities have been grounded in deliberate pedagogical objectives. First of all the case studies support the expressed standpoint of the study. Nevertheless. i.and not the ICTs alone .encourage the development of innovative learning environments.e. namely the bureaucratic. At some of the schools there is a clear expectation that the predominance of the community based type of organizational format will create a solid and secure learning environment for all children. based on the presumption that children learn much better when they feel safe. that many variables . the social and the community models.new pedagogical theories and practises and ICTs are used in learning activities. these were supposed to essentially represent experiences from which some lessons might be learnt. The teachers have undergone training to support (or lead) the process of integrating ICT into learning. The case study schools have reorganized both pupils’’ and teachers’’ activities in different ways. the schools examined during the case studies typified the social or community systems. combined with the strategic use of ICT encourage the emergence of new learning environments. Models of school organisation and teachers’’ activities The study posits that in order for the new modes of learning and organisation of the learning situation to have a permanent effect. This was found to show that the organisational setting is an important factor when innovative learning environments are developed. the case studies did demonstrate that some developments characterised all the new learning environments examined that were independent of the national contexts. instead. however. Some of the schools teach across age groups and subjects with mixed pupil groups that are sometimes very large and sometimes very small. What is new compared to before is that via the defined values attention is increasingly being paid to children’’s well-being as a precondition for learning. the schools’’ management style. emphasising basic values such as efficiency.

it is mainly up to the individual teachers to request and participate in ICT courses. The case studies indicate a shift in the role of the school management away from pure administration towards an HR manager and pedagogical innovation role. What differs equally from school to school is how the strategies for competence development among the staff are formulated either by the management or by the teachers working in conjunction with the management. Some believe that teachers should learn how to use ICT as a tool for themselves before learning how to use it in pedagogical contexts. It was therefore found that the management style has been crucial for the creation of the innovative learning environments and that an important precondition for schools becoming more innovative was the creation of shared values. either in a peerlearning framework or independently. But in those which do not. Up to this point everybody is in agreement. There are numerous ways of doing this. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Managers need to be visionary and to have the power to take action. One way to make this happen is via the continuous development of teachers’’ competencies. School culture and management style The role of school management is important as it is changing from traditional ““schedule planners”” towards managers of change as regards implementing new organizational structures and exploring the possibilities of setting up new ICT infrastructure and value managers as regards being drivers of implementing new pedagogical practises. At some of the schools personal growth plans are being used as a tool in the development of the competencies of the teachers in order to follow up their progress. though some do. The role of teachers and pupils The role of teachers at the case schools tend to change from a ‘‘teacher to pupils’’ process of knowledge processing to more ‘‘group-based’’ or ‘‘pupil to pupil’’ processes where the teachers act more systematically as advisors. ranging from managements who acted as initiators of change and then gave the teachers the responsibility of carrying out the changes to those who both initiated changes and managed the process afterwards. Many schools demand no special ICT competencies from their teachers. since the main prerequisite for the use of ICT for pedagogical purposes is the existence of ICT competencies among the teachers. In the case studies we saw different examples of management styles. The case studies are all examples of schools whose management has considered a transformation in the school culture as being an important priority and a primary precondition for being able to implement change. guides and supervisors for students. as well as providers of the frameworks for the learning process of their students. In some schools. but there is no unanimity concerning the methods and sequence according to which the teachers ought to be educated. Teacher education is viewed as being one of the most crucial factors for the successful use of ICT for learning and teaching.Staff competence development strategies The implementation of both new methods and ICT naturally presupposes that the teachers possess both the practical qualifications and to a great extent the imagination and creativity that is needed to generate new and innovative thinking and carry it into practice. teachers participate in national programmes or local or regional courses. but also have to be able to delegate responsibility to teachers. while some believe the opposite.

For instance. It emerged that all the innovative schools visited were characterized by a high degree of parental engagement. but at different rates and on different topics. Classroom activities are being reorganised so that the pupils either work together in smaller groups or individually. Pupils are also supposed to be collaborating more. Parental involvement The case studies also covered the issue of parental involvement. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . either in the course of the school year or during their schooling as a whole. or they can be given responsibility for achieving larger objectives. and is not treated as an objective in itself Pupils are expected to have an active participation in their own learning process. particularly concerning how the parents assessed the emergence of innovative learning environments and the part they played in this process. Classroom activities are being reorganised across subjects. both the shift away from a teacher-directed towards a learner-directed focus. Responsibility for their own learning process can be given to pupils at several levels. pupils work using the same computer program at the same time.In the new learning paradigm. It can also be explained in terms of a number of external structures such as the political and societal tendency to emphasize the importance of the abilities of pupils to work independently in later life as well as learning to learn in order to be able to keep on learning throughout their lives. whose managers viewed the involvement of the parents as being essential to their work. advisors and stimulators ICT is used as a tool or medium for the realization of objectives. The case schools are all caracterized by using differentiated learning approaches based either on the organization of the classroom and the learning situation or solely on the use of ICT. increasing their social participation and improving their communication and collaboration skills. they can learn to take responsibility for minor assignments that must be completed over a very short space of time. and can be explained by. Several main characteristics are common to all these learning situations and projects: Teachers have specific objectives for what they are doing. which in some cases are also familiar to the pupils Teachers play an important role in creating well-defined frameworks for their pupils’’ activities Teachers have important roles as guides. Parents contributed considerably to the development of the schools. we have seen several different examples of how teachers have organized differentiated learning situations in which the children take responsibility for their own learning process and in which ICT plays an important role These examples mainly fall into the category of assignments that are limited in time and scope. For instance. one of the purposes of learning is to increase the responsibility that pupils take for their own learning process. This implies. In the case studies. and away from a teacher-centred to a learner-centred focus.

which take various forms in relation to education such as pupil-to-pupil. videos or the like. much of the available material has not been specifically produced for the purpose of supporting an educational curriculum. These are necessary in order to challenge the pupils and differentiate the learning in accordance with the individual needs of the pupils. some schools organize the purchase of digital learning material in such a way that for instance their library will test and review it. The study also showed that ICT was an excellent tool for creating environments in which pupils could experiment and explore in many different ways and for many different purposes. For the individual teacher. teacher-to-teacher. The role of ICT The six case studies supported the study’’s preliminary conclusion that Innovative Learning Environments are not so much dependent on the use of ICT itself. and did not use specific CSCL programmes. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In order to overcome these obstacles. The resulting change proved to be much more closely connected with management style. pedagogical approaches and new learning styles. Learning material The schools make use of and to some extent develop their own didactic learning material to be used in the schools’’ learning activities independently of the available financial resources.At the school visited the parents interviewed tended to express much more concern about the ‘‘teaching methods’’ being employed in the innovative learning environments than the teachers and pupils interviewed. but rely more on the reorganization of the learning situation and the teachers’’ ability to use technology to support pedagogical learning objectives that transform traditional learning activities. On the basis of the case studies. e. teacher education. Multimedia and exchange tools make it possible to perform additional collaborative exercises such as twinning. it was clear that if ICT is being used to support new and innovative ways of learning and thereby create innovative learning environments throughout a school. This indicated that there is still a long way to go before the use of digital learning material could become a natural component of the learning process in schools. is very difficult to get an overview of the available material and its quality. attitudes among teachers. class-to-class or school-to-school relationships. Secondly. ICT was not an objective for its own sake but merely represented a mechanism for attaining specific learning objectives. In all the best practice examples. digital learning material that is used in place of books. We found that one of the major problems facing schools and pupils in using digital learning material was the copyright issue.g. Learning material is vital for some applications of ICT. the process has nothing to do with ICT as such. we found quite a number of instances in which ICT was being used as a method or instrument for the pupils’’ shared construction of knowledge and joint enterprises. we also found quite a number of examples in which particular pedagogical methods had been used to instigate collaboration among pupils where ICT played only a minor role. there are certain barriers to overcome in using ICT for teaching and learning purposes. however. First of all it. Even though most schools did not consciously base their group activities on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning as the underlying concept. Nevertheless.

across entire schools. it has a major positive influence on the organisation of learning and on the activities carried out. interpreted as meaning both time and money. In the beginning it takes more time for teachers to plan the learning process in novel ways. ““The fewer. ICT is used more seldom for game playing. great attention is paid to the pupil/computer ratio. but does not in itself determine the direction of change. the innovative use of technology often only occurs within the classroom. It was found that when such rebuilding has taken into account the pedagogical objectives of a school. the better”” appears to be the widespread belief. their age etc. Some of the case schools had been radically rebuilt. regardless of how a school was constructed.in the more resource weak societies . Some of the general characteristics of new and innovative learning environments in which ICT is being used to support new ways of learning can be summed up as follows: The use of ICT gives schools the opportunity to network with other institutions –– both cultural institutions and other educational institutions –– and gives them access to new forms of learning / multimedia material. Architecture The case studies investigated the proposition that an important physical dimension exists in relation to novel ways of learning. in order for them to be a natural learning resource there has to be natural access. Nevertheless. As regards the new pedagogies. although such activities have been observed.in the expressed desire for new and more flexible physical boundaries. However. but the practitioners in the schools do not necessarily share this view. whether or not computers are being used. This is either materialised in architectural innovations or . and not very often between classrooms. the opinion among teachers and management was that innovative learning environments could be created anywhere. Finance Finance. Competence development and extra preparation time are some of the activities that schools are forced to Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . ICT is often a catalyst of change. namely that new modes of learning can be initiated by the introduction of new physical tools. are equally important. and information seeking. whereas others were conducting their activities in fairly traditional school buildings. According to many experts. plays a significant role in the evolution from a traditional mode of organizing teaching and learning towards a new and innovative learning environment. As regards the computer facilities. The physical disposition of the computers. ICT is used mainly for collaborative and communication activities.Another technology issue is the fact that in most countries. buildings or physical space. simulation and other experimental uses. the teaching personnel requires (and in some of the cases have been provided with) new physical surroundings to be able to experiment with differently sized groups instead of always performing the traditional classroom teaching. or between schools and other institutions and organisations. Across the case studies we have seen how the constructionist learning approach as well as the introduction of ICT into learning challenges the physical surroundings of the schools. the architecture and construction of the schools has an important part to play in the organization and realization of learning. production.

they decide to set up home areas instead of having conventional classrooms. which is quite expensive and is also difficult for the schools. Secondly. pupils receive no credit for the new competencies they have developed. Some of the schools we visited had received initial funding for such rebuilding from the local authority. such as the ability to identify and solve problems. Other competencies. It has not been the purpose of this study to evaluate whether Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . a common denominator of the cases is that the ICTs have facilitated networking and internationalisation of the schools. This persistent sticking to tradition causes some problems for the Innovative Learning Environments in several respects. Many schools bought their computers or received the funding to buy them 3-5 years ago. they stress the individual learner’’s abilities and intellectual powers for their own sake.. but in most cases the rebuilding had taken place in response to the need for a new school or for additional space in an existing school. Networking and internationalisation Finally. In these instances the school management has been able to influence how the rebuilding was to take place. some teachers and parents are still nervous about the new methods’’ capability of ensuring that the pupils studying in schools where they are being used will perform as well in national exams as pupils from schools which use traditional methods of learning. Among parents and in the public debate about the innovative learning environments doubt has been expressed about the schools’’ ability to develop the competences required for pupils to pass national exams as well as those from schools that rely on more traditional methods of learning. are not or only to a limited degree covered in the national exams. Secondly. even though these are regarded as being important for the future development of our societies. Main challenges of the innovative learning environments In the study we found that schools are experiencing the need to evaluate and assess their pupils’’ learning processes in new ways corresponding with the new learning methods that are not reflected in the present system of national examinations in any country in Europe. as well as their ability to express themselves orally or in writing. Later on.expend extra money on. collaborate. as they are not accustomed to being custodians of computer equipment or budgeting for this kind of purchase A final aspect of school finance relates to the physical rebuilding of schools if. which are encompassed by the new learning paradigm. Another financial issue relates to the purchase of new computer equipment and the replacement of old equipment. Till example. the existing evaluation and assessment methods all primarily focus on content and on a set of objectives concerning the pupils’’ knowledge of any given subject and their ability to reproduce it. be creative etc. the ICTs make possible cooperation in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning again either within or across national boundaries. present material in novel ways. Schools either engage in cooperation with other schools of with cultural institutions in their own countries or abroad. these additional activities become less necessary as the teachers become more accustomed to the new ways of working and develop new work habits. First of all. for instance. while neglecting their social and other abilities. This kind of equipment has to be replaced regularly. First of all. and the schools´ ability to support and teach children with special needs has also been doubted.

teachers are sometimes resistant to new modes of organization because it will involve more work for them in the beginning. and their experience was that it was worth doing in the long run because their work became much more interesting and their motivation increased. the pupils of two of the case schools have proven to be excellent achievers in national exams as they were both second best in national comparisons. parents expressed their doubts about the value of reorganizing across time. conservative driving forces that make fundamental changes in the nature of the school unlikely. mainly because they were very concerned about whether their children would score as highly in national exams as children from other schools. three sets of main driving forces prevail concerning the likely future of the school. These fundamental evolutionary forces are: 1. For instance. For instance. and hence creating a qualitative development of education that still takes place within core learning institutions. and 3. 2. or for children who simply find school work boring and have trouble motivating themselves. Also it is stated that there are many possible directions that the evolution of the various school-related subsystems might take in the future (such as the competence development of teachers. or which help them to check their spelling. The purpose was to provide input into a discussion of the influence on school development of various future driving forces . driving forces pushing for a focus on change processes. The management at some of the schools have pointed out in response to this criticism that especially those children with learning problems have benefited from the use of differentiated learning approaches. Children with other special needs such as those with motor problems can also benefit from using ICT. The study argues that a thorough analysis of these main evolutionary forces would reveal the key factors as related to the values arising out of a variety of expectations and hypotheses concerning causality relationships between multiple factors and the development of schooling.that is. and. driving forces pushing for a phasing out of the institutionalised manner in which schools currently operate. It was found that at a generalised level. a dilemma seems to exist between the desire to reorganize the mode of learning and a number of other considerations. and that these would probably depend on what values would prevail. to touch what kinds of responses to the challenges facing schools are likely to be selected. In addition. In some of the schools visited. use of ICT.. children with dyslexia are benefiting from computer applications that can support their reading skills by reading texts aloud to them. age and subjects.these doubts are justified. centralized/decentralized school legislation. in each of these subsystems. development of pedagogies). These three driving forces were identified as the main driving forces which are creating challenges for the future school. the teachers we spoke to had all benefited in many ways from working more closely with their colleagues. Some teachers of the schools claim that ICT has proved to be a robust tool for helping children with special needs of all kinds. and the nature of the resultant school models. the role of school management. They can more easily get away with this in an individualized learning environment. grow and flourish in society in general. specifically. However. However. Also doubts have been expressed as regards that the structure and motivation required for independent learning may be more difficult for children with learning problems. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The future school The study identified trends and worked through possible scenarios involving the future school.

pupils and their parents. A cross country. More empirical based studies on how the new learning practises influence the ability to learn and develop of different groups of pupils is needed. 4. and will determine the most important objective of the school. teachers. 2. A handbook presenting the practical use of ICT for different purposes in different educational disciplines across the EU would benefit school managers. There is a need for studies of integration of knowledge of child development and learning in educational policies. More studies on good practise examples of the existence and promotion of networks between cultural and educational institutions is needed. 6. In other words. 11. that the development of the future organization. Training of teachers in basic knowledge about and use of ICT should be accompanied by training in new pedagogies and innovative learning practices. There is a need for a both theoretical and empirical based study on the special conditions that distinguish school management from other management. 5.Accordingly it is argued. 10. 8. in future learning environments will largely be governed by how different values continue to coexist or conflict in the schooling subsystems. in particular if it could 7. There is a need for developing new tools for assessment of learning progress in relation to the innovative learning environments. the findings and conclusions of the present Study on innovative learning environments give occasion for the following recommendations from RAMBOLL Management: 1. 3. A guide to cultural institutions that provide good material and experiences for educational purposes across Europe should be produced. that the responses made to the current challenges will shape the future school. A mapping and comparison of practical tools for school management in everyday life and in particular of change processes is needed. curriculum. role of teachers and pupils etc. Recommendations As regards future action and study. Educational policies should be based in knowledge of children’’s development and its relationship to learning patterns. 9. cross institutional dialogue on innovative learning environments should be intensified ’’ Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

Toutes les définitions théoriques sur les environnements éducatifs nouveaux soulignent que l’’environnement éducatif est un endroit ou une communauté où il y a des activités qui ont pour but d’’appuyer l’’éducation et la formation et que les acteurs peuvent bénéficier des ressources. Bien qu’’il y ait des marques communes.Résume en Français RAMBOLL Management a fait l’’étude ““Study on Innovative Learning Environments in School Education””. L’’objectif était de donner à la DG Education et Culture une analyse comprehensive sur les tendances innovatrices actuelles dans le domaine des théories et des pratiques qui gouvernent les environnements éducatifs nouveaux dans les écoles de l’’Union européenne. Cette conception large est nécessaire afin de donner un modèle d’’analyse large afin d’’englober tous les éléments qui font partie du développement des environnements éducatifs nouveaux. La conception de l’’environnement éducatif de cet étude ajoute la dimension sociologique aux traits communs c’’est-à-dire les environnements éducatifs sont des situations éducatives qui se caractérisent par des activités qui impliquent des professeurs et des écoliers dans un cadre qui est composé d’’un nombre de composantes et qui comprend des ressources ainsi que des règles. L’’étude comprend autant des recherches théoriques que des recherches empiriques. les perceptions des chercheurs dans le domaine des environnements éducatifs nouveaux varient. Egalement elles soulignent la conception constructrice de l’’éducation et de la formation ainsi que l’’usage des TIC. De plus. Ce qui suit c’’est le résumé des trouvailles. des conclusions et des recommandations de l’’étude. les politiques et la gestion des systèmes scolaires en Europe sont différentes. L’’étude a été élaborée entre le mois d’’aout 2002 et le mois de décembre 2003. L’’objectif de l’’étude est de donner: une description générale de la situation dans les pays membres dans le domaine de la création d’’environnements éducatifs nouveaux et innovateurs une étude profonde des environnements éducatifs nouveaux à l’’aide d’’études de cas une analyse d’’avenir qui identifie les tendances dans le domaine du développement de l’’école des recommendations en ce qui concerne les plans d’’action et les études L’’étude fait partie de l’’initiative elearning et du plan d’’action elearning et elle donne attention au rôle des technologies nouvelles d’’information et de communication (TIC) pour les environnements éducatifs nouveaux. Les environnements éducatifs nouveaux peuvent être définés et décrits de plusieurs manières selon le cadre de référence. Qu’’est-ce que c’’est l’’environnement éducatif nouveau? Le concept de l’’environnement éducatif est devenu un sujet dans le discours éducatif comme l’’usage des TIC pour des buts éducateurs et l’’impact de la conception constructrice des connaissances et de l’’éducation. Ce Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . l’’Etude des Environnements de Formation Nouveaux dans l’’Ecole pour DG Education et Culture. les traditions de formation.

L’’usage de ce cadre permet d’’englober des modes d’’innovation différents dans l’’éducation et dans l’’usage des TIC dans les écoles. En conséquence. pour analyser et décrire les environnements éducatifs nouveaux nous avons utilisé un cadre au lieu d’’une définition afin de comprendre le terme technique. les stratégies pour les écoles locales et le développement du matériel d’’enseignement. etc. Le modèle doit comprendre et illustrer tant le moteur que les obstacles qui sont susceptibles d’’influencer le développement des environnements éducatifs nouveaux. le programme de formation. comment les enseignants sanctionnent-ils les actes des écoliers? Comment les enseignants Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Cette structure externe comprend les politiques nationales dans le domaine. Le modèle suppose que des changements puissent avoir lieu sur les 4 niveaux ci-dessus et que les changements vont créer ou provoquer encore des défis et des possibilités quand ils modifient les structures préexistantes. En principe. Il y a 4 domaines qui sont importants pour décrire et comprendre les environnements éducatifs nouveaux : le cadre externe tel que les politiques de l’’éducation nationale. L’’usage d’’un instrument pédagogique donné ou l’’usage des TIC dans l’’éducation peut être innovateur dans un contexte quelconque tandis que dans un autre contexte cet usage n’’est pas considéré comme innovateur. le financement. Le cadre donne autant des contraintes que des possibilités en ce qui concerne l’’usage des pratiques pédagogiques nouvelles et l’’usage des TIC en la formation. la gestion de l’’école. un environnement éducatif nouveau donné fait partie d’’un cadre externe donné. D’’autres conditions relatives au cadre influencent le développement et les caractéristiques d’’un environnement éducatif nouveau également. l’’infrastructure technologique. Les règles ne sont pas simplement des principes rigides qu’’il faut obéir. Le cadre éducatif comprend les méthodes pédagogiques et didactiques. Le modèle suppose qu’’on peut analyser les environnements éducatifs nouveaux tant sous l’’aspect du cadre éducatif que sous l’’aspect du cadre organisationnel. on peut analyser tous les environnements éducatifs en utilisant ce modèle général.qui est un environnement éducatif innovateur dans un pays ne l’’est pas dans un autre pays. C’’est la raison pour laquelle nous avons décidé de ne pas choisir ou de nous servir d’’une définition des environnements éducatifs nouveaux. Le cadre organisationnel comprend le financement de l’’environnement éducatif. Les rôles des enseignants et des écoliers dans l’’environnement éducatif est un exemple des règles. le niveau général du pays en ce qui concerne l’’usage des technologies et les stratégies pour promouvoir la société de la connaissance. Il faut plutôt les considérer comme des habitudes et des pratiques (qui sont principalement liées à la culture). Dans le contexte actuel les structures sont considérées comme les règles et les ressources. les rôles des enseignants et des élèves et le contenu et les objectifs de la formation. le contexte organisationnel/institutionnel dans lequel l’’éducation a lieu l’’environnement éducatif où les élèves et les professeurs interagissent et les théories et les pratiques pédagogiques ainsi que les TIC sont utilisés de manières différentes afin d’’améliorer la formation les acteurs/les individus qui sont engagés dans les activités de formation D’’abord.

Ce paradigme représente le changement d’’une attitude instructive vers une attitude constructrice. il s’’avère que la dissémination des activités de l’’éducation nouvelle dans les écoles qui ont participé à l’’étude est limitée tandis que l’’acceptation du fait que les idées pédagogiques ont changé est répandue dans tous les pays membres. Il y a deux types de ressources –– les ressources authoritatives et les ressources allocatives. Les idées communes concernent quelques changements éventuels : D’’abord. comment les directeurs des écoles gèrent-ils les écoles?. La possession des ressources n’’est pas décisive tandis que la capacité de les utiliser est décisive. Vers un nouveau paradigme dans l’’éducation et la formation? Les trouvailles de cette étude révèlent un changement sensible vers un paradigme nouveau dans l’’éducation et la formation. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Les ressources allocatives sont des ressources matérielles c’’est-à-dire les fonds. En même temps on met l’’accent sur la participation sociale et donc sur les capacités de communication et de collaboration des enfants De plus. la perception du rôle convenable de l’’enseignant a changé. Les règles sont déterminées par le contexte. par exemple la personne qui occupe un poste de résponsabilité a le droit de gérer ou la personne qui est le plus qualifié dans un domaine donné parce qu’’elle possède des connaissances ou des compétences particulières. En pratique. l’’idée que les écoliers sont des individus et qu’’ils ont la possibilité de devenir actifs et de prendre la responsabilité de leur propre processus de formation Il paraît que cet élément est étroitement lié à un autre aspect du paradigme nouveau de formation celui de l’’approche de la formation différenciée qui souligne le besoin de planifier la formation selon les écoliers différents ce qui leur permet de travailler selon leur facon d’’apprendre individuel et à leur rythme. Les écoliers doivent participer d’’une facon active à la construction des connaissances à l’’aide de leur processus de formation à eux. Ce n’’est plus un processus ““enseignant-à-écolier”” mais plutôt un processus ““écolier-à-écolier”” où l’’enseignant sert de conseiller. les ordinateurs. Les ressources authoritatives sont acquises par une personne. Il paraît que les visions constructrices du système d’’éducation et de formation de l’’avenir sont partagées par les acteurs dans tous les pays membres. Il s’’avère que le changement du paradigme dépend du contexte. Un autre aspect important de ce changement de paradigme est le fait qu’’on met l’’accent sur la création de connaissances plutôt que de mettre l’’accent sur le contenu et la capacité de reproduire des faits. L’’étude montre que si les idées sur les possibilités nouvelles ne varient pas beaucoup selon le pays il y a quand même certaines différences. La communication entre une classe quiconque et l’’instituteur A peut varier de la communication entre la même classe et l’’instituteur B. et les matériels d’’enseignement. tout en travaillant seul et en travaillant avec leur pairs.collaborent-ils?. Cette perception se base sur une conception large de l’’intelligence par rapport à la conception traditionnelle qui reconnaît l’’intelligence littéraire. les bâtiments. de guide et de superviseur d’’une facon systématique pour les étudiants et en même temps il fournit le cadre du processus de formation. Les experiences et les recherches sont des aspects importants de cette construction active de connaissances. comment les enseignants interprètent-ils la législation et le programme de formation.

des études de cas ont été faites au Danemark. les enseignants. Au contraire. chaque étude de cas contient une analyse des effets liés les uns aux autres causés Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . les TIC peuvent servir d’’appui à et de la préservation de méthodes traditionnelles au lieu de faciliter ou appuyer la transformation des méthodes pédagogiques et de l’’organisation de la situation de formation. il semble qu’’il y a la perception que les TIC peuvent appuyer ou devenir l’’agent transformateur pour l’’ensemble des changements vers le paradigme nouveau de l’’éducation et la formation nouvelle mentionnée cidessus. Néanmoins. en particulier nous avons remarqué le manque d’’infrastructure dans les pays de l’’Europe du Sud. Les objets des études de cas concernes écoles qui ont été sélectionnées parce qu’’elles étaient innovatrices dans le contexte national et par conséquent. le paradigme nouveau se base sur la croyance dans le suivant : la formation va profiter d’’un réorganisation de la situation de formation qui sort de la la facon traditionnelle qui est liée à un programme de formation. aux Pays-Bas. c’’est la conclusion de l’’étude que ceci est une possibilité mais ce n’’est pas inévitable. en Espagne (Catalogne) et en Suède. Les TIC dans le paradigme nouveau de formation Finalement. une étude de cas a été fait au Canada. les hommes politiques. Etudes de cas sur les environnements de formation innovateurs Six études de cas font partie de l’’étude principale.Finalement. Le but des études de cas était d’’examiner des exemples de l’’implémentation des théories sur la formation innovatrices dans des contextes nationaux différents. La réorganisation est obtenue à l’’aide des approches multidisciplinaires et de l’’usage des méthodes restructurées afin de planifier le temps en ce qui concerne tant les activités de formation des étudiants que le travail de l’’enseignant. on souligne que les TIC est un instrument clé dans l’’éducation pour atteindre le but de l’’UE : être en première position dans la société de la connaissance de l’’avenir. Beaucoup d’’informateurs de cette étude trouvent que les TIC représentent le commencement d’’une révolution dans le système éducatif. Les TIC ne sont pas seulement considérées comme un outil dans la formation qui est reservé au contexte éducatif. C’’est-à-dire même si les TIC ne sont pas encore intégrées dans les écoles. les parents et les écoliers reconnaissent que cette intégration est un besoin prioritaire. le concept est large et il comprend la formation tout au long de la vie ainsi que l’’adaptation générale aux demandes de la socitété de la connaissance. Par conséquent. Cependant. Dans tous les pays membres l’’intégration des TIC dans l’’éducation se manifeste et l’’infrastructure dans les écoles a été améliorée pendant les dernières années. les administrateurs. en Grande Bretagne (Ecosse). Dans les pays membres on reconnaît que les TIC sont importantes pour la promotion de l’’inclusion sociale et des possibilitiés pour tous. elles ont représenté des environnements de formation nouveaux. les directeurs d’’école. En conséquence. En faisant les études de cas nous avons utilisé le modèle de l’’analyse de cadre qui a été développé pour l’’étude principal. Dans l’’Union européenne. l’’étude montre qu’’il y a des différences sensibles entre les pays membres en ce qui concerne le niveau de l’’infrastructure. De plus. Les trouvailles de cette étude confirment que l’’administration est très engagée dans la promotion de l’’intégration des TIC dans l’’éducation aux écoles.

nous avons observé qu’’aucunes des écoles n’’ont prépare une stratégie des TIC. Nous n’’avons pas eu l’’intention d’’établir des généralisations à la base des études de cas. il n’’est plus un travail individuel mais plutôt un travail en groupes. Les écoles examinées dans les études de cas organisent les activités destinées aux élèves et aux enseignants d’’une manière nouvelle. De plus.par l’’interaction du cadre principal. De plus. les pratiques. Les enseignants avaient pris des cours afin de pouvoir appuyer le processus d’’intégration des TIC dans le processus de formation mais ceci était le résultat des facteurs externes tels qu’’une stratégie des TIC régionale ou nationale. les visions et les objectifs de leur propre développement. elles devaient représenter des expériences desquelles on peut tirer une leçon. Ces méthodes d’’organiser les enseignants sont justifiées par les objectifs pédagogiques. les méthodes nouvelles de formation et d’’organiser la situation de formation doivent impliquer le contexte organisationnel. et les TIC nouveaux sont appliqués. Néanmoins. l’’école traditionnelle est une copie d’’un système bureaucratique qui met l’’accent sur des valeurs fondamontales tels que l’’efficacité. c’’est la base de l’’éducation. Ceci repose sur l’’idée que les enfants sont prêts à apprendre quand ils se sentent sécurisés. De plus. Cependant. Les écoles examinées dans les études de cas représentent le système social ou communautaire étant donné qu’’elles ont toutes souligné l’’importance des valeurs holistes. elles représentent un environnement de formation où les enseignants font des expériences : ils établissent des groupes d’’écoliers différents dans des situations de formation différentes. Ce qui est nouveau par rapport au passé c’’est que les valeurs définies servent d’’expliquer le fait qu’’on apporte beaucoup d’’attention au sentiment de bien-être des enfants. La stratégie des écoles locales. le style de gestion du directeur d’’école et l’’attitude des parents encouragent l’’apparition d’’un environnement de formation nouveau conjointement avec l’’usage stratégique des TIC. c’’est-à-dire le modèle bureaucratique. Nous avons observé que normalement. Les enseignants de certaines écoles donnent des leçons à travers les groupes d’’âge et à des groupes mixtes qui sont parfois très larges et parfois très petits. d’’autres écoles ont réorganise les activités des enseignants d’’une facon radicale étant donné que l’’enseignement traditionnel basé sur la salle de classe a changé. Les stratégies des écoles et les plans d’’action Toutes les écoles des études de cas ont préparés des stratégies et des plans d’’action qui comprennent les valeurs. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . le contrôle. Modèles de l’’organisation de l’’école et des activités des enseignants Afin d’’avoir des effets permanents. social et communautaire. Il faut distinguer entre les trois modèles d’’organisation dans les écoles. la supervision et la régularité. le contexte organisationnel/institutionnel et le contexte des interactions des enseignants et des écoliers dans lequel les théories pédagogiques. les études de cas ont prouvé que quelques développements observés dans tous les environnements de formation nouveaux ne sont pas dépendants du contexte national. quelques écoles ont changés les espaces physiques. C’’est la proposition explicite de cet étude que beaucoup de facteurs non seulement les TIC encouragent le développement des environnements de formation nouveaux ce qui est confirmé par les études de cas. la capacité de résoudre les problèmes et partager la responsabilité. Ceci prouve que le contexte organisationnel est un facteur important pour le développement d’’un environnement de formation nouveau.

En même temps elle doit prendre à sa charge la gestion des valeurs et être le moteur dans l’’implementation des pratiques pédagogiques nouvelles. . Les études de cas indiquent que le rôle du directeur de l’’école a changé. ils doivent être capable de déléguer la responsabilité aux enseignants. Il y a des directeurs qui sont l’’animateur des changements et qui ont donné la responsabilité de l’’execution des changements aux enseignants par la suite. Dans les études de cas nous avons vu des styles de gestion différents. Stratégies pour le dévéloppement des compétences du personnel L’’implementation des méthodes pédagogiques nouvelles et des TIC demande que les enseignants possèdent tant les qualifications pratiques que l’’imagination et la créativité pour produire les réflexions innovatrices et les utiliser en pratique. Il y a plusieurs options : dans quelques écoles les enseignants participent à des programmes nationaux ou ils suivent des cours locaux ou régionaux. Les uns pensent que les enseignants doivent apprendre à utiliser les TIC eux-mêmes avant de les utiliser dans un contexte pédagogique tandis que d’’autres sont de l’’avis contraire. D’’autres directeurs mettent en oeuvre les changements et sont le gérant du processus. Les rôles des enseignants et des écoliers Dans les écoles examinées dans les études de cas nous avons vu que le rôle de l’’instituteur tend à changer du processus ““enseignant-à-écolier”” qui traite Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . ou bien dans un cadre de ““formation pair-à-pair”” ou bien au niveau individuel. Les études de cas donnent des exemples des écoles dont le directeur considère que la transformation de la culture de l’’école est important et la condition de l’’implementation des changements. il a le rôle d’’un gérant des ressources humaines et de l’’animateur des innovations pédagogiques. Les stratégies du développement des compétences du personnel varient. Beaucoup d’’écoles ne demandent pas que les enseignants possèdent des connaissances en TIC tandis que d’’autres le demandent. on fait le suivi-évaluation du progrès des enseignants. Pour ce qui est des écoles qui ne le demandent pas les enseignants doivent demander des cours en TIC eux-mêmes. Il y a un désaccord en ce qui concerne les méthodes et le rythme selon lesquels il faut former les enseignants. La culture de l’’école et le style de gestion La gestion de l’’école est important étant donné que son rôle a changé : elle n’’établit pas seulement le calendrier du travail elle doit gérer les changements lors de l’’implementation de la structure organisationnelle nouvelle et lors de l’’exploration des possibilités offertes par l’’installation des TIC nouvelles. Dans quelques écoles les plans de développement du personnel sont utilisés comme un outil pour développer les compétences des enseignants. A cette intention il faut dévélopper les compétences des enseignants d’’une facon continue. Il est établi que le style de gestion est essentiel pour la création des environnements de formation nouveaux et que la condition pour que les écoles puissent devenir innovatrices c’’est la création des valeurs partagées. C’’est l’’opinion généralement recue que la formation des enseignants est un facteur essentiel pour que l’’usage des TIC dans la formation réussisse étant donné que les enseignants doivent être capable d’’utiliser les TIC afin de pouvoir les utiliser pour des fins pédagogiques.Dans quelques écoles on espère que le style communautaire va créer un environnement de formation solide et sécurisé pour les enfants. il ne s’’occupe pas seulement de l’’administration. parfois elle est rédigée par le directeur parfois par les enseignants et le directeur. Les directeurs doivent être visionnaires et capables d’’agir mais en même temps.

Par exemple. Les écoles de cet étude se caractérisent par l’’usage des approches de formation différenciées qui se basent sur l’’organisation de la salle de classe et la situation de formation ou seulement sur les TIC. En élaborant cet étude nous avons vu que les instituteurs organisent les situations de formation différenciées où les enfants prennent la responsabilité de leur propre processus de formation et où les TIC ont un rôle important. Les exemples mentionnés ci-dessus se trouvent dans la catégorie de tâches d’’une durée et d’’une étendue limitée. Par exemple. Il y a des charactéristiques communs à tous les projets de formation : Les instituteurs ont des objectifs précis et parfois ils les ont communiqués aux élèves Les instituteurs jouent un rôle important parce qu’’ils fournissent les cadres des activités des élèves Les instituteurs sont les guides.les connaissances vers un processus ““écolier-à-écolier”” basé sur le groupe où les enseignants ont la fonction systématique de conseillers. ils peuvent apprendre à prendre la responsabilité pour des petites tâches qu’’ils doivent finir dans une durée très limitée ou ils doivent atteindre des objectifs importants ou bien pendant l’’année scolaire ou bien pendant la période scolaire entière. Cela implique le changement d’’une approche ””l’’enseignant dirige”” pour une approche ””l’’écolier dirige”” et le changement d’’une approche ““l’’enseignant au centre”” pour une approche ““l’’écolier au centre””. La raison de ce changement est aussi le fait que les structures politiques et communautaires tendent à souligner la capacité des élèves de travailler d’’une facon indépendante plus tard dans la vie et la capacité d’’apprendre afin qu’’ils sont capables d’’apprende tout au long de la vie. Il s’’avère que les écoles examinées se caractérisent par l’’engagement fort des parents. en particulier les vues des parents sur l’’apparition des environnements de formation nouveaux et sur leur rôle dans ce processus. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . On peut responsabiliser les élèves en ce qui concerne leur propre processus de formation à plusieurs niveaux. L’’engagement des parents Les études de cas comprennent également l’’engagement des parents. Selon le nouveau paradigme de formation l’’un des objectifs de la formation c’’est de responsabiliser les élèves en ce qui concerne le processus de formation. les élèves peuvent s’’occuper du même logiciel en même temps mais but at different rates et sur des sujets différents. de guides et de superviseurs des étudiants et en même temps ils encadrent le processus de formation des étudiants. les conseillers et ceux qui stimulent les élèves Les TIC sont utilisées comme un outil pour atteindre les objectifs et elles ne sont pas l’’objectif Les instituteurs s’’attendent à ce que les élèves participent d’’une facon active dans le processus Les instituteurs s’’attendent à ce que les élèves travaillent ensemble afin de déveloper la participation et d’’améliorer leurs compétences de communication et de collaboration Les activités dans la salle de classe sont réorganisées à travers les matières Les activités dans la salle de classe sont réorganisées de sorte que ou bien les élèves travaillent ensemble en petits groupes ou bien ils travaillent tous seuls.

à l’’attitude des instituteurs. etc. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . c’’est-à-dire les matériaux digitaux utilisés au lieu des livres. c’’est difficile de se faire une vue des matériaux qui sont à la disposition et de la qualité. nous avons vu des exemples où on a utilisé des méthodes pédagogiques particulières afin d’’animer la collaboration des élèves mais ici le rôle des TIC était réduit. Dans les écoles examinees les parents qui ont été interviewés sont très preoccupés des méthodes d’’enseignement qui sont utilisés dans l’’environnement éducatif nouveau par rapport aux instituteurs et aux élèves qui ont été interviewés. . Le rôle des TIC Les 6 études de cas confirment la conclusion préliminaire de l’’étude : les environnements éducatifs nouveaux ne dépendent pas tellement de l’’usage des TIC elles-mêmes mais plutôt de la réorganisation de la situation de formation et de la capacité des enseignants de se servir de la technologie pour appuyer les objectifs pédagogiques qui change les activités de formation traditionnelles. Les matériaux didactiques Les écoles se servent de et jusqu’’à un certain point développent leur propre matériaux didactiques sans tenir compte des fonds qui sont à la disposition. Ceux-ci sont nécessaires afin de défier les élèves et afin de différencier les activités d’’enseignement de sorte qu’’ils correspondent aux besoins individuels des élèves. En ce qui concerne l’’enseignant il y a certains obstacles à surmonter quand on souhaite d’’utiliser les TIC dans l’’enseignement. D’’abord. à la formation des instituteurs. Les matériaux didactiques sont vitaux pour certaines applications des TIC. et aux approches pédagogiques. Deuxièmement. Afin de résoudre ce problème il y a des écoles qui ont organisé l’’achat des matériaux didactiques digitaux de la manière suivante : un unité comme la bibliothèque vérifie et présente son critique des matériaux. Nous avons constaté que les écoles et les élèves font face à un problème difficile quand ils utilisent les matériaux didactiques digitaux : à savoir le copyright.Les parents contribuent au développement des écoles et les directeurs d’’écoles trouvent que l’’engagement des parents est indispensable à leur travail. A la base des études de cas nous constatons que bien qu’’on utilise les TIC pour appuyer des méthodes de formation nouvelles et innovatrices et crée des environnements éducatifs nouveaux le processus n’’a rien avoir avec les TIC en tant que telles. Tous les exemples pratiques montrent que les TIC ne sont pas l’’objectif mais elles servent d’’outil pour atteindre des objectifs de formation. des vidéos. souvent les matériaux n’’ont pas été produits pour appuyer un programme de formation. Cela peut durer longtemps avant que l’’usage des matériaux didactiques digitaux devient un élément naturel du processus de formation dans les écoles. Bien que la plupart des écoles ne basent pas les activités destinées aux groupes sur Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) comme l’’idée sous-jacente et bien qu’’elles n’’utilisent pas les programmes CSCL nous avons vu plusieurs écoles où les TIC ont été utilisées par les élèves en commun pour construire les connaissances et pour de projets communs. Néanmoins. Les changements sont associés au style de gestion du directeur de l’’école.

la simulation ou d’’autres expériences. Concrètement par des innovations architecturales ou dans des sociétés qui sont dépouvues de ressources par un souhait explicite d’’avoir des cadres physiques nouvelles et flexibles. entre les écoles ou entre l’’école et une autre organisation Les TIC sont utilisées pour travailler ensemble ou pour des activités de communication.De plus. nous avons observés ces activités. enseignant-à-enseignant. Pour ce qui est de la technologie dans beaucoup de pays on donne beaucoup d’’attention au taux d’’élève/ordinateur. ““Le moins sera le meilleur”” c’’est la conviction mais les professionnels des écoles ne sont pas du même avis. des bâtiments nouveaux ou des espaces nouveaux. pour la production et pour la recherche de renseignements Les TIC sont rarement utilisées pour des jeux. Les environnements éducatifs nouveaux et innovateurs où les TIC sont utilisées pour appuyer les nouveaux modes de formation se caractérisent par : L’’usage des TIC permettent aux écoles de faire le réseau avec d’’autres institutions –– tant les institutions culturelles que d’’autres institutions d’’enseignement et elles peuvent utiliser des méthodes de formation nouvelles/ des matériaux multimédias Cependant. leur âge. La disposition physique des ordinateurs. Les outils multimédias et les outils d’’échange permettent l’’execution des exercises en commun comme le ““twinning”” qui prend beaucoup de formes par rapport au contexte éducatif : des relations élève-à-élève. Cependant. c’’est-à-dire les nouvelles formes de formation peuvent être initiées par l’’introduction des outils physiques nouveaux. classe-à-classe ou école-àécole. l’’étude montre que les TIC étaient un outil excellent pour la création d’’un environnement où les élèves peuvent experimenter de manières différentes et pour des buts différents. Nous avons constaté que si l’’on considère les objectifs pédagogiques lors de la rénovation de l’’école elle a une influence positive sur l’’organisation de la formation et les activités. Parmi les écoles de cetet étude quelques-uns ont été rénovés tandis que sur d’’autres écoles les enseignants ont travaillé dans des locaux traditionnels. Dans les études de cas nous avons vu que l’’approche de formation constructrice ainsi que l’’introduction des TIC dans l’’enseignement sont un défi aux locaux de l’’école. Néanmoins. souvent l’’usage innovateur de la technologie a lieu dans la salle de classe et rarement entre les salles de classe. les enseignants et les directeurs Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Il faut que les ordinateurs soient accessibles pour qu’’ils deviennent une ressource de formation naturelle. etc. Selon beaucoup d’’experts l’’architecture et la construction des écoles sont importantes pour l’’organisation et l’’execution de l’’enseignement. En ce qui concerne la pédagogie nouvelle les enseignants demandent un milieu extérieur nouveau afin pouvoir experimenter avec des groupes différents au lieu de donner des lecons traditionnels dans la salle de classe. Souvent les TIC sont l’’agent catalytique des changements mais elles n’’indiquent pas la direction des changements Architecture Les études de cas ont examinés la proposition qu’’il y a une relation entre la dimension physique et les nouvelles formes de formation. cela est important aussi.

Les écoles s’’engagent dans une collaboration avec d’’autres écoles ou avec des instituts culturels dans leur pays ou à l’’étranger. Deuxièment. D’’abord. le directeur de l’’école pouvait influencer la rénovation de son école. Fonds Les fonds –– ce qui comprend tant le temps que les fonds –– sont importants pour le développement de l’’environnement éducatif nouveau et innovateur. Quant à l’’achat des ordinateurs nouveaux. Par la suite. aucuns système d’’examen en Europe ne les reflète. Nous avons rendu visite à des écoles qui ont recu des fonds pour la première phase de cette rénovation des authorités locales mais souvent la rénovation a eu lieu parce qu’’on avait besoin d’’une école nouvelle ou parce qu’’on avait besoin d’’élargir une école pré-existante. Par exemple. certains enseignants et certains parents s’’inquiètent à cause de la nouvelle méthode de formation : est-elle capable d’’assurer la performance des écoliers qui vont à une école qui a choisi ces méthodes? Lors des exa- Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . qui font partie du paradigme nouveau ne sont pas couvertes par les examens nationaux ou jusqu’’à un certain point. beaucoup d’’écoles ont acheté leurs ordinateurs ou elles ont recu les fonds il y a 4-6 ans. Actuellement. les méthodes d’’évaluation pré-existantes mettent l’’accent sur le contenu et sur un ensemble d’’objectifs qui concernent les connaissances des élèves dans une certaine matière et sur leur capacité de les reproduire et de s’’exprimer oralement et par écrit. D’’autres compétences telles que celle de pouvoir identifier et résoudre des problèmes. celle de présenter un sujet d’’une manière nouvelle. D’’abord. celle de collaborer avec les autres élèves. Il faut remplacer les équipements d’’une manière régulière ce qui est très coûteux et difficile pour les écoles parce qu’’elles ne sont pas habituées au rôle de l’’inspecteur des ordinateurs et elles n’’ont pas l’’habitude de préparer des budgets pour de tels achats. Les écoles doivent utiliser des moyens extraordinaires pour le développement des compétences et pour des heures de préparation extraordinaires. Les défis aux environnements éducatifs nouveaux Nous avons constaté que les écoles doivent evaluer les processus de formation des élèves d’’une manière nouvelle qui correspond aux méthodes de formation nouvelles. Réseau et l’’internationalisation Finalement. les élèves ne recoivent pas de reconnaissance des compétences qu’’ils ont développés bien qu’’on considère qu’’elles sont importantes pour le développement de la société. Dans ce cas. Au début les enseignants ont besoin de beaucoup de temps afin de planifier le processus d’’une manière nouvelle. Le dernier aspect financier c’’est la rénovation de l’’école si on décide d’’établir des zones au lieu des salles de classe traditionnelles. ces activités extraordinaires ne sont pas nécessaires parce que les enseignants sont habitués aux méthodes nouvelles et ils ont développé des habitudes de travail nouvelles. être créatif. elles soulignent les compétences de chaque élève et ses capacités intellectuelles tandis qu’’elles négligent les compétences sociales. à l’’aide d’’un ordinateur ou non. en ce qui concerne les écoles examinées dans les études de cas les TIC facilitent le réseau et l’’internationalisation des écoles. les TIC permettent la coopération dans le domaine de ““CSCL””.d’’école trouvent qu’’on peut créer les environnements éducatifs nouveaux partout sans tenir compte de la construction de l’’école. Le maintien persistant des traditions pose des problèmes pour les environnements de formation nouveaux. Deuxièment. etc.

les enfants qui ont la dyslexie bénéficient des applications d’’ordinateur qui appuie leur capacité de lire : l’’ordinateur lit à haute voix ou il contrôle l’’ortographe de l’’enfant. En réponse à cette critique les directeurs des écoles ont souligné que ces enfants ont bénéficiés de l’’usage des approches de formation différenciée.mens nationaux. des moteurs qui promeuvent la fin de la manière institutionalisée dans laquelle les écoles travaillent. la performance sera-t-elle au même niveau que celui des écoliers qui fréquentent une école qui se sert des méthodes de formation traditionnelles? Les parents et le public mettent en doute la capacité des écoles qui ont créé les environnements de formation nouveaux de développer les compétences des élèves de sorte qu’’ils puissent passer les examens nationaux. les élèves de 2 écoles qui ont été examinées par cet étude sont des achevés excellents lors des examens nationaux étant donné qu’’ils sont venus en deuxième quand on a fait la comparaison au niveau national. C’’est notre avis que les systèmes qui sont associés aux écoles (comme le développement des compétences des ensei- Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . De plus. 2. on a mis en doute la capacité des écoles d’’appuyer et de former les enfants qui ont des besoins spéciaux. Par exemple. Les enfants qui ont d’’autres besoins spéciaux tels que des problèmes relatifs à la motricité peuvent bénéficier de l’’usage des TIC. des moteurs qui mettent l’’accent sur les processus de changement et sur la création d’’un développement qualitative de la formation qui va avoir lieu dans des institutions d’’enseignement centrales. De plus. Le but est de fournir des exposés pour la discussion sur l’’influence de différentes forces sur le développement de l’’école –– autrement dit de considérer comment répondre aux défis des écoles et la nature des modèles d’’école qui seront le résultat de ce processus. L’’école de l’’avenir L’’étude a identifié des tendances et a élaboré des scénarios qui traitent de l’’école de l’’avenir. Cependant. Nous avons vu 3 ensembles principaux de moteurs qui vont probablement gouverner ou défier l’’école de l’’avenir c’’est-à-dire : 1. l’’âge et les matières parce qu’’ils s’’inquiètent des examens de leurs enfants. A long terme il vaut la peine parce que leur travail est devenu plus intéressant et ils sont motivés. les parents mettent en doute la valeur de la réorganisation à travers les heures. Cependant. parfois les enseignants s’’opposent aux méthodes d’’organisation nouvelles parce qu’’au début il faudra travailler plus. De plus. C’’est notre avis qu’’une analyse approfondie des moteurs primaires vont réveler les facteurs clés qui sont liées aux valeurs qui proviennent des attentes et des hypothèses relatives aux relations entre plusieurs facteurs et le développement de la formation. des moteurs traditionalistes qui vont s’’opposer aux changements fondamentaux de la nature de l’’école. Par exemple. les enseignants de cette étude disent qu’’ils ont bénéficié de la collaboration étroite avec les collègues. Il s’’avère qu’’il y a un conflit entre le souhait de réorganiser les méthodes de formation et d’’autres considérations. on a mis en doute la formation indépendante par rapport aux enfants qui ont des problèmes d’’apprendre ou qui trouvent que le travail à l’’école est ennuyeux. Les enseignants de quelques écoles affirment que les TIC sont un outil robuste en ce qui concerne l’’appui aux enfants qui ont des besoins spéciaux. Ce n’’est pas l’’objectif de cette étude d’’évaluer ces doutes. Il est possible que ces élèves seront capables de surmonter les problèmes dans un environnement éducatif nouveau. 3.

de l’’organisation. Il faut des études qui traitent des facteurs qui différencient la gestion d’’une école de celle des autres instituts/entreprises tant au niveau théorique qu’’au niveau empirique. 8. 11. et le développement des pédagogies) peuvent s’’orienter dans des directions différentes. Comment influencent-elles la capacité des groupes différents d’’apprendre et de développer ? 2. Il faut élaborer des études sur l’’intégration des informations sur le développement de l’’enfant et sur la formation dans les politiques éducatives. 7. Il faut encore des études empiriques sur l’’influence des nouvelles pratiques. 10. le directeur d’’école. Autrement dit les réponses aux défis actuels vont faconner l’’école de l’’avenir. 3. La nature des systèmes dépend probablement des valeurs prédominantes dans la société tant au niveau général qu’’au niveau des systèmes eux-mêmes.gnants. les enseignants. des rôles des enseignants et des écoliers seront gouvernés par les valeurs différentes –– si les valeurs coéxistent ou elles sont en conflit les unes avec les autres dans les systèmes scolaires. Il faut baser les politiques éducatives sur la connaissance du développement de l’’enfant et ses relations au processus de formation. La formation des enseignants en les TIC et l’’usage pratique doit être suivie de formation en les pédagogies nouvelles et les pratiques de formations innovatrices. 6. Il faut une déscription et une comparaison des outils pratiques qu’’on peut utiliser dans la gestion quotidienne de l’’école en particulier dans le domaine des processus de changement. du programme de formation. Il faut des études sur les exemples des réseaux entre des institutions culturelles et éducatives et sur la promotion de ces réseaux. 5. Les directeurs d’’école. Il faut développer des outils nouveaux pour évaluer le progrès de formation dans les environnements éducatifs nouveaux. Il faut renforcer le dialogue international et le dialogue entre les institutions dans le domaine des environnements éducatifs nouveaux Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . législation scolaire centralisée/décentralisée. Il faut élaborer un guide pratique sur les institutions culturelles en Europe qui produisent les matériaux pédagogiques et les informations pratiques. En conséquence. c’’est notre avis que le développement des environnements éducatifs nouveaux. 9. 4. Recommandations Les trouvailles et les conclusions de cette étude des environnements éducatifs nouveaux ont mené aux recommandations suivantes : 1. l’’usage des TIC. les écoliers et les parents bénéficieront d’’un guide pratique de l’’usage des TIC pour des buts différents dans des disciplines éducatives différentes dans les pays membres.

Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

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The purpose of the elearning Action Plan. which was adopted in May 2000. More information on European cooperation in the fields of 'ICT use in education' and 'eLearning' may be found at: www. The study does not necessarily reflect the official views of the European Commission. in the realization of the potential of e-learning methods and resources for lifelong and universallyavailable learning. consultant Marianne Pedersen and chief consultant Steffen Bohni Nielsen.info and http://europa. The 4 main foci of the elearning initiative are: To provide high-quality information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and equipment in the field of education To improve the standard and level of ICT training for teachers and those involved in the wider workforce To develop high-quality educational content To reinforce ICT-related co-operation and dialogue. pupils and teachers New learning environments for school education Cultural institutions as new learning environments. DG Education and Culture. is to promote opportunities and solutions for the implementation of the elearning initiative.int/comm/education/policies/2010/objectives_en. both in the public and private sectors.html 1. 2002-0997/002-001 EDU ELEARN.elearningeuropa. The study has been produced by Ramboll Management. this study has been conducted within the framework of the European Commission’’s eLearning initiative. whose aim is to encourage Europe to exploit its strengths and overcome the barriers to the take-up of digital technologies.1. 1 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Introduction This final report is the final deliverable for the ‘‘Innovative Learning Environments for School Education’’ project. contract no.eu. which was adopted by the Commission in March 2001 and endorsed by the European Council in May 2001. The intention is to involve all those in education and training. The authors of the report are chief consultant Lotte Grünbaum. The elearning initiative is part of the overall eEurope Action Plan.1 Background of the study As stated above. One of the conclusions of the Action Plan was that there was a deficiency of up-to-date and reliable information concerning the situation in Europe regarding several key issues. This study is Lot 3 of the four studies presented in the context of the e-learning initiative of the European Commission. Extracts from the document are permitted provided a clear reference of the source is given. Therefore the Commission has undertaken strategic studies on innovative approaches in the following areas: Virtual models for European universities Financing ICT equipment and utilisation by schools.

discuss. and build knowledge as a shared endeavour Teachers act as designers of the environment and as mediators.2 The assignment of RAMBOLL Management Following a tender procedure in the spring of 2002. cognitive challenges. e. taking into account the many facets of the innovation process as well as any obstacles encountered. Moreover. The educational focus of the study should address issues such as: Learning as a form of social participation Context-embedded forms of evaluation Changes in the level of control or influence within the learning environment among pupils and between pupils and teachers Changing roles among teachers and pupils. 3. the four overall focus points to be addressed by the study were: A general description of the current situation in the European Union regarding the creation of innovative learning environments An in-depth study of innovative learning environments using case studies A future-oriented analysis identifying trends in pedagogical and other developments in schools A set of recommendations for future action and study. facilitators and nurturers of critical thinking. This Final Report presents the results arising from the priorities stated in the study’’s terms of reference. This report presents the findings of the study. explore. which also includes recommendations concerning the evolution of future developments and mentions potential initiatives that might be undertaken by the Commission. the study has been undertaken in the context of a general requirement for information about the development of innovative learning environments for school education.: Technical innovation (new tools. practitioners. mutual engagement and shared practices. according to the terms of reference: 1. theoreticians and others with an interest in scholastic development. Consideration should be given to how innovative learning environments may contribute to an improvement in the quality of education. research.1. joint enterprises. Case-studies should provide examples and evaluations on how ICT can support the development of school environments in which: Pupils are asked to create. According to the terms of reference. simulators. virtual/physical infrastructures) Organisational settings (innovations in the use of time and space) Pedagogical approaches (context-related approaches instead of a focus on content) 2 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The overall purpose of the study is to provide the European Commission. 2. RAMBOLL Management was asked to carry out the study of innovative learning environments in school education.g. as stated above. However. the DG Education and Culture with a comprehensive analysis and report concerning current innovative trends in the theory and practice of new learning environments for school education. laboratories. and therefore also has the purpose of targeting a large audience of users.

analysis. support for further work in particular fields. games approach) Usability (user-friendliness. websites etc. 4) The following issues should be addressed during the study: A theoretical foundation for the concept of ‘‘innovative learning environments’’. or the dissemination of results A user-friendly and practical guide to existing resources in the field (experts. time planning. Given the very broad scope of the terms of reference and the prior existence of a magnitude of research literature. positive induction. new school architectures and the design of new working environments inside or outside the school The establishment of links between schools and other innovative organisations outside the school system. It should also attempt to build a projective framework for the learning environments of the future Concrete references and analytical descriptions of the relevant research programmes and results for all the countries involved in the study Information. describing the various forms they might take and how they might be affected by organisational and cultural factors Technology-related approaches for encouraging joint enterprises and the shared construction of knowledge. as well as parental involvement either at home or in other contexts Good learning and teaching practices which foster closer collaboration and involve the use of new technologies for the purpose of networking among those who are directly involved in education and those who can contribute to it Identification of good practice or good models that could easily be disseminated and adapted for wider use. basic skills. e. how information and communication technology can best stimulate learning as a form of social participation Approaches that take into account the perceptions. which are concerned with the subject matter of the study. together with any relevant documentation. 3 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . RAMBOLL Management has aimed to deliver a relatively easily accessible overview of the issues covered by the terms of reference. tackling school failure).Social relationships (collaboration rather than instruction. characteristics and the communicative and physical behaviour of pupils Innovative practices occurring in schools in relation to curricula (multidisciplinary approaches. 5) The study should provide the European Commission with: An in-depth review and analysis. which we have only been able to touch on in a cursory manner in this report. projects). concerning innovative learning environments which have been or are currently being implemented and evaluated. such as libraries and museums. relevance to pedagogical uses) Funding schemes Etc. documentation and examples of innovative experiments Examples of innovative experiments. institutions.g. including references to more in-depth analyses of the theories and practices applicable to innovative learning environments. good practice and models Recommendations concerning: o Innovative proposals to take existing studies further o Future and possible actions by the Commission.

Chapter 8 presents a set of recommendations for future action and study. Chapter 5 presents and discusses some of the main new theories and models of learning in the context of the developments currently occurring in schools. Secondly and more importantly. on some of the more innovative pedagogical theories. At the beginning of the report the findings of the study are summarised in both French and English. and how these are likely to influence future school development. the organizational and institutional settings that are influencing the work of both teachers and pupils are discussed. The chief emphasis is on the national approaches and initiatives of the EU Member States concerning ICT integration and e-learning in schools. use of ICT. It also specifies the purpose of the study and describes the general content of the report.3 Report content In accordance with the specifications contained in the Terms of Reference that are summarised above.e. RAMBOLL Management has structured this report into eight chapters. including a special focus on the use of ICT in such environments. The chapter closes with a discussion of the findings emerging from the six studies.1. Chapter 6 is about innovative learning environments in practice. First of all. and describes the six case studies carried out for the overall study. These were chosen to exemplify best practice in new school environments that have based their pedagogies. it explains the analytical framework model which has been developed for investigating the development of innovative learning environments. This chapter is based on desk research plus interviews with government and other national representatives. In Chapter 4. physical architecture etc. Chapter 2 describes the study’’s methodology. Annex A to the study presents a bibliography of available relevant information sources concerning school education and innovative learning environments. the current chapter) introduces the context of the present Study on Innovative Learning Environments in relation to the eLearning Action Plan adopted by the European Commission in March 2001. 4 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Chapter 1 (i. Chapter 3 presents an overview and analysis of the external structures that are currently influencing the activities of schools. The French-language summary will be incorporated in the Final Report after the incorporation of the Commission’’s comments on the draft final report. it describes the data-generating activities undertaken for the study. Chapter 7 describes and discusses the future responses to some of the main challenges facing schools.

2.2. we have used an interpretive framework for understanding the term rather than a specific definition. strategies and other available reports and written material Telephone interviews with government and other national representatives from each of the 15 Member States Six good-practice case studies carried out as on-site visits including interviews with local school administrators. In this chapter. 2. organisations. Methodology The study provides both theoretical and practical insights into the current situation concerning Innovative Learning Environments in the European Union. This outlines our interpretation of the concepts and approaches we have applied in our understanding of Innovative Learning Environments that use ICT in innovative ways. So what is perceived as an innovative learning environment in Sweden might not be viewed as such in Italy. teachers. pupils. parents and stakeholders A future scenario workshop involving theoretical and practical school experts which was held in Brussels on 7 October 2003. The focus of the study is on the use of ICT in learning and education. we have been able to capture different modes of innovation in the use of ICT in learning in schools by describing the different contexts in which learning takes place.1 Data-generating activities The analysis and results contained in the present report are based on a variety of data-generating activities. not on ICT technology for its own sake. different learning traditions. In addition. We have decided not to choose or apply a single definition of Innovative Learning Environments. as there are major differences in researchers’’ perceptions concerning innovative learning environments. Our interpretation of the term is based on our examination of relevant literature plus our experience from other projects concerning the use of ICT in education. An emphasis is placed on new educational paradigms or models which have been facilitated by advances in information and communication technology (ICT). we describe the analytical framework for understanding Innovative Learning Environments which has been developed in the course of the study.2 Analytical framework for analysing the use of ICT in innovative learning environments : What constitutes an innovative learning environment? Innovative learning environments can be defined and described in numerous ways. Therefore. and is consistent with the guidelines contained in the tender material. which has enabled us to encompass the general concept in the course of the study. different policies and different ways of managing school systems exist throughout Europe. depending on the frame of reference being used. 5 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and vice versa. Using this framework. school management. Our theoretical reading so far confirms this. namely: A desk study of websites. precisely because a given application of ICT in learning might be innovative in one setting but might not be considered to be so in another. in order to analyse and describe innovative learning environments.

Figure 2. Each of these levels consists of a number of elements that are summarised in the following sections.1: Analytical framework model for describing Innovative Learning Environments The boxes in the model represent the structure at all levels. such as curricula. The organizational/institutional setting in which learning takes place 7.Four levels of focus are important for the description and understanding of innovative learning environments. Figure 2. For instance. viewed as the individuals involved in the learning activities. etc. the way ICT is being used in the classroom might be influenced by numerous factors. The overall external structural framework which encompasses the three levels described below. The triangle in the corner represents the overall structural framework conditions. and the inner circle represents the Innovative Learning Environments –– primarily to be understood as the learning situations. The box in the lower left corner represents all the individuals involved in the school’’s learning activities. funding. such as the age and quantity of available 6 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . These structures both influence and are influenced by the activities taking place in the schools. 5. The learning environment in which learners and teachers interact and in which ICT is used in different ways to improve learning 8. the outermost circle represents the institutional and organisational setting for each school. Actors/individuals.1 represents a summary of the different factors that may be influencing the development of Innovative Learning Environments in schools. 6.

The following sections elaborate each of the levels of the model. In other words. how the school day is structured.technology. authoritative and allocative. The European Commission. but the ability to use them is. Resources are of two kinds. for example: The right to lead by virtue of occupying a managerial post Being the best in a given field through the possession of particular knowledge or skills. 7 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the model encompasses and presents both the driving forces and the barriers that affect learning actions at all levels. etc. The possession of resources is not crucial. local and regional governments and education authorities are all key players in 1 The perspective concerning Innovative Learning Environments is influenced by Anthony Giddens’’ theory and structuring. These might consist of: Money Computer equipment Buildings Learning material. These changes create or influence new challenges and possibilities when they change existing structures.3 The overall external structural framework An appreciation of the learning traditions within the countries and regions of Europe is important for a background understanding of the overall framework in which their schools operate. etc. describing the different factors in general terms in order to give examples of what they might comprise in practice. Authoritative resources are those vested in individuals. for example communication between a class and teacher A might be very different from the communication between the same class and teacher B. and the changes that these factors bring about. Examples of the practical manifestation of rules are: Teacher’’s and pupils’’ roles in the learning environment How teachers and pupils communicate How teachers sanction pupils’’ actions How teachers co-operate How head teachers manage schools How teachers interpret legislation and the curriculum. The model illustrated above has been the main analytical tool used for studying and explaining the learning actions taking place at school level. Allocative resources are material. Structures consist of rules and resources1. teacher’’s and pupils’’ attitudes. they should be interpreted as (mainly culturally-bound) habits and practices. Rules are not to be regarded simply as rigid rules to be strictly followed by individuals. Rules vary according to the context. one teacher’’s innovative use of technology might influence the learning material available in the school. The same structure will be used in subsequent chapters to describe innovative learning environments. Instead. how other teachers organize their teaching. In addition. and could certainly be expanded further in other contexts. For instance. Education policies and control and quality systems form a part of these traditions. the activities taking place in the learning situation might affect these or other factors. The model was developed in the course of the study. 2.

The education authorities create the overall framework by introducing policies. The focus of the 8 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . They can contain objectives for how ICT should be integrated in teaching and learning or pupil/computer ratios etc. ICT strategies and action plans at national and regional levels can be formulated either as intentions or demands.2: External structures influencing schools’’ work Political & societal tendencies: •• Lifelong learning •• Knowledge society •• Social inclusion •• Labour market demands •• Competence needs EXTERNAL STRUCTURES INFLUENCING SCHOOLS’’ ACTIVITIES Rules and resources Curricula ICT strategies and action plans national and regional External supply of educational material Teacher education Pedagogical styles & trends Internationalisation Infrastructure Support & funding Political and societal tendencies encompass such things as lifelong learning. the promotion of lifelong learning calls for a learning perspective in which pupils learn to learn during their school education and also learn to control their own learning process. the promotion of an education system as a provider of new workers to meet the needs of the labour market calls for a learning perspective in which pupils are taught specific skills. labour market needs and competence needs. Figure 2. The model’’s external structures are briefly elaborated below. the knowledge society.the overall structural framework affecting the improvement of learning through the use of ICT. On the other hand. providing funding schemes and by delegating control to various degrees. They are meant to influence the way schools use ICT. while others have decentralized decision-making etc. these overall tendencies influence the perceptions of learning and the school-level educational objectives. social inclusion. In one way or another. For example. Some countries have highly centralized curricula. The overall structural framework creates constraints as well as opportunities for the utilisation of ICT in learning.

or they may merely be approaches that teachers wish to try out. The strategies. Syllabuses are closely connected with the curriculum. The curriculum can set out either specific or more indeterminate requirements for the use of ICT in learning and teaching. or it can be ICT itself. and the provision of relatively low-cost conference systems or portals. or decentralized. Support and funding is the means by which national or regional strategies or action plans are implemented. The curriculum encompasses the schools’’ overall learning objectives. methods and priorities for teacher education within the field of ICT are closely connected with the teachers’’ opportunities for using it in their work. such as a higher salary or a home computer. The adoption at national level of responsibility for the development of digital networks in schools. The availability of relevant and high-quality learning material. Internationalisation and globalisation refers to the extent to which the Member States are working strategically to establish international co-operation and exchange. can encourage school use of the Internet. Pedagogical styles and approaches are regarded as the primary factors that influence how learning is planned and conducted. such as web services or project funding. either free of charge or on a paid-for basis. The motivation to participate in training is also important. as teachers may receive specific rewards for completing an ICT course. They can be set out officially. The national definition of IT standards. 9 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . is important for the integration of ICT in learning. Infrastructure is the software and hardware (such as computers and networks) made available to schools at a national or regional level. for example by using Storyline. whereas a top-down approach can contribute to the achievement of more homogeneous objectives through the use of ICT. and can have either a bottom-up or top-down perspective. problem-oriented work or ICT-based simulation programs. Different mechanisms and perspectives promote or encourage different activities. For example. This can take different forms. allowing considerable local decision-making. The external supply of educational material comprises such things as officially-funded and publicly or privately-produced digital learning material that supports the fulfilment of curriculum objectives. and follow up the quality and activities of the latter.strategies or action plans can for instance be the use of ICT as a means for achieving learning objectives that are not directly related to it. Curricula can be centralized so that they control many details of the schools’’ activities. are other factors affecting the nature and extent of infrastructure provision. It can also include the availability of digital learning material developed by publishers and other commercial organizations or by other privately-owned or semi-private organizations. Teacher education relates to how the development of teachers’’ competencies in using ICT for learning is encouraged at a national or regional level. activities. for instance through demanding that pupils must do project-based work. purchase arrangements etc. Internationalisation provides schools with new opportunities and the exchange of ideas and experiences. as well as knowing about their existence. bottom-up project activities encourage diversity of learning approaches.

In relation to the overall external structure described in this study. The activities of schools and teachers. Not only the individual elements but the interplay between them is important. and the opportunities for creating innovative ways of learning. comprise the context for the interactions of teachers and pupils in the learning situation. the school culture. regions and even individual schools.4 The organizational/institutional setting Throughout Europe. 10 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Figure 3-1. Figure 3-3 below depicts some important elements comprising the organizational/institutional setting in accordance with our overall analytical schema. and how do they influence the learning environment? 2. age and location of ICT equipment. Although the learning situation is the primary focus of this study. the leadership and management of a school. the organizational setting plays an important role in understanding why ICT is used for learning.In Chapter 4. These are described in more detail in the case studies in order to fully elucidate and describe the relevant structural frameworks. the main issue will be to obtain answers to the following questions: What are the specific traditions and overall external structural frameworks governing the schools’’ use of ICT in learning. differences in perception exist concerning innovative learning environments among countries. and the organization of work among teachers. for each of the countries involved in the study we present information such as policy papers and initiatives concerning the issues referred to above in order to provide a background understanding of the overall structural framework. are defined not so much by the external framework as by the organizational setting on the one hand and the teachers’’ individual motivations on the other. Such elements as the quantity. The organizational/institutional setting in which learning takes place is therefore an important framework for an understanding of the actual learning process. These elements will be used to describe and analyse the organizational and institutional settings of the Innovative Learning Environments.

there may be different strategies regarding how schools support co-operation. ranging from strategies for peer-to-peer learning. Staff development strategies define how schools choose to develop their teachers’’ competencies. The school culture comprises the underlying assumptions and attitudes that largely define how teachers and pupils work.3: The school as organization Rules Co-operation and networking strategies School strategies and action plans Staff development strategies School culture Management style Resources Learning material Technology Economy Architecture Co-operation and networking strategies define the internal functioning of schools. The concrete activities connected with these strategies are important factors for the creation of innovative learning environments. Another important aspect is the extent to which the staff take part in the development of their own organizations’’ strategies. both in general terms and in relation to the use of ICT. through the establishment of intranets and portals. external courses or ad hoc in-house courses to elearning or learning by doing etc. School strategies and action plans define the directions that schools decide to follow. and/or to what extent the details of such strategies are known among the staff. In addition.Figure 2. responsibility. their roles etc. follow-up and evaluation. e.g. One important aspect of strategies and action plans is their procedures for control. Staff attitudes towards development and change influence the extent to which changes in 11 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . There may be differences between those schools in which teachers usually work in teams and those where the teachers usually work alone. These can be very different.

The main issues in relation to the organizational setting are: What characterizes those schools that succeed in creating innovative ways of improving learning though their use of ICT? How is the learning situation influenced by the organizational/institutional setting. Technology and infrastructure are also regarded as resources. Schools can be built and adapted for educational purposes in ways that greatly influence the planning and practice of learning. The elements of the overall analytical framework in Figure 3-1 that represent a concrete learning environment are isolated in Figure 3-4 below. Management style is concerned with how the school management controls or delegates control and responsibilities. Individual values. In our view. 12 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .5 The learning environment The main focus in this study is naturally on the learning environment and how ICT can be used in innovative ways to support new learning paradigms or models. the rebuilding of schools etc. Architecture relates to the construction and furnishing of school buildings. 2. and vice versa? In the course of our analysis we have attempted to determine whether some individual elements are more important than others for the creation of innovative learning environments. As the study has progressed. Learning material is regarded as being a resource. as well as through co-operation between schools and other institutions such as museums. The quantity. The availability of a broad selection of learning materials can support new ways of planning and carrying out learning. It also has to do with how it initiates changes. Learning can occur in both physical and virtual contexts. dispositions and expectations are important here. Economy refers to financial resources are important for providing opportunities for the development of teachers’’ competencies.praxis and innovation are possible and desirable. The school can buy learning material which will be able to support new ways of learning when it is designed and used for that purpose. the carrying out of activities related to innovative learning environments. either within or outside the school setting. for instance by using a bottom-up versus a top-down approach. the number of elements and their content have changed slightly to reflect the insights gleaned from specific situations. a learning environment comprises a number of people who are working together with the purpose of learning. age and physical location of technological infrastructure affect both the organization of learning and access to the Internet. Management style can either promote or impede innovation and new ways of organizing learning. technological infrastructure.

The extent or scope of the knowledge to be acquired by the pupils is often outlined in curricula at the national. as it is a crucial element in discussions concerning e-learning. These different forms support different learning styles. We have chosen to use metaphors to illustrate the various possibilities. Technology is an important factor in this study. Content can be understood as the fields in which the pupils are supposed to acquire knowledge. regional or local levels.4: Learning environment The roles of teachers and pupils are tied to their respective functions and roles in the learning situation and the control of the learning process. Communication styles and the exchange of ideas and viewpoints among and between teachers and pupils can take different forms. Technology can be used and perceived for learning purposes in a number of ways. Sometimes these objectives will be tied to mechanisms for tracking pupil performance.Figure 2. oral or visual as well as either synchronous or asynchronous. as well as the expectations concerning the level of their knowledge. Teaching which takes the form of the transmission of knowledge from teacher to pupils defines their roles in one way. An example of a learning objective might be that pupils must learn to define and solve problems. portfolios. or both. whereas the creation of space by teachers for individual pupils to learn does so in another way. The teachers’’ roles in particular influence learning by limiting or broadening their pupils’’ learning opportunities. Examples of these are: ICT as a medium for communication ICT as shared material for co-operation ICT as an information resource for locating information ICT as a tool for processing and making products ICT as a simulator of experiments ICT as a framework for controlling the learning process ICT as a provider of feedback for exercises ICT as an instructional tool for setting preliminary guidelines ICT as a communication forum for the exchange of ideas and viewpoints 13 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Communication during the use of ICT can be written. Learning objectives define the competencies that pupils are supposed to develop and how their learning is meant to occur. such as log books.

Examples are: Integration of other learning environments than the school Multidisciplinary approaches Context-related learning Collaborative learning Distributed learning From teacher-controlled to pupil-controlled learning Differentiated learning which is dependent on different learning styles Differentiated learning which is dependent on the pupil’’s level of knowledge Learning as social participation Learning as playing From instruction to self-directed learning Project-oriented learning Learning by doing. Co-operation as opposed to individual learning activities is one dimension of this element. possibly in other countries.. Another is to explain how different learning activities support pupils with different backgrounds. for exchanging learning materials ICT as a connection between learning environments where it is the means of co-operation. skills etc. The main issue in relation to the learning situation is: How is ICT used as a means of improving learning and creating innovative ways of learning in schools? 2.g. and how they develop their competencies etc. e. motivations. Another is co-operation with pupils from other schools. we will focus on learning processes in which ICT is used to improve the quality of learning in accordance with the approaches mentioned previously. Each of them contributes to the activities occurring in the learning environment. 14 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . for example. as they comprise the learning environment by virtue of their joint activities as individuals. competencies and skills influence how learning takes place.6 Actors/Individuals The analytical framework includes both teachers and learners. In addition. The issues cited above have guided and directed our analysis and the selection of case studies.ICT as a market place. Learning approaches are considered as the manner in which learning activities are planned and conducted. One purpose of including the individual level is to explain. how teachers’’ actions.

traditions need to be changed in a non-dynamic organization. The power to act is especially crucial if.Figure 2. for instance. In relation to the learning situation. How active are the teachers and pupils? Do teachers work to empower their pupils? How motivated are the teachers and pupils. those things they know how to do but which they are not necessarily able to express or explain. Some people are strongly predisposed towards action.e. Explicit knowledge is used when communicating and presenting information to others. It is connected with the teachers’’ ability to create incentive frameworks for the learning of all the children by using different methods and creating variety. the main issues are: Are there specific attributes that distinguish the characteristics. i. and what motivates them? How do they work to develop tacit skills and knowledge? How do they work to develop explicit knowledge? 15 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Motivation is as essential as the power to act.5: Actors The power of individuals to act is determined both by their particular abilities and by the context in which they act. It also has to do with their ability to act without first needing to reflect. When examining a learning environment it is important to be aware of whether and how teachers are supporting pupils with differential abilities in these respects. Tacit knowledge is closely connected to individuals’’ skills. Tacit knowledge can be used in different contexts. Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that an individual is able to express verbally or in writing. Both students’’ and teachers’’ motivation to learn. whereas others are better at explaining and expressing themselves verbally. work and develop is important for the creation of innovative learning processes.

16 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

In this report. Firstly. First of all. Organizations such as Eurydice (the Information Network on Education in Europe). such as Austria. which consequently entails the need to be very cautious when pedagogical practices are isolated from their environments. Figure 5-1 below illustrates the different ages of school entry. the age of pupils at primary school entry and primary school exit varies from one country to another. have a number of different educational strands under the general heading of primary education. the years of compulsory schooling vary. External structures influencing the activities of schools A study concerning the overall external framework for the use of ICT and innovative learning environments has been carried out for each of the EU Member States. as do the educational strands and the kinds of institutions. Each of the following sections contains conclusions regarding the current state of affairs concerning: Political and societal tendencies ICT strategies and action plans. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and EENet (the European Experts’’ Network for Education and Technology) have already made comprehensive up-to-date comparative studies on the use of ICT in school education at the global level. we describe the special factors that must be taken into account when summarising the current state of affairs. Depending on the conceptual delimitation of what comprises primary education in the respective institutions. 17 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This is because the framework conditions for primary education vary significantly across the Member States. both national and regional External supply of educational material Infrastructure Support and funding CurriculaTeacher educationPedagogical styles and approaches Internationalisation. In some countries. content and histories. the pupils’’ ages range from 4-19. such as Sweden and Denmark. Equally. the main findings of these studies are outlined in terms of our analytical framework’’s focus on the external structures which influence the activities of schools. The educational systems and policies all have different forms.1 Special factors to be considered Drawing cross-country comparisons concerning e-learning is an analytical exercise which requires a number of limitations to be addressed. the institutions offering primary education are of a fairly uniform type. 3. school leaving. while others.3. and the kinds of institutions which offer primary education in the Member States.

1: Primary schooling in the Member States DK DK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Folkeskole/Grundskole D D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Grundschule Oriente.Gymnasium rungsstufe Gesamtschule Realschule Schularten mit mehreren Bildungsgängen Hauptschule Vorklasse/Schulkindergarten GR GR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Dimotiko scholeio Gymnasio E E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Educación primaria Educación secundaria obligatoria F F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Écoles élémentaires Collège Lycée général & technologique Lycée professionnel IRL IRL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Primary school Secondary/Vocational Comprehensive schools Community schools & colleges 18 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .Figure 3.

II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Scuola primaria Scuola media Liceo classico /scientifico/linguistico Liceo artistico Istituto magistrale Istituto d’’arte /professionale Istituto tecnico L L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Lycée 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Spillschoul École primaire Lycée technique B fr B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Enseignement primaire Secondaire de transition général technique/ artistique Secondaire de qualification technique /artistique Secondaire professionel B B de de 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Primarunterricht Allgemeinbildender/ technischer Übergangsunterricht Technischer Befähigungsunterricht Berufsbildender Unterricht B nl B nl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Lager onderwijs Allgemeen secundair onderwijs Teknisch/kunst secundair onderwijs Beroepssecundair onderwijs DBSO 19 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

20 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the regions have considerable autonomy in education. have historically been centralized at the national level. In some countries. The Member States also differ in the proportions of privately. private schools comprise approximately 70% of the schools. The decision-making powers in some countries. while elsewhere public schools prevail.and publiclyrun schools engaged in primary education. In yet other countries. such as Germany and Spain.NL NL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 VWO 16 17 18 19 years of age Basisonderwijs HAVO VMBO Praktikonderwijs A A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Volksschule Allgemeinbildende höhere Schule Oberstufenrealgymnasium Hauptschule Berufsbildende höhere Schule Berufsbildende mittlere Schule Polytechnische Schule P P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Ensino basico Cursos professionais FIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Perusopetus –– Grundläggande utbildning S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 years of age Grundskola Equally. In other countries. such as the Netherlands. such as France. the management and governance of the education systems differs from one country to another. municipal or local authorities are heavily involved in defining the economic resources and policies of the primary-level educational institutions.

While such framework conditions do not define the content and the way that ICT is integrated into the children’’s learning processes. lifelong learning is simultaneously a personal responsibility and a societal challenge in which e-learning can be a decisive medium. The themes are rather broad. but it is nonetheless apparent that across the Member States ICT is acknowledged as a tool for lifelong learning. Spain.1 below. Therefore. where regional priorities are prevalent. we have sought to illustrate the main approaches being pursued in the different Member States. they condition the mechanisms through which ICT policies are implemented.2 Political and societal tendencies The integration of ICT appears to be the object of considerable attention in the Member States. the context in which the importance of using e-learning is determined differs. Table 3.1: Thematic emphases in relation to e-learning in the Member States Lifelong learning Adaptation to the information society Social inclusion Equal opportunities Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Portugal Spain Sweden The Netherlands United Kingdom It is also apparent that considerable emphasis is being placed on ICT in education as a key instrument for meeting the EU’’s goal of being at the forefront ( ) 21 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . However. adaptation to the information society. Belgium and Germany. social inclusion and equal opportunities. In Table 3. 3. It should be noted that the emphasis can differ considerably among the different regional contexts in countries such as the UK. For each Member State we have chosen to assess whether its e-learning or ICT strategy emphasises the European employment strategy themes of lifelong learning. and that learning does not only take place in a formal educational setting but occurs throughout life.

It has also been recognized as having wider ramifications for lifelong learning and facilitating adaptation to the demands of the knowledge society. Some countries. Equally. emphasise the importance of competitiveness. Table 3. RAMBOLL Management has sought to identify a number of themes that cut across the content of the individual Member States’’ policies. such as Sweden. Accordingly. and thereby of combating social exclusion among disadvantaged groups. Generally speaking. most countries stress the importance of integrating ICT in education as a means of adapting to the needs of the knowledge society.of the knowledge society in the future. emphasise a general concern with upgrading the ICT competence levels of all their citizens. Although this is an extremely complex area. In some countries. The specific rationales which have been brought to bear under this rubric differ.2: Objectives emphasised in national ICT strategies Increasing computers with Internet access Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Portugal ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Development of internet platform Increasing ICT competences of teachers Content development Development of innovative learning environments ( ) 22 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . such as Austria. e-learning is not viewed exclusively as a learning tool that is confined to educational settings. This naturally reflects the differing national contexts. some countries conceive of e-learning as a measure which can potentially be applied to bringing about social inclusion and equal opportunities. Equally. Others. it is notable that in the debates taking place in the Member States. the use of e-learning is also conceived as a means of providing access to training and education. countries such as Belgium and Greece see e-learning as a measure for creating equal opportunities for all.3 National and regional ICT strategies and action plans The national and regional ICT strategies of the Member States differ.2 below illustrates the emphases of the respective countries’’ national strategies. 3. Table 3. framework conditions and requirements which influence ICT policy.

The same study carried out by the European Commission shows that 93% of all primary schools in the EU were connected to the Internet in 2002. the EU average for the number of Internet-connected computers per 100 pupils has risen from 4% to 5. Equally. All member states have made it a priority to create the proper framework conditions for e-learning in primary education by investing in the provision of access to computers with Internet connectivity. which are in turn linked to the European Schoolnet Network.9% between 2001 and 2002. and how teaching is incorporated into operational goals. The approach to teacher training. Correspondingly. These portals differ in format and content. 2 Links to these portals are mostly provided by the national school networks. Accordingly.2. versus 89% in 2001. most Member States have initiated some kind of ICT training for teachers in particular. Austria has systematised its training by focusing on goals for the ICT qualifications of all its teachers. Great Britain has allocated significant resources to teacher training in the use of ICT. ICT training and the competence development of teachers and other professional staff are widely recognised as being essential to advancing the use of ICT in education. These figures show that the ratio of Internetconnected computers per pupil has risen in most countries. although the emphasis and priority given to each theme may differ from one country to the next. For example. but in general significant attention appears to be being paid to facilitating the integration of ICT into education. 23 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .000 teachers to receive ICT training.Increasing computers with Internet access Spain Sweden The Netherlands United Kingdom Development of internet platform Increasing ICT competences of teachers ( ) Content development Development of innovative learning environments ( ) ( ) ( ) (V) (V) (V) To some extent these themes can be regarded as successive stages that have been adopted by the different Member States. who are all eventually intended to obtain standardized European certification of their ICT qualifications (ECDL). differs from country to country. RAMBOLL Management interprets ‘‘emphasis’’ as signifying that considerable importance has been attached to attaining a given objective. This overall trend is also manifested in Table 3. It should also be noted that the signs enclosed in brackets signify uncertainty as to whether that particular theme can be said to be fully developed. Sweden initiated its ITiS programme with an operational goal for 60. but they do indicate that the dimension in question is receiving considerable attention and financial support. Another priority that cuts across the Member States is the establishment of national and regional education portals2.

regional and municipal spending in this area do not appear in publiclyavailable publications. It appears that content is generally developed in three different settings: (i) local projects. have assigned the responsibility for the quality assurance and accreditation of such content to central institutions that are also responsible for making the resulting material available to interested schools. human resource development. Regarding content development. there is a general recognition that further integration of ICT in the learning environment requires the development of appropriate content which corresponds to the requirements of the curriculum. and (iii) centralized content development institutes/centres. an approach has been adopted in which some frontrunners (for instance entire schools that receive grants. In addition. capital investment and depreciation would have to be defined in detail. The latter is based on the idea that all teachers must receive (certified) upgrading of their skills if the use of ICT in schools is to become widespread. involving publishers and/or software companies). such as the Danish ITMF programme and the Swedish ITiS programme. At present. the conceptual boundaries delimiting duration. very significant funding has been invested in this area during the past five years. some countries. while other countries prefer to adopt a generalised approach to upgrading their teachers’’ ICT qualifications. Funding It has not been possible to undertake a detailed examination of the level of public spending on ICT during the current study.In some countries.5 billion during 1998-2002 on the ‘‘Education on-line’’ programme The United Kingdom has allocated £920 million for all education sectors during 2005-2006 (comprising national and matching municipal funding for the ‘‘ICT in Schools’’ programme). equally. the development of innovative learning environments is the last of the five successive stages that all Member States appear to follow. Additionally. However. Sweden set aside 166 million Euro for the ITiS programme during 19992002 Ireland has earmarked a future expenditure of 79 million Euro on ICT in education 24 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 3. it is possible to give some examples of public expenditure on ICT in education: The Netherlands spent nearly Euro 1. such as the Netherlands. since the details of national.g. or individual teachers who are identified as ICT resource staff) are evolution drivers. Some form of content development is occurring in most countries. the results from some of these projects have been mainstreamed in primary education at the local level but have not yet been incorporated into a national approach to learning. Some countries have supported a number of pilot projects.4 Support and funding Commensurate with the fact that all Member States have drawn up national ICT policies for education. (ii) private-public partnerships (e. The aim has been to find innovative ways to organise and integrate ICT into the learning environment. support structures are gradually being established in each country. The former approach is based on the belief that the resource staff are available to be consulted and will influence their colleagues in their use of ICT in education. Arguably.

It appears that considerable and similar priorities and investment are being devoted to ICT in education in the countries mentioned above. Finally. It is also apparent that the on-line educational resources available in the Member States vary significantly in content. This typically takes the form of one or more education portal(s)/platform(s) providing a practical guide and information source.g. Nevertheless. eight ICT Expertise and Development Centres focusing on school subject clusters or specific education sectors and ‘‘electronic learning environments’’ have been established. The recognition that Internet access and the adequate availability of modern computers are a prerequisite for e-learning is widespread among policy makers.5 Infrastructure As mentioned in the discussion above concerning strategies. depending on the extent of the regionalized structure of the education system (e. whose objective is to stimulate educational ICT expertise in schools. plus a further 46 million Euro subsidy for the ITMF programme which runs from 2001-2004. In most countries. 25 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . these functions are closely linked with the European-wide initiatives. the extent to which this has been realized in practice varies. the establishment of Internet portals and platforms. no single authority or platform necessarily encompasses all these functions. news releases and thematic dossiers to exchange/discussion media. This is also the case in some other countries. links. shareware etc. The most common support function provided to school teachers and management by national/regional authorities are: ICT Infrastructure development and support National/regional networks to support and advise schools concerning the promotion and implementation of ICT in education Checking the quality and functionality of content software Dissemination of curricular innovations Establishment of frameworks to support content development Conducting of studies and monitoring. is driving development towards a coherent national educational ICT market and support for co-operation concerning ICT issues. In addition. pedagogical practice guides. but capital investment in computer hardware and software. the Netherlands’’ School Net is a practical guide to ICT educational resources. Support Support for the use of ICT in education exists in all Member States. in Germany and Austria especially). which links up all its educational institutions. 3. ranging from reference works. As mentioned previously. regional centres for technical troubleshooting known as GOLDDISK also exist. The funding has been earmarked for different areas. These functions may be dispersed among different institutions and websites. In the Dutch case. while the ICT Op School organisation. and investments in training are evidently the major investment areas. For example. European Schoolnet and Virtual School. the priority given to support and funding and investment in an adequate ICT infrastructure has been a key consideration in all Member States.Denmark has allocated 81 million Euro for the development of Sektornet. it is notable that content development is quality checked before the products in question are disseminated further.

0 67.0 F 84. While they are beginning to catch up.0 P 62. By 2002. In 2001.2 shows that most primary schools in the European Union are connected to the Internet.0 93. while in Ireland 34 pupils have to share each Internet-connected computer.0 UK 95.0 B 91.0 IRL 98. the figure also shows that significant differences exist for this benchmark.0 89.0 Figure 3. In the figure below. 93% were connected.0 NL 93.0 DK 98.0 99.0 100.0 D 94.0 EU 89.3 shows that most countries increased the ratio of Internetconnected computers per pupil between 2001 and 2002.0 E 94.It is also the norm that primary education institutions tend to trail secondary and post-secondary institutions in making use of the ‘‘information superhighway’’.0 I 89. Figure 3.0 FIN 99. Figure 3. Greek schools still trail all the other EU countries in terms of this particular benchmark. we examine the extent to which the various Member States have succeeded in establishing an ICT infrastructure that is facilitating the further integration of ICT in education.int/information_society/eeurope/benchmarking/list/2002/e_lea rning/schools_connected/index_en. However.0 92.htm 26 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .0 94.0 GR 45.0 99.0 S 100.23 Percentage of schools connected to the Internet 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 March 2001 March 2002 A 72.0 59. 89% of all schools were connected to the Internet.0 99.0 99. and that the number is increasing.0 94.0 88.0 99.0 92.0 L 92.europa. and in Greece 40 pupils must share each Internet-connected computer.eu. Denmark has one Internet-connected computer for every 4 pupils.0 93. 3 Source: European Commission (Eurobarometer): http://www. In many countries. the task of setting up a better ICT infrastructure has been farmed out to private companies or has been undertaken via partnerships with private companies.

europa.4 IRL 17. Sweden and Denmark are the leaders in Internet penetration in domestic households.5 46.4 4 Source: European Commission (Eurobarometer) http://www.2 32. 2000-2002 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 March 2000 June 2001 June 2002 A 16.1 DK 22.3 64.1 NL 3.5 10.4 29. In fact.5 E 9.6 55.5 5.9 26.1 40.int/information_society/eeurope/benchmarking/list/2002/e_lea rning/online_pcs/index_en. a recent survey carried out by the Swedish ICT Commission shows that 90% of Swedish households containing children in primary education have access to the Internet.9 5.europa.5 65.9 2.6 EU 4.45 Internet penetration in domestic households.2 34. the European Commission’’s survey also indicates that household access to the Internet has more than doubled from 2000 to 2002.5 64.4 F 3.2 35.1 58.0 5.0 UK 6.8 S 47.7 40.1 S 11.9 11.9 D 13.2 2.Figure 3.3 B 4.3 6.eu.2 49.5 45.0 E 3.1 53.htm 27 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .4 below shows that the Netherlands.8 6.5 I 2.8 7.1 FIN 12.0 GR 1.6 5.34 Number of Internet-connected computers per 100 pupils 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 March 2001 March 2002 A 6.6 23.0 NL 46.int/information_society/eeurope/benchmarking/list/2002/intern et_users_june2002/int_acc_hh_2000_02/index_en.4 23.9 43.5 FIN 28.3 36.5 P 8.9 35.9 46.9 43.5 4.9 IRL 5.6 D 2. Figure 3.9 L 26.3 58.7 9.4 46.2 48.2 47.7 25. with less than 10% of all households being connected to the Internet.4 P 1.6 37.9 64.1 B 20.0 6.7 DK 45.1 4.9 Figure 3.4 30.eu.2 I 19.0 L 20.5 F 12.7 12. Nearly two thirds of all households here have access to the Internet.2 UK 24.htm 5 Source: European Commission (Eurobarometer) http://www.0 EU 18.7 GR 5. However.8 11. The figure also shows that Greece lags far behind all the other countries of the EU.

The figures indicate that Denmark and Sweden have very well developed infrastructures in relation to both schools and households. we outline some of the central findings and potentials concerning the frameworks for the use of ICT in compulsory education which exist among the schools of the Member States. primary and lower secondary level. It is worth noting that the ICT strategies of these countries also appear to address all the topics listed in Table 3. and has accordingly identified three main levels of decision making: The school has full powers and autonomy The school takes decisions in consultation with the competent authority at a higher level and/or within the limits set by the latter. it is apparent that some correspondence exists between those countries with a high Internet penetration in domestic households and a high ratio of Internet computers per pupil. and the extent to which specific frameworks and measures are established centrally at the government level. and that attention is gradually shifting towards the development of new forms of content and learning. the United Kingdom. reflecting the extent to which local governments. the degree of centralization of the curriculum varies considerably across Europe. We will also describe the findings regarding the curricula for each of the countries where case studies were undertaken. Their focus on content development and the learning environment indicates that an adequate infrastructure has been securely established. schools and teachers are able to set their own objectives and choose their own ways of organising the school day and their pupils’’ learning processes. or teaching as such. The varying autonomy of schools in pedagogy or teaching among the Member States Eurydice has examined four broad areas of school organization. Luxembourg.e. Figure 3. below shows the autonomy of publicsector schools for the two levels of compulsory education.6 The curriculum The curriculum encompasses both general and specific demands and objectives for the activities of schools within and across individual subjects. However. 28 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .2: Objectives emphasised in national ICT strategies. and to some extent the Netherlands all have well-developed infrastructures. One of these is pedagogy. In this section. as well as for the use of ICT for learning. in 2000 and 2001. and has limited autonomy The school is not involved in the decision-making process and has no autonomy.5: Public-sector primary and lower secondary schools’’ autonomy in choosing textbooks and methods. Eurydice has collected Information concerning the freedom that schools enjoy in these four areas in relation to a number of parameters. i.When comparing the figures above. 3. while Finland.

Figure 3.5: Public-sector primary and lower secondary schools’’ autonomy in choosing textbooks and methods. Key Data on Education in Europe 2002. Autonomy of decision making Limited autonomy Methods No autonomy Germany. Our study of each country’’s curriculum shows significant variation in the autonomy of the schools regarding the number of hours spent on each subject. The key findings are described below: 29 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Public-sector primary schools Public-sector lower secondary schools Textbooks Textbooks Methods B fr B de B nl DK D GR E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UKE/W UK NI UK SC Source: Eurydice. Greece and Luxembourg are the only countries which do not have full power and autonomy concerning the selection of learning methods and textbooks at the school level. and how the quality of learning is measured. the choice of learning material and methods.

It is up to the secondary schools whether they wish to provide ICT as a compulsory or optional subject or as a core element of the curriculum. This means that the emphasis on ICT is applied very differently. The perspective regarding ICT in this type of curricular integration is that ICT is the subject matter itself.. as in the UK. there are explicit goals for the use of ICT at both the primary and secondary levels. spreadsheet etc. some countries have developed mechanisms such as websites to support their teachers’’ use of ICT-based material for learning within the curriculum framework. for instance. The school uses this document to account for its policies to the Inspectorate. a tool to be used etc. goals for the use of ICT are not incorporated into the national curriculum The curricula of a few Member States do not mention ICT at all. the focus is somewhat different.ICT is supposed to be integrated into all subjects in some Member States ICT is integrated into the curriculum in different ways throughout the Member States. schools must devise their own methods for measuring quality as part of their planning. the responsibility for describing the objectives and aims concerning the use of ICT lies with the local authorities. A few Member States conduct inspections based on national regulations. In some countries. the use of ICT is compulsory in all subjects.. ICT is supposed to be taught as a separate subject in some countries In some of the 15 Member States. In Sweden. and to communicate via a network. staffing and internal quality assurance. learn to search for information on CD-ROMS. Neither the general national curriculum nor the individual syllabuses explicitly state that a given standard of ICT skills must be attained. networks etc. For example. goal oriented learning environments for their pupils. as the pupils are supposed to develop programming skills. a machine to be operated. Support systems for the integration of ICT into learning In order to support their implementation of ICT into school education. primary school teachers must exploit the opportunities of ICT in education and use it to create individually differentiated. For instance. in Spain’’s primary schools ICT exists as a separate subject in the curriculum as well as being used as a tool in other subjects. In other Member States. it is the responsibility of the municipal authorities and the teachers to use ICT to achieve the goals laid down in the national syllabuses. in others it only has to be integrated into some subjects. the inclusion of ICT in the curriculum has begun primarily through its incorporation into other subjects. the curriculum does not state that ICT is supposed to be integrated into all subjects. In Austria. In some countries. In the Netherlands. Instead it is intended to be taught as a separate subject at the different educational levels. sometimes compulsorily and sometimes as an optional subject. ICT is to be integrated in all subjects at all or some levels. every school must have a plan that describes its policy concerning educational matters. The quality of education is measured by different means A major difference exists among the Member States concerning how the quality of the educational provision and the objectives for the integration of ICT outlined in the curriculum are measured. The reason is that in these countries. In some instances teachers can exchange learning materials they have 30 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . for instance. learn how to use a word processing program. At the secondary level. In the UK. In Italy.

the government has prioritised the development of software to meet those curriculum standards specified by the government in which ICT has been assigned a role. the French Ministry of Education has contracted 29 ‘‘Instituts Universitaires de Formation de Maîtres’’ (IUFM) to train teachers in ICT.7 Teacher education It has been generally recognised that upgrading the qualifications of teachers with regard to ICT is essential to the integration of ICT into the learning environment. and upgrading the skills of the current teacher population on the other. Significantly.bildung. it is the intention that the development of learning materials should be carried out by both public and private providers. The latter has also been targeted by most Member States’’ ICT policies. politicians and administrative heads. the approach regarding these upgrading initiatives varies from country to country. The former has received some attention through the introduction of curricular goals regarding ICT in teacher training institutions. a corresponding education portal. The curricular goals range from the evaluation of ICT literacy and the ability to use ICT as a general didactic and pedagogical tool. culminating in ECDL certification for all teachers. This will be achieved via training delivered by an online academy. In France and Sweden.000 teachers under its ITiS programme. www. namely upgrading the skills of future teachers on the one hand. In both the UK and Austria. as a general awareness exists that teachers’’ ICT skills are a prerequisite for the integration of ICT in the learning environment. training was also provided for head teachers and school managers. significant efforts have been made to develop the competences of ‘‘resource staff’’ at the level of the schools. with an emphasis on the pedagogical aspects of the use of ICT in the school curriculum. Some have adopted a strategy of universality. In the UK. which in some countries have been supported by additional funding. both countries are also focusing on upgrading the skills of the general teacher population. in its national strategy Austria has set itself the goal that all its teachers must know about Internet technologies and web-based learning systems by 2005. a website called Curriculum Online has been created to support the teachers’’ use of ICT in achieving the goals laid down in the national curriculum. 31 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . As mentioned above. and are available to help their colleagues. In Austria. while elsewhere the learning materials available are subject to centralised quality assurance. to specific opportunities for using ICT in particular subjects. while others have focused on a ‘‘front runner’’ strategy or a combination of the two.at. This issue involves two areas for action. In the Netherlands. a number of action plans to upgrade the qualifications of teachers via different training schemes have been carried out or are currently being implemented. between 1999 and 2002 Sweden set itself the ambitious goal of training 60. The resource staff possess state-of-the-art knowledge in the field.developed themselves. Correspondingly. A similar ambition regarding the certification of teaching qualifications is shared by the Danish government. thereby acknowledging the importance of a broad understanding among all stakeholders of the role of ICT. provides a similar service. For example. Equally. In particular. Meanwhile. 3. which is currently implementing a corresponding policy.

the United Kingdom has also set aside extra funding through the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) for upgrading the ICT capabilities of newly-qualified teachers. 3. and 54% of the teachers had never previously used ICT . and even local educational authorities have entered into some form of private-public partnership. the existence of outright sponsorships is evident. It should also be noted that a market-based approach might have certain limitations in smaller linguistic markets such as the Nordic countries. Externally-supplied products range from the delivery and maintenance of educational platforms to content such as online materials. has resulted in a limited range of products. CD-ROMs and other software. The delivery of such products also takes different forms. 3. Some of the partnerships take the form of strategic partnerships formed to create innovative digital products. as is the case in France. coupled with the restricted market. The UK Curriculum Online server and the Austrian education server provide information about all free and paid-for digital products. It is notable that some countries. 90% of the teaching staff are computer-trained.9 Pedagogical styles & trends One of the aspects of the external framework governing the activities of schools is the pedagogical styles and trends that are currently in evidence 32 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . To underline the differences existing in the Community. national.5 % of the teachers had received ICT training. or by public institutions contracted to develop such products in accordance with particular curricular requirements. regional. In some countries. the evaluators of the Swedish ICT strategy have pointed out that the novelty of digital educational products. existing products are systematically collected and made available to interested parties. such as the delivery and maintenance of educational platforms in Spain. In other instances. ICT companies and advertising companies to sponsors from a number of different sectors. The partner companies range from publishers. and 76% state that they feel confident in using ICT within the framework of the curriculum. Others are delivered through extensive framework agreements. In a number of countries. have opted for a centralised quality assurance unit to ensure that the content meets curricular standards. the results of the IPETCOO survey in Greece showed that just 7.8 External supply of educational material Digital educational material can be supplied by external sources such as private companies or partnerships. such as Austria and the Netherlands. Accordingly. Externally-supplied educational material varies from country to country in terms of both content and mode of delivery. Some services have been procured.While most countries have set aside a substantial proportion of their ICT funding for the upgrading of the qualifications of their teachers. while others offer support by delivering services at reduced prices. Today. and has established a discount scheme under which teachers can purchase their own computers (CIT scheme).

the Scandinavian countries and Canada have established a standing informal network for policymakers and experts with the aim of exchanging and refining views on integrating ICT in learning and 33 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The European Network of Innovative Schools (ENIS) seeks to link up schools that are recognized for their experience in the use of ICT. Germany has focused on internationalisation since the establishment of the PAD (Pädagogischer Austausch Dienst) in 1952. and has bilateral agreements with a number of countries in the field of education. The European Schoolnet Network is a framework for networking and exchanging information and projects. vocational. test educational resources and services. Some focus on general collaboration in education.throughout the Member States. These are hard to determine and generalize about even on the basis of country reports. A number of other multi.and bilateral relationships have also previously been established. ENIS. The majority of the ENIS projects (Virtual School. It was initiated following an informal meeting of education ministers in Amsterdam on 2-3 March 1997 on the basis of the Swedish minister’’s proposal to set up a network of European schools in accordance with the Commission action plan. However. The network enables schools in EU countries to communicate. France has engaged in a number of multi. However. For example. eSchola and myEurope) are intended for teachers working in compulsory education. Equally. a number of international initiatives have also been undertaken. higher and continuing education and teacher training etc. Both teachers and pupils participate in trans-national projects that range from exchanging letters to systematic attempts to swap pedagogical practices and content. 3. The Scandinavian countries have also been collaborating via the ODIN Nordic school network for several years. While this may represent an exchange of ideas and practice among pupils and teachers at the local level. while others target ICT in particular. The styles and trends will therefore be described in greater detail in the case studies. primary schools from all Member States have been participating in programmes such as COMENIUS. For example. the Netherlands. it appears from our study that Schoolnet is not being used very effectively. for compulsory. These agreements and networks form the basis for continuing collaboration concerning the further integration of ICT in education.10 Internationalisation International co-operation in education is well developed in most Member States.and bilateral relationships via Unesco and the OECD. The target groups are all types of institutions (e. and invest in multilateral projects etc. a number of steps have also been taken at the national level to ensure international collaboration. since the schools and teachers have to a great extent selected the methods independently of each other.g. Under the auspices of initiatives undertaken by the European Commission. ‘‘Learning in the Information Society’’.).

In addition. the Commission and the OECD. the so-called ‘‘Grassroots project’’. and content are exchanged between the schools. most countries share an international outlook regarding actions and strategies that is clearly inspired by other Member States and the process of engagement in European Community initiatives. the Netherlands has established a Memorandum of Understanding on ICT with Canada. It is also evident through the conducting of comparative studies and benchmarking by the Member States. 34 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This collaboration is manifest in a twinning project between Dutch and Canadian schools. Finally. projects.education through the so-called ‘‘ICT League’’. in which contacts.

and present concrete examples of how this has been achieved in the case studies we have undertaken in the course of this study. In this chapter we discuss various perspectives and approaches towards the introduction of innovation into schools. 35 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .4. uniform schedule. school culture. The three models can be summarized as shown below: Table 4. etc. This arises out of long experience of working with new and innovative ways of using ICT for learning purposes. They outline three different ways of organizing schools –– bureaucratic. teachers can create new and innovative learning environments themselves. control and supervision. management. but that the bureaucratic form of school organization is the most prevalent by far. curricular emphasis on academic disciplines. are important for entire schools to be able to innovate and continue developing. The organizational/institutional settings influencing teachers‘‘ and pupils’’ work As our analytical model indicates. the organization of work. Sharan. If new ways of learning and organizing the learning situation are to be effective. 4. flexible schedule. not just the project of an individual teacher. one class-one teacher-one subject.1 Organizational framework for innovation in learning To a certain extent. we have chosen not to focus on the learning situation in isolation but also to include the organizational context. transdisciplinary curriculum.1: Models of school organizations BUREAUCRATIC PERSPECTIVE BASIC VALUES Efficiency. In other words. social systems and communities. documentation DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES Resistant to change Proactive The authors’’ opinion is that all three modes operate in most schools. The objective of The Innovative School is to map the road towards change and innovation in schools through a restructuring of their organization away from bureaucracy towards community in crucial areas. the organizational setting in which learning takes place is important for maintaining the teachers’’ opportunities for development. Shachar and Levine outline one approach for treating schools as organizations in The Innovative School. they must involve the whole school. But as research has shown. regularity SOCIAL SYSTEM Holistic Complex of related elements Integration of disciplines Co-operation Short. Interaction and feedback Open to change COMMUNITY Shared common values Acceptance and care Integration of disciplines Co-operation Shared responsibility ORGANIZATION Specialization FOCUS Defined hierarchy.and longterm problemsolving and project teams among teachers and students.

and 37 teachers work there. as there is no principal who plans their working day. Teachers working in teams at the Vinstagårdsskola Vinstagårdsskolan is a new school that enrolled its first pupils in 2001.We have used this typology of the different styles of school organization to expand our analytical framework and improve the analysis of our case studies by investigating whether any of these modes predominates in innovative school settings. and 10 pupils plus 10 teachers/assistants respectively. At the moment. and they must find new ways to plan and conduct the learning process. Another model for the organization of pupils’’ activities is represented by Lavinia. Lavinia teaches at the primary school level. many of the teachers at the school were accustomed to working on their own. Each unit has its own home area with a meeting place for all pupils. teaching only a few subjects and working within narrowly-defined frameworks.2 Organization of teachers’’ activities –– co-operation Few schools have reorganized both pupils’’ and teachers’’ activities in the way that our case studies illustrate. as well as two special units containing 40 pupils plus 8 teachers/assistants. In their previous jobs. 25% of the pupils are of foreign origin. The primary school is organised into three cycles. where the pupils take those particular subjects. 4. 352 pupils attend the school. Vinstagårdsskolan is a school for Grades 7 to 9. each consisting of two grades for pupils aged 68. There is also an office where the teachers can work. 36 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . There are three weekly conferences in each unit in which the teachers plan their work and discuss important matters. There are also meetings across units on specific topics in which teachers from different units can discuss their work experiences. Some teachers have left the school for these and other reasons. Starting at Vinstagårdsskolan has also been a challenge to them. primarily because they did not fit in. whose pupils are also grouped across different ages. the school will house approximately 540 pupils and 50 teachers altogether. In addition –– and just as importantly –– some of them have reorganized their teachers’’ activities quite radically in ways that actually support the social system and community models described in the previous section. When fully operational. There are also groups of teachers across units who discuss organizational matters such as quality criteria. The school is currently organized into four units of approximately 80 pupils and 7 teachers each. and in addition to preschool. and mostly enrols pupils from three Grade 1-6 schools in the district. school is compulsory from ages 6 to 16. some of the schools teach across age groups and subjects with mixed pupil groups that are sometimes very large and sometimes very small. Three cycles at Lavinia In Spain. plus smaller rooms for up to 16 pupils and a teacher. 8-10 and 10-12. The compulsory school system is divided into primary and secondary schools. Besides the unit areas there are common areas such as the gym and art and needlework rooms. As can be seen from the following examples. although a few pupils come from other schools and school districts as well.

Usually the teachers working within the same cycle plan the school year together and teach all subjects.3 School strategies and action plans All the schools we visited in the course of our case studies had developed what could be called strategic action plans for their activities. Team-managed home area learning at Maglegårdsskolen Traditional classroom-based teaching has been modified into so-called team managed home area learning. problem-solving and shared responsibility. Two teachers work together in each cycle.Lavinia’’s teachers are usually organised in accordance with these three cycles. In a way. the organisational role of each teacher has changed from that of an individual agent planning and performing his or her individual teaching in different classes. The new modes of organization of the teachers’’ activities have been grounded in deliberate pedagogical objectives. home areas consisting of a 1st. i. These plans encompass both a visionary dimension and concrete objectives for the activities of the schools. Accordingly. Each home area consists of three ‘‘classes’’ from three different learning levels. The school is now organised into nine self-managing entities known as home areas. at Vinstagårdsskolan there is a clear expectation that the predominance of this type of organizational format will create a solid and secure learning environment for all children. For instance. co-ordinate and administer and facilitate the learning of a home area. In addition to his or her individual class responsibilities. each teacher is responsible for one particular topic or subject. 5th and 6th grade class. A teacher can only belong to one team. 8th and 9th grade class respectively. a different but similar way of organizing pupils’’ and teachers’’ activities is occurring. 5-7 teachers form a team which shares the responsibility for planning and facilitating all the learning for a single home area. which in principle might encompass every level from 1st to 10th grade in accordance with a schedule set by the management. and most teachers also participate in transversal projects that either cut across the school cycles or involve several schools. At Maglegårdsskolen in Denmark. and a 7th. to that of a participant in a team which has to plan. and each teacher is responsible for one class. Central to these plans is a view that reflects the characteristics of the social system or community models. In this way. a home area hosts around 75 children across 3 age groups. each in their own class. each home area can therefore be regarded as a small self-contained school. a 4th. Common to them all is that none includes a specific ICT strategy. Overall pedagogical principles of Vinstagårdsskolan At Vinstagårdsskolan. since all the schools emphasize holistic values. 2nd and 3rd grade class. the following pedagogical principles and values guide the innovative learning environment: 37 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . with ICT being regarded as just another tool or medium along with all the other tools and media.e . 4.

carrying out and following up their own learning process Develop pupils’’ social competencies through co-operation in flexible groupings Give every pupil an individual development plan Plan and carry out activities in such a way that the majority of them can be achieved within the framework of the school day Create learning environments that promote and develop creativity and knowledge seeking. For each of the cornerstones. and has different qualifications and backgrounds for learning The teachers’’ ways of working and co-operating comprise models and examples for their pupils’’ work Parents play an important and active role in developing the pupils’’ social and knowledge-based competencies ICT is an important tool in the pupils’’ work The focus should not be on all pupils learning similar content. This presupposes an array of pedagogical methods and work formats. information handling and knowledge seeking Vinstagårdsskolan will: Create holism in pupils’’ school attendance. and will therefore to a great extent work with cross-disciplinary projects/themes for longer periods of time Train pupils to be responsible for their own learning process Involve pupils in planning.The school aims to encourage job satisfaction and well-being. vision and views are stated in addition to the aims. as well as promote knowledge and skills within the areas of language acquisition. and the taking into account of every pupil’’s individual learning style. but on the quality of what they are learning There should be constant alternation between written and oral work Individual assignments are also part of the group work Maglegårdsskolen in Denmark has a similar approach to learning which focuses on the pupil as an individual learner. Some of the basic perspectives influencing how learning takes place are: The school will create the basis for transforming pupils into independent and democratic citizens through participation and co-operation The school prepares and trains pupils for society and work as it exists both today and in the future The school develops the pupils’’ lifelong learning strategies The organization and its work are founded on the basic assumption that each and every person is unique. The school’’s work plan lists its five most important cornerstones: Personal and social development Acquisition of knowledge and skills Development of work methods Development of forms of influence and co-operation Development of a good work environment and organization. Traditional didactic pedagogical methods are moderated in favour of more tailored learning methods. mathematics. 38 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the fundamental perspective.

enabling the pupils to become confident regarding the concepts. the school’’s basic values and principles. it is mainly up to the individual teachers to request and participate in ICT courses. There are numerous ways of doing this. teachers participate in national programmes or local or regional courses.Child-centred mission statement at Maglegårdsskolen According to the school’’s mission statement6. though some do. either in a peerlearning framework or independently. content and methods of different subjects and interdisciplinary activities. What differs equally from school to school is how the strategies for competence development among the staff are formulated either by the management or by the teachers working in conjunction with the management. One way to make this happen is via the continuous development of teachers’’ competencies. 39 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 4. and should create the basis for values that support the development of the community and the individual development of the children. Their learning is closely related to their emotional life. But in those which do not. In some schools. there seems to be a common understanding that essentially this means that the guiding principles practised must be as follows: To focus on the needs of the individual child To create space for differences. The learning environment should be challenging and inspiring. its activities are supposed to be guided by the following values and pedagogical principles: Children are different and learn in different ways. artistic. The everyday life of the school should be influenced by different activities that contain intellectual. and hence to become a more inclusive school To respect and work with individual learning styles and different intelligences To focus on the acquisition of qualifications and their transformation into competencies. and its aims and strategies for the year(s) to come. What is new compared to before is that attention is increasingly being paid to children’’s well-being as a precondition for learning. experience and seek out knowledge. 6 Every year the school prepares a mission statement which reviews the work of the school during the past year. From the interviews. Many schools demand no special ICT competencies from their teachers. A feeling of self-respect and hence the belief that they can be successful is a precondition for optimal learning. secure and comfortable. The school should be a multifarious pedagogical and professional environment that stimulates and increases the self-respect of the children and their motivation to learn.4 Staff competence development strategies The implementation of both new methods and ICT naturally presupposes that the teachers possess both the practical qualifications and to a great extent the imagination and creativity that is needed to generate new and innovative thinking and carry it into practice. The everyday pedagogical activities should take place at a highly professional level. practical and physical elements. based on the presumption that children learn much better when they feel safe.

Competence development as a critical factor for change All the teachers at the Maglegårdsskole have completed a five-week course covering the new pedagogical ideas and values underpinning the school’’s innovative learning environment. The fact that all the teachers have followed exactly the same course which ran either concurrently or back-to-back with the other teachers’’ courses is seen both by management and the teachers interviewed as an important step towards creating a collective ““we culture”” instead of the more solipsistic ““me culture”” that used to characterize the school. and both teachers and pupils participated. Most of them (though not all) have obtained their IT driver’’s licences7. The Danish pedagogical driver’’s license consists of multiple course modules that focus on how particular programs can be used for teaching and learning. preferably with other teachers from their own school. 8 For further information see http://www.dk for further information concerning the pedagogical driver’’s licence. The driver’’s licence concept has now been exported to Norway8.000 teachers have taken part. The workshop was considered very successful. The starting point in relation to the integration of ICT competencies into the learning processes was that most teachers were normal users of ICT. The successful creation of a ““we culture”” is seen as being a prerequisite for the team-based structure.Development of the competencies of the teachers has been central to the change processes occurring in the Maglegårdsskole. and also as being the reason that it is functioning successfully. as this will enable them to work together on the integration of ICT in teaching and learning later on. The workshop was held just before the experience gained was to be applied. The further development of the teachers’’ competencies with regard to the use of ICT has primarily taken place in internal workshops. 7 See www. A similar approach is being used in Spain.000 completing their courses.skole-it. The driver’’s licence concept links pedagogy closely with the use of ICT. It has been developed with support from the Government.larerikt. as this is seen as essential for motivating teachers and ensuring the transferability of what is learnt during the course to what actually takes place in the classroom subsequently. The teachers complete an assignment for each module and send it back to their tutor. with 35. The course combines physical meetings with distance education. 40 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . but to focus on the pedagogical issues. and some 53. since it succeeded in providing the teachers with both practical inspiration and self-confidence regarding the use of digital photographic media for learning purposes. One example is a workshop on how to use digital cameras and digital video cameras.no/info/. The teachers are required to work in groups. The idea was to undertake practical work using the technology. Professional users managed the workshop.

(iii) The settlers follow the trailblazers and pioneers and ensure that the new ground is harvested. Three groups of ICT users among teachers At Coal Tyee Elementary School. and are the first to exploit the opportunities created. Lately. Active learning 2. As described in the example cited above. the courses have focused on changing the teacher profile concept to encourage: 1. the experience has been that the use and integration of ICT in education occurs at different speeds. The integration of student diversity as an asset 5. The use of personal growth plans has proven to be a particularly useful tool for upgrading the skills of all the teachers. and in the school district in general. Some teachers are highly computer literate. Such an approach recognizes that the trailblazers will take the first innovative steps. Student responsibility for the learning process 3. otherwise it is pointless to be developing new learning material. methodology and pedagogy. and the settlers help to mainstream the technology-based practices.The combination of learning to use ICT and using new pedagogical methods According to the Department of Education’’s representatives in Catalonia. teacher education is an important tool not only for introducing ICT into the schools but for encouraging the integration of ICT into the schools’’ curricula. Coal Tyee Elementary in Canada uses a differentiation strategy for developing teachers’’ competencies. (ii) The pioneers follow the trailblazers. (i) The trailblazers are the explorers who break new ground and uncover the new opportunities created by the medium. In other words. In pioneer terminology. ICT integration occurs at different speeds. while others are hesitant in using the technology. using the skills they already have as their starting point and directing their learning towards the needs identified by the teachers themselves. The ideas concerning teaching and the approach to learning must change. Thus instead of regarding the differential in the levels of ICT literacy which exist among its staff as an impediment to the use of ICT in the learning process. (ii) the pioneers and (iii) the settlers. Rather than pushing the pace of progress and risking a loss of ownership. A similar approach towards individual ICT development plans exists at the De Lindt School in the Netherlands: 41 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the pioneers will contribute to expanding the usage of ICT in the school. Development of social and team working skills 4. the Coal Tyee approach encourages the growth of ICT usage. three different kinds of ICT users are identified among the teachers: (i) the trailblazers. personal growth plans are being used as a tool in the development of the competencies of the teachers in order to follow up their progress. it has proven more fruitful to nurture the different learners and encourage their personal development. Self-paced student learning and more student-specific learning processes which are adapted to the needs of the individual pupil.

The teachers state that these action plans have proved to be an excellent incentive for directed learning and the acquisition of the ICT skills they have required. but change in general. the management decided that individual ICT action plans for each teacher needed to be developed and implemented. They feel they need to take more responsibility for the planning. According to the teachers interviewed. Teacher education is viewed as being one of the most crucial factors for the successful use of ICT for learning and teaching. and that making the pupils ICT literate was an essential challenge for the school. There is a big cohort of teachers aged between 27 and 35. There are some 16-18 meetings of this kind per year. The strength of this debate has been the unanimous support for. To improve this situation. a few teachers have left the school because they were unhappy with the new structure and culture. Accordingly. and another aged between 42 and 55. but it seems that they are all enjoying their new roles9. another important reason that the team-based structure works well is that teachers are generally much more satisfied and happy with their work than previously. 42 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . while some believe the opposite. and that the job feels more demanding. This initiative was sparked by the school’’s awareness that ICT is an important educational tool both currently and in the future. each year it still draws up global ICT action plans for itself. Moving towards a collective culture at the Maglegårdsskole in DK The collective ““we culture”” is maintained and developed via the management planning of meetings involving all the teachers. Some believe that teachers should learn how to use ICT as a tool for themselves before learning how to use it in pedagogical contexts. administration and co-ordination of the content of their instruction with other teachers. The different approaches to the use of ICT have triggered heated discussions among he teaching staff concerning the usefulness of ICT as an educational tool. One particular challenge for the organization of the school is the existence of different levels of ICT literacy and different approaches to the use of ICT in education. the ICT strategy which the school has chosen. 9 However. These mostly take the form of workshops in which new ideas and practices are discussed and knowledge is shared. a transformation in the culture of the school was one of the management’’s priorities. but there is no unanimity concerning the methods and sequence according to which the teachers ought to be educated. 4. individual ICT development plans were defined for each teacher in order to direct and motivate them in acquiring the skills they required for their teaching. There are only two teachers who fall chronologically between these groupings.5 School culture At the schools we visited in the course of our cases studies.Individual ICT development plans as tools for developing teachers’’ competencies To improve their ICT literacy. and ownership of. since the main prerequisite for the use of ICT for pedagogical purposes is the existence of ICT competencies among the teachers. The average age of the teachers is 42. Up to this point everybody is in agreement. since this was not only regarded as being an essential prerequisite for effecting change in relation to the use of ICT.

1. the units are supposed to function as schools within a school. However. The following examples illustrate the different management styles. through being present in the units during learning sessions. Teachers as managers of self and others in the Vinstagårdsskola However.g. as set out in the work plan. and that the teaching staff has a significant influence on the pedagogical direction of the school. The principal is well aware of this. and finds himself in a dilemma in which he is forced to find a balance between a traditional managerial role and a new role in which he needs to be more of a stage manager or director than a supervisor. For instance. Even though the De Lindt school has a bottom-up strategy. there has been much work to do with the work units to get them to function properly. The teachers and management agree that the management style is ‘‘bottom-up’’. On the one hand. many school managers hesitate to do this. one of the prerequisites for the transformation of schools in the direction of increased innovation is precisely that of constructing common values. So far. e. but must also be able to delegate responsibility to teachers. where a learning organization approach prevails. but in the long run increased working across the work units might become necessary. These two individuals have the primary overall pedagogical responsibility for the school. some school heads act as initiators of change and then give the responsibility for carrying it out to the teachers. Managers need to be visionary and to have the power to take action. 4. The teachers would like them to provide more feedback on their practical work and to follow up with new ideas. which has the responsibility for initiating such changes. and on the other hand the school also needs to be a selfcontained entity.There are similar approaches in other innovative schools. the initial impetus towards a radical change in the culture of the school is heavily dependent on the management of the school.6 Management style Management style is therefore also crucial in the creation of innovative learning environments. Learning organization at De Lindt The school management places considerable emphasis on the school as a ‘‘learning organization’’ by emphasizing constant debate and assessment concerning how the learning approach at the school can be improved. for instance in the De Lindt school in the Netherlands. This is because for a long time. Organizational framework for innovation in learning describes. 43 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . We have observed various different management styles while undertaking our case studies. They emphasize the fact that they must all agree and adhere to a number of common pedagogical principles that govern and structure their teaching. schools have generally consisted (and mostly still do consist) of a number of individual teachers working in parallel and teaching their subjects to the pupils in isolation from each other rather than in an integrated manner. while others both initiate change and manage the process afterwards. As Section 4. there is one area where teachers would prefer the principal and the vice-principal to be more visible.

uk are to be found over 1. however. and the teachers regard them as invaluable.200 reviews of National Curriculum Online lesson plans which have been produced with the assistance of museums.g. and therefore there is no urgent need for buying or accessing digital learning material. 10 See http://www. At the moment. Other countries have similar services.Role of management at the Maglegårdsskole The role of the management has been redefined to focus on setting the agenda for the continuing evolution of the pedagogical practices.7 Learning material Learning material is vital for some applications of ICT. For the individual teacher. to maintain the pedagogical focus. and all units have access to the learning material available from Skolverket’’s website10. is very difficult to get an overview of the available material and its quality. galleries and charities. to perform management tasks in accordance with the values governing the development of the school. to manage the change processes. e. Secondly. quite a lot of learning material is being developed and distributed via the Curriculum Online website. videos or the like.skolverket.se 44 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .teachernet. First of all it. the computers are mainly used for word processing and internet searches. in ICT) Innovation and vision for the future of the school All the examples above indicate a shift in the role of management away from pure administration towards an HR manager/leadership and pedagogical innovation role. At the Lavinia school in Spain. 4.gov. the teachers produce their own digital learning material. and to be responsible for maintaining a general overview. there are certain barriers to overcome in using ICT for teaching and learning purposes. In the UK. some schools organize the purchase of digital learning material in such a way that for instance their library will test and review it.g. Production of own learning material at Lavinia The school produces its own learning material. much of the available material has not been specifically produced for the purpose of supporting an educational curriculum. In order to overcome these obstacles. Organization of the purchase of learning materials at the Vinstagårdsskola Purchases are also made in co-operation with the library. for instance. digital learning material that is used in place of books. At www. and has earned several awards for some multimedia learning programmes which it shares with other schools in Catalonia and internationally. Role of management at the De Lindt school The principal describes the main management roles as being to promote the following: Human resource management Planning Resources for the development of the school (e.

but the trend nowadays is to introduce computers directly into the classroom in order to increase their usage for all subjects11. Gylemuir Primary school in Scotland has also decided to install a computer suite in which its pupils learn how to use the computer equipment. Apple Computer. Several teachers explain that such content programs may be effective in drilling some of the students’’ skills. When a school purchases such materials it is often limited by licensing policies that forbid its pupils from using the material at home. This is not feasible when a teacher has to book the computer suite several weeks in advance in order to let his pupils search the Internet for ten minutes on a particular topic. in social studies. schools decide to locate their equipment according to greatly varying criteria that correspond to their overall pedagogical objectives. and where a whole class of children can.8 Technology There are several important issues in relation to ICT technology. and finally the issue of how they organize their ICT support. This study focuses primarily on the first issue. For instance. The approach or rationale behind this is that ICT is supposed to be a tool just like a pen or pencil. 16. but are less effective when they have to be integrated with learning outcomes. for instance. Traditionally.. Some schools are not using digital learning material. However. Inc.g. this perspective regarding the placement of computers is not shared by all the schools we visited.’’ Use of Office programs rather than digital learning material Another case in point is the use of software applications such as the Microsoft Office programs rather than content programs. 45 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .One of the major obstacles facing schools and pupils when using digital learning materials is that of copyright. Secondly. The first of these is the question of how the schools choose to locate or situate their computers within the school setting. p. How schools choose to locate and organize their ICT equipment varies enormously. However. Inc. despite the easy availability of the latter. Can we learn digitally –– technology to enhance teaching. 2002. as this is very closely related to the learning situation. These problems indicate that there is still a long way to go before the use of digital learning material is incorporated into the learning process in schools in the same way that books are today. e. schools have installed their computers in a dedicated room or suite. 4. but have chosen instead to focus on the use of tools in the way described in the example below. learn to create their own websites. In other cases. the other issues are equally important elements of the learning context. As is demonstrated both in our case studies and others (such as the INSIGHT schools mentioned in an eWatch project survey of the practical implementation of ICT). pupils may be prevented from accessing online material because they have no Internet access at home. 11 IDG Global Solutions with Apple Computer. there is the question of how they tackle issues such as licensing and access for pupils and teachers at home..

the principal and the teachers participate in all kinds of contests in order to try to win computer equipment for their school. Many schools bought their computers or received the funding to buy them 3-5 years ago. The goal is to have 6 pupils per computer at the school. which is quite expensive and is also difficult for the schools. not as a topic in itself. When asked why ICT is not more clearly emphasised in the school plan. and secondly to secure a particular pedagogical objective. This kind of equipment has to be replaced regularly. Another financial issue relates to the purchase of new computer equipment and the replacement of old equipment. and they are not using computers all the time. as they are not accustomed to being custodians of computer equipment or budgeting for this kind of purchase. is equally important. either free of charge or at a discount. The physical disposition of the computers.nl/portal/home/index. this has enabled the school to obtain a printer. each classroom was equipped with at least three computers connected to a local network and a permanent link to the Internet and the Dutch knowledge network12.9 Finance Finance. and so on. In most countries. firstly to obtain free equipment. the principal and the teachers both state that the focus is on learning. the parents and personnel of the school receive purchase points whenever they shop in one of its supermarkets. In the beginning it takes more time for teachers to plan the learning process in novel ways. plays a significant role in the evolution from a traditional mode of organizing teaching and learning towards a new and innovative learning environment. and the pupils say that they use ICT much more in this school than they have done before. but the schools do not necessarily share this view. but the pupils say that they never lack access to a computer.html. ““The fewer. interpreted as meaning both time and money. See http://www. This has two purposes. 46 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . both for lesson preparation and for teaching. whether or not computers are being used. these additional activities become less necessary as the teachers become more accustomed to the new ways of working and develop new work habits.At the De Lindt School in the Netherlands. Competence development and extra preparation time are some of the activities that schools are forced to expend extra money on. 12 The Dutch knowledge network was established in order to support the integration of information technology in education. This is due to the fact that the work methods of the pupils are mixed. their age. 4. the better”” appears to be the widespread belief. Later on. So far. The points acquired by all the parents are collected up and used to provide equipment for the school. Participation in contests At Gylemuir Primary School. ICT is used daily. At the moment this is not the case. Shopping points from the Condis supermarket at the Lavinia School The school has entered into an agreement with the Condis supermarket chain whereby like all its other customers. All the teachers use ICT as a natural part of their work. great attention is paid to the pupil/computer ratio. Priorities at the Vinstagårdsskola ICT is viewed mainly as a learning tool.kennisnet. This is reflected in the minor focus on ICT which exists in the work plan and the pedagogical objectives described in it.

There are also two units for special needs education in the school. The reason is that with the new pedagogical approach. but in most cases the rebuilding had taken place in response to the need for a new school or for additional space in an existing school. There is also a wardrobe where each pupil has a locker and can store his jackets and footwear. This is an open area with corners and nooks for group and/or project work. Some of the schools we visited had been radically rebuilt. they were reduced to 35 square metres. mobile furniture designed to facilitate the reorganization of the learning environment. a company that specializes in creating flexible..Another aspect of school finance relates to the physical rebuilding of schools if. not much time is devoted to traditional classroom teaching. But the general opinion among the teachers and management at the schools we have visited is that innovative learning environments can be created anywhere. All the static IT equipment has been consolidated in the central room. 47 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . during the rebuilding. the architecture and construction of schools is highly significant for the possibilities for organizing and conducting the learning activities taking place inside them. Besides the units’’ own individual areas. along with space previously comprising the corridors linking the classrooms. chemistry etc. there are rooms for such activities as physical exercise. Of course. six smaller rooms where 16 pupils can be present at the same time. rebuilding that takes into account the pedagogical objectives of a school has a major positive influence and significance for how its learning can be organized and its activities are carried out. The school has been rebuilt in such a way that each self-managing unit occupies a physical home area consisting of three classrooms and a central shared space. the surplus space has been incorporated into the central shared room. Some of the schools we visited had received initial funding for such rebuilding from the local authority. a cafeteria and a library in which pupils can work on projects. Now that it is established. art. for instance. physics. The shift from traditional classroom instruction towards learning in small project-based teams has been supported by a change in the physical framework of the school. the home areas have at their disposal a wireless network and portable computers. and a media lab. 4. Instead. In these instances the school management has been able to influence how the rebuilding was to take place. whereas others were carrying out their activities in fairly traditional school buildings.10 Architecture According to many experts. Additionally. regardless of how the school is constructed. as well as a café. Before the school was rebuilt. Units at the Vinstagårdsskola in Sweden In each of the units at the school there is a large room in which all the pupils can be present simultaneously. they decide to set up home areas instead of having conventional classrooms. the classrooms were 48 square metres. The school’’s furniture is bought from Kinnarps. the Swedish Vinstagårdsskola operates with the same budget as the municipality’’s other schools. digital cameras and digital video cameras.

Nevertheless.The attitude is more important than architecture at the Vinstagårdsskola The school was rebuilt in such a way as to support the organizational. as they provide both physical. the pupils return home during the break in order to have lunch etc. the school maintains continuous contact with the parents. For instance. Extra funding was made available in order to provide the school with networks. Of course. the Vinstagårdsskola board of parents has continuously appointed working groups to deal with school issues throughout the school’’s entire existence. School finishes at 3 p. to a greater extent than with any other school. since the founding of the school the midday break has been shorter than in other more traditional schools. Whenever possible. compulsory school usually consists of morning and afternoon classes with a 1-2 hour break at midday. In addition. either directly or by phone and e-mail. moral and financial support. Helpful involvement of parents at Lavinia The high level of involvement of the pupils’’ parents in the daily life of the school is helpful. The pupils eat at the school.m... and emphasise that the really crucial factor for the success of such a learning environment is the attitudes of management and teachers. and those children who cannot return home at that time because of their parents’’ work schedule are offered recreational facilities on the school premises. 48 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 13 In Spain. environmental and pedagogical objectives. furniture. the teachers agree that the way in which their work is organized and the learning takes place could be copied even in a traditional school building with long corridors and classrooms. the parents list the following as being important aspects of their relationship with the school: The high degree of information The positive attitude of the teachers The focus on developing the children’’s personalities The daily contact with the school The fact that the majority of the school work is carried out in the school The fact that the school operates an unorthodox timetable (as compared with most other Spanish schools)13 Parents contribute considerably to the development of the other schools too. this means that the school has had a better starting-point than other schools. At Lavinia. 4. and which according to both teachers and parents is appropriate to their needs. For their part. and the school managements regard this as being very important to their own work. computer equipment etc.11 Parents’’ involvement All the innovative schools visited in the course of our case studies are characterized by a large degree of parental involvement. The parents endorse this view. an arrangement that costs the parents 25 Euro a month.

org/AtoZ/construct. Understanding is built up step by step through active involvement. Piaget's constructivism is based on his view of the psychological development of children. he believed. In this view.html 15 14 49 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 164. space. ““A learning environment is a place or community where people can draw upon resources to make sense out of things and construct meaningful solutions to problems. http://www. Moreover. To reach an understanding of basic phenomena. One of the first theorists to apply constructivism for classrooms and childhood development was Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Manninen illustrates this understanding in the model presented below. B.. teachers should understand the steps in the development of the child's mind. instruction is therefore a process of supporting construction rather than of communicatInnovative ing knowledge from teachers to pupils14.cfm 16 http://learning. or robots)16. animations. which encompasses the same –– but less detailed –– structures as the ones presented in our own analytical framework: Marja Mononen-Aaltonen. Constructivism15 (or constructionism) is further described and explained by MIT Media Lab’’s ‘‘Future of Learning Group’’ as being: Based on two different senses of ‘‘construction. and the constructivist conception of knowledge and learning on the other. rather than having information ‘‘poured’’ into their heads. Theories and models of Innovative Learning Environments 5. In autonomous activity. p. There are quite a number of suggested definitions of learning environments that all encompass constructionism. or practice whose purpose is to support learning”” (Manninen & Pesonen.media. children must discover relationships and ideas in classroom situations that involve activities of interest to them. and to a certain extent also the use of ICT. children have to go through stages in which they accept ideas they may later see as not truthful.5. was discovery. The constructivist view emphasises learning as an active process of constructing rather than acquiring or receiving knowledge. The fundamental basis of learning.’’ It is grounded in the idea that people learn by actively constructing new knowledge.edu/projects. ICT is viewed as one of the means through which such learning environments can be created. according to Wilson. 1997). For instance. according to Piaget. constructionism asserts that people learn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in constructing personally meaningful artifacts (such as computer programs.pathsoflearning.”” Another definition is ““(A) place.1 Innovative Learning Environments –– Theoretical foundation The concept of the learning environment as a phenomenon has entered educational discourse in close conjunction with the emerging use of ICT for educational purposes on the one hand. According to Piaget.mit.

It can be used to support and preserve traditional methods. or it can be used to change the pedagogical methods and the organization of the learning situation radically. since ICT can be used to change the learning situation but does not necessarily have to. is to trigger the new educational opportunities inherent in these virtual environments. Our view is that this might be the case. and that actors can draw on a number of resources when doing so. place and repetitive rituals (seen as a system and process in constructivism) which together provide the social organisation for learning/teaching". while providing learning resources to be used by learners at any time.2 New models or paradigms facilitated by advances in ICT ICT is claimed by many to be the initiator of a revolution in the education system. Our analytical framework approach encompasses all of those elements. especially Internet-related ones.Figure 5. This conception has recently been modified so that now it can apply to any combination of distance and face-to-face interaction in which some kind of time and space virtuality is present. tutoring and support. and is characterized by actions occurring between teachers and pupils in a framework comprising a number of structural factors which are distinguished by resources and rules.1: Learning environment according to Manninen and Pesonen Pulkkinen and Peltonen (1998) state: "A learning environment is a place or community arranged specifically for learning purposes. etc. and community. learning materials. Virtual learning environments (VLEs) were first perceived as being on-line domains allowing both synchronous and asynchronous collaborative interaction among teachers and learners. the learning environment is understood as comprising different learning situations. evaluation. Three essential main components of any learning environment are required to enable learning to take place (Pulkkinen and Ruotsalainen. the structure of knowledge and learning. Social organisation of education: time. Practical arrangements necessitated by learning connected with time. Learning environments are to be viewed as both physical and virtual environments. but is not necessarily so. the chief role of different technologies and technology configurations. teaching situations. 5. and is based on ideas of: Knowledge. 1998): Pedagogical functions: learning activities. 50 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In our model. such as is encompassed by the notion of blended learning. Common to all the definitions is their emphasis that a learning environment is a place or community in which a number of activities are taking place with the purpose of supporting learning. Several of the above definitions also emphasize the constructionist view of learning and the use of ICT. Appropriate technologies: how the selected tools are connected with the pedagogical model. place. Compared with traditional learning environments.

BECTa report. then what are the new educational paradigms or models that are enabled by advances in information and communication technology? Plainly.2. Paradigm shifts are by definition longitudinal in nature. These common perceptions are related to a change in teachers’’ roles from that of providers of information to tutors. as these have been the two main areas of interest in the general discussion about learning environments. This suggests that innovation is not dependent on technology so much as on the creativity of schools. teachers and pupils. guides and advisors for their students. If this is the case. and to collaborate with others. However. They are also related to a change in the focus concerning the pupils’’ opportunities to become more active. even though such differences do exist. to take more responsibility for their own learning process. SITES Module 2. From our reading we are able to conclude that there are only minor differences among the various countries’’ views concerning the nature of the new possibilities. A BECTa report goes as far as saying that the successful use of ICT depends on five critical factors: good school leadership. What we illustrate in the table below should therefore be viewed as an ongo- 17 18 Primary Schools –– ICT and Standards.This view is supported by the findings from SITES Module 2. how any shift in paradigm actually occurs will be dependent on its context. which indicates that the change of focus is ongoing and will continue for many years to come. and that as far as the visions regarding the education system of the future are concerned. The differences which exist among the countries relate to their priorities concerning the intent behind the use of ICT for learning purposes.1 From instructionism to constructionism Because innovative learning environments are the focus of this study. this tendency is universal. and the availability of good ICT resources17. Findings like these lead to the preliminary conclusion that Innovative Learning Environments are not so much dependent on the use of ICT. 51 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . good management of ICT. All of our study’’s findings suggest that the change in the learning paradigm broadly involves a shift from instructionism towards constructivism. but rely more on the organization of the learning situation and the ability of teachers to use technology to support pedagogical learning objectives that change and transform traditional learning activities. with some countries emphasizing the development of teamwork and collaborative skills and others emphasizing the development of creative thinking skills or student-centred pedagogy18. which have demonstrated that ordinary technology such as productivity tools. e-mail and the web is being used to do innovative things. plus interviews with experts. in practice the transformation of the learning paradigm in terms of the dissemination and prevalence of learning activities actually occurring in schools remains limited. good teaching of ICT. p. 5. a good general standard of teaching. it is essential that we take a closer look at the shift towards constructionism and the use made of ICT under this pedagogical approach. even though the geographical dispersal and prevalence of an acceptance of the shift in pedagogical ideas and objectives throughout Europe is widespread. 77. This is important if we are to draw the correct conclusions from the six case studies described later in this report.

integrated) problembased curriculum focusing on competence development & processes Self-directed Learner-centred Open learning settings Knowledge can be delivered One perception and solution –– the teacher’’s –– is regarded as the correct one Fixed curriculum focusing on content & objectives Teacher-directed Teacher-centred Closed learning settings A general assumption of the constructionist paradigm is that it is up to the pupils themselves to do the learning. as a set of tools to express creativity etc. all emphasizing it in different ways.ing transformation in the learning paradigm or model. It also illustrates the role that ICT can play in the performance of such activities. all they can do is help. For instance. support and challenge them. Maria Montessori and those of the Summerhill School etc. teachers cannot read and write for the children. with the theories of John Dewey. and how the structural framework both influences and is influenced by them. ICT is used merely as a medium of communication. The figure below illustrates some of the new pedagogical activities that have been facilitated through the advances in ICT and the transformation of the learning paradigm. as a simulator. as shared material. which means that in practice the two models will co-exist in the education world: Table 5. In the instructionist approach. ICT is viewed merely as a tool for reproducing facts.e. as an information resource. This view of the children’’s learning process is not new. construction and communication Learning as the understanding of general rules & principles plus the ability to apply them in different contexts Knowledge can be constructed as a component of existing knowledge structures Multiple perceptions and solutions of the same problem are equally correct A flexible (i. The novel element in relation to the activities and methods promoted via these theories is that ICT plays an increasingly bigger role in supporting them. In constructionism. providing feedback or as being itself an object of study.1: Shift in learning paradigm FROM Teaching as transmission of knowledge from teacher to pupil Learning as memorizing and repetition TOWARDS Teaching as encouragement of interaction. 52 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

53 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Results and Policy Implications of the DELILAH project. and also in accordance with the cycle of innovation and change existing in the respective countries.2 Innovative Learning Environments –– examples of innovative learning approaches. the role of ICT and the structural framework Many opportunities for innovation arise from the introduction and deployment of ICT in education and training.Figure 5. The research evidence from the DELILAH project19 suggests that whereas there seems to be considerable scope for change in relation to the use of ICT. 19 Looking at Innovations in Education and Training –– Framework. nor does the rhythm and pace of such change appear to be constant across sectors and countries –– instead. the rhythm and pace of change varies in accordance with sector-dependent features. in practice this is not unlimited.

We illustrate each of the issues being discussed with examples. The consequence is that their approaches are often multidisciplinary. For each of the approaches we describe our interpretation. and that time planning and organization have changed radically. whereas others have chosen to change their time schedule or organisation for periods of days or weeks at a time.3 Innovative learning environments –– new learning activities The shift in the learning paradigm and the extended use of ICT in learning have opened up new opportunities concerning both the organization of the learning situation and the activities taking place within it. and instead of dividing them into Grades 7. Sometimes it is also closely linked to a reorganization of the pupils’’ work and group affiliations. we describe and illustrate the practical application of ICT for learning purposes. and must be present in the school for 35 hours a week. The work units are completely autonomous in the sense that they plan and perform their work precisely as they wish within the framework of the school’’s overall work plan.1 The organization of the learning situation During this study we found a number of innovative practices taking place in schools in which the way the learning situation is organized differs from the traditional mode of organisation consisting of pupils primarily being taught one subject by one teacher for one lesson at a time. In this section. whereas the other two work in several units because they are specialists in minor subjects such as art or physical exercise. some schools have reorganized their learning situations in ways that transcend the traditional curriculum-bound modes of thought. 8 and 9.3. As the example from Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden shows below. As described previously. 54 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 5. We describe some of the emerging but still rarely-used methods that have been made easier by advances in the development of ICT for learning purposes. the role of ICT and the structural framework.2 Innovative Learning Environments –– examples of innovative learning approaches. 5 of the 7 teachers in each unit work only in that unit. the children belong to a work unit that straddles the traditional grades. The teachers share an office in the unit. Total reorganization into smaller units across age groups Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden is organized into smaller units containing 75 to 90 children and 7 teachers. The pupils are aged 13-15. 90 pupils in Grades 7-9 belong to one group and work multidisciplinarily and across grades on some occasions. The subsequent sections will all deal with each of the innovative learning approaches illustrated in Figure 5. and interpolate a brief discussion. illustrated by examples from our own and other case studies in the field being investigated. Some of the examples we have found come from schools that have turned the organization of the whole school year (or all school years) upside-down. Radical and permanent changes are often closely related to changes in the organization of the activities of teachers away from individual working towards team-based work and collaboration. and sometimes they concentrate on a single subject for one or two lessons. and discuss the learning potential of each as well as the potential obstacles that might prevent them from becoming widespread. give examples taken from studies and case studies.5.

as well as focusing on their interests instead of their chronological age. Both the teachers and the pupils have stated that the first year was a challenge. namely intensive language courses and key concepts in science and the humanities. There are no classes in /21. The overall view of pupils. The new methods employed at Vinstagårdsskolan. The children work together in groups across age boundaries. Slash 21. The Netherlands provides other examples of the organization of learning in ways other than the traditional one in which pupils may have 7 or so different lessons covering as many subjects during a single school day. As a consequence of this. the traditional division into subjects should not be the dominant model for the organisation of work. 55 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and are not kept in the same groups for more than one project in a row. offers just 2 subjects each day. and therefore the learning process should not be either. It is therefore anticipated that the newcomers’’ problems will increasingly diminish. Three ’’home groups’’ of three successive course years are combined into a single ‘‘learning community’’ under the supervision of a team of staff. for instance. level of knowledge or skill within the area. The pupils in the current Grade 7 have only partially shared this experience. parents and teachers alike is that the school and the manner in which learning is planned and carried out has been a success. were both thrilling and frustrating. But in those subjects where national examinations are used to assess the pupils. 40% of the time spent at the school is supposed to be spent on creative working methods and projects which mirror holistic thinking. and to plan their learning on this basis. This was certainly the case for those pupils who came from schools where traditional teaching methods had primarily been used. etc. together with the free planning of time and space. Total reorganization into home groups of 50 students with changed division of subjects Another example of a total reorganization of time planning is found in the Dutch school known as /21 (Slash 21). This means that they have close contact with these pupils and follow their performance throughout their three years in the school. emotional and intellectual development for a relatively long time (3 years) Obtain a holistic picture of each pupil Create security Achieve continuity and holism in teaching and other activities Focus on the pupils’’ maturity. stage of development. Each of the 5 teachers working solely in one unit is mentor for circa 15 pupils of different ages. age. and found it hard to handle in the beginning. Pupils in the present Grade 8 say that they were confused by the lack of direct control. The world outside the school is not separated into subjects. and the freedom to choose them (and to a certain extent the content). the teachers continue to teach in the traditional way.The reasons for organizing the work into smaller units (known as ‘‘schools within a school’’) are that this organization makes it possible to: Follow pupils’’ social. The teachers put the groups together on the basis of a number of criteria. just ‘‘home groups’’ consisting of about 50 students. intellectual aptitudes and knowledge of skills. The pupils themselves are convinced that the new Grade 7 has benefited from Grade 8’’s experiences and help. for instance interests.

The members of the ‘‘home group’’ quickly get to know one another; therefore it is easy to split them into small, changing groups in order to carry out work projects. In order to provide course-like tuition, ‘‘home groups’’ from several ‘‘learning communities’’ are combined from time to time. /21 follows the principles of intensive language teaching. In a twelve-week period, the students will work intensively for four three-hour periods a week on one modern foreign language. From day one they are motivated to speak in that language, encouraged by an English, French or German native speaker that stimulates, motivates and corrects them whenever necessary20. Another of our case study schools had also organized pupils into groups which transcended age. Heterogeneous groups At the De Lindt school, children of different ages are taught in single groups. The school refers to these learning groups as ‘‘heterogeneous groups’’. Toddlers' section: Groups 1 and 2 (3 groups in all) Junior section: Groups 3 and 4 (3 groups in all) Intermediate section: Groups 5 and 6 (3 groups in all) Senior section: Groups 7 and 8 (2 groups in all) The size of the groups varies, but there is an average of 27 children in each group, with younger groups tending to be somewhat smaller. The school is divided into four sections containing 2 to 3 heterogeneous groups each. The children are part of each heterogeneous group for two years. These group structures require an appropriate form of organization which differentiates the learning approach used in accordance with the competence level of the individual students. The De Lindt school has practised this organizational format ever since it was founded, and the school management states that the children from Group 8 have been achieving above-average marks in the Grade 8 performance results. Other schools have not reorganised themselves as consistently as in the above examples, but do so for shorter periods in the course of the day, week or year. This mode of organizing the learning situation is not as closely linked with a total change in the organization of work among teachers or the composition of pupil groups. Transversal co-operation between cycles For instance, at the Lavinia school in Spain, the primary school section is organised into three cycles, each consisting of two grades for pupils aged 68, 8-10 and 10-12. The purpose behind those projects which involve the transversal collaboration of two or more cycles is to enable the pupils to acquire some knowledge and understanding of the next cycle, and to carry out large-scale projects. The preparatory work is carried out in so-called commissions which are established on a voluntary basis. Nevertheless, much of the teaching is still based on individual planning, particularly in day-to-day planning and teaching. Naturally, the organization across classes, age groups and subjects occasionally supports new learning approaches based on the new learning paradigm. But on the whole it does not promote the migration of a school away
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from the old paradigm towards the new one. One of the major findings of the DELILAH project was that the innovative use of ICT in education seems to involve considerable restructuring of the organizations, their curricula and their timetables, as well as requiring an increased workload and dedication from the teachers21. Some of the schools we visited appeared to be experiencing a dilemma between their desire to reorganize themselves and the existence of a number of other factors. For instance, parents may be doubtful about the value of reorganizations across time, age and subject, mainly because they are concerned about whether their children will score as highly in national exams as children from other schools. Teachers too sometimes oppose new ways of organization because it will involve more work for them in the beginning. The teachers we spoke to who had experienced such a change had all benefited in many ways from working more closely with their colleagues, and their view was that in the long run it was worth doing because their work has become much more interesting and they are correspondingly better motivated. 5.3.2 Encouraging joint enterprises and the shared construction of knowledge One of the issues dealt with in this study concerns how ICT can be a means of encouraging joint enterprises and the shared construction of knowledge, and how it can best stimulate learning as a form of social participation. One all-encompassing theoretical approach to the use of ICT as a means for co-operation and collaboration, for instance in the form of communications forums, shared information etc. is CSCL –– Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. CSCL –– Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is a didactic concept whose focus is on using computer-supported systems to support and facilitate group processes and group dynamics in the educational setting in ways that are not achievable by face-to-face interaction. An explicit goal of the CSCL environment is to promote reflection and inquiry that assist in-depth learning. Koschmann (1996) states that ““Computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is an emerging paradigm for research in educational technology that focuses on the use of information and communications technology (ICT) as a mediational tool within collaborative methods (e.g. peer learning and tutoring, reciprocal teaching, project- or problem-based learning, simulations, games) of learning"22. Specific communication activities performed using CSCL are a) classroom discussions, b) group meetings, 3) discussion forums, 4) chat and 5) e-mail.23 CSCL systems are designed to be used by multiple learners working at the same workstation or across networked machines. Hence when used in educational situations, teachers and students may be separated in time and space. Therefore CSCL is suitable for learning both inside and outside the classroom. These systems can support the communication of ideas and inKikis, Dr Kathy & Dr Andreas Kollias: A framework for understanding ICT-related teaching/learning innovations in primary and secondary education & Policy recommendations, p. 84. 22 http://www.uib.no/People/sinia/CSCL/web_struktur-782.htm 23 Stahl, Gerry: Concepts of Communication in CSCL, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/papers/ch17.pdf
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formation, enable access to information and documents, and provide feedback on problem-solving activities. The framework underpinning CSCL consists of theories such as socio-cultural theory, constructivism, self-regulated learning, situated cognition, cognitive 24 apprenticeship and problem-based learning. One project known as CL-Net had the aim of investigating the cognitive and didactic aspects of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Networks (CLNs) in primary and secondary education. One of the project’’s objectives was to collate the existing research concerning this form of learning, which aims to stimulate knowledge building. The project involved empirical research in the form of case studies and small-scale, informal comparative experiments involving almost 600 students and 25 teachers from 20 schools in five European countries. Some of the main findings of the case studies in this project were as follows: The culture of most schools and classrooms offers scant opportunity for collaborative knowledge building. Most schools are still heavily dependent on the traditional didactic triangle. The educational system does not consider these kinds of innovations as representing a potential mainstream reality of the teaching profession. They are regarded as optional luxuries, and teachers have insufficient time to reflect on their practice or to discuss and refine these innovations. It is not very easy to integrate new didactic practices into existing curricula. Teachers do not have the time available, and are unable to design the assignments and questions without extensive support. School timetables often leave little time for experiments that diverge from mainstream instruction25. Working with CSCL requires the teachers to adopt a particular educational philosophy and students to take on a new role. It focuses on knowledge building instead of knowledge reproduction as the main learning activity, which involves a belief and faith in active, self-regulated, constructive and contextualized learning on the part of groups of students. A substantial change in pedagogical practices and in the general culture of education is needed to facilitate CSCL in primary and secondary level education. The physical location of computers needs to encourage collaborative learning. The students were observed to be working in a more self-regulated manner and to be directing their own projects instead of following detailed assignments from teachers. The general motivation of the students is increased. The role of the teacher as information provider is transmuted into that of facilitator and co-learner. A constructivist pedagogy of learning underpins CSCL. Specific applications and computer programs have been developed to support CSLC, but quite a number of other programs are also used as a means of supporting collaboration. Collaboration and communication itself strengthens the pupils’’ construction of knowledge, for instance through giving them new insights when they encounter opinions that differ from their own. So
See, for instance, http://www.euro-cscl.org/ & http://kn.cilt.org/cscl99/ Kikis, Dr Kathy & Dr Andreas Kollias: A framework for understanding ICT-related teaching/learning innovations in primary and secondary education & Policy recommendations, pp. 89-98.
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even though most schools do not consciously use CSCL as the concept underlying their group activities or use purpose-designed CSCL programs, we have found quite a few examples of ICT being used as a tool or instrument for the pupils’’ shared construction of knowledge and joint enterprises. We have found quite a number of examples of particular pedagogical methods being used with the objective of encouraging collaboration between pupils, but in which ICT plays only a minor role. Working in groups with advertisements At Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden we observed a project where pupils where creating an advertisement for a product. Teachers provided the pupils with 6 different product descriptions. One of these was of a jacket that changed its appearance in response to current fashion trends. On the basis of a brief description of the jacket (or one of the other products), groups of pupils were supposed to create a single-page ad for the jacket. They were to use both text and graphics to market the jacket. After finishing the advertisement, it had to be presented to the entire group which was working on producing advertisements. Each of the smaller groups was also asked to prepare a number of critical questions concerning each of the products prior to the in plenum presentation. Computers were used as a tool for creating the advertisement and laying out the text and graphics. In addition, they were used to find information and inspiration for the pupils’’ advertisements. The pupils worked on this project for three days. There are other reasons for carrying out this kind of project. The pupils were supposed learn to work together in a group to plan and accomplish a task. The pupils knew the purpose of the project and its anticipated result. They were also given advice on how to work, but the planning and completion of the project were their own responsibility. They were of course able to seek help from the teachers during their work. They were also supposed to learn about the methods and effects employed by commercials and advertisements through creating an advertisement themselves, instead of just analysing one or a few of them. The creation of an advertisement was also intended to stimulate and develop the pupils’’ analytical skills and their creativity and skills in Swedish. The computer was used as a creative tool in conjunction with paper, pencils and crayons. When the pupils knew beforehand that the other pupils would ask critical questions, they also had to prepare for these. The purpose here was to make the children consider the strengths and weaknesses of their products and advertisements. They needed to be prepared to discuss, argue and reason with others. The Swedish example does not rely on a specific method, but does embody specific aims and objectives. By contrast, one of the teachers at the Lavinia school in Spain uses a specific method –– the Johnson and Johnson method –– for collaborative learning. Using the Johnson and Johnson method for collaboration One of the teachers at the Lavinia school in Spain explained that she was heavily inspired by the methods of Johnson and Johnson (1989), and uses them in the learning situation. On her own initiative she underwent training in North America, which induced her to use this method in her teaching. She uses a group learning technique within a collaborative learning framework. It

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takes place in small groups, which comprise the primary classroom learning structure. It is based on the principle of simultaneously giving the pupils free choice while still maintaining teacher control. Groups of 1-4 pupils come together, and each individual assumes a role of 1) communicator, 2) secretary, 3) facilitator, 4) spokesperson, or 5) the person responsible for the group’’s materials. The purpose of the technique is to teach three skills to the pupils, i.e.: 1. Assuming personal responsibility for working to achieve collective goals 2. Face-to-face interaction 3. Effective group process skills26 The 1989 Johnson and Johnson-inspired model of collaborative working, although introduced and applied by the teacher, has not been systematically integrated into the teaching at Lavinia. While knowledge sharing exists, it mainly occurs as the result of individual initiative. This is where the management structure is more traditional in giving autonomy to each teacher. The above two examples both illustrate how ICT can be used as a collaborative tool in which the objectives have nothing or very little to do with the use of ICT as such. At Gylemuir Primary School in Scotland, computers were also used as a tool for creating collaboration between Grade 1 and 5 and Grade 2 and 6 pupils respectively. In this example, a conscious choice was made to use computers as the vehicle for collaboration between the two age groups. At Gylemuir Primary School, the pupils in Primary 6 each have a Primary 2 partner pupil, and the pupils in Primary 5 each have a partner in Primary 1. The partnerships last for two years, and once a week the partner pupils go to the computer suite to work on different topics. When we were at Gylemuir, the Primary 2 pupils were going to learn about shapes with the help of their partners from Primary 6. Half the pupils from each of the classes were present in the computer suite. The remainder were carrying out other activities somewhere else. The pupils walked into the computer suite in two lines, sat quietly down on the floor in front of the large screen on the wall, and waited for the teacher to start the lesson. First, the teacher introduced the purpose and the activities of the lesson. She showed the children how to draw and colour rectangles using a drawing program on the computer. She talked to her pupils about the characteristics of a rectangle, and asked them if they knew them. Then she told them to go to a computer, where the Primary 2 pupils were supposed to draw and colour three rectangles each. The Primary 6 pupils were to help and guide the Primary 2’’s, but not to do the work for them. During these activities, the teacher and an assistant supported and encouraged the children in what they were doing. When they had finished their tasks, the pupils sat down on the floor again and waited for the teacher to continue her description of the themes of the lesson. After working with the rectangles, the pupils worked with squares, circles and triangles. After the last activity, the children sat down on the floor again, and the teacher asked them to evaluate their learning on the
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Tinzmann, M.B. et. al (1990): What Is the Collaborative Classroom? NCREL: Oak Brook, http://www.southampton.k12.ny.us/english9/Adobe%20Files/Student%20Roles%20in %20a%20Collaborative%20Classroom.pdf

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Prior to the interview. Two teachers were interviewing him. She talked to them about what they had learned. from which they were asked to choose two to apply for. the Internet was used to find information about the company. they can learn to take responsibility for minor assignments that must be completed over a very short space of time. they were supposed to learn how to search for information. We followed the progress of one pupil’’s job interview as he applied for a job at Volvo as an engineer. It can also be explained in terms of a number of external structures such as the political and societal tendency to emphasize the importance of the abilities of pupils to work independently in later life as well as learning to learn in order to be able to keep on learning throughout their lives. Responsibility for their own learning process can be given to pupils at several levels.3. and how he did in the interview. one of the purposes of learning is to increase the responsibility that pupils take for their own learning process. These activities had manifold purposes. and to put together an application and a CV using a word processing program. 61 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the pupils were receiving this training in a safe environment before they had to perform an interview in real life. Finally. but is used as a tool for finding information about different companies and for writing and preparing an application and a CV. Secondly. Their applications were also supposed to contain fictitious curriculum vitae. either in the course of the school year or during their schooling as a whole. They use the process of applying for a job as practice preparation for finding a place to do their practical. both the shift away from a teacher-directed towards a learner-directed focus. First of all. At the end of the class the children left the computer suite in two lines. Another example is that of a job interview at Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden which cut across subjects. Cross-curricular job interview Pupils are supposed to do their practical during the 8th grade. as would have been the case in real life. the other pupils were working on their applications or other topics with their fellow-pupils and the other teachers. or they can be given responsibility for achieving larger objectives. his curriculum vitae. he received feedback on his application. the teachers provided pupils with nine job ads.3 Strengthening pupils’’ responsibility for their own learning process In the new learning paradigm. In addition. and can be explained by. Prior to our observation.basis of the questions displayed on the signs on the wall. and away from a teacher-centred to a learner-centred focus. and how to sort and use it constructively. In this project ICT plays a minor role. While one pupil was being interviewed. This implies. For instance. and a word processor was used to write the application and the curriculum vitae. Afterwards. they were being trained to write in Swedish. they were intended to help prepare and train the pupils for life after school. 5.

the project was initiated and completed as follows. Through key questioning the pupils are accordingly encouraged to construct their own models of what is being studied (their hypotheses) before testing them with real evidence and research. and as a tool or instrument for accomplishing other tasks. In the Christmas Card project. Several main characteristics are common to all these learning situations and projects: Teachers have specific objectives for what they are doing. as in the example of the advertisement project cited earlier. advisors and stimulators ICT is used as a tool or medium for the realization of objectives. secondly. which became part of the curriculum in Scotland in 1965. they were supposed to earn some money. learner and teacher create a scenario through visualisation –– the making of collages. The head teacher sent the class a note in which she explained that she needed their help. The key questions are used in a sequence that creates a context or setting within the framework of a story. These provide a visual stimulus for the skill practice planned by the teacher. the entire class were supposed to work together on a common project for a certain period of time. The teacher has the story but does not know the detail of the content. The main feature that differentiates this approach from others is that it recognises the value of the existing knowledge of the learner. The children were to go back to their classroom and discuss with their teacher how to address the problem. and wanted them to meet her at a specific date and time. The teacher has planned a sequence of activities through the designing of key questions. and finally. It seems a kind of paradox. the storyline method was used in what is known as the Christmas Card Project. they and their teacher were supposed to learn how to use the computer for artwork. but merely as an incidental skill (teachers and pupils both had to learn to use PhotoShop). friezes and pictures employing a variety of art/craft techniques. which in some cases are also familiar to the pupils Teachers play an important role in creating well-defined frameworks for their pupils’’ activities Teachers have important roles as guides. In brief. The Christmas Card Project Several objectives were envisioned for the Christmas card project. especially in the northern countries of Europe. During this meeting she told the pupils that she needed them to help her produce 500 Christmas cards within a very limited timeframe. Together. These examples mainly fall into the category of assignments that are limited in time and scope. we have seen several different examples of how teachers have organized learning situations in which the children take responsibility for their own learning process and in which ICT plays an important role. and then meet the head teacher again to give her their suggestions. First of all. The storyline method The storyline method was developed in Scotland but it is now used widely. ICT was not used for its own sake in order to increase the pupils’’ responsibility for their own learning process. The method was developed as an answer to a need for methodologies that could be used for integrated studies. 62 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .In our reading and case studies. and is not treated as an objective in itself In an example from Scotland.

The pupils’’ choice of topic was motivated by their own interests. together with a list of the activities which the pupils were to carry out: Select the topic to investigate Draw up a mind map. ““where did it happen?””. and try to find the answers to them Revise and correct the text. This resulted in the use of paintings that other children had made. in order to hear one of their teachers introduce the work. and was presented on a big screen. The topic had to be in the middle. ““when did it happen?””. Another example of learning activities in which the purpose was to increase the responsibility of pupils for their own learning process comes from Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden. A cartoon crocodile was used to represent a pupil who was supposed to start work on a project concerning the Boston Tea Party. Some children found rhymes and wrote them on the pictures. The order in which the children were recommended to 63 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . finishing on time and also earning a lot of money from the sale of the cards. where pupils from Grades 7-9 were working on a project. with questions surrounding it such as ““what happened?””. For instance. the pupils started working on their projects in groups. As they worked. ““why did it happen?”” Find two written texts (in book format) describing the topic Find and list key words Write a brief summary outlining the two different views represented in the two texts Ask questions the pupils wanted to have answered by additional information Search the Internet for the additional information Write a longer text on the topic Ask new questions. The pupils worked in teams. At the beginning of our observation.During this process the head teacher introduced new problems for which the children were to find solutions. and some wanted their Christmas cards to have Edinburgh themes. the teacher used concrete examples to illustrate how the crocodile was working. In this example. the computer functioned as an information resource in which students were able to find supplementary information on the topic they were working on. she said they were pressed for time and had to find material they could re-use instead of producing new material from scratch. the emphasis was on the method which the pupils were supposed to be applying in their work after choosing their topic. The teacher presented a work method to the pupils. The aim of the project was outlined. World history 24 pupils in groups of varying sizes were working with world history projects. the pupils were all gathered in the common area of their unit. working on them in PhotoShop in order to give them a touch of winter and Christmas. and how the pupils were supposed to be working afterwards. ““who was involved?””. The teacher set up the framework for the pupils’’ activities. the pupils were able to seek help from the teacher. During the presentation. either on paper or using the computer. After the presentation. The objective in this learning situation was not to introduce or describe a particular event of world history. and was selected from among a number of topics outlined by the teacher. The presentation had been created using PowerPoint. ““what happened afterwards?””. Instead.

Throughout the pupils’’ progression through the school. One of the tools for monitoring this process is the log book in which the pupils are intended to note down their aims. the objectives of their current activities are always visible to them. their school’’s overall educational aims. since it is a strategic aim that pupils should both learn how to search the Internet for information and be able to distinguish reliable information from the less reliable. the children had a basis for seeking and sorting the information they obtained. It is continuously updated. They also know the aims and objectives pertaining to themselves. During class they are informed about the aims of each activity. As one girl said. All pupils should have an individual. namely mentors. the pupils learn how to plan and carry out their own work in order to attain the goals set out in their development plans. parents’’ and teachers’’ views concerning the aims. Pupils show the log books to their parents every Monday. log books and development dialogues. such as drill programmes in the form of learning material that has been developed with the purpose of guiding pupils through different stages of mathematics. documented development plan. By using two books first.work was first to find information on the topic in two books. This kind of learning material is often based on a behaviour- 64 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . They know. Some pupils have more than two dialogues a year if it is considered necessary. all the pupils have a portfolio divided into sections. be-cause they have participated in the process of their formulation. and thereby getting an overview of the topic. or at least at twice-yearly minimum intervals prior to a development dialogue in which the pupil. they show them to their mentors on Tuesdays. when the parents sign them. The development plan contains written documentation of the pupils’’. The purpose of using portfolios is to collect each pupil’’s work together in order to use it as the basis for an end-of-year assessment. and discuss and decide the aims for the subsequent period. methods and results. ““It’’s all in my head now!”” The above examples all involve the use of projects as the primary vehicle for increasing the responsibility of the pupils for their own learning process. At the moment. At Vinstagårdsskolan. but they are not yet using it. All of the objectives and aims are followed up by different kinds of measurement. methods and evaluations affecting the social and knowledge development of the pupil. because they were now accustomed to planning. This means that they have close contact with these pupils and follow their performance throughout their three years in the school. parents and teachers are all very satisfied with the mentor arrangement and the development dialogues. parents and teachers participate. and update them on Thursdays. carrying out and following up their own work. and are continuously informed about. there are a number of other examples of the use of ICT for this purpose. However. and then to look for additional information on the Internet. Pupils. This reflects the outcome of careful consideration. Each of the 5 teachers that works solely in one unit takes on the role of mentor for circa 15 pupils of different ages. Some of the pupils in the 8th grade said that they were not using the log book any more. At the Swedish school there are additional mechanisms to support the pupils in their independent work.

and the method they are using to answer the questions does not appear to be new to them.3. In this example. such as those with dyslexia. we describe approaches that take the pupils’’ perceptions and characteristics into account. The screen shows whose turn is next. The activity generates several movements back and forth among the computer workstations.edu/depts/ncpts/publications/learnstyles. Among the many pedagogical perspectives that are used is Howard Gardner’’s concept of models of intelligence.unc. the (now Harvard) professor and cognitive psychologist Howard Gardner introduced his Multiple Intelligence theory. Drilling exercises A group of pupils at the De Lindt school is doing individual assignments on the computer (the students alternate whenever they answer ten questions correctly). but not all children learn in the same ways27 In this section. for instance as stated by Dunn and Dunn. It can also be used to collect and systematically gather information on pupils’’ performance which can be used by teachers to support them in their learning process. The pupils are obviously well acquainted with the working of the software. and a shift away from content and the ability to reproduce facts and knowledge towards a focus on the creation of knowledge. as it is highly controlling. Howard Gardner’’s learning styles Professor Howard Gardner (1943-) In his 1983 work. All the assignments are maths-related. However. This is due to the fact that for a long time the computer has been conceptualised as an excellent provider of direct feedback and response. it can be used to structure or frame the activities of pupils and provide them with feedback so they can work independently.htm 65 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . We also briefly discuss how ICT can be used to support pupils with special needs. the independent work relates solely to the pupils’’ turntaking. The group is using a content program. I am later informed that their drill results are being evaluated by the teacher in order to assess whether their skills level meets the required standards.ist perspective or learning approach. this type of use of ICT does not train pupils to take responsibility for their own learning process. 5.4 Differentiating the learning process according to different learning styles and levels of knowledge Another aspect of the evolution towards the new learning paradigm relates to the shift away from a teacher-centred focus towards one that is learnercentred. With the intention of providing a psychological mapping of the existing knowledge about the ability and potential of human beings. and is less concerned with their ability to take long-term responsibility for their own learning process. For instance. Gardner developed a theory that criticises the notion that 27 www. ‘‘Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences’’. which focuses on pupils’’ different learning styles and the need to plan learning differently for different pupils. Underlying these changes are a number of assumptions about children and learning. who stress the uniqueness of pupils and their learning styles in their explanation of their learning approach: All children can learn. as well as their communicative and physical behaviour.

and Gardner has already considered adding a spiritual and existentialist intelligence to his list. which governs the understanding of underlying principles as a causal system and implies the ability to reason deductively and think logically. individuals are all born with all the intelligences. but their development is influenced by the cultural values and milieu of the society in which the individual participates. including the existence of savants. The interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences are the personal intelligences that govern the understanding of the feelings and motivations of ourselves and others. as has been the dominant approach in child education29. As opposed to prior theories of intelligence. the different human intelligences should be perceived as equal. which has to do with the ability to understand music.org/future/Creating_the_Future/crfut_gardner.newhorizons. 6) the intelligences can be supported on the basis of experimental psychological tasks.) ””Introduktion””.e. and the presentation of material should be structured in a way that engages most or all of the intelligences30. and the logicalmathematical. as opposed to merely emphasising the linguistic and mathematical intelligences. 28 Laursen. He has developed eight criteria in order to be able to analyse it further: 1) there is potential evidence for the isolation of intelligences in localized areas of the brain arising out of the observation of individuals who have suffered brain damage. According to Gardner. including a definable set of expert or ‘‘end-state’’ performances. Gardner defines intelligence as the ability to solve problems and create products that are valued in at least one culture or society. These are firstly the model of linguistic intelligence. This list of intelligences is not exhaustive. 4) the intelligences have distinctive developmental histories. http://www. 5) the intelligences have evolutionary histories and evolutionary plausibilities.htm 66 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 2) the intelligences can be observed in isolated forms. i. naturalistic intelligence refers to the ability to recognize and classify plants. In the 20 years of work undertaken on the concept of multiple intelligences. and states that people actually employ several kinds of intelligences. prodigies. Fibæk (2002) (ed. Howard: Intelligence in seven steps. Gardner considers different intelligences to be autonomous units that nevertheless rarely operate independently. Hence educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills.html 30 http://ericae. autistic individuals and other exceptional populations. in Gardner’’s theory intelligence is not only perceived as biologically determined but also as contextdependent.net/digests/tm9601.only one form of intelligence exists. Spatial intelligence is used for manipulating and creating mental images to solve problems. which encompasses the ability to express oneself rhetorically and the ability to understand others. 7) the intelligences can be supported somewhat on the basis of psychometric findings. He points to the fact that intelligence can be nurtured by using strategic or facilitating techniques. Howard (2002): De mange intelligensers pædagogik. Copenhagen: Gyldendal Uddannelse. Finally. 3) the intelligences are characterised by identifiable core operations or sets of operations. the musical. whereas bodily-kinesthetic intelligence employs mental abilities in order to co-ordinate bodily movements. and should be consistently encouraged to equal extents in educational practice. in Gardner. rocks etc28. and 8) the intelligences are susceptible to encoding in human symbolic systems. Gardner has so far developed 8 different intelligence models. 29 Gardner.

Differentiation in practice At first glance. talking to the children spread all over and helping them do their work. Another boy is working on a so-called compulsory assignment. either as the sole approach or intermittently. reading ability and the like. In one of the classrooms. What does exist. is programs or applications that are designed for differentiated learning with regard to such parameters as level of knowledge. Two other teachers are present in the home area. and at the centre of the open space six children are sitting in front of desktop computers. Once again. The example below describes how this is achieved in practice at Maglegårdsskolen. However. the children at the computer are working on individual projects. A teacher is present and helping the children with their work individually. The children lying on the ground are reading and doing mathematics. The two girls working together on the computer are the ‘‘journalists of the week’’. there are many ways of using ICT to support individual learning processes and styles. and two of them are working together. all the children will get a copy of the newspaper. it appears that most of them are working. Two boys are working together doing mathematics. At the end of the week. They are using a desktop publishing program and writing an article on some of the other children’’s activities. He has transferred the pictures to the computer and printed out a kind of booklet. Some are lying on the ground. He finds information and pictures on the Internet and puts it all together in his own little report. some of them together and some of them individually. As the above example shows. which together comprise the home area of this unit. the use of such perspectives is heavily dependent on the teachers and on their use of ICT for different purposes. and a boy is working on a project about the artist Eminem. in our reading we have not found any indication of the existence of computer programs designed specifically to support different learning styles and/or models of intelligence. A similar way of working and organizing the pupils’’ work occurs in many schools. the two girls in the sofa are reading. Beside them. Howard Gardner’’s theories comprise one of the main perspectives being used in order to support the pupils’’ individual learning processes. around 10 children are sitting at desks. Here. either also doing mathematics or spelling exercises. Some children are moving around. however. a girl is writing a creative story that she has composed herself. These programs are often developed for teaching and learning in mathematics or other subjects in which a right or wrong an- 67 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .At Maglegårdsskolen in Denmark. and one is walking around. All doors are open between the shared open space and the three classrooms. two girls are sitting very relaxed on a sofa. One is sitting with the children working at the stationary computers. you would not expect this scene to be taking place in a school. Walking around and observing and talking to the children. They have taken pictures of their home area schoolmates and interviewed them. Now he must inflect all the words. and other children are working alone. for instance during a project period. the development of the individual child’’s potential is seen as essential for the child to be able to contribute to the communities to which it belongs. and two new kids will be appointed as the journalists for the coming week. One girl is from the 1st grade. the other is from the 3rd grade. He has used a digital camera to take photos of objects representing ten nouns.

One of the conclusions to be drawn concerning differentiated learning approaches is that they can be based either on the organization of the classroom and the learning situation or solely on the use of ICT. Is the school equally suited to all pupils? At Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden for instance the question of whether or not the school is equally suited to all kinds of pupils has been posed. while others have been highly negative. For instance. but a number of sceptical voices have been heard among both parents and teachers. and is of course hard to answer at the present time. However. equally. Both Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden and Maglegårdsskolen in Denmark have attracted publicity because of their very different and unconventional approaches towards teaching and learning. De Lindt was second best in the Netherlands in 2002. while others may have dyslexia. The competencies developed are also more varied. This question is highly relevant. and have the opportunity to follow up in various different ways. Similar discussions have taken place in some of the other schools we visited in the course of conducting our case studies. and their ability to support and teach children with special needs has also been doubted. This approach towards the differentiation of learning appears perfectly acceptable to all the pupils involved. For instance. In quite a number of these programs it is possible for those with reading problems to have the text and questions read aloud. ICT has proved to be a robust tool for helping children with special needs of all kinds. There has been genuine doubt about the schools’’ ability to develop the competences required for pupils to pass national exams as well as those from other schools.1 Special needs education We have chosen to investigate how ICT is being used to improve the learning of pupils with special needs as one facet of ICT in a differentiated learning process. the pupils of both Maglegårdsskolen and De Lindt have proven to be excellent achievers in national exams. Such programs often contain several levels of difficulty which can be selected either by the pupils themselves or by the teacher. including via the involvement of other teachers. But both teachers and parents have no doubt that this school is at least better for more of the children than a traditional school.swer can be given to a particular question. but at different rates and on different topics. Maglegårdsskolen was second best in Denmark. pupils can work using the same computer program at the same time. physical and knowledgebased skills. The methods used are very varied. Pupils can present a wide variety of special needs. The fact that there are more classmates than usual in the school ensures that all the pupils will find friends with whom they can feel comfortable. 5.3. as described in the Maglegårdsskole example above. children with dyslexia are benefiting from computer 68 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The mentors follow the students for three years in all subjects. as they include social. and therefore stimulate more learning styles. ranging from physical handicaps to social or emotional difficulties demanding special consideration. The most radical changes are those which involve the reorganization of the learning situation. The teachers’’ presence among all the pupils during the entire school day creates a safe and secure environment for them. Some members of the public have been very positive towards these novel approaches.4.

The speech feedback function supported pupils in rereading their work for sense and punctuation. 31 IDG Global Solutions with Apple Computer. refined and evaluated. imagination and expression via interactive acoustic environments. or which help them to check their spelling.applications that can support their reading skills by reading texts aloud to them. see www.html 33 www.i3net. The GTCE (General Teaching Council for England) has conducted research on how ICT can be used to tackle a range of literacy and numeracy problems. Developing understanding of decimals in Year 4 using portable ICT equipment 4. Teaching the correct use of omissive apostrophes in Year 4 using multimedia software 3. as an example taken from the CARESS project shows. these interfaces have been trialled. Inc. and Fluid Sound Control.gtce. Developing counting skills in Reception using ICT 5. The results are exemplified in case studies which are included in the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) outcomes for ICT training for serving teachers. At Headcorn School near Ashford in Kent. the teachers have observed how the wiggly red line under a misspelled word in Word has been of immense help to children with dyslexia. Improving reading and spelling with speech feedback in Year 2 2.asp 69 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . which provided structure. The objective of CARESS has been to create technological and educational tools capable of motivating and empowering children to develop creativity. The instant feedback has helped the children considerably in improving their spelling31. ‘‘Creating Aesthetically Resonant EnvironmentS in Sound’’. The devices can provide children with a strong internal motivation to discover their bodies and creatively express themselves from the inside out. Developing story-writing skills with Year 2 pupils using ICT 6. Pupils learned the necessary skills at off-site computer clusters. a British invention that converts physical gestures into sound. p. 32 For more information.org. They drafted writing at the computer with the support of customised word grids. Apple Computer. Can we learn digitally –– technology to enhance teaching.uk/caress and http://www. The following case studies can be viewed via the GTCE website33: 1. The technological core of the project has been the Soundbeam. Through a programme of action research. 18.uk/research/ictcasestud..ac. CARESS CARESS. Working closely with children and their teachers. Children with other special needs such as those with motor problems can also benefit from using ICT. Inc. The new devices have been introduced into special and mainstream schools in England and Sweden.org/ser_pub/media/pressclip/caress. Improving reading and spelling with speech feedback in Year 2 A Year 2 teacher used Clicker (Crick Software) with Microsoft Talking First Word to support pupils' reading and writing skills. a wireless joint-angle sensor. is refining a sound-producing device for both special needs and mainstream children. The technology consists of a muscle sensor. 2002. Supporting number skills in a Year 4/5 classroom.bris. possibilities for curriculum development were devised and trialled alongside the refinement of the new interfaces. either individually or as part of a group32..

The museum’’s website is visited by approximately 4 million people a year. as well as parental involvement either at home or in other contexts. They also point to the fact that the number of children who have to be sent to a school for children with special needs is lower than the average for the area. such as libraries and museums. The management also emphasizes that the individualized learning environment at the De Lindt school is well known as being one in which children with learning problems will receive professional help. The educational department develops teacher support material which is sponsored either by the state or by private companies (the British Museum education department now works on a project basis. British Museum The British Museum has always worked closely with schools.org.5 Involving external parties in the learning situation Another aspect of Innovative Learning Environments is the establishment of links between schools and other innovative organisations outside the school system. The school has implemented a special testing and observation structure which makes it possible to track the performance of every child. They can more easily get away with this in an individualized learning environment such as the De Lindt school. 5. Nevertheless. There are numerous examples of libraries and museums providing services for use by schools and in which ICT is used. its direct contact has neither decreased nor increased. The management has pointed out in response to this criticism that especially those children with learning problems have benefited from the use of ICT. and has both provided the department with some stability and enabled it to adapt the learning material developed for Japanese schools to the needs of the British school system. The provisionality of the text allowed the children to redraft and improve their writing. in the sense that the number of visitors to the museum is more or less constant. For the last three years.uk/research/ictcasestud. The speech feedback facility and the computer's ability to 'read' children's writing were effective interactive features34. One element in this is the use of adaptive computer programs. and the teacher to print out word lists and Cloze passages. 34 Cited from http://www. primarily as a provider of information via the Internet. One of the comments from the De Lindt school in the Netherlands is that the structure and motivation required for independent learning may be more difficult for children with learning problems.3. This contract has been very lucrative. Every month the team of teachers for each relevant age group and a pedagogical specialist draw up new plans for these children. Children with learning or behavioural problems benefit from a special programme and approach.gtce. with its financing basis having been changed from a fixed public grant to project-based financing). or for children who simply find school work boring and have trouble motivating themselves. 50% of which are assumed to be UK (school) visitors (the museum bases this assessment on the number of visitors on British holidays).The capacity and range of ICT allowed text and images to be combined easily and presented on screen in a variety of printed formats or exported to a word processor. for group activities. one unit has been working for National Telecom of Japan to develop history-oriented websites for educational purposes. and ICT has certainly added an extra dimension to this co-operation.asp#bookmark5 70 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

35 David Jillings and Rowena Loverance. Skoletjenesten. and any new information is therefore desirable35. 36 http://www. There is little information available concerning European developments in this area.ancientegypt. According to the director of the New Media Unit. see http://www. and the BM staff adjusts it on the basis of the experience gained in school classes during the pilot testing phase. The collaboration between Skoletjenesten and the museums is formalized via a renewable three-year agreement and plan of action which encompasses both aims and finance36. It is a pedagogical service institution that develops. Skoletjenesten Skoletjenesten is another example of museums supplying schools with material for use in teaching and learning. The British Museum is experimenting with differentiated learning.dk/ 71 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the British Museum has the best possible staff for developing on-line learning material.co.uk/. but otherwise their products have not been adjusted to national (state) requirements. Another example of co-operation between museums and schools is that of the Danish organisation. They have a knowledge of the national curriculum arising from their educational and professional backgrounds. such as museums and educational institutions. plans and conducts teaching and learning for schools. and its output is available on the Internet free of charge. New Media Unit.skoletjenesten. Schools are used to test the learning material during the process of its development. storyline telling methods etc. The Museum would welcome more information concerning the contacts and co-operation which exist among cultural institutions in other countries. Some new relationships between schools and the museum are being developed with those schools that are involved in the pilot phases. Many of them use the Internet for describing their activities without providing other ICT-based services. The museums vary in the extent of their use of ICT. British Museum. For an example. Education Department. The teachers co-operate with technical experts in developing their projects.The authors of the on-line material are teachers with ICT experience who are awarded short-term contracts corresponding to the projects being developed. It consists of a collaboration among municipalities and counties and a number of museums and other cultural institutions.

72 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Apart from its on-site activities. the museum’’s website. The museum regularly plans theme-based four-day visits to the museum in which school classes are taught by the museum’’s teaching staff and are given the opportunity to conduct natural science experiments in the multimedia classrooms.La Cité de Sciences et de l'Industrie The French Museum of Science and Industry offers its visitors technological and scientific information as well as the opportunity to experiment in its laboratories or use the learning material that it has made available.fr. www.cite-sciences. offers activities like the on-line laboratory where pupils from all age groups can experiment with physics. among other things. biology and art. The museum has an education department which is dedicated to developing learning materials and arranging class visits.

php is another example of a project that unites cultural and educational institutions. This website contains more than 300 web-based projects undertaken by children of all ages. promote international partnerships between schools and museums. The BBC Learning homepage is designed to help you find those sites. TV and radio programmes which will help further your learning ambitions. BBCi has the useful resources and interactive activities for you. 73 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . in-service training.at/international/en/english. One national broadcaster with a huge archive is the BBC: BBC Learning ““The BBC website contains over half a million pages of news. considering enrolling for an evening class. One example is that of TV stations. wanting to learn from the comfort of your own home. which all possess seemingly inexhaustible archive sources of material that is highly relevant for teaching and learning.museumonline.The ‘‘Museum Online’’ at http://www. and improve communication. You can explore our pages through the ever growing Subject Listing where we've categorised our sites according to subject headings that should be familiar from your local library or bookshop. entertainment and factual material. or even a degree course. The website is backed by a network of more than 80 museums and galleries which are collaborating in the project in order to encourage project-based education. There is also a wealth of educational programmes available across the BBC's TV and radio channels. Other institutions In addition to museums there are other cultural institutions that provide digital and other learning material via the Internet. Whether you are at school revising for exams. Some of these actually make part of their archives available for use in schools. creativity and ICT skills.

chat to other pupils across the country or swap study tips. quizzes and revision information which can be reached from the Schools Homepage. licence-financed public institution. They all involve video. Organizations and companies ICT-based collaboration between schools and organizations and companies is not very common. links on the BBC Learning for Adults can help you find the right course in your local area”” 37. or the Adult Learning WebGuide if you're thinking about returning to learning. 37 38 http://www. for the use of digital films. BBC Schools and BBC Learning for Adults are currently planning online communities which are due to be launched in November and December. For students across the UK studying for exams. schools do collaborate with private companies. There's the Schools WebGuide for pupils.step by step introductions to subjects as diverse as learning how to use the internet and building your self confidence. pictures and sound. To find out when our communities are live. photos sound. Learners can participate in our Online Courses . and hear about all the other additions to our service subscribe to the BBC Learning Update. The corporation was founded in 1925 as a public service organisation. exercises. The main objectives of the project are to develop a new pedagogical and technical concept. The Internet offers a wealth of opportunity to communicate with other learners or experts and interact with activities that give you instant feedback. texts. our WebGuide offers the pick of educational sites from across the Internet.shtml http://www. based on DR’’s archives. However.If you can't find what you need on the BBC site.dk/dril/ 74 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and is an independent. etc. It is being financed by a project (ITMF) initiated by the Danish Ministry of Education. there are hundreds of learning games.38. Another example of the use of TV archives and material in a pedagogical context is that of DR’’s (Danish Broadcasting Corporation) DRIL (Danish Broadcasting Corporation’’s Interactive Learning material) project.bbc. DRIL produces online learning material for primary and secondary level education. The content of the learning space is organised within four main subject areas. Danish Broadcasting Corporation Interactive Learning Material DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation) is Denmark’’s oldest and largest electronic media enterprise. The objective is to create an online learning space in which pupils can work with audiovisual learning material where the individual pupil’’s learning process is central. tests.uk/learning/index. all of which shed light on the subject from different angles. numbers.co.dr. If you're looking for a course. their parents and teachers. Students will be able to send questions about their studies into qualified teachers. graphics.

including: The use of the spell-checker in word processing programs helps many pupils train their spelling and gain confidence. 5. and presented its results in the form of written reports. videoconferencing. 75 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and is run in parallel and to some extent interactively in 9 different Catalan schools. Such relationships can for instance involve an exchange of information or documentation. Twinning Twinning is a collaborative exercise in which multimedia and exchange tools (e-mail. In one of our case study schools. joint development of websites. 39 Report from the Commission to the Council on using the internet to develop twinning between European secondary schools. for instance: Languages Intercultural dialogue Science. both working alone or together with peers. Experimenting and exploring are important aspects of this active construction of knowledge. for which computer facilities were naturally required40. Twinning links in education can take various forms. Cutting a movie in order to study different aspects of self-expression at www. In the learning situation observed. Edumet Edumet is an ICT-based project.dr. because the program can check their spelling before they show their output to other people. Twinning between pupils and teachers can cover all possible topics. Physics programs A program used for nature-based field trips which creates a framework for the trips on which the pupils embark. the mounting of discovery or research projects.dk/dril. or become an integral part of the educational structure. Lavinia in Spain. 40 The pupils work with the computers approximately twice a week. such as pupil-to-pupil.) are used to flesh out or establish ties and collaboration between schools39. one of the two groups of pupils was conducting measurements and statistical calculations on the computer. class-to-class and school-to-school relationships.6 Supporting pupils in experimenting and exploring One of the main perspectives connected with the new learning paradigm is that of constructionism and the approach that pupils should be active participants in constructing knowledge through their own learning process. etc. Another very important aspect of these activities is that they are motivating and appealing for the pupils. This project is concerned with climate and meteorology. and the subsequent recording of their findings.3. Pupils find it boring and tiresome to sit and listen to a teacher day in and day out. teacher-toteacher. Variety and change in the learning situation can both stimulate and motivate pupils and simultaneously support different learning styles and types of intelligence.for instance when pupils are undertaking work experience in a company. ICT is plainly an excellent tool for providing environments in which pupils can experiment and explore in many different ways and for many different purposes. ICT was used for twinning in a project centring on the weather. but ICT is seldom integral to this.

which builds on the pupils’’ natural curiosity and willingness to learn new things and skills. This pulls them into a virtuous circle of learning in which they are able to work with increasingly complex problems41. learning. Identification: One of the key concepts of active learning is that pupils learn best if they can relate new knowledge to existing knowledge.org/ser_pub/media/pressclip/CAB 43 http://learning. april 2003. Inspiration: The last phase is that of inspiration.7 Evaluation and assessment Schools are also experiencing the need to evaluate and assess their pupils’’ learning processes in new ways corresponding with the new learning meth41 Mikro Værkstedet A/S. programme or construct solutions for different challenges.media.3. Discussion. Reflection: This stage gives pupils the opportunity to consider what they have created. or if they are presented with a challenge they cannot resist. See also www.LEGO. when the whole body is actively involved in the learning process and takes an active part in the exploration and examination of problems and challenges. construct robots or other devices.edu/ 76 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and designing43. reflection and inspiration.One of the good examples we have found of the combining of threedimensional objects with ICT is LEGO’’s learning material: LEGO’’s learning material LEGO is developing a variety of materials for learning purposes. One of the organizations contributing a great deal to the research in this field is the Future of Learning Group at MIT. This important reflection can be undertaken in a group or among the whole class and can extend the understanding of pupils once they start to attach words to what they have constructed.com/education. and continues to ask questions that are meaningful to the individual. Pupils plan. the exchange of ideas and support is important in this phase. construction. It also includes a MovieMaker product known as eLAB which is concerned with energy and mechanics. Construction: This stage is concerned with the construction of observations drawn from real life and the assembly of this knowledge. 42 www. which explores how new technologies can facilitate new ways of thinking. The LEGO learning products combine traditional LEGO bricks with computer software so that children can. The learning material is being developed in accordance with a learning principle consisting of four elements. 5. and what has been learned lasts longest. for instance. who says that the brain learns best. Ideer og forslag til aktiv undervisning indenfor de naturvidenskabelige fag –– Læring der kan bygges videre på.mit. while the teacher’’s role is to ask open questions and to ensure that the process is beneficial and rewarding for all the pupils.i3net. Some of the principles behind the development have been inspired by a statement by Howard Gardner. Passive learning has a tendency to evaporate as time passes. identification. The schools in Reggio Emilia have had very positive experiences using LEGO with young children42.

and is accordingly contextualised in this new environment. The professor continuously follows the activities of the children at the school and the development of their competencies. which support pupils in their personal evaluations. the school measures the attainments of the older pupils in the manner prescribed by law. Maglegårdsskolen has chosen to develop and apply an internal system to keep track of its pupils’’ learning. Per Fibæk Laursen of the Danish University for Educational Research. Secondly. The assessment system and examinations are based on the traditional learning methods. some teachers and parents are still nervous about the new methods’’ capability of ensuring that the pupils studying in schools where they are being used will perform as well in national exams as pupils from schools which use traditional methods of learning. to undertake a more general evaluation of the innovative learning environment. Mr. Accordingly. 44 When asked how they had adjusted the measurement of the pupils to the new learning environment. This includes the continuous assessment of the pupils’’ level of attainment. they stress the individual learner’’s abilities and intellectual powers for their own sake. the existing evaluation and assessment methods all primarily focus on content and on a set of objectives concerning the pupils’’ knowledge of any given subject and their ability to reproduce it. and are developing their own systems44. as well as their ability to express themselves orally or in writing. present material in novel ways. The teachers interviewed stated that they were either developing their own evaluation material or were using material previously developed by another teacher. The measurement of the skills and competencies of the pupils firstly comprises all the continuing daily measurement and supervision developed within the innovative learning environment. First of all. Other competencies. Secondly. and the conducting of annual and final examinations. pupils receive no credit for the new competencies they have developed. It seems that no global tools for measuring the development of the children’’s competencies have so far been developed. Maglegårdsskolen has also contracted with the university professor. The question of national exams and evaluations and the performance of pupils in innovative learning environments compared to those from traditional schools is one issue.. such as the ability to identify and solve problems.ods which are not reflected in the present system of national examinations in any country in Europe. while neglecting their social and other abilities. such as portfolio assessment. but the teachers appear to be aware of the need for monitoring. the awarding of marks. even though these are regarded as being important for the future development of our societies. Secondly. Another aspect of evaluation and assessment relates to the emerging methods for measuring and controlling the learning processes of the pupils. 77 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the teachers stated that this was an issue that was currently being worked on but had not as yet produced a final output. are not covered in the national exams. which are encompassed by the new learning paradigm. collaborate. First of all. This persistent sticking to tradition causes some problems for the Innovative Learning Environments in several respects. be creative etc.

methods and evaluations affecting the social and knowledge development of the pupil. parents and teachers participate. Education for a New World46 At Vinstagårdsskolan in Sweden. and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. Some pupils have more than two dialogues a year if it is considered necessary. and then refraining from obtrusive interference. education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual. but will have the clarity of vision to direct and shape the future of human society. What have I learnt?45 Montessori Maria Montessori.montessori-amsterdam.html 78 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This means that they have close contact with these pupils and follow their performance throughout their three years in the school. She worked in the fields of psychiatry. rather than representing a ‘‘blank slate’’ waiting to be written on. How did it go? 4. Doing so. emotionally. born in 1870. as servants help the master. She believed that each child is born with a unique potential to be revealed. This is the case in the Netherlands. It is continuously updated. Throughout the pupils’’ progression through the school. education and anthropology. Development plans All pupils should have an individual. documented development plan. or at least at twice-yearly minimum intervals prior to a development dialogue in which the pupil. parents and pupils to evaluate the pupils’’ performance. and are continuously informed about.nl Cited from http://www. both physically. and spiritually. spread over a specially prepared environment. They know.There are a number of Montessori schools throughout Europe which use some of the same principles for evaluating their children’’s learning processes. development plans are used by teachers. Her main contributions to the work of those raising and educating children lie in the following areas: Preparing the most natural and life-enhancing environment for the child Observing the child living freely in this environment Continually adapting the environment in order that the child may fulfil his greatest potential.”” . they will be witnesses to the unfolding of the human soul and to the rising of a New Man who will not be a victim of events. The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of motives of cultural activity.Maria Montessori. What is it I can do? 2. parents’’ and teachers’’ views concerning the aims. where four cyclical stages along the learning path are used: 1. their school’’s overall educational aims. the objectives of their current activities are always visible to them.montessori. During 45 46 www. Human teachers can only help the great work that is being done. and discuss and decide the aims for the subsequent period. mentally. was the first woman in Italy to receive a medical degree. Each of the 5 teachers that works solely in one unit takes on the role of mentor for circa 15 pupils of different ages. ““Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives. The development plan contains written documentation of the pupils’’.edu/maria. What am I going to learn? What are my goals? 3.

research. Pupils have worked.8 Changes in teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles The case studies have provided us with a number of examples containing the pupils’’ and teachers’’ own implied evaluations concerning how ICT can support the development of school environments in which: Pupils are asked to create. Accordingly. and (viii) arts. the teachers compile reports based on the above-mentioned observation items three times a year. The teaching staff uses tests to evaluate some items. because all the new learning paradigm’’s activities contain an inherent transformation of both teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles. The group is using a content program. I am later informed that their drill results are being evaluated by the teacher in order to assess whether their skills level meets the required standards.class they are informed about the aims of each activity. The De Lindt School in the Netherlands uses a computer system to keep track of pupils’’ performance. The observation system is implemented throughout the school. The screen shows whose turn is next. The observation items cover: (i) social/emotional behaviour. joint enterprises. alone and independently on different activities. CITO. facilitators and nurturers of critical thinking. the special education teacher helps the teachers to devise a special training programme for individual children. At the moment. The report also includes data from discussions with parents. (iv) maths. 5. (v) environmental studies. All the assignments are maths-related. In addition to this observation programme. but they are not yet using it. All of the objectives and aims are followed up by different kinds of measurement. and will continue to work. The pupils are obviously well acquainted with the working of the software. (vi) physical education. cognitive challenges. Many of those examples have been described in the previous sections. (ii) language. 79 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . It comprises a list covering approximately 100 questions and observation items which every teacher has to fill out three times a year. and build knowledge as a shared endeavour Teachers act as designers of the environment and as mediators. (iii) reading. whether or not they use a computer for learning. Observation system The other group is doing individual assignments on the computer (the students alternate whenever they answer ten questions correctly). and also provides data enabling comparisons to be drawn with other schools. For others. The activity generates several movements back and forth among the computer workstations. and the method they are using to answer the questions does not appear to be new to them. mutual engagement and shared practices. be-cause they have participated in the process of their formulation. Common to these findings is that it is not ICT in itself that creates a shift in pupils’’ and teachers’’ roles as much as it is new learning approaches and new pedagogical methods.3. They also know the aims and objectives pertaining to themselves. When necessary. (vii) behaviour. the teachers conduct observations in the classroom. The tests provide information about how children are doing individually. explore. all the pupils have a portfolio divided into sections. the school uses tests compiled by the Netherlands’’ national testing institution. discuss. The purpose of using portfolios is to collect each pupil’’s work together in order to use it as the basis for an end-of-year assessment.

the use of ICT represents a seed of change. 80 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the role of the pupils has shifted from being a group of more or less passive recipients of instruction to individual actors who are actively seeking. In this process. one consequence of setting new learning objectives is the transformation of roles. Accordingly. since half the class was in the computer lab and the other half was in a classroom next to the computer lab. The role of the teacher has shifted from being the instructor of a group that is meant to learn exactly the same thing at more or less the same rate towards that of someone whose role is to support the development of the individual child in such a way that it discovers its own learning strengths and weaknesses and thereby learns to learn in the best way possible. This includes: Greater focus on reflective thinking than memorization Working on the children’’s self-esteem Diversity Open learning. The school work at Lavinia is largely project-based. implying that the teacher must support the learning of each child in accordance with his or her individual capabilities and with due regard to its learning style and pace. The other half of the class worked independently on different projects covering various school topics. and presented the results in the form of written reports. In the learning situation observed. The teacher. experiencing and using knowledge in order to create products and thereby to learn. there is a similar shift in the pupils’’ and teachers’’ roles in which the children work independently and in a very selfdirected manner that involves controlling their own learning process. The pupils were all located close to each other. supporting other pupils and keeping track of their own progress. The pupils who were not working near the computers were occupied in finishing other projects. this is not always easy. who is heavily engaged in using ICT in education and has been involved in the integration of ICT at the Lavinia Educational Centre for a number of years. both on her own initiative and at their request. At Maglegårdsskolen in Denmark. walked between the two rooms and assisted the pupils in following the coursework. which requires flexibility on the part of the teachers. one of the two groups of pupils was conducting measurements and statistical calculations on the computer.As the example below shows. since this represents a mode of teaching for which there are no clear signposts and which uses very different guidelines to the instructivist approach. and in this particular case the pupils were either working in groups or were from time to time receiving process guidance or corrections in relation to the work they had done up to that point. Transformation of teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles at Lavinia The Lavinia school staff have focused their attention on the creation of a constructive learning environment for the children. involving acceptance and listening. According to the teachers and management. The teachers and management at Lavinia are deliberately but gradually trying to change the teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles in a way that encourages the development of pupils and individuals who are able to participate more actively in the learning process. Every activity demands different methodologies. but the main overall theoretical approach is constructivist. The teachers regard themselves as learning facilitators.

The children are intended to be able to choose their work from a number of options. The teacher makes notes on what each individual child has accomplished and the progression of their reading capabilities. all the children have to read. The pupils too find it hard in the beginning. working with spelling exercises. and continue to develop their reading in their own individual style. Most of the parents.At this stage. the activities taking place and the pupils’’ progress. The children are allowed to take a break when they feel like it. thus recognizing the technological skills of the students and making them work together in a learning environment. The ability of children of the same age to read ranges between being able to read simple primer texts containing basic phrases to reading standard children’’s literature which has not been written for educational purposes. The parents have been anxious. ‘‘peer tutoring’’. The teacher made use of two students that were particularly adept in the use of Microsoft PowerPoint and asked them to assist the pair. The children have to write about what they are working with. every time they start a new activity. was used frequently by her. On that desk stand a number of boxes labelled with the names of the teachers. and make notes on how far they have progressed. writing a book review. This encourages the children to take care of each other. but also much more motivating as they get used to controlling their own activities. or working from their maths book etc. Between 8 and 9 o’’clock. Later the teacher informed me that this learning model. Students instructing students Coal Tyee: Some of the students encountered some technical problems when constructing their slide show. who makes individual agreements with them one week at a time about what is to be read. working on a project. such as handwriting practice. Between 9 and 11. At one end of the open room is a kitchen with a wide desk. and the teacher will respond with comments on it. Pieces of paper are clothes-pegged along the wall on a length of string. writing a story on the computer. learning to read occupies a high priority. They can leave the home area to go outside and play. Not only at Maglegårdsskolen are the children consistently encouraged to learn from and support each other. Before asking a teacher for help. the children have roles previously occupied by adults. The students instructed their fellow students. although the teachers generally find it hard at first because they need to give up their control and total overview of the learning situation. the children are supposed to ask two other (usually older and/or more experienced) children for help. subject to the teacher’’s permission. The children put their finished work into the box of the teacher responsible for a particular subject. while the latter continued to mnaipulate the keyboard. the children can choose what to work on from a menu of 6-8 different exercises. Also at Coal Tyee in Canada. All the children do this at their own pace. teachers and pupils are positive towards these changes in the teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles. and it also improves their subject skills to have to explain the solution to a problem to other people. primarily because of their uncertainty concerning whether teachers 81 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The children are only asked to read aloud for the teacher.

guides and supervisors for students. Their role of the teachers is changing from that of information providers to becoming advisors. this process has nothing to do with ICT as such. although such activities have been observed. as well as providers of the frameworks for the learning process of their students. Pupils are also collaborating more. the diverse topics and subject matters of which it consists. attitudes among teachers. i. some of the general statements that can be made in describing innovative learning environments in which ICT is used to support new ways of learning are as follows: ICT is often a catalyst of change. and information seeking. production. p. simulation and other experimental uses. 82 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and should consign the issue of ICT to a secondary priority. and not very often between classrooms. ICT is not an objective in itself but is merely a means of attaining certain learning objectives. it is clear that if ICT is being used to support innovative ways of learning and is thereby creating innovative learning environments throughout a school. Classroom activities are being reorganised across subjects. The innovative use of technology often only occurs within the classroom. but does not in itself determine the direction of change.e. Based on our case studies and reading. the provision of teacher education and pedagogical approaches and new learning styles. increasing their social participation and improving their communication and collaboration skills. This suggests that if schools wish to succeed in creating innovative learning environments. 5.would be able to follow up on their pupils’’ progress and whether their children would obtain good grades in the national exams. 47 Kikis. Much more significant is management style. they become increasingly convinced that they will perform better and better. they would first and foremost benefit from focusing on their organization and pedagogical approach. One of the conclusions from the DELILAH project is that the main pedagogical innovation is taking place in the less developed areas of education and training. In all the good examples. The project also showed that ICTrelated innovation efforts have not been very successful in bringing about new teaching/learning methods and functions corresponding to the inherent potential of ICT47. Pupils’’ roles have changed from being passive listeners to active participants in their own learning process. 85. or between schools and other institutions and organisations.4 Shift in learning paradigm –– main findings and characteristics Based on our study. Classroom activities are being reorganised so that the pupils either work together in smaller groups or individually. ICT is used mainly for collaborative and communicative activities. But as parents see their children growing along with their new responsibilities. The DELILAH project showed that pedagogical innovation is most likely to take place in relation to the curriculum. ICT is used more seldom for game playing. Dr Kathy & Dr Andreas Kollias: A framework for understanding ICT-related teaching/learning innovations in primary and secondary education & Policy recommendations. across entire schools.

different policies and different ways of managing school systems exist throughout Europe and what is considered innovative in one country may not be considered innovative in another. a common denominator of the cases is that the ICTs have facilitated networking and internationalisation of the schools. namely that innovation is understood as context dependant.in the more resource weak societies . Factors such as the schools’’ management style. Thus. the selected case studies represent innovative learning environments in their contexts. This is either materialised in architectural innovations or . The schools make use of and to some extent develop their own didactic learning material to be used in the schools’’ learning activities independently of the available financial resources. This implies that no generalisations can be made on the basis of the case studies. the teaching personnel requires (and in some of the cases have been provided with) new physical surroundings to be able to experiment with differently sized groups instead of always performing the traditional classroom teaching. chapter 2. As regards the new pedagogies. 83 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Sweden. but are rather best practice examples within different structures. the schools have developed strategic action plans which encompass visions and concrete objectives for schools’’ work.in the expressed desire for new and more flexible physical boundaries. parents’’ attitude. Schools either engage in cooperation with other schools of with cultural institutions in their own countries or abroad. The case studies support the expressed standpoint of the study.encourage the development of innovative learning environments. Spain and Scotland. Finally. we have conducted six in-depth case studies of schools in Canada. The cases have been selected in accordance with our perception of innovative learning environments cf. that many variables . The Canadian case study was selected to exemplify a innovative learning environment within a well-advanced context. the Netherlands. combined with the strategic use of ICT encourage the emergence of innovative learning environments .and not the ICTs alone . These are necessary in order to challenge the pupils and differentiate the learning in accordance with the individual needs of the pupils. but this is rather the result of the external structures such as national or regional ICT strategies. Case studies of Innovative Learning Environments As part of the study. Denmark. Till example. Across the case studies we have also seen how the constructionist learning approach as well as the introduction of ICT into learning challenges the physical surroundings of the schools. Different learning traditions. The schools have a strategic action plan which shows the importance of the organisational setting when innovative learning environments are developed as described in chapter 4.6. The teachers have undergone training to support (or lead) the process of integrating ICT into learning. in order for them to be a natural learning resource there has to be natural access. As regards the computer facilities. In all 6 case studies. The case studies are therefore not to be considered representative for innovative learning environments in general. Nevertheless the schools have no explicit ICT strategies. the ICTs make possible cooperation in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning again either within or across national boundaries. although interesting experiences can be extracted.

Since it is an EU-wide study. the use of information and communication technologies. In addition. Thus the case studies were founded on the hypothesis that an important physical dimension exists in relation to novel ways of learning: New modes of learning can be initiated by the introduction of new physical tools. The purpose of the case studies was to examine the interrelated effects of physical space. 84 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and the use of ICT can be altered as a consequence of new pedagogical initiatives and paradigms. Finally. buildings or physical space. The six case studies have all been structured around the analytical framework model which is presented below. with a particular focus on how the use of information and communication technologies and new architecture on the one hand. and new pedagogical theories and practices on the other hand. the six learning environments which have been studied in depth were selected on the basis that they are considered to represent innovative educational theories and practices in relation to their own national educational culture and traditions. As part of this overall study. the study has generated a set of recommendations on how to approach the problems and opportunities connected with the development of innovative learning environments. and new educational theories and practices.1 Methodological remarks The overall purpose of the ““Study of Innovative Learning Environments in School Education”” is to present and discuss innovative educational theories and practices. six in-depth case studies have been carried out. have influenced each other. a future-oriented analysis aimed at the identification of general trends and various scenarios for school education is presented.6. and which has been conceived as an element of the study as a whole.

co-operation and networks. The educational setting (the inner circle) comprises the pedagogical and didactical methods in use. Its starting point is that a particular innovative learning environment exists within a given overall societal framework. the roles of the teachers and pupils.Figure 6. consisting of both rules and resources. and its strategies for accommodating the knowledge society. To summarise: the study of the following four levels has been essential for describing and understanding the innovative learning environments which have comprised the case study objects of this study: 85 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the technological infrastructure. this external structure consists of the national school policies. involves the economy and the funding of the learning environment.1: Model for analysis of innovative learning environments It is assumed that all learning environments can be analysed using this general model. The organisational setting (the outer circle of the school as organisation). staff development. The overlapping characteristics which are common to both settings are attitudes and cultures. The overall structural framework gives rise to both constraints and opportunities in relation to the use of ICT in learning. and the development of educational material. and the content and learning objectives of the instruction being delivered. the management and administration. research. Most importantly. the country’’s general level of technological development. Other general framework conditions may also play an important part in understanding the development and characteristics of a particular innovative learning environment. local school strategies. The model also presumes that innovative learning environments can be analysed in terms of both their educational and their organisational settings.

such as curricula. project plans.. 3. and in which ICTs are used in different ways to improve learning.1: Questions to be examined LEVEL OF ANALYSIS The learning situation –– interaction of actors/individuals ANALYSIS QUESTIONS How do teachers work on empowering pupils to learn? How active are teachers and pupils respectively in the learning situations? What motivates the teachers and pupils? How motivated are they? How do they work on developing tacit skills and knowledge? How do they work on developing explicit knowledge? The learning environment How is ICT used in new and innovative ways as a means of improving learning in schools? What are the objectives of learning.1 below sums up the essential questions examined at each of these four levels of analysis. The learning situation. Table 6. including strategies. British Columbia The case study was undertaken at Coal Tyee Elementary School in Nanaimo. innovative learning environments? The overall structural framework What are the specific educational/learning traditions and overall structural frameworks for schools’’ use of ICT in learning? In what ways is the structural framework respectively a barrier and an advantage to the development of innovative learning environments? 6. budgets. Canada in April 2003. Table 6. action plans. funding.1. British Columbia. The learning environment in which learners and teachers interact. which is the actual interaction among the actors in the learning environment. The Coal Tyee Elementary case study has encompassed the following activities: 1) A thorough desk study of relevant documents. internal evaluations etc. 86 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 2.2 Coal Tyee Elementary School. The organizational/institutional setting in which learning takes place. plus the global framework conditions. 2) An interview with a representative of the Board of Trustees of School District 68. The overall structural framework which encompasses the two abovementioned levels. 4. Nanaimo. strategies etc. and how does ICT support these learning objectives in new ways? What are the roles of teachers and pupils (and parents)? The organizational/institutional setting Why do some schools succeed in creating new and innovative ways of improving learning in schools by using ICT? What specific elements in the organisational setting are important when creating new.

an estimated 60-70% of all households in the school district) have computers at home. The school is also recognized by the B.000 grant during 1999-2001 to develop models of the integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in the classroom. it was recognized that ICT is a powerful motivational tool and vehicle for learning. The budget allocation used for the acquisition of computer equipment exceeded the British Columbia Ministry of Education recommendations. Nevertheless. and has 317 enrolled students.3) An interview with a former Superintendent for ICT of the School District 4) An interview with the former District Resource Teacher for ICT 5) A focus group interview with the parents of children attending Coal Tyee Elementary 6) An interview with the principal of the school 7) A group interview with teachers 8) Two group interviews with pupils . Coal Tyee Elementary is a member of the Canada Schoolnet’’s Network of Innovative Schools (NIS) and received an annual $Can. while 16% are aboriginal students. British Columbia (B. In 1990.C. Furthermore. Additionally. a major component of the lives of the students in the information society. the British Columbia Ministry of Education approved the founding of a new school in the western part of the city of Nanaimo on Vancouver Island. In addition. the school was the first in the school district to have a T1 cable connection to the Internet. Coal Tyee Elementary has been equipped with a computer lab as well as computers in each classroom. Ministry of Education as a ““leader of innovation”” for its integration of ICT in the classroom. The initial motive for promoting the use of ICT in the school was the recognition that this technology is. one involving younger children and one involving older ones 10) Observation of the general physical environment of the school. At the end of the report is a list of the people interviewed during the case study. This programme is financed by Industry Canada and sponsored by the telecommunications company Bell Canada.C.one involving younger children and one involving older ones 9) Two observations of instruction. The school covers kindergarten to Grade 7. The application for NIS programme funding was motivated by the desire to be at the forefront of development and the opportunity to secure funding for 87 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The school is located in a neighbourhood described by the parents of the children at the school as a working class/middle class community. Coal Tyee Elementary School was eventually established in 1996. The majority of the school’’s students are Euro-Canadian.e. 10. and will remain. the majority of students (i. occupying a new building. and that it is the job of the school to prepare the students for its challenges. Coal Tyee Elementary has won several awards for multimedia projects spearheaded by one of the teachers in the school.). Since its establishment in 1996. including its architecture.

Figure 6. In addition. the B. The province is divided into more than 80 different school districts that are responsible for primary and secondary education within their areas.bced.2 The entrance of Coal Tyee Elementary School 6. The district has approximately 16. and municipal government has no jurisdiction concerning education matters. it provided schools with funds to acquire information technology as well as establishing the Province-Wide Network (the PLNEt) for all learners.1. Education Act. 7 secondary schools (Grades 8-12) and 7 alternative schools (Grades 8-12). The network was established in August 2000. teachers and administrators. 6.htm 88 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Ministry of Education formulated a technology plan whose objective was to promote the growth and integration of information technology in British Columbia’’s educational institutions. with the curriculum and learning outcomes being defined by the B. Ministry of Education has provided a guide for planning ICT resources during the integration of ICT into teaching48. and employs a staff of approximately 1. 48 See http://www.1 Positive framework conditions In 1996. 102 million.ca/technology/6-9. Its annual operating budget is $Can.1 Framework conditions The provincial administration of British Columbia is responsible for education. the B.400 full-time equivalents.gov.bc.2.C.500 students in 37 elementary schools (kindergarten-Grade 7). Coal Tyee is located in School District 68.2.C.the development of appropriate teaching models for integrating the use of ICT.C. The school districts do not coincide with municipal boundaries. which covers the Ladysmith/Nanaimo area of Vancouver Island. and currently more than 1.700 K-12 schools are connected to the network. When the plan was implemented.

and also ensured that its ICT technicians would encounter similar hardware challenges in all schools in the district. the District administration ensured that it made standardized purchases of computers and other hardware platforms. Already in the early 1980s. the School District invested significant funds in establishing proper ICT infrastructure over its entire area. 89 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . this ranged from $Can. In fact. 700. this early preoccupation with networks and computers is likely to have contributed to a technology-oriented environment among teachers and administrators in the school district. Throughout the mid-1990s. 1 million per year on ICT. According to the former District Resource Teacher for ICT.In the Ladysmith/Nanaimo School District.2. 50. In other words. due to financial cutbacks in the School District. former Superintendent responsible for ICT. including the Ladysmith/Nanaimo School District. including expenditure on ICT. the administration placed considerable emphasis on in-service training.C.2 Negative framework conditions Currently. As a result. the schools were intended to have their equipment renewed every five years to ensure continuous upgrading of their infrastructure. these cutbacks have especially affected the School District administration and educational support resources. The school networks were upgraded in the early and mid1990s in order to accommodate new technological advancements such as the Internet. around $Can. the School District spent around $Can. In the 1990s. In addition to investing in technological infrastructure. According to the School District’’s Route 68 Technology Plan. 10% of the annual budget was used on teacher release time for the purpose of upgrading the ICT skills of the teachers employed in the School District49. 50. 6. the B. this figure decreased to around $Can. This commitment was illustrated by the fact that the Ladysmith/Nanaimo School District was the first education district in North America to register an internet domain name.000.000 was spent.000 per year. In fact. This brought obvious cost advantages for the School District as a whole. 49 In monetary terms. This created a strongly technology-focused environment in the education sector early on. provincial government has cut back on public expenditure in a number of different areas. In 2001 and 2002. expenditure on ICT has come to an abrupt halt. as well as Mike Munro. spending in 2001 and 2002 only reached the level it did in order to ensure that no further upgrading would be need to be undertaken over the following 2-3 years. most schools had networks and computer labs by the mid-1980s. These constraints are also having an impact on the province’’s education sector. According to the District Resource Teacher for ICT. Mike Silverton.000-70. In 2003. the focus on both educational content and support plus the strong focus on in-service training have distinguished the School District from a number of other school districts that did not immediately invest in upgrading the skills of their teachers and use standardized equipment and platforms. IBM had initiated a pilot project involving its I-class administrative system. During this implementation programme. the inclusion of ICT in education predates these province-wide initiatives. According to the ED TECH Plan for School District 68. with Nanaimo being chosen as one of the pilot locations.1. However. this was never implemented.

Accordingly. but this is modified to some extent in the Grade 2 classes.2 The organizational setting (Rules) 6. and during 1999-2001 received an annual grant of $Can.1 The school organization The organization of teaching at Coal Tyee Elementary is fairly traditional. one of the trustees of the School Board. an Education Technology support position and a Business Technology support position were eliminated. In the 2002-2003 school year. where the teachers work together and the students alternate their classroom settings. As has already been mentioned.2. At most grade levels a traditional ““one teacher. 6.000.bced. Only minimal time per week is allocated to this function.2. other teachers may take some specialist subjects such as library studies. Each of the different grade level classes has predominantly the same teacher.In addition. However. During the first year. Education Act and the prescribed province-wide learning outcomes for each subject50. However. The principal defines the management roles as primarily being: To secure resources To encourage professional growth and development To establish an organizational framework for the development of ICT skills Problem solver/mediator. informed us that the School District will soon be increasing the number of its superintendents. According to the teachers at Coal Tyee Elementary. a model of technology integration centring on the development of web pages supporting student research was attempted. Jack Doan. implying that they are free to organize their instruction within the constraints established in the B. the School District administration has been downsized. and the ICT department was closed down.bc. 50 See http://www. 10. Some teachers also engage in collaboration across grade levels through a ““buddy system”” whereby the older students mentor the younger ones. the school belongs to the Network of Innovative Schools (NIS). the lack of educational support is already being felt and is impeding progress regarding the use of ICT in education.2. 90 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . music and French.ca/irp/ for learning outcomes. there was only one superintendent. who instructs in all subjects.C. One teacher who is recognized for his high level of ICT skills has been assigned the responsibility of operating the school’’s computer lab in the role of ICT support teacher.gov. The downsizing of the school support structure also entails that the schools’’ ICT infrastructure is not being renewed. one classroom”” approach appears to prevail. The teachers and principal alike state that every teacher has considerable classroom autonomy.

This was carried out in conjunction with a researcher from the nearby Malaspina University-College. this project was abandoned and replaced by individual technology growth plans for identifying and strengthening the specific areas in which the teachers needed to develop their ICT skills. However. the school principal wrote: Coal Tyee Elementary also functions as a ““pod school”” for students of the Faculty of Education. each teacher completed a personal technology growth plan (or individual action plan) that outlined their professional ICT development objectives. start and end points. Professional development was facilitated through: Facilitators Workshops Release days. Kitchenham. and criteria of success/attainment. The intention was for the level of ICT literacy acquired by the teacher to match the level of ambition and teaching needs which they had anticipated. 52 For details. The results were collated and presented to the staff members. Dr.2 Discussion The organization of the school is strongly founded on the professional independence of each teacher. The improvements in individual professional development were measured in relation to the continuum of technological literacy previously described. and the Ugly: Focus Groups of Teachers Discuss Their Technology Experiences””. In his latest NIS project report.2. a survey to assess the technological literacy and needs of the teaching staff was carried out by Dr. This was achieved in close co-operation with Dr. In June 2000. who developed a theoretical approach to information technology which he adapted from literacy research involving the following continuum of the stages of literacy52: Pre-Literate Emerging Developing Competent Literate. This organization stimulates a high level of independence for each teacher. but may also be an impediment to mainstreaming certain pedagogical methods or teaching tools if ownership of these is not achieved. the Bad. each teacher was mentored by one of the more ICT-literate teachers at the school who lent support and advice in the course of their development. who set out to investigate the influences of technology on writing achievement.aace. To enhance and support their learning. It is intended that the personal growth plans will be reviewed and updated every year. The plan contained details of the content. www. Andrew: ““The Good.org/site 51 91 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Consequently.2. 6. Kitchenham. see: Kitchenham. Andrew Kitchenham51.

C. In addition.. It is primarily the computers situated in the lab that are used for instructional purposes. 6. as depicted in the figure below. while the classroom computers are mostly used for quick Internet research. See Provincial Education Technology Report 2000/2001: http://www. word processing and other tasks.pdf 92 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The school’’s computer lab is located in at one end of the central segment of the school.2. and when they wanted to learn.““In the first year of our NIS membership. Additional computers are reserved for the administrative staff..bc.ca/technology/documents/provincialreportapril22. the teachers needed to choose what they wanted to learn. In the school’’s computer lab there are 23 computers.bced.gov. 53 This conforms to the B. given the high level professional autonomy of the teachers which the organization of the school encourages..1 Description One of the Coal Tyee Educational Technology Plan (Ed Tech Plan) priorities has been to ensure a student-to-computer ratio of 1:6. how much they wanted to learn. the use of personal growth plans appears to be an advantageous way of committing the teaching staff to ““buying into”” the application of ICT in the classroom and directing their learning towards outcomes that they see as relevant and feasible.an attempt was made to introduce the Coal Tyee staff to a model of technology integration centering on the development of web pages supporting student research. 1-2 computers are located in each classroom... The school has succeeded in this goal53.3.”” Therefore.2. The project was not as successful as we would have liked…… The answer lay in the issue of ownership. average.3 The educational setting (Resources) 6.

30. However.C. Instead.000 over three years) has to some extent helped to upgrade or purchase new computers. this use of ICT is typical for the majority of the schools in the district.g. Such programs are incorporated to some extent into special needs education. such as the Canadian use of the metric system rather than feet and inches). The school receives $Can. The NIS grant (totalling $Can.Figure 6. However. A variety of educational-content software exists. The school’’s teachers mostly state that they do not much use educationalcontent programs (e. this budget is not earmarked. e. such as the Kidpix program and such Microsoft Office programs as PowerPoint and its spreadsheet and word processing programs. and are used elsewhere than in the normal classroom. 1500 annually for the purchase of educational software from the School District.g. the educational-content software programs used are not a dominant feature in the teaching approach used in the school. in the ““Success maker”” special needs initiative. curriculum do exist. drill and practice) in their teaching. and the money will not necessarily be spent for this purpose. According to the School District’’s former Education Technology co-ordinator. The former educational technology support person refers to the availability of American educational software as being a huge advantage (although some barriers concerning transferability to the B. they use application tools to enhance learning in the different subjects taught in the school. In any case. both he and the principal freely admit that this allocation is inadequate to compensate for the time spent on maintenance. as have a number of different fundrais- 93 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .3: Topographical Map of Coal Tyee Elementary An ICT support teacher is employed who is allocated (minimal) time to supporting the other teachers and maintaining the technological infrastructure.

and are the first to exploit the opportunities created. the pioneers will contribute to expanding the usage of ICT in the school. and directing their learning towards the needs identified by the teachers themselves.2. Thus instead of regarding the differential in the levels of ICT literacy which exist among its staff as an impediment to the use of ICT in the learning processes. and the settlers help to mainstream the technology-based practices.”” (P. The school has not received any computers under the federal government’’s CFS programme54. using the skills they already have as their starting point. The use of personal growth plans has proven to be a particularly useful tool for upgrading the skills of all the teachers. The settlers follow the trailblazers and pioneers and ensure that the new ground is harvested. the experience has been that the use and integration of ICT in education occurs at different speeds. Technology Plan. and in the school district in general. Rather than pushing the pace of progress and risking a loss of ownership. three different kinds of ICT users are identified among the teachers: (i) the trailblazers. In pioneer terminology. b. 6.) Computers for Schools (CFS) is a programme aimed at recycling used computers from corporations and reallocating them to schools which need computer equipment.2 Discussion At Coal Tyee Elementary School.4 The learning environment 6. The trailblazers are the explorers who break new ground and uncover the new opportunities created by the medium.ers. We want to provide real life experiences with various tools and equipment to further their lifetime education. the Coal Tyee approach encourages the growth of ICT use. 54 94 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . We envision our students working and learning in a technology-rich setting. Some teachers are very computer literate. The pioneers follow the trailblazers.3. 2. In other words. 2. a. 6. while others are reticent in using the technology.1 Description The 1997 Coal Tyee Elementary School Technology Plan states: ““Our vision at Coal Tyee is to provide a positive educational environment where each learner is encouraged to progress at his/her own rate.”” (P. c.4.) …… ““We believe that computers should be used as a tool not unlike other educational tools such as pencils and books.2. Such an approach recognizes that the trailblazers will take the first innovative steps.2. it has proven more fruitful to nurture the different learners and encourage their personal development. ICT integration occurs at different speeds. Technology Plan. (ii) the pioneers and (iii) the settlers.

curriculum’’s learning outcomes55. 6.C. field trips and the like. this does not represent an overarching learning approach.html 56 See footnote no. However. Coal Tyee Elementary was the first school in B. This use of resources naturally places spatial and technological constraints on how computers can be used as a learning tool. and the staff made a conscious decision to make the school a leader in technology by allocating more space and funding for the computer lab and the school’’s technological infrastructure than was prescribed in the B. a number of inhibitors and motivators for the integration of ICT in education were identified in conjunction with Dr. most teachers state that they prefer having the computer lab to introducing more computers into their classrooms. When the school was built. arithmetic etc. There are no commonly agreed principles or strategies concerning the use of ICT within this framework. This indicates an involved and pedagogically competent staff.4.ca/irp/curric/lo. It should be added that many of the teachers at the school have been recognized for the innovations arising from their work for the B.bced. However. the principal and staff had direct input into its physical layout and the resources to be purchased.2. standards. 52 for a reference to a study which encompasses both inhibitors and motivators.bc.2 Discussion Inhibitors and motivators In the final report of the NIS project. However. In addition.C. namely that access to computers is primarily confined to the computer lab and instruction takes place collectively. and most teachers stress the considerable ““classroom autonomy”” they enjoy to decide by themselves what approach they will take.The ICT-related learning outcomes are all defined in the Technology Plan and cohere with the B.C. the model for the use of ICT has one feature which applies similarly in all classes. most teachers refer to the existence in the school of a ““hands-on”” approach to learning that emphasizes situated learning through experiments. In terms of pedagogical approach. the centrality of ICT as a learning tool can be said to have been at the core of the school’’s construction. 55 95 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Ministry of Education in areas such as writing mathematics textbooks and their involvement in early literacy and the accelerated reader programme. See http://www. Consequently.gov.C. Another commonality is the use by all students of ICT applications (in a learning situation based in the computer lab) rather than the use by individual students of content programmes (either in the classroom or in the computer lab). Andrew Kitchenham56. The learning outcomes have recently been changed from being ICT-specific to becoming integrated within subject areas such as social science. to be awarded a grant as an NIS school.

when they learned it.These deserve to be quoted at length: ““Motivators: Incremental progress is imperative as the teachers reported that they felt in control of what they learned. and how quickly they accomplished that learning---all of this learning occurred in ““baby steps”” Administrative support was an integral part of personal growth plan completion as the participants felt that having a principal who supported---both philosophically and financially---their desire to learn more about ICT. assisted them in being more motivated to succeed Autonomy was a key motivator for the participants as they felt completely in control of their action plans and how they moved along the continuum Community of learners was a crucial motivator for these participants as evidenced by how many reported that they received a feeling of success by discussing their significant learnings and frustrations with each other Children was an often-cited motivator as the participants disclosed that they saw how quickly children picked up technology skills and strategies and how often the students asked for assistance with computer programs. these two occurrences caused the teachers to want to ““keep up”” with their students Permanence was the concept that technology is here to stay and so should be something teachers are diligent at keeping up on Out-of-school facilitation was seen as a necessary motivator as some participants felt the need to have concepts re-visited in a low-risk environment by someone with whom they felt familiar but not necessarily with whom they had to work An educational toolbox referred to the idea that the participants saw technology as another tool with which they could optimize learning Power within was the notion that the participants believed that an effective motivator arose as they realized that they themselves possessed the power to succeed A definite comfort zone was needed for success so that the participants knew when they were reaching their saturation point The presence of a high flyer was important as there was a definite need for someone to sow the seed of interest and to be available if there was a need for assistance Mentors were critical in this study as the participants felt that every person in the school was a mentor 96 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

which was a dramatic increase from one or two mentors in the school before the study began Inhibitors: Transference was seen as a clear inhibitor in that teachers reported that they had a difficult time taking knowledge from a workshop and remembering those concepts days or weeks later Learning in a vacuum was the notion that sometimes what was learned in a workshop did not have significance unless the participants used it at home or in the classroom Access referred to the limited access that teachers had to the computer lab and resources (N. 97 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .B.”” The motivators and inhibitors clearly demonstrate the importance of management and organization in facilitating access to resources and creating an organization that nurtures a community of learning while also ensuring personal responsibility for professional development and encouraging such growth. not specific individuals) and felt overwhelmed by the knowledge and speed with which they had to learn Disempowerment was reported frequently as the idea that one person held a great deal of the knowledge and chose when to dispense that knowledge Mystery was an inhibitor that referred to the notion that many ICT concepts were enigmatic and required a great deal of (valuable) time to understand Solitude was seen as clear inhibitor when a participant felt that he or she was working alone and had no one to whom he or she could turn for assistance The bandwagon mentality was evident when school or district personnel argued that teachers should use technology because it was effective but no evidence was provided for this espoused success The locomotive phenomenon was a definite inhibitor whenever a staff member believed that technology was being pushed on him or her Token support (from administration or the district office) was an inhibitor as the teachers believed that ““lip service”” was being paid to their concerns or requests. The researcher saw this ““inhibitor”” as a testament to the success of the project as some many teachers wanted to try out their newly-acquired skills) Inaccessibility was viewed as the potentially problematic situation of not always being able to get access to a computer specialist (teacher or technician) when the assistance was needed Powerlessness was the feeling that some teachers had when they worked with computer specialists (in general.

2.4 Computer Lab picture 1 98 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .2. two different learning situations were observed.5 The learning situation 6. since this is the most frequently used space when ICT is being integrated into the learning process. The general framework of the two learning situations coincided. Figure 6. the school management realized the importance of stimulating individual growth and interest rather than pushing forward a concerted technology strategy in which individual ownership was limited. 6. This is no coincidence.Through the NIS project. The computer lab and the students are shown in the photos below.1 Description In the course of the case study. since they both took place in the school’’s computer lab.5.

The students instructed their fellow students. such as particular gods. with a fairly equal division of male and female students. Later the teacher informed me that this learning model. whose 26 students were aged between 12 and 13. in her 50s) moved around in the lab assisting the students with their presentations. The students worked in pairs at the computers. The subject of the lesson was social science. weaponry. This was completed prior to entering the computer lab. was used frequently by her. thus recognizing the 99 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This is an excerpt from the observation log: ““The theme of the lesson was ““Early Egypt””. and at one time instructed the class to pay attention to the structure of their presentations.Figure 6. The teacher (female. The teacher made use of two students that were particularly adept in the use of Microsoft PowerPoint and asked them to assist the pair. ““peer tutoring””. while the latter continued to handle the keyboard. tombs.5 Computer Lab picture 2 The first school class observed was Coal Tyee’’s Grade 7. The data was to be presented in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation of their projects. Some of the students encountered some technical problems when constructing their slide show. and sarcophagi. The designated task for the students was to do research and fact finding on a selected theme pertaining to early Egypt.

and along with Dr. He gives the students an assignment. The teacher instructs and facilitates the students when questions arise. The students in this grade have been particularly keen on working with computers. in his 40s) has been recognized for his trail-blazing work regarding ICT integration and teaching within the school. and have been awarded district and provincial prizes for their work on the so-called ““Silverwing Project””.A. thus enhancing the aesthetics of their animations. Some create elaborate scenic landscapes as the backdrop for their scenes. they do not appear to be used as a regular tool for differentiated learning within the classroom (e. and other activities. The distribution of male and female students was fairly equal.S. Detailed instructions concerning what most of the slides should comprise are given. it is later explained to me. using content programs). while others put together more rudimentary and simple creations. to compete with other North American school classes with their multimediabased project57. They must create three animated ““western”” scenes using 4-6 slides each. the structuring of time and space and the organization into classes does not differ from traditional learning environments. The subject taught on this occasion was also social science. called a ””mini-lesson””.g.2 Discussion The use of ICT in the learning situation largely appears to be structured by the spatial constraints of the computer lab58. They are obviously well acquainted with the working of the program. and need no further instruction in its use.pgrey. U.”” The second class observed was the school’’s Grade 5 class. The class teacher (male.sd68. In May 2003 the class was due to travel to the multimedia awards organized by the University of Idaho in Moscow. 57 58 100 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .com/ and http://schools. The students work at different speeds. The differences that exist appear to be due to the level of integration of ICT in the learning outcomes and the level of the students’’ ICT literacy that re- See http://www.ca/COAL/pg/silverwing/ Although each classroom has 1-3 computers.technological skills of the students and making them work together in a learning environment.5.2. This class comprised 31 students aged 10-11. The students work together in pairs. Andrew Kitchenham has developed a staff model for ICT integration in the classroom.. with the theme this time being early British Columbian settler history.bc. However. these computers seem to be used for making presentations constructed in the computer lab.”” 6. In this sense. However. random Internet searches. This is an excerpt from the observation log: ““The teacher instructs the students in front of the white board in the lab. this does not happen frequently. This kind of instruction is. The animation show will be processed using the Kidpix program.

In fact. they also preferred to work together in pairs or in threes. Meanwhile. They were generally very satisfied with the learning situation which the school was fostering. but are less effective when they have to be integrated with learning outcomes. One teacher points to the fact that the relatively large class sizes may be one factor in this. They emphasized the student-centred teaching practised at the school (e. The learning situations described above typify the integration of technology in the school. They also stated that this should not entirely replace individual learning. ““The students like it [ICT]. but insisted that the use of computers should not replace the acquisition of basic skills and the nurturing of critical thinking. e. However. as it is difficult to keep students concentrating amid the considerable degree of movement and activity that results when the students move back and forth to and from the computers. the lesson plan suits the students). The parents emphasized that computer literacy is an essential skill which their children need to master in the future. and an over-reliance on ICT tools must not be allowed to supplant other proven teaching methods and tools.g. Therefore most teachers generally prefer the computer lab. Another case in point is the use of software applications such as the Microsoft Office programs rather than content programs. despite the easy availability of the latter. Several of the parents pointed out that the use of ICT is just one aspect of the school’’s daily activities rather than a learning tool receiving special attention.sults from the school’’s ICT practice59. however. the students emphasized that the use of computers is a great asset and motivator for learning. otherwise it would get boring. and they supported the school’’s use of technology. argue the teachers at the school. The parents we interviewed shared these concerns. it should be borne in mind that ICT is just one learning vehicle among others. they concede that the computer lab can be impractical at times. field trips and outdoor experiments as being strong motivators for learning. Several teachers explain that such content programs may be effective in drilling some of the students’’ skills. 101 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .g. The also emphasized the hands-on and creative learning environment in which many learning activities are conducted outside the classroom setting. However. As one student put it. They were therefore cautious concerning the possibility of over-reliance on computers in the educational setting. Like their parents.”” 59 It should be noted. They particularly liked programs which integrated learning and games. they admitted that its ICT projects (such as those which have won awards) have been important for the school’’s exposure in the local community. in social studies. because there are enough computers for all students to be working in pairs. Therefore the use of ICT should not be embraced uncritically. and is not essential in all grades and all subjects. However. which was also needed. but they do not want it all the time. that parents and teachers estimate that approximately 70% of the students also have access to computers at home. they emphasized sports.

social responsibility and critical thinking. numeracy.6.ca/News/Accountability. 7. 6.C.2.sd68.1 Description Recently.Thus the key to integrating technology successfully lies in striking the right balance between the application of technology and the use made of other vehicles for learning. Jack Doan. School Districts have been able to enter into accountability contracts with the B. and 10 students in reading comprehension. the Ladysmith/Nanaimo School District has entered into an accountability contract with the Ministry60 which contains objectives covering literacy. writing and numeracy. the B. 60 See http://www. Accordingly. One of the members of the Board of Trustees in the School District.htm 102 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .C.bc.2.C. In addition to the general guidelines concerning learning and performance standards. does not exclude the possibility that the accountability contract may in future also contain objectives concerning ICT development. Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education website. a number of reports are available from the B.6 Performance measurement and evaluation 6. The Foundation Skills Assessment carried out province-wide testing across British Columbia of the skills of Grade 4.

As stated above. district.ca/perf_stands/ See http://www. use.ca/irp/curric/lo.pdf Learning outcomes can be found at: http://www.ca/technology/ict_guide/ictguide/ict_guide. writing. The tasks and critical elements involved in the assessment process are grounded in the prescribed learning outcomes for the BC provincial curricula63.bced.C. national and international assessments). as well as two different writing tasks carried out in the classroom setting. and communication of school. Interpreting and Communicating British Columbia Foundation Skills Assessment Results (information to support school and district personnel in the interpretation.C. At each grade level.C. and individual student results). generating a set of reports which cover several different levels: Independent Schools Results Report (overall results for independent schools). They contain the professional judgments of a significant number of B. In continuation of these standards.gov.bced. and social responsibility. three tests were administered.gov. In addition.e.bc. Other available reference material includes: Provincial Results Report (provincial results and overall district results)61.bced. School Results Report (results for each school that participated in FSA 2002). schools.bced. while there are separate learning outcomes for secondary schools (Grades 8-12)64. 61 62 63 64 See http://www. educators concerning standards and expectations in relation to a number of foundation skills62.gov.bc. elementary school). The District Results Report is one of several documents available for the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) 2002.bc. The current work is related to content assessment standards. numeracy. This in turn is a continuation of the work done in relation to the Performance Standards in reading. British Columbia Foundation Skills Assessment 2002 Highlights (an overview of FSA.bc.gov.These tests were based on multiple-choice and written-response items.html 103 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the Ministry has developed the B. the prescribed learning outcomes for ICT are integrated into other subjects for Grades 1-7 (i. the ICT Standards Guide Response Draft has been developed as a part of the existing curriculum and assessment materials developed by the Ministry of Education. Performance Standards as a schools-based assessment tool for voluntary use in B.ca/assessment/fsa/ See http://www.

Considering the significant sums invested in the implementation of new technology in the schools. it is highly surprising that further research into its effectiveness has not been instigated.2 Discussion Despite calls for further research. monitoring and evaluations. e.2. A third aspect is the benefit of a research-based approach in which challenges are identified and the knowledge gained is used effectively to make B. district or provincial levels. because resources for new equipment and support are unavailable.2. The former was identified in a 1999 study concerning the conditions for integrating ICT in education65. it seems that neither has taken place once the annual tabular statements of the Ministry’’s technology report are disregarded. has proved to confer definite benefits in ensuring ownership of the application of ICT technology among the teaching staff and in making sure that it was being used effectively.7 The future 6. ““anti-test””. 6. Malfunctions. no evaluations pertaining to the integration of ICT have taken place at either school. 65 104 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . because their equipment was rapidly becoming obsolete and funds were lacking to replace it. Currently. no ICT integration measures have been defined. slow computers.2 Good practice Several issues spring to mind regarding the school’’s use of ICT.g. the availability of educational support specializing in the use of ICT has proved an invaluable resource for promoting the use of this technology in education. Teaching-LearningEducation Technology.2.C. 6.6. Equally. Meanwhile. Ministry of Education (1999): Conditions for Success. but that this conception is now gradually changing.A general need for research concerning performance measurement has been identified in the province. A second aspect is the recognition and necessity of supporting the different levels of progress occurring among the teaching staff.1 Challenges ahead The challenges for the Coal Tyee school are largely embodied in the framework conditions that are considered to impede sustained development. 6. and inadequate access to educational support were all considered serious obstacles for continued growth. First. Teachers and administrators alike described how the School district has historically taken a kind of ““anti-data””. these factors were an aspect of the reality faced by the school’’s teaching staff.7. several teachers complained that the deteriorating ICT infrastructure was a serious impediment to its effective use. supported by a facilitating administration. while the latter is gradually gaining prominence in the Province.7. In fact. The use of personal growth plans.2. ““anti-evaluation”” stance towards educational attainment.

strategic decisions about how to implement and stimulate an environment of committed learners. A fourth aspect is the recognition that learning outcomes in a particular subject can be supported and enhanced by computer applications such as the Microsoft Office package. Accordingly, the successful integration of ICT does not require specialized software content –– a lot can be achieved with relatively limited software. Fifth, technological development must be sustained by continued investment in both the ICT infrastructure and a support superstructure. 6.2.8 Sources

6.2.8.1 Published sources British Columbia Ministry of Education: http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/technology/ B.C. Ministry of Education (1999): Conditions for Success. TeachingLearning-Education Technology Canada Network of Innovative Schools: http://www.schoolnet.ca/nis-rei/e/ Canada Schoolnet: http://www.schoolnet.ca/home/e/ Coal Tyee Elementary School: Mission Statement Coal Tyee Elementary School: Network of Innovative Schools Final Report: May 31, 2001 Coal Tyee Elementary School: School Plan, September 20, 2002 Coal Tyee Elementary School Technology Plan (draft), 1997 Kitchenham, Andrew: ““The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Focus Groups of Teachers Discuss Their Technology Experiences””, www.aace.org/site School District 68 –– Ladysmith/Nanaimo: Inservice Overview 2001-2002 School District 68 –– Ladysmith/Nanaimo: Route 68: Technology Plan 199697 School District 68 –– Ladysmith/Nanaimo: Route 68: Technology Plan 199798

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6.2.8.2 Interviewees

Member of the Board of Trustees of School District 68 ICT Superintendent for the School District District Resource Teacher for ICT Principal of Coal Tyee Elementary School Teachers at Coal Tyee Elementary School Pupils at Coal Tyee Elementary Parents of pupils at Coal Tyee Elementary School

Jack Doan Mike Munro Mike Silverton Bob Padgham

6.3

De Lindt , the Stiphout area of Helmond

The case study was undertaken at the De Lindt School in the Stiphout area of Helmond in the Netherlands in April 2003. The De Lindt School case study encompassed the following activities: 1) A thorough desk study of relevant documents, including strategies, action plans, project plans, budgets, internal evaluations etc., plus the global framework conditions 2) An interview with a representative of the School Board 3) An interview with a municipal alderman 4) A focus group interview with parents of the children attending De Lindt School 5) An interview with the principal of the school 6) A group interview with teachers 7) Two group interviews with pupils - one involving younger children and one involving older ones 8) Three observations of instruction, one involving younger children, one involving an intermediate group, and one involving older children 9) Observation of the general physical environment of the school, including its architecture At the end of the report is a list of the people interviewed during the case study.
The De Lindt elementary school is a public primary school in Stiphout, a district of the municipality of Helmond in the southern part of the Netherlands66.
A distinctive feature of the Dutch education system is freedom of education (guaranteed under Article 23 of the Constitution). This means the freedom to found schools (freedom of establishment), the freedom to organize the teaching in schools (freedom of organization of teaching), and the freedom to determine the principles on which they are founded (freedom of conviction). As a result the Netherlands has both pub66

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It was founded in 1988, when it moved into new buildings. The school is non-denominational, and is therefore open to all students irrespective of religion, ideology and culture. Over the years it has grown from 16 enrolled students to more than 300. The children are divided into 12 different groups ranging from grade 1 (age 4) to grade 8 (age 11)67. The school is situated in what the parents describe as a prosperous upper middle class neighbourhood with a population of predominantly Dutch origin. When the school was founded information technology was not a key consideration, and therefore the physical structure is not adapted to the infrastructural requirements of IT installations.

Figure 6.6 View of the front of the De Lindt School

The teaching staff consists of a principal and a deputy principal. In addition, the school employs 12 full-time and 6 part-time class teachers.

In 1998-2000 the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science designated the De Lindt School as an advanced centre for information and communication technology. The school received funding to acquire computers and set up a network infrastructure. The school also adapted an ICT plan that it was required to share with other interested parties. With this funding, each classroom was equipped with at least 3 computers that were linked to a local network and permanently connected to the Internet and the Dutch knowledge network68. To improve their ICT literacy, individual ICT development plans were defined for each teacher in order to direct and motivate them in acquiring the skills they required for their teaching.

licly- and privately-run schools. In fact, some 70% of 3,547,000 pupils and students attend privately-run schools. (The number of pupils in primary education totals 1,644,000.) 67 As from 1 August 2002, in all Dutch elementary schools the school starting age was decreased from 5 years to 4. 68 The Dutch knowledge net was established to support the integration of information technology in education. See http://www.kennisnet.nl/portal/home/index.html.

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Participation in this programme was sparked by the school’’s awareness that ICT is an important educational tool both currently and in the future, and that making the pupils ICT literate was an essential challenge for the school. Accordingly, it still draws up global annual ICT action plans for itself. 6.3.1 Framework conditions

In accordance with the 1969 Compulsory Education Act, school attendance is compulsory for all children of school age living in the Netherlands. Every child must attend school full-time for 12 full school years, and in any event until the end of the school year in which they turn 16. In 1971, the Compulsory Education Act was extended to include an additional period of part-time compulsory education for those young people who have not completed their period of full-time compulsory schooling. Under-18s must attend school at least two days a week until the end of the school year in which they turn 17. The municipal authorities are responsible for implementing the Compulsory Education Act. The municipal administration ensures that all children below school-leaving age who are registered as resident in the area are enrolled as pupils at an educational establishment. After 8 years of primary school, the pupils go on to secondary education. Most secondary schools are combined schools offering several types of secondary education so that pupils can transfer easily from one type to another (spanning vocational, trade-oriented and academically-focused tuition). The Dutch education system combines a centralized national education policy with the decentralized administration and management of schools. Central government controls education via legislation and regulation, with due regard for the provisions of the Constitution. In this way it exercises control over both publicly- and privately-run institutions. The involvement of the provincial authorities mainly takes the form of statutory supervisory and judicial duties in relation to public and private schools alike. As the local authority for all schools in the area, the municipal authorities have certain statutory powers and responsibilities covering both public and private schools. All schools, both public and private, are governed by a legally recognized competent authority (i.e. school board), which is the body responsible for implementing legislation and regulations in schools. The municipal authority is the competent authority or school board for publicly-run schools. Since 1997, the municipal authorities have been able to choose the form of the competent authority. 6.3.1.1 Positive framework conditions A number of different measures, projects and initiatives covering ICT in education have been introduced into recent Dutch policy. The most recent framework for e-learning is the broad three-year policy on ICT in education (‘‘Onderwijs On line, 1999-2002’’) which covers compulsory, vocational and adult education, as well as teacher education. The overall objective of the policy intervention was that teachers, school heads, management boards and others working in or for schools should ac-

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quire the ICT expertise and skills needed to integrate ICT effectively into the contemporary school situation. This policy sets out four objectives69: Professional development. Teachers, school heads, school boards and others working in or for schools will acquire the ICT knowledge and skills they need in the years ahead to enable them to integrate ICT effectively into the new educational practices. Methods and educational software. By 2002, software is supposed to be available for all the government-specified learning objectives in which ICT plays a role. By the same date, all schools are supposed to possess up-to-date knowledge of the potential and availability of educational software, and the market should be able to offer adequate software to support innovative teaching practices. Management of ICT infrastructure. Schools are able to take responsibility for their own ICT infrastructure so that it is capable, both technically and in terms of content, of helping to achieve the objectives defined by the school, and so that it can be modified to reflect changes in those objectives as well as technological advances. Kennisnet (Knowledge Net). All schools have access to high-quality services via the Kennisnet, so that attention can be concentrated on the educational use of ICT, and so that the schools are relieved from the burden of technical management as much as possible70. The intention behind the ‘‘Education on line’’ policy was for the government to define the general aims, to create the framework conditions, and to disseminate the output and results of the initiative. Schools have been free to use the associated funding as they have seen fit. They could, for example, use it to cover the cost of in-service ICT training for teachers, for new educational software, for hardware, and/or to pay the cost of employing ICT administrators or co-ordinators. However, they have been advised to incorporate the introduction of ICT into the school’’s overall policy objectives. The Education Inspectorate has been monitoring the cost effectiveness of the spending, focusing in particular on whether the core aims in relation to ICT are being achieved, and on how ICT is contributing to the quality of the education being provided. The government has set out the financing available for integrating ICT into education. In the period leading up to 2002, one-off funding of 304 million EURO was provided, followed by a further 150 million EURO in the period up to 2010. With the addition of other earmarked funding, a total spend of 1.05 billion EURO was envisaged during 1998 to 2002, with another 550 million EURO being allocated from 2003. Accordingly, the national government’’s contribution to this objective has been threefold: It has laid down specifications for new professional expertise, and the skills and measures needed to promote familiarity with them. This has involved both the general aspects and the knowledge and skills required by specific groups, such as school heads. It has promoted the provision of training courses, and has provided frameworks for evaluating the skills acquired by teaching staff and for awarding qualifications. It has provided financing to facilitate the upgrading of skills.
See Ministry of Education, Culture and Research policy documents and reports: http://www.minocw.nl/ict/. 70 As of 1 January 2004, all schools will also be able to choose other providers than the Kennisnet
69

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the education sector. has not been included in the programme.3. Toddlers' section: groups 1 and 2 (3 groups in all) Junior section: groups 3 and 4 (3 groups in all) Intermediate section: groups 5 and 6 (3 groups in all) Senior section: groups 7 and 8 (3 groups in all). However.1 The school organisation The school building comprises 12 classrooms plus a central hall with a stage and a physical exercise room for toddlers. which is not one of the primary financial responsibilities of the municipal government. The De Lindt school has practised this organizational format ever since it was founded. planning future activities. If the school is able to find the financial means to continue its use of ICT.6. Each section has one teacher who is designated to be responsible for that section’’s ICT equipment. However. the municipality of Helmond has received funding from the national government under the Kennisweg programme.3. this deficiency may prove to be a barrier for future users of the Kennisweg services. The school management places considerable emphasis on the school as a ““learning organization”” by emphasizing constant debate and assessment concerning how the learning approach at the school can be improved. The school refers to these learning groups as "heterogeneous groups". some groups are accommodated in a part of the central hall or in an ancillary building. which focuses on creating a series of digital services under such headings as eGovernment and eDemocracy. and the school was unable to meet this requirement from its own operating budget.2 Negative framework conditions One framework condition anticipated by the school management has gradually been making itself felt.3. The children are part of each heterogeneous group for 2 years.1. and ensuring that the same overall pedagogical approach is consistently followed in that section. At the De Lindt school. The teachers of the different groups in each section work closely together on devising the syllabus. 6. with younger groups tending to be somewhat smaller. The size of the groups varies. though they may alternate with each other. Meanwhile. and the school management states that the children from group 8 have been achieving aboveaverage marks in the grade 8 performance results. Depending on the size of the student intake. The management has recognized that the regular updating of equipment is an essential factor in maintaining continued progress. children of different ages are taught in single groups. One teacher is mainly responsible for the instruction in a given group. The 110 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . it was not anticipated that De Lindt School would receive additional funding for renewing its infrastructure. These group structures require an appropriate form of organization which differentiates the learning approach used in accordance with the competence level of the individual students.2 The organisational setting (Rules) 6. This programme will be partially funded by public and corporate contributions. namely the shortage of funding for the renewal of the previously-installed ICT infrastructure. The school is divided into four sections containing 2 to 3 heterogeneous groups each. but there is an average of 25 children in each group.2.

All the doors are semi-transparent.3. The school principal stresses the importance of the teachers’’ involvement in their work. To improve this situation.3.teachers and management agree that the management style is ““bottom-up””. and both interior and exterior windows enable anyone outside to monitor what is going on in the classroom.2 Discussion One particular challenge for the organization of the school is the existence of different levels of ICT literacy and different approaches to the use of ICT in education. Wim Goossens has been the principal since the construction of the school. Instead. and is therefore supported by the school’’s structure.1 Description The physical fabric of the school was designed around the pedagogical principles which the principal wanted to promote71.2.3 The educational setting (Resources) 6. The gathering together of the pupils is a key element in the school’’s pedagogical approach. Accordingly. 6. 111 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The strength of this debate has been the unanimous support for. and he actively seeks to employ teachers with an interest in the pedagogical approach and emphasis on ICT that is underway in the school. is a hall with a particularly high ceiling. and ownership of. The De Lindt school has opted not to construct a central computer lab. in ICT) Innovation and vision for the future of the school. with an average of three per room. They emphasize the fact that they must all agree and adhere to a number of common pedagogical principles governing and structuring their tuition. The teachers state that these action plans have proved to be an excellent incentive for directed learning and the acquisition of the ICT skills they have required. and at the very centre of the school. and that the teaching staff has a significant influence on the pedagogical direction of the school. the management decided that individual ICT action plans for each teacher needed to be developed and implemented. it has integrated its computers into the classrooms. The hall contains a central stage where the pupils can gather for communal events.3. 6.3.g. These different factors have triggered heated discussions among the teaching staff concerning the usefulness of ICT as an educational tool. the ICT strategy which the school has chosen. the school was organised into different physical sections corresponding to the locations of the classrooms for the different age groups. It was a conscious decision to make the computers a visi- 71 Mr. Another dominant physical feature is the physical transparency of the classrooms. The principal also describes the main management roles as being to promote the following: Human resource management Planning Resources for the development of the school (e. From the main entrance.

The Dutch Ministry of Education is acutely aware of this limitation. The small size of the Dutch population also places natural constraints on the potential market for Dutch-oriented content software. and is subsidizing more than 500 content development and professional development network projects (www. The schools mostly use Dutch-oriented content software plus some Britishoriented content software. Organizationally. The Dutch Ministry of Education is acutely aware of this limitation and is subsidizing more than 500 content development and professional development network projects plus approximately 1000 implementation projects in order to stimulate the use of ICT in the classroom73. The latter has limitations.nl ) 72 112 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Increasing the number of computers (even using smaller laptops.nl/subsidie/.nl/subsidie/ (see ““projects””) (e. flat screens etc. see ““projects””) and approximately 1000 implementation projects (e. Nevertheless. as well as for software that coheres with the learning outcomes prescribed by the Dutch curriculum.3. www. the space available in the school is physically limited.ictonderwijs. because it does not correspond to the learning outcomes being sought in the Dutch context72. Firstly.grassroots. As a minimum.g. The introduction of three computers into the classrooms makes them seem somewhat cramped.g. to rely on content programmes as the central pillar in ICT integration may prove particularly costly and difficult for countries like the Netherlands which have small populations. 6.grassroots. www.ictonderwijs. the rapid rate of both software and hardware innovation is bound to make such projects reactive.ble part of the classroom landscape.3. Therefore. The teaching staff have jointly defined the standards for the content of the software they consider to be pedagogically appropriate for the school. 73 www. Secondly. the software should: Differentiate between different skill levels Contain drill and practice functions Track student performance Promote problem solving Be related to the syllabus Be affordable. as the small Dutch market for content software provides little incentive for companies to develop new programs. the availability of content programs is limited. software applications such as the Microsoft Office package are also being used. In the older classes. and that new funds must be found if its equipment is to meet current standards.nl ) in order to stimulate the use of ICT in the classroom.) will significantly decrease the space available for physical activity etc. each section has a teacher who is designated to be responsible for that section’’s ICT equipment.2 Discussion An assessment of the available resources points to the existence of several framework conditions which are hindering the school’’s further development. as is the Kennisnet email system with which the students communicate in English with students in other countries. There is a realization that the school’’s computer hardware is rapidly becoming obsolete.

4 The learning environment 6. learning to deal with one's emotions.3. Specifically. The reason for this is explained as follows: See De Lindt’’s Eschola school portrait: http://home1. skills and attitudes they need to prepare them for secondary education and to develop into independent.””74.3. Within five years. etc. reading and writing are of crucial importance in our school.A third problem affecting ICT integration is the existence of a pace of technological development that rapidly makes hardware obsolete. a significant financial investment in hardware will have become outdated and require to be renewed. It states that it has: ““……taken from various educational systems what is best for the children attending De Lindt. the management and the teaching staff insist on using a coherent teaching system in order to ensure that the pupils will be able to meet uniform standards that have been set for the entire school. In order to achieve these overall goals. But we also pay much attention to social and creative development. we use proven traditional methods.4. the school day commences and ends with the group gathering in a circle. the students will already know the routines and rules practised in the classroom. as it has acknowledged and embraced the different perspectives and levels of ICT literacy and has provided the teachers with incentives to develop from their individual starting points. Arithmetic. learn from one another. language skills. broad-minded individuals. We are an ordinary primary school where children are taught all the knowledge. learning to deal with values and standards.tiscali. Such coherence is ensured through: Similar organization of the daily routines Similar approaches to learning through individual and group work Similar designation of tasks. This also implies that when moving from one age group to the next. creating a minimum of integration problems.html 74 113 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and use their own interests as a vehicle for learning. For example. 6. Besides contemporary teaching methods with pupils working actively in groups. The use of ICT action plans that set individual learning targets has proved to be particularly adept as a vehicle for learning. Finally.1 Description The De Lindt School does not adhere to a particular educational system or pedagogical approach.nl/~lindt/engelseschoolgids. the principal states that the school seeks to foster a learning environment that: Makes the pupils feel happy and secure Challenges them both academically and socially Teaches them to become independent learners Is organized to enable the pupils to work by themselves. the school’’s implementation of its ICT strategy has been successful. learn at their own speed. peace education.

the children read aloud or deliver a speech on a set subject. In this connection. they make music. acknowledge that computers may be useful for generating good PR for the school. 114 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In their view. During these sessions the children learn how to express themselves. it is something that will be acquired as a natural extension of the way the student learns in the social environment. The teachers argue that ICT is only relevant in some learning situations. Instead. to sit in a circle. Thus gathered together.2 Discussion The point that the school does not rely on ICT as the sole learning tool is important. etc.g. the school seeks to instil an interest in independent learning. Conversations and discussions with an educational purpose are part of the process. They do. the teachers stress that De Lindt is not a computer-based school. Within this social environment. On a different note. but they also learn how to listen to the other children or to their teacher. Agreements and bargains are exchanged and explanations given. They also emphasized that some programs were boring. Stories are told. they are directly in touch with each other.The children are regularly asked. with the teachers acting as guides and tutors rather than instructors.4. This aspect of the students’’ socio-economic background is also important for an understanding of why the learning environment functions as it does. it uses ICT as one of several integrated teaching tools. One might suspect that the lure of computers as a stimulating alternative might wear out with too much computer time. ICT should be only one learning tool among several available at the school. which would increase both the short term and long term investment needed in both hardware and software. Likewise. The circle meetings are an important tool for promoting mutual understanding.3. However. it should be mentioned that an increase in the use of computers with the purpose of expanding the educational use of ICT would require further purchases to increase the computer/student ratio. In this regard. at the beginning and the end of each school day. The parents also agree with the notion that the school should not be pursuing a learning strategy based on an increased reliance on computers. the management points out that the school’’s grade 8 results in the national curriculum’’s CITO tests are comparatively much better than those for other Netherlands schools with a similar socio-economic background. the students emphasized that the use of computerbased learning is interesting and stimulating because it offers an alternative to traditional teaching methods. e. The parents interviewed also emphasize that Stiphout is a prosperous area populated by resourceful families containing mainly resourceful children. ICT literacy is not a learning objective in itself. 6. however. and they stress that the school’’s high standards are created by the learning environment as a whole. and should therefore be applied selectively. They are encouraged to tell about their adventures and experiences.

observations were conducted in three different classrooms in the lower. 6. The management also emphasizes that the individualized learning environment at the De Lindt school is well known as being one in which children with learning problems will receive professional help. and (iii) students alternated in working at the computer workstations. or for children who simply find school work boring and have trouble motivating themselves.1 Description In the course of the case study.The structure and motivation required for independent learning may be more difficult for children with learning problems. The pictures below illustrate the location and use of the computers while other children were working on different topics. middle and upper sections of the school. Children with learning or behavioural problems benefit from a special programme and approach. The management has pointed out in response to criticism that especially those children with learning problems have benefited from the use of ICT. One element in this is the use of adaptive computer programs. Every month the team of teachers for each relevant age group and a pedagogical specialist draw up new plans for these children. (ii) the computers were being used in parallel with the teacher-student instruction.5 The learning situation 6. The also point to the fact that the number of children who have to be sent to a school for children with special needs is lower than the average for the area.5. The school has implemented a special testing and observation structure which makes it possible to track the performance of every child.3.3. They can cope more easily in an individualized learning environment such as the De Lindt school. 115 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The use of computers was similar in all classrooms: (i) The computers were located in the classroom.

7 Figure 6. They appear to be the class’’s older students (grade 4). The other group mem- 116 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .8 The following text describes the learning environment in the middle section of the school. One group is gathered at the centre table. Group 3-4 consisted of 19 pupils (8 girls and 11 boys) and one male teacher: The group 3-4 students are divided into two groups.Figure 6. On the day our observation took place.

As was mentioned at the beginning of the chapter. 12 of the 19 students in the group were working on computers for between 3-8 minutes. and the students raise their hands in order to answer his questions. The figure shows that during one lesson. and the numbers depict the sequence in which they moved to and from the computer workstations. The topic is metric spatial units. Sometimes the students are called to the blackboard to give their answers. and the method they are using to answer the questions does not appear to be new to them. The numbered circles represent the students. with the teacher instructing from in front of the blackboard.bers are sitting at various tables located around the perimeter of the classroom. The activity generates several movements back and forth from the computer workstations. This centre group is performing arithmetic.9 illustrates the movements in the class during the lesson. The screen shows whose turn is next. The pupils are obviously well acquainted with the working of the software. Figure 6. The pencils and booklets indicate that other students usually sit beside them at these tables. 117 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The other group is doing individual assignments on the computer (the students alternate whenever they answer ten questions correctly). I am later informed that their drill results are being evaluated by the teacher in order to assess whether their skills level meets the required standards. All the assignments are maths-related. The group is using a content programme. the use of the computer described above was similar in all the classes observed.

the students learn to take responsibility for their own learning through using the computer for problem solving. A further distinction is made at the individual level.2 Discussion The structuring of the learning situation enables distinctions to be made between the individual learning needs and outcomes of the different grades in the age group. The grade 4 students engage in one kind of learning situation which involves close dialogue with the teacher. 118 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . or through reading. When interviewed. the children learn to engage in social activities in the classroom setting which enhances their role as independent learners. the children themselves emphasized the challenges and advantages of pursuing their ““own”” interests.Figure 6.5.9 Movements observed in the classroom during the lesson Windows Windows 6 TABLE 13 TABLE 10 4 3 5 TABLE 2 TABLE Blackboard 9 7 12 TABLE 8 1 TABLE Workstations Windows CHAIR 11 TABLE KITCHEN TABLE 6. The grade 3 students are involved in individual learning activities at the computers and desks.3. The observation exercise made it evident that the majority of the children were well adapted to assuming a role as independent students. In other words. The structure of the learning situation has several advantages –– for instance.

Finally. also entails potential disadvantages. Secondly. the management and staff point out that their testing and observation systems are used to assess the students on a regular basis75. A teacher with specialised pedagogical training helps the other teachers to adopt the best approach. In response. the teachers feel they have met this challenge by teaching their pupils to work silently. This redefinition of the tea75 The observation system is implemented throughout the school. who considered that the level of concentration was appropriate. It comprises a list covering approximately 100 questions and observation items which every teacher has to fill out three times a year. 119 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . When necessary. (iv) maths. Thirdly. In turn. the teachers compile reports based on the above-mentioned observation items three times a year. and therefore to identify when special needs education and a corresponding intervention was necessary. While some of these anxieties could reflect any learning environment consisting of more than a few individuals. When they suspect that the concentration of a particular student could be a problem. Several students were observed watching what others were doing rather than concentrating on ‘‘doing their own thing’’. some parents have voiced a concern that the approach to learning made it difficult to compare and assess the skills and learning needs of the individual students. the structure of the learning situation. For others. They argue that the test results and observations demonstrate good results. the movement may also cause considerable interruption and noise in the room which also interferes with the attention of the students. CITO. the concern about individual motivations for learning is valid. (vi) physical education. The observation items cover: (i) social/emotional behaviour. This concern was not shared by the staff and management of the school. the teacher’’s traditional role as instructor is gradually redefined to be that of coach and motivator for the individual student. with such prominent emphasis on individualized learning. they either move the child to another location in the classroom or assign it to special concentration training. Accordingly. some parents argued that the focus on individualized learning made it easier for those children who were not ‘‘school minded’’ or who were outright lazy to evade control and avoid being confronted with their failure to participate.However. The tests provide information about how children are doing individually. The teachers seek to assess the skills and learning needs of the pupils and adapt their programme or individual approach to them. and (viii) arts. and ultimately with their failure to learn. (v) environmental studies. the school uses tests compiled by the Netherlands’’ national testing institution. The teaching staff uses tests to evaluate some items. the teachers conduct observations in the classroom. (iii) reading. the physical movement in the classroom may cause some students to lose concentration on their own activities. Firstly. In addition to this observation programme. In this sense. The report also includes data from discussions with parents. Therefore. The learning approach practised in the school makes understanding each student’’s motivation and ‘‘vehicles for learning’’ essential. the special education teacher helps the teachers to devise a special training programme for individual children. (vii) behaviour. the success of the learning approach may be dependent on the students being able to observe the rules of acceptable behaviour in the classroom. and also provides data enabling comparisons to be drawn with other schools. (ii) language.

6. 6.6 Performance measurement and evaluation 6. The results are used by the teachers to assess the learning needs of the individual students. Spatial challenges to the acquisition of more computers.7 The future 6.6. The latter is continuously being worked on at the school.2 Discussion The explicit performance measurement criterion enables the software to support the school’’s individualized learning strategies.3.3. 6. The first three are structural framework conditions that are difficult for the school to change. There can be grouped under the following headings: Securing funding for a new generation of equipment. Securing funding for a new generation of equipment. Tests are carried out in all subjects. In this sense.1 Description As mentioned above. Its assessments are written up in ““school portraits”” that are disseminated to interested stakeholders. for the focused use of performance measurement. the Dutch Ministry of Education (the ““Inspectie van het onderwijs””) visits the country’’s schools and assesses their use of ICT. the software supports the overall strategy of the school’’s learning environment.1 Challenges ahead The interviews with teachers and the principal at the school have revealed four major future challenges.cher’’s job description needs to be clear and specific in order to ensure that the students actually receive the support they need. Availability of suitable content programs. This may indicate that the school has been successful in creating a learning environment that suits the social characteristics of the student population in the area. formalized testing of the pupils is carried out by examination prior to their transfer to secondary school.3.3.7. One major challenge perceived by the management and staff is the ability to secure funds to renew equipment that is rapidly becoming outdated.3. the tracking and measurement of individual performance was a prerequisite for using the software at the De Lindt Elementary School. In addition to the testing performed using the software. 6. However. 120 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In relation to the evaluation and assessment of the school’’s use of ICT. Increasing the computer literacy of the staff. The con76 See footnote 75 for a description of the observation system. and to ensure that their progress is being continuously monitored. the software requires individuals to log on in order to be able to track their performance. which places an emphasis on the individual learning of each student. The school also uses an observation system to assess students regularly76. The teachers and parents report that the students are doing better than the national average in their examination results.

siderable investment in computers and network can be met from the school’’s operational budget, but the system administration needed to operate the network is unaffordable from existing means. This implies that funding must be raised from elsewhere for the renewal of the existing network so that continued progress in the use of ICT in the learning environment is ensured. Spatial challenges to the acquisition of more computers. The school was not built with the accommodation of a large number of computers in mind. It will be difficult to increase the computer/student ratio without having a severe impact on the available space in the school. The management and staff have considered investing in laptop rather than desktop computers as one way to resolve the problem. Availability of suitable content programs. Another problem encountered by the teachers is the lack of suitable content programmes. It is the experience of the teachers that only limited a supply of relevant Dutch content programmes exists, and they tend to use British software to the extent that it coheres with Dutch curricular learning outcomes. Despite government efforts to remedy the situation, the unmet need for adequate software is affecting the teaching staff. Increasing the computer literacy of the staff. The computer literacy of the teaching staff is still variable, which means that the opportunities identified for using ICT and the actual use of computers in the classroom are both still somewhat teacher-dependent. Further efforts will be made to continue professional development which focuses on using ICT as an educational tool. Given the organization of the Dutch educational system, it is highly likely that any further investment in ICT will have to be sourced from national rather than municipal funding. 6.3.7.2 Good practice The De Lindt Elementary School distinguishes itself through its integration of a shared educational vision and approach which encompasses all the classes in the school. Although the school does not adhere to any single educational philosophy, a number of common features are discernible in the teaching methods. However, the successful integration of any pedagogical concept across all the classes is dependent on the active support and motivation of all the teachers. This has been accomplished through a bottom-up approach in which the management has actively involved the teaching staff in devising the concept and in defining the extent to which it should affect the structure of the lessons and the weekly syllabus. Also, the application of a similar structure and organisation of time creates continuity for all the students, so that they remain familiar with the concept and structure of the tuition when they move from one age grouping to another. This gives them a sense of security and comfort which is appreciated by parents and teachers alike. Finally, the De Lindt Elementary School’’s management and staff emphasize the importance of defining an overall ICT strategy and constructing individual development plans for each teacher to enable them to support the overall strategy. The benefit of the individual development plan is that each indi-

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vidual takes ownership of it and feels motivated to reach the objectives it defines. Also, the plans take as their starting point the ICT needs and literacy of the individual staff members, rather than defining a collective level of literacy and skills to be acquired that does not actually correspond to the use of ICT envisaged in the classroom. 6.3.8 Sources

6.3.8.1 Published sources De Lindt Elementary School’’s Eschola school portrait: http://home-1.tiscali.nl/~lindt/engelseschoolgids.html Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2000)) ““ICT schoolportretten. Vier basisscolen en een PABO in beeld””, The Hague. Ministry of Education, Culture and Research The Dutch challenge in perspective. The Dutch challenge set side by side. http://www.ictonderwijs.nl/eindrapportage/dutch_challenge.pdf Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (2001) Giving or taking control. A political agenda for the information society. A report to the Dutch cabinet on governance in the information age. http://www.infodrome.nl/english/rapport.html Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (2001) A four-way balance. Survey of current practice with a view to the effective and efficient use of ICT in education. http://www.ictonderwijs.nl/documenten/vier_in_balans_engels.doc Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (2002) ICT Education Monitor 2000-2001 http://www.ictonderwijs.nl/documenten/ict_monitor_engels_2002.pdf Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (2000) ICT in education in the Netherlands. Current situation and agenda for the future. http://www.ictonderwijs.nl/documenten/ict_in_Education_november2000.pd f 6.3.8.2 Interviewees

Representative of the Board of Elementary Schools in Helmond Alderman of the Municipality of Helmond Civil Servant Municipality of Helmond Principal of De Lindt Elementary School Teachers at De Lindt Elementary School Pupils at De Lindt Elementary School Parents at De Lindt Elementary School

Irvin Barnard Cees Bethlehem Frank Engels Wim Goossens

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6.4

Gylemuir Primary School, the Municipality of Edinburgh The case study was undertaken at Gylemuir Primary School in the municipality of Edinburgh in Scotland in May 2003. The Gylemuir Primary School case study has comprised the following activities: 1) A thorough desk study of relevant documents, including strategies, work plans, internal evaluations etc., plus the overall structural framework conditions 2) An interview with the head teacher of the school 3) A interview with the assistant head about the use of ICT and examples of projects 4) An interview with a school administrator working in the City of Edinburgh Council’’s schools administration department 5) An interview with the City of Edinburgh Council’’s Executive Member for Education 6) A focus group interview with parents of children attending Gylemuir primary school 7) A focus group interview with the school’’s ICT co-ordinators 8) A group interview with teachers 9) Two group interviews with pupils 10) Two observations of learning situations in two different classes 11) Observation of the general physical environment of the school, including its architecture Gylemuir Primary School has a roll of 540 pupils plus a further 120 children in nursery classes. It serves an area in the west of the City of Edinburgh between the new Gyle Business Park and Corstorphine village. The school opened in 1968, and in 2000 a new early education department was opened. The new department houses 2 nursery classes and 6 classrooms for children in Primary 1 and 2. Besides this there is a wing for Primary 3 and 4 with 6 classrooms, science lab, computer suite and dance/drama hall, and a wing with 8 classrooms for Primary 5, 6 and 7, dining room, TV area, library, gymnasium and medical room. Outside, the school has different playgrounds for the different age groups.

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The school has a head teacher, a deputy head and two assistant head teachers. Besides these senior staff, there are nineteen full-time class teachers, a school secretary, and a school auxiliary. There is also a full-time learning support teacher and peripatetic specialist teachers for subjects such as cello instruction, physical education and music. The school also has a number of assistants who carry out different tasks such as helping the secretary and assisting the classroom teachers. The district served by the school is a typical middle-class area mainly inhabited by native Scots. 5% of the pupils at the school have a foreign background, and 10 pupils are assisted by an interpreter. 6.4.1 Framework conditions

This section describes the framework conditions for Gylemuir Primary’’s activities, including both national initiatives and regional and local policies and programmes, and accordingly also comprises a brief introduction to the overall framework governing the work of schools in Edinburgh in particular and in Scotland in general. It describes both the factors promoting Gylemuir’’s work and those impeding it. 6.4.1.1 State and city roles Education is full-time and compulsory in Scotland for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. In Scotland, the transition from primary to secondary education normally occurs at age 1277. The Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) is responsible for administering Scottish policy concerning pre-school and school education, children and young people, as well as tourism, culture and sport. SEED covers five main areas of responsibility, each managed by a member of the Departmental Management Board. One of these is the Schools Group, which is responsible for policy covering the national priorities for education, teachers and schools, New Community Schools, social justice, school ethos and pupil welfare, health education, special educational needs, support and inclusion, new educational developments and qualifications, assessment and the curriculum. One of the agencies linked to the Scottish Executive Education Department is Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE), whose mission is to promote improvement in the standards, quality and attainment achieved by the Scottish education system. The Department's main partners are Scotland's 32 unitary local authorities. One of these is the Education Department of Edinburgh. The City of Edinburgh Council Education Service manages and co-ordinates the delivery of the Council’’s educational provision as directed by the Education Committee and statutory obligations. 6.4.1.2 National Grid for Learning Scotland & Edinburgh Grid for Learning The National Grid for Learning Scotland website contains a collection of information and digital resources developed specifically to support Scottish education. Due to the educational, cultural and political differences between Scotland and the rest of the UK, the NGfL Scotland team was appointed in September 1999 by the Scottish Executive Education Department to drive forward the initiative in Scotland.

77

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/who/dept_education.asp

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The National Grid for Learning Scotland contains, inter alia, a number of grid resources for both practitioners and learners. For instance, pupils of different age groups can access appropriate edutainment programmes for a number of subjects that are directly linked to the curriculum, and teachers have the opportunity of using different resources for teaching as well. Additionally, it is possible to arrange for someone from the NGfL to come out and teach pupils the use of such things as a tool for creating their own homepage, or how to participate in the Grid Club. 6.4.1.3 Education Act & Curriculum The Education Act and the National Priorities/Guidelines define the overall objectives for schoolwork in Scotland. The school curriculum comprises all the learning and other activities that each school provides for its pupils. This includes the National Priorities/Guidelines, religious education, collective worship, sex education and careers education. The school curriculum has two aims: To provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and achieve To promote pupils' spiritual, moral social and cultural development and to prepare them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. For all pupils, the National Priorities/Guidelines guarantee an entitlement to a number of areas of learning and the development of the knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes necessary for their self-fulfilment and development as active and responsible citizens, irrespective of social background, culture, race, gender, disability or differences in ability. It also makes the expectations concerning learning and attainment explicit to both pupils, parents, teachers, governors, employers and the public, and establishes national standards for the performance of all pupils in the subjects it covers. In addition, the National Priorities/Guidelines contains an overarching statutory inclusion statement. The current version of the National Priorities/Guidelines took effect in August 2000. The National Priorities/Guidelines also sets out two themes that must be taught across the curriculum. These are: Use of language (reading, writing, speaking, listening) The use of information and communication technology (except for noncore foundation subjects at Key Stage 1 and PE). Information and communications technology (ICT) has been compulsory for all pupils aged 5 to 16 since the inception of the National Priorities/Guidelines. Gylemuir Primary has incorporated the use of ICT into all subjects. Practical science work is integrated into the selected themes. Pupils are involved in experimenting, devising fair tests, interpreting data and organizing information. Each subject’’s educational objectives are described on the school’’s website. Emphasis is placed on teaching and learning in accordance with the national objectives, supplying parents with information on the progress of their children, the treatment of each child as a unique individual, the development of creativity, stimulating the children’’s senses, and the use of different ways of learning. There are minor disagreements among teachers and management at Gylemuir concerning how the National Priorities/Guidelines are promoting or hin-

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The excellent implementation of the school development plan. The school management thinks that it is possible to reorganize the educational delivery within the framework of the curriculum. Its independent inspections. which focused strongly on measures to improve attainment. analyzing and publishing the evidence obtained in the course of its evaluations. which embraced parents and the local community. and the strong sense of teamwork among the staff78. However. and its mission is to promote the improvement of the standards. 6. quality and level of attainment of the Scottish education system. a positive evaluation like this has a strong impact. and The excellent leadership shown by the head teacher. A strong emphasis on self-evaluation. The teachers say that they are severely tied by the curriculum. The very positive ethos. about standards and quality in education. reviews and public reporting concerning educational establishments. the teachers do agree that the clear definition of the topics applicable to each subject is an advantage.dering new approaches to the planning and implementation of teaching and learning activities. This is done by collating. as well as schools. and the inspection was followed up in 2002.4. Gylemuir Primary was inspected by HMIE in 2000. HMIE operates independently and impartially. both teaching and non-teaching. It was also one of the 78 http://www. and the high level of staff morale. The commitment of staff. The consistently good and often very high quality of teaching. which began operating as an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive on 1 April 2001.pdf 126 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and has direct access to Ministers. and the first to provide its citizens with e-mail addresses. community learning and the education functions of local authorities contribute strongly to the continuous improvement of the quality of Scottish education. Her Majesty's Senior Chief Inspector leads HM Inspectorate. and encourages both management and staff to both maintain and improve the quality of their work.hmie. because it states how many minutes teachers must teach each subject every week. 6.1.1.gov.4 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education One of the agencies linked to the Scottish Executive Education Department is Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE). when teachers can inspect the new learning materials sold by the organization. Some of the key strengths of Gylemuir are: The overall high-quality provision for children’’s development and learning in the nursery. It was one of the first cities in Scotland to establish networks.5 The regional and local levels The City of Edinburgh has been in the forefront of ICT implementation for a long time. Of course. colleges and other providers of education. and the very good monitoring by senior staff of learning and teaching in both the nursery and the school.uk/documents/inspection/gylemuir_ps01. Learning and Teaching Scotland has what is known as ‘‘days out’’.4. HMIE is directly accountable to the Scottish Ministers for the standard of its work. HMIE also informs parents and the Scottish Ministers.

and also to give each teacher and pupil an e-mail address. However. 6. The City of Edinburgh has also drawn up a plan for the use of ICT that encompasses specific goals and objectives for each step and level. By it had accomplished its goals. The outsourcing of services has not been without problems. Prior to the outsourcing. At the time of our visit. the Council made a big leap of faith. the IT Support Unit (ITSU) was in charge of IT services. there was an average of 5 pupils per computer in Edinburgh’’s schools. which has almost been achieved by now.1. and decided to buy a projector instead so that she could show the school as being a place of live. and includes the use of digital cameras and e-mail. The schools themselves control 90% of the budget. and your ears are filled with quiet music. because of the involvement of BTI it has been hard to implement changes related to wireless networking (to address security problems) and video conferencing at the local political level.4.first cities to realize the necessity of establishing networks for schools. the schools must pay for the services being provided. the teachers at Gylemuir Primary considered that ITSU’’s service had been very good. Every year additional centrally-distributed funding for the schools becomes available. but some of these have now been outsourced to British Telecom Integra (BTI). the Executive Member for Education calls the Masterclass his evangelists (being a church minister himself). In Edinburgh. She declined. When the new wing of the school was finished. as well as those pupils who have been honoured for their special achievements in that week. ICT is regarded as a medium for enhancing learning. the National Grid for Learning has yielded circa £1.6 Masterclass Every council was asked by the Government to nominate 25 teachers to participate in a Masterclass. which makes it hard to plan ahead. the municipality offered the headmaster an artwork in the form of a tapestry with which to decorate the school entrance. The Masterclass has inter alia travelled to other places to obtain inspiration. When buying Apple Macintosh computers. 127 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The purpose of the Masterclass is to lead the future development of ICT use in schools. ITSU had previously played a constructive role in the resolution of technical problems. at the local level it is never known how much this will amount to or when it will be distributed. your eyes involuntarily alight on a slideshow on the wall directly opposite the entrance. the schools pay a certain amount to BTI every year for such items as network services.5 million per year for 3-4 years. In addition to the money raised by the land sale. For instance. Previously. A representative from Gylemuir is a participant in the group.4. After the outsourcing of some of ITSU’’s tasks to British Telecom Integra.2 The organisational setting When you enter the school. and in the long run it should contribute to a pedagogical change towards more differentiated learning situations. exciting activities. selling a piece of land and spending the proceeds on broadband access for every school in the city. In 1997. schools can sign AppleCare contracts. The main objectives for the use of ICT in schools are to give children basic skills in using ICT. The slides on the wall show display children’’s activities at the school. which has been used to buy computers. and is co-operating with ITSU on laying the groundwork for future developments. For instance. 6.

The class teachers teach a single year group. The parents have described it thus: Previously they felt that they were not at all welcome on the school premises. a deputy head and two assistant head teachers. Those subjects are still highly prioritized.4. The school also has a number of assistants who carry out different tasks such as helping the secretary and assisting the classroom teachers. 6. Now they feel not only that they are welcome. Prior to her appointment. The head teacher has worked hard to change the culture.4. and a school auxiliary. which has also had consequences for the staff. a school secretary. There is also a full-time learning support teacher and peripatetic specialist teachers for subjects such as cello instruction. and was extended by a new wing that opened around Easter 2000. which means that the pupils move on to a new class teacher every year. According to parents. Nine staff members have left the school since she started. writing. Some of the school’’s basic principles arise from the head teacher’’s desire to make a real difference to the children attending the school.1 The school organization The school has a head teacher. According to her. teachers and pupils. with the aim of uniting the school’’s activities.2. and there was very bad discipline. although none have been fired. there are amazing exhibitions of children’’s artwork. but emphasis is also laid on developing the creativity. Besides these senior staff. 128 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . For instance. She has also asked some of the teachers to participate in school presentations and meet these delegations. a very closed attitude existed among both staff and parents. and that children were constantly being sent to her office because of bad behaviour.2. The school was built in 1968. The head teacher herself says that when she took up her job at the school. mathematics and sport comprised the main focus of the teaching. Around the entrance and in the corridors and classrooms. her arrival changed the school culture radically. However. reading.2 School culture The head teacher has been at the school for four years. there are nineteen full-time class teachers. but that they are also vital partners of the staff at the school. physical education and music. This meant that teachers were shouting at the children. as well as water tanks and sandpits for them to experiment and play with. In the Primary 1 and 2 section there are small gardens tended by the children. The teachers mainly work individually in their teaching. openness and tolerance of both employees and children. The original school building is long.The sense that creativity has high priority at Gylemuir comes across strongly. so prior to the work starting on the new wing the head teacher expressed the desire for it to be constructed at the centre of the existing building. and hardly dared to open its doors. 6. and asked the pupils to introduce the school to them. it took two or three years to bring about a positive and peaceful classroom atmosphere. she has invited delegations from South America or India to come and visit the school when they are in Edinburgh. and was previously the head of another school. they do co-operate in quite a few activities.

4 School behaviour Gylemuir has a school handbook which is displayed on the Internet with the primary purpose of informing parents about the work of the school. will be recognised by praise and encouragement. Thoughtfulness for others.2. toilet committees. P4 . grey or tartan skirts for girls. School and class rules are kept to a minimum with the intention of promoting a positive and safe learning/playing environment. Primary 7 pupils wear a blue sweatshirt to reflect their special responsibilities. grey trousers for boys. Some of the main behavioural objectives are described in the handbook: Pupils and staff agreed on the following expectations of behaviour at Gylemuir: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) We We We We We are polite and honest. hospitality. Individual pupils may also be rewarded with house points. they are encouraged to tell their pupil representatives.4. which the head teacher has visited. The school uniform decision is based on the presumption that the uniform helps to create a team spirit among the pupils and discourages sartorial competition. are responsible. class partners during wet intervals. meet with the Head teacher on a regular basis to discuss relevant issues. multimedia presentations and films are being used in Gylemuir’’s documentation efforts.A.g. 129 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . If a child is unhappy about an aspect of school life. Gylemuir School operates a positive approach to discipline. e.7 pupils also make additions to and sign our school charter. Primary 7 pupils have special responsibilities. and School Board. The school encourages the wearing of the sweatshirt. 6. cardigans. think about safety. a school tie. and responsible attitudes to work and behaviour. white polo shirts and grey sweatshirts. Individual pupils may be supported through behavioural sheets or contracts in which mutually acceptable targets are set. P1 .2. The uniform consists of white shirts. P4 . such as the idea of documenting what the children have been doing during the day.P7 pupil panel members. elected by their peers. formulate their own class rules. library monitors. Book Club. and is actively encouraged by the staff.T. As will be described later. Some of their principles have been applied at Gylemuir.4. stickers or merit certificates. with guidance from the class teacher. are kind and considerate. which is printed with the school logo.3 School uniform The policy of pupils wearing school uniforms has been agreed by the P. are ready to learn.7 pupils. School and classroom rules reflect these expectations. grey jerseys.The overall organizational and pedagogical principles of the school are strongly inspired by the educational approach taken in the Italian towns of Pistoia and Reggio Emilia. 6.

A high priority is assigned to expending time and money in obtaining inspiration outside the school setting.4. There are still differences in the teachers’’ skill levels. and the management’’s general view is that everyone is on an individual journey.2. the school has appointed four ICT co-ordinators from among its staff. In addition. To ensure this.6 Teacher education ELITE is a training course in which teachers learn new ICT skills. the better they are able to use them in a cross-curricular manner. Website 6. 6. It is considered desirable for more than one teacher to participate. Use of iMovie 8. 6. the ICT co-ordinators attend conferences and seminars.2. some of the teachers were beginners. Relationship of ICT to the curriculum 2.4. there is a lot of learning and competence development taking place among the teachers of the school. because this is important for enabling some of the ideas to be implemented in the school routines later on. 79 See http://www. seat at Assembly79. Establishment of a Learning Resource Centre 5. while some were already highly proficient. which include: 1. Investigation of resources 3.g. At the outset of the course. supervised hall time rewards. Running an after-school club. Sometimes teachers are bought free within the budget. Use of PhotoShop 7. e. The teachers say that the more confident they become in using computers. The co-ordinators not only support the other teachers of the school on request. For instance.uk/pages/OurSchool/handbook. Besides the more formal courses.sch. Part of the course involves a specialist visiting the school to assist and support the teachers in their activities. they hold workshops for each other on specific subjects. Each one has different responsibilities.edin. The teachers are required to make use of what they have learned during their courses.In return they have privileges.gylemuir. All the teachers in the school have been encouraged to participate in ELITE.5 ICT co-ordinators Under the school’’s ICT strategy. or simply ask each other for help when they need it. Among the incentives for them to participate is that they are paid for taking part. present interesting information to one other. it must be easy for the teachers to use ICT both practically and technically. and at the time of our visit to the school all of them had actually done so. sometimes involving rapid progress and sometimes requiring certain areas to be revisited. Developing resources 4. but most of them are using their ICT skills.html 130 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . but also initiate activities among them. The general opinion of the teachers is that the ELITE course was excellent and that it has brought all of them up to speed in ICT. and is funded by the New Options Fund (NOF).

For instance. some of the teachers made a farewell movie for one of their colleagues who was leaving the school. while some of them charge nominal fees. P5 orders fruit as part of the SnackerTack initiative. When the other teachers saw it. Despite this very traditional way of organizing its work. 6. basketball. short tennis. the school is permeated by an ethos of creativity. 6. for instance in the Comenius project. discipline is good. or through participating in a science week with other local schools. and good policies exist concerning bullying. teachers have started to request things 131 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The parents are very positive towards the changes that have happened as a result of her arrival. Once a month on a Friday afternoon. for instance parental assistance to the school in the appointment of teachers Assistants are involved and well-trained Ability to adapt to and initiate changes at all levels –– for instance. The opinion of all the teachers and parents is that this is primarily a result of the head teacher’’s efforts.4. For instance. and her ability to change the school culture. For instance. the school is currently running extra-curricular activities such as football. Most of the clubs are free. a computer club. and it is also the pupils’’ job to show the school to visitors.4.8 The reason for the school’’s success The daily schoolwork is organized rather traditionally.2. There is also an after-school club run by the parents which provides care facilities for children after school hours.7 Activities other than teaching In addition to the learning and teaching activities. The teachers run these clubs in their spare time. a dance club and a swimming club. Both the parents and the teachers point to a single crucial reason for the changes which have taken place. a number of other activities take place in the school outside normal school hours. They agree that the staff are very dynamic. there is a friendly and open atmosphere. It is usually possible for them to try out their ideas. Another factor is the existence of a very open attitude from management in response to teachers with new ideas to present. sharing and the exchange of ideas. her enthusiasm. a gymnastics coaching club for all ages. Some of the factors highlighted by the parents are as follows: The ethos of the school The visibility of the school’’s policies Parental involvement. namely the involvement of the head teacher.Yet another way of developing teachers’’ competencies is to co-operate with other schools. the pupils undertake specific tasks in a variety of areas. and good ideas often snowball and spread to the other teachers.2. in the sense that the teachers teach unaccompanied in the framework of a single class/subject format. they became interested in producing movies themselves. How do the school management and ICT co-ordinators encourage the other teachers to take an interest in using ICT or multimedia? One of the things they emphasize as being important is the fact that good examples often inspire others to use ICT.

The school spirit is an enthusiastic one. For instance.4. a dance/drama hall. The educational setting Each of the classes in Gylemuir Primary School has its own room containing 2-3 computers which are available to be used during classes. just like in the rest of the school. such as films and digital presentations.2. In addition to the classrooms. One of these is connected to the Internet. She sees organization. the school received the Standard Life Edinburgh Education Award. although it is also hard work to find and apply for money. Computer suites are regarded as rather an old-fashioned concept. One manifestation of this is the fact that Gylemuir Primary School has received no special funding. The reason she had to struggle is that the primary strategy consisted of locating all the computers in the classrooms so that the pupils could use them in class. a library. In 2001. caring and happy environment for all Develop. independent learners and to achieve their full potential in all aspects of their education and life skills 132 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . for instance either through participating in competitions or by spending money in untraditional ways. which means that the hall can be used as a cinema and for showing parents the results of the pupils’’ work. the work environment and the pedagogical approach as being closely related and interwoven. There is a strong determination among the staff to participate in competitions and secure money for new projects.Mutual peer-to-peer attitude of teachers and parents. The pedagogical principles at Gylemuir Primary reflect this view. there is a projector and music equipment in the dance/drama hall.9 Aims of Gylemuir Primary Gylemuir Primary aims to: Provide a safe. ICT is used extensively for the activities taking place in the common areas. The learning environment The learning environment is defined by a set of pedagogical rules and objectives that are described in the school handbook. a gymnasium and a medical room. The walls here are decorated with the pupils’’ work. 6. a computer suite. there is a science lab. balanced curriculum using "Curriculum Framework for children 3 to 5" and 5 –– 14 guidelines in accordance with the City of Edinburgh recommendations Increase the pupils’’ individual levels of attainment by setting appropriate targets Encourage the children to be motivated. The classes take turns at using the computer suite once a week. What it has achieved it has done on its own. resource and implement a broad. The school has a computer suite which is lined with 20 Apple Macintosh computers along three of the walls. a TV area. a dining room. but the head insisted on it because she wanted to enable all the pupils in a single class to work on the computers simultaneously. On the fourth wall is a large screen on which teachers can demonstrate a variety of computer-based activities. The head teacher at the school stresses the importance of initiating activities at several levels simultaneously in order to change the school culture. The head teacher has had to fight to secure the computer suite.

mathematics. environmental studies. Practical science work is integrated into the selected themes.sch. Gifted children are offered cello tuition. The children explore a wide range of movement with or without the use of apparatus. The school’’s wildlife gardens. interpreting data and organizing information. Pupils are involved in experimenting. b) To assist in the development of coherent and systematic assessment policies and practices in school.11 Emphasis upon creativity and physical education Music. The arts are also a vehicle for developing an alternative means of expressing and extending a pupil's personality and thinking. making use of local resources Provide equal opportunities for all pupils. 6. devising objective tests.4. making the best possible use of appropriate accommodation.2.Inventive Movement. including a pond. the children make outside visits and take advantage of outside agencies. Much use is made of the school's library service and radio and television broadcasts. recognizing individual needs.2. There are three aspects of Physical Education . dental hygienists. painting. and to establish links with the wider community. covering English. are capitalised on for understanding living things in a variety of habitats. 6. All the children will at some time or another have the opportunity of following some of the BBC’’s music broadcasts. the zoo. modelling and fabric craft form a very important part of the curriculum. In music. expressive arts and religious and moral education.Promote partnership with parents to encourage involvement in their child’’s learning and the life of the school.4. dance and games. leisure and the development of natural talent and the acquisition of new techniques.html 133 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the Ranger Service and Lothian's Outdoor Education staff.uk/pages/OurSchool/handbook. the children are encouraged to make use of both tuned and untuned instruments. for example the police road safety team.edin. and c) To achieve better communication with parents and better reporting on pupil progress. The principal objectives of this programme are: a) To achieve on a national basis clearer definition of the structure. objectives and balance of the curriculum.10 Co-operation with other institutions In the course of their studies. supportive climate where all staff are able to work effectively as a team. and exercise their ingenuity within the limits of their 80 http://www. The emphasis is on participation in all the arts for pleasure. resources and space Improve the skills and professionalism of all staff using the expertise within the team as well as a structured programme of development Provide high quality leadership in order to promote effective teamwork and encourage good quality professional discussion and continued school improvement80 The curriculum is presently being delivered in line with National Guidelines 514. and celebrating cultural diversity Encourage an open. museums and the public library. maintaining a positive ethos by promoting positive self discipline and self esteem. drawing. marshland and sensory garden.gylemuir.

The school has no special ICT strategy. ICT is supposed to be integrated into all the subjects. but they have the impression that they strengthen the creativity of the children. volleyball and indoor hockey. basic skills such as ball control are acquired. some co-operative teaching is undertaken in relation to mathematics and modern languages. who constructs programmes of work to suit the pupils' specific learning needs in consultation with the class teachers and senior staff. The City of Edinburgh also provides additional support through its Child Guidance Service and its educational psychologists. In games. with the possibility of additional support for the school to enable such placements.4. As the children mature. 6.14 ICT During the last three years. encourage cooperative effort. is an important part of the learning process.g. This promotes the placement into primary and secondary schools of pupils with significant special needs. Team games.4. Exposition by the teacher in the form of class lessons and teacher explanation of ideas and skills complement direct teaching for groups. e. and makes use of a computer program and a planning 134 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The parents say that computers are not overemphasised.2. and to develop effective study skills. Children have a ‘‘choosing time’’ in which they can use the computers if they want to. in which the pupils engage in problem-solving and investigations. In particular. for each subject Gylemuir and three other schools have constructed guides on the use of ICT. 6. 6. Dance includes traditional folk and country dancing. One of the reasons has been the Edinburgh initiative of allocating extra funding for ICT. In order to support the teachers.13 Special needs education Specialist help is provided in the form of the school’’s Support For Learning teacher. in order that the curriculum can be tailored as far as possible to fit the needs of each child. but also withdraws them for individual tuition when appropriate. Both group and individual methods form the basis of the teaching. who consult with and advise parents and teachers. Discussion.2. This contains objectives for the use of ICT in all subjects. Provision may also be made for very able children through consultation with the senior staff.own ability. None of the children see the use of computers as being anything exceptional. the use of ICT at Gylemuir Primary has really taken off. as well as creative and expressive dance. and involves activities using a wide range of experiences and variety of materials.12 Teaching methods used Learning in the school is based as far as possible on the principle of individual development. Great importance is placed on involving the children in practical work and in enquiry-based learning.4. and all the children are comfortable using it. In Primary 7. they are encouraged to become more independent in their learning. where pupils plan work and share ideas. She supports children in the classroom situation. The local education authority has a policy of integration.2. Each child is assessed to determine his or her level of work. For them it is a natural activity. as laid out in the National Priorities/Guidelines. there is provision for pupils with specific handicaps and for those for whom English is a second language.

there are small placards containing the text depicted below. the school uses a lot of other digital equipment for learning. One of these is described as well: Christmas Card project (based on the storyline method).4. In class. One of the computers in each class is connected to the Internet. 6. and for creative writing. On the fourth wall is a large screen on which teachers can demonstrate a variety of computer-based activities.3 The learning situation When we visited Gylemuir Primary School.3. we observed two learning situations (i. for printing. Our visit to Gylemuir Primary School gave us an impression of the variety of methods being used for learning in the school. Shapes The creation of a homepage. such as cameras and microscopes. The classes take turns at using the computer suite once a week. The setting-up of the computer suite has created many opportunities. The activities are described in the following sections. for searching the Internet. There are several sources of digital learning material to choose from. As well as computers. We were also told about several projects carried out using the storyline method. It is also possible to obtain free trial versions of different learning materials which can be purchased later. concrete learning activities) being planned and carried out. As well as the pupils’’ work displayed on the walls.e. the computers are mainly used for finishing activities begun in the computer suite.sheet. We also caught glimpses of other activities that were occurring while we were there.1 The computer suite Gylemuir Primary School has a computer suite which is lined with 20 Apple Macintosh computers along three of the walls.4. The walls here are decorated with the pupils’’ work. just like in the rest of the school. 135 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Another useful tool concerning the use of ICT in teaching and learning has been devised by ITSU. We followed two sessions in the computer suite. First of all. Teachers say that the computer suite is where the pupils learn how to use the computers so that they can use them in class later. for rewriting. the NGfL provides different edutainment programmes that are closely linked to the National Priorities/Guidelines. and consists of resource boxes which take the user through all the steps. and we heard a lot about other activities that had been carried out in the past. The school has decided to use Apple Macintosh computers because they are more child-friendly. The placards are used as guidelines for the pupils. Another technical advance in enabling young children to use the school facilities is that the school library uses a fingerprint recognition system for lending books. 6. This means that even the youngest pupils can borrow books on their own. who also use them for reviewing their learning at the end of each lesson.

She showed the children how to draw and colour rectangles using a drawing program on the computer.Learning how to learn TALK to your partner about WHAT they are doing on the computer and HOW they are doing it. 3. and the teacher asked them to evaluate their learning on the basis of the questions displayed on the signs on the wall. At the end of the class the children left the computer suite in two lines. the pupils worked with squares.4.3 The creation of a homepage 26 pupils from Primary 6 had previously been working on making their own homepages. circles and triangles. Give your partner HINTS and TIPS about how to complete the task. and once a week the partner pupils go to the computer suite to work on different topics. 1. The pupils walked into the computer suite in two lines.4. She talked to them about what they had learned.2 Shapes At Gylemuir Primary School. 2. After the last activity. She talked to her pupils about the characteristics of a rectangle. but not to do the work for them.3. First. The remainder were carrying out other activities somewhere else.3. and asked them if they knew them. Half the pupils from each of the classes were present in the computer suite. It is called the GridClub. The National Grid for Learning (NGfL) Scotland has developed an application on its grid website (see the description of NGfL on page 124) with which pupils can create their own homepages using simple tools in a safe environment. where the Primary 2 pupils were supposed to draw and colour three rectangles each. the Primary 2 pupils were going to learn about shapes with the help of their partners from Primary 6. the pupils in Primary 6 each have a Primary 2 partner pupil. the children sat down on the floor again. the pupils sat down on the floor again and waited for the teacher to continue her description of the themes of the lesson. 6. Explain and share your ideas with your partner. and the pupils in Primary 5 each have a partner in Primary 1. When they had finished their tasks. The partnerships last for two years. When we were at Gylemuir. After working with the rectangles. the teacher introduced the purpose and the activities of the lesson. sat quietly down on the floor in front of the large screen on the wall. and is an official Scottish Execu- 136 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The Primary 6 pupils were to help and guide the Primary 2’’s. Review your learning. What were the aims of your lesson? What did you learn? What has gone well? What would you do differently next time? 6. During these activities. Then she told them to go to a computer. the teacher and an assistant supported and encouraged the children in what they were doing. 4. and waited for the teacher to start the lesson.

which be81 82 http://www. a teacher from the NGfL had visited the school and showed the children how to use the GridClub. see http://www. we were told about a project that had been undertaken during the autumn of 2002. namely the Christmas Card project.co.tive Education Department (SEED) education site for 7 to 11 year-old children.storyline-scotland. In addition. Mediators are professional educators who are dedicated to ensuring children's safety and upholding the club rules81. During our visit. http://www. At the end of class. for which the storyline method was used82. In order to maintain security.com/grown_ups/s_about_home.htm 137 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and viewing and commenting on each other’’s pages. the children formed two lines and exited the computer suite. adult mediators manage the clubs. and also encourage hobbies and special interests outside school. They cover the 5-14 National Guidelines at Levels B.gridclub. C. and offers a wide range of activities. Gridclub.storyline. the children are told that their password is top secret and that they should not give it out to anyone. in which the pupils produced and then sold self-made Christmas cards.4.com.freeserve.shtml For a presentation of the storyline method. None of the pupils worked alone.acskive. Now and then some of them played a GridClub game.com is open to everyone. their school and their interests. One of the boys had been absent on the day the other members of the class had started making their homepages. The intention is that the pupils will use chat rooms on the grid to communicate and cooperate with pupils from other schools during what is known as science week. 6.dk/storyline/european. and were constantly discussing why and how to put information on their homepages. They presented themselves by writing about their families. Before our visit. GridClub upholds the Scotland Personal Safety on the Internet guidelines to ensure that access to unsuitable materials through linked sites is prevented. By presenting themselves on the grid before science week. He was instructed by one of the other boys on how to start making his own page. It can be used at home as well as at school to help with homework and school projects. in which they were to introduce themselves to others. Teachers have designed all of the games and educational resources with the 5-14 National Guidelines in mind.uk/ and http://www. The head teacher had initiated this project. the GridClub clubs are run in a protected area called Think.4 Christmas Card project using the storyline method When we visited Gylemuir. The storyline method was developed in Scotland but is now used widely. they will be able to form their own impressions about those whom they will be working with. not even their brothers or sisters. D and E. Importantly.3. the pupils continued with the development of their homepages. The method was a response to the need for methodologies that were suitable for use in integrated studies. One of the main purposes of that visit was to show and teach the children how to make their own personal homepages. puzzles and games designed to make learning fun.org/. especially in northern Europe.

they and their teacher were to learn how to use the computer for creating artwork (by learning how to use PhotoShop). they were to earn some money. working on them in PhotoShop in order to give them a touch of winter and Christmas. The pupils worked in teams. the project was initiated and completed as follows. The main feature that differentiates this approach from others is that it recognises the value of the learner’’s existing knowledge.5 Examples of other projects There are a number of other good examples of projects at Gylemuir that deserve to be described in greater depth: Digidance. and wanted them to meet her at a specific date and time. and some wanted their Christmas cards to have Edinburgh themes. Some children found rhymes and wrote them on the pictures. Accordingly. Several objectives were set up for the Christmas card project. where the children made designs and danced at the King’’s Theatre in Edinburgh. This project will also involve the use of videoconferencing. These provide a visual stimulus for the skill practice planned by the teacher. The teacher knows the story. secondly. During the meeting she told the pupils that she needed them to help her produce 500 Christmas cards within a very limited timeframe. It resembles a sort of paradox.came part of the Scottish curriculum in 1965. the youngest children have created a teddy bear’’s biography.4.3. 6. and finally. learner and teacher create a scenario through visualisation –– the making of collages. For instance. The wind sculpture project. The Comenius project A future project is Life Channel II. Gylemuir furnishes other examples of using storyline as a method for learning in a manner that combines skills. The teacher has planned a sequence of activities through the designing of key questions. The children were to go back to their classroom and discuss with their teacher how to address the problem. employing a variety of art/craft techniques. before testing them against real evidence and research. she said they were pressed for time and had to find material they could re-use instead of producing new material from scratch. Firstly. creativity. in which the children will conduct experiments with two other schools. use of the computer etc. finishing on time and also earning a lot of money from the sale of the cards. The key questions are used in a sequence that creates a context or setting within the framework of a story. while others have constructed a garden centre. The head teacher sent the class a note in which she explained that she needed their help. the entire class were to work together on a common project over a given period. the pupils are encouraged to construct their own models of what is being studied (their hypotheses). In brief. through key questioning. friezes and pictures. in which children built wind sculptures for the playground. Together. and then meet the head teacher again to give her their suggestions. 138 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . but does not know its detailed content. For instance. During this process the head teacher introduced new problems for which the children were to find solutions. This resulted in the use of paintings that other children had made.

and the children are very attentive and disciplined. politeness among the children and teachers. Besides the work they do with their younger or older partners. We did not see examples of these activities. One of the children said: Learning is more enjoyable when it is fun and you also remember what you’’ve learned much better if it was fun to do it. the children’’s wellbeing. motivation. and view this as a very important task for which they take great responsibility.4. Gylemuir Primary describes its approach to delivering and measuring its curriculum in line with National Guidelines 5-14. One of the other elements of learning that the children stressed as being very important is the variety of methods used in the learning situation. The remainder relate to the teachers’’ work. but were told about them by teachers. They consider that the most fun classes are those in which they use computers. they like the fact that it is a big school where there are both girls and boys. the learning situation is generally organized in such a way that the teacher is in control and teaches them in a traditional manner.4 Performance measurement and evaluation Several forms of measurement and evaluation are undertaken at the school. the pupils and their teachers evaluate the learning process. that there is a good library. The children say that looking up information on the internet is more fun than listening to the teacher.3. etc. pupils and parents. but at the same time they consider all the teachers and the rest of the staff to be very nice. On the school website. According to the children. 6. good sport teams and good playgrounds.6 Children’’s views concerning the learning situation At Gylemuir. Now and then the children do project work during which they do such things as visit museums. They emphasize some of the aspects related to learning as well as other activities as comprising advantages of their school compared with the other schools they know about. The children’’s mathematics education is differentiated so as to match their individual level of progress. The fine artistic works which decorate the school have mainly been produced as homework. and that there are many computers. in addition to PE and the classes in which they use the school’’s facilities. They view this as being very positive. they use computers for different purposes in a way that is integrated with all subjects. and say that it benefits everyone. and they enjoy learning. The most important are naturally those which evaluate the pupils’’ performance.4. where they learn how to use the different programs. They find handwriting and watching TV boring. and mutual respect. The children are very positive about the school in general. covering 139 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . When we visited the school we observed the children’’s use of computers in the computer suite. As for learning. are viewed as important preconditions for learning. from time to time the pupils work with classes other than their own. the school activities are saturated with creativity and inspiration. they emphasize the importance of the teachers being really nice. set up a dance show or work with science.6. For instance. The older children partner the younger children once a week. In their classrooms. After every lesson. As already mentioned.

One of the disadvantages is that when the school applies for equipment from the local authority. 6. As the politician sees it.uk/ 140 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . which means it has the energy.gylemuir. parents and teachers in their work. and pointing out any particular strengths or weaknesses. which is passed on to the secondary school at the time of transfer. all pupils are tested in certain key aspects of language and mathematics using the National Tests.6 Sources Standard Inspection of Gylemuir Primary School and Nursery Class. and this is regarded as both an advantage and a disadvantage for the school itself. City of Edinburgh Council. See: http://www. One of the advantages is that it is far ahead. Next year. The City of Edinburgh plays an important part in providing infrastructure in the form of the computer network. Progress is recorded for internal school purposes. expressive arts and religious and moral education. it is usually rejected because it is far in advance of other schools. The parents are informed of the results during parent/teacher consultations and/or in the written annual report. strength and experience to find new and innovative ways to continue its very positive development.5 The future Gylemuir Primary School is a pioneer in the use of ICT. The principal objectives of this programme are: a) To achieve on a national basis clearer definition of the structure. mathematics. environmental studies. As part of the overall assessment arrangements.uk/documents/inspection/gylemuir_ps01. Living up to these centrally-defined objectives will pose some challenges for the school.4.gov.hmie. objectives and balance of the curriculum. See: http://www.pdf The school’’s website. The staff must constantly struggle (in the positive sense of this term) to continue the positive development.edin. b) To assist in the development of coherent and systematic assessment policies and practices in school. and to provide every pupil with a laptop computer in order to establish and maintain full flexibility.English. Pupils' progress is continually being assessed by the class teacher using a combination of observation and the evaluation of the pupils' written and practical work. for instance. Written reports are issued to parents annually indicating the pupil's progress during the school session. will be implemented. The vision of the Executive Member for Education is to establish wireless networks in the schools. the individual learning plans. and c) To achieve better communication with parents and better reporting on pupil progress. Two opportunities are given for parents to visit the school during each session to discuss their child's progress with the class teacher. because it is regarded as the foundation upon which the future education service will be built. One of the main challenges for supporting such a vision is to establish wireless networks in homes as well as in schools in order to support pupils.sch. These records accompany the pupil from class to class. National tests form a part of this assessment. 6. it is very important to get this technology and infrastructure established. which the Scottish Executive Education Department has just brought in. Copies of these are filed in the child's record folder.4.

A group interview with the school’’s teachers 7. A thorough desk study of relevant documents.e.org. An interview with parents of the children attending the Maglegårdsskole (focus group) 5.The school’’s work plan. and one involving older ones 9. An interview with the vice-president of the school 6.sch. including strategies. one involving younger children. and one involving older ones 8. Two group interviews with pupils . The Maglegårdsskole case study has comprised the following activities: 1. See: http://www. Observation of the general physical environment of the school..one involving younger children. action plans. See: http://www. budgets. including its architecture. The case study was undertaken at Maglegårdsskolen (i. plus the global framework conditions 2.html Education information concerning Edinburgh.uk/ngflscotland/ 6.gov. 141 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .uk/pages/OurSchool/handbook. internal evaluations etc.uk National Grid for Learning Scotland.edin. Municipality of Gentofte The above photo shows the entrance at Maglegårdsskolen. See: http://www.gylemuir.ltscotland. project plans. An interview with a school administrator working in the schools administration department of the Gentofte municipality 4.5 Maglegårdsskolen. An interview with the president of Gentofte municipality’’s school board 3. Two observations of instruction. ‘‘the Maglegård school’’) in the municipality of Gentofte in Denmark in April 2003.edinburgh.

a new organisational set-up. and modifications in the school’’s architecture. 83 142 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . to rethink the mode of learning and the purpose of the school in the context of future societal demands. In 1999. The school studied for this report is called Maglegårdsskolen. The school has 46 teachers and 4 preschool teachers 83. in which the school lies. It also employs two secretaries and two caretakers. in Denmark. Both in order to adjust to new pedagogical practices and to enable it to accommodate more children. which introduced the concept of the differentiation of instruction according to children’’s individual needs. Only a few of its pupils have social problems. Maglegårdsskolen is located in one of the most prosperous areas of Denmark. the teachers set up study circles and workshops and started to experiment with new forms of learning from 1995 onwards. Otherwise stated. and have resulted in a new role for the teachers. Since 1995. and only very few are of non-Danish ethnic origin. 84 From 5000 to 7500 schoolchildren. but the number of pupils will rise to 750 between now and 2005. All public Danish schools have a one-year preschool which a child can attend on a voluntary basis when it is 5 or 6. and in response to the demands posed by the 1993 national legislation concerning primary public schools. in particular by Howard Gardner’’s theory of eight intelligences.At the end of the case study is a list of the people interviewed in the course of the case study. it was decided at the political level not only to make more room to accommodate them. Influenced by new theories of learning and intelligence. the school was selected to be one of the first socalled SKUB-schools. More than 95% of the children take advantage of this opportunity for bridging kindergarten and school activities. This has made it possible to intensify the change processes in the school. it was decided that the municipality should develop ““the perfect school of tomorrow””. was faced in 1998 with an anticipated 50% growth in the number of children over the coming decade84 . Currently 636 children attend the school. the Maglegårdsskole has worked on the development of new educational practices. When the municipality of Gentofte. which is a 94year-old public primary school located in the municipality of Gentofte. The impetus for this process has primarily come from a committed management and teaching staff. but to use the opportunity to initiate a pedagogical development process –– in other words. The development processes which have taken place have changed perceptions concerning children and their learning. in particular concerning teacher teamwork and new ways of learning. which means that it became a pilot school as part of the municipality’’s general school development and rebuilding project which is taking place during 1998-2006. The management of the school is undertaken by a principal (head teacher) and a deputy head. the school was rebuilt in 2001-2002.

This has largely meant a substitution of the concept of education (the teacher as educator) with that of learning (the teacher teaches the pupils how to learn). IT is seen as an instrument which will both enhance the content of and access to ongoing supplementary training. 6. 6. namely the central state. staff and parents at the school. The state (in the form of the Ministry of Education) is responsible for producing general recommendations regarding the preparation of school curricula. The SKUB project organization acts as the facilitator and initiator of the school development processes. the school’’s running costs. and his ability to apply it).The municipality has committed 90 million Euros over the 1998-2006 period to the physical and pedagogical transformation of a total of 12 schools. what an individual has actually learned.1 Positive framework conditions In recent years there has been a shift in Danish educational policies at the global level. the practical pedagogical development. In order to meet the changes in competence requirements resulting from the emerging knowledge society on the one hand. Instead of managing the change processes within the framework of the municipality’’s traditional school administration85. 14 counties and 273 municipalities.5. and the usage of learning materials and methods.e. and the recruitment and remuneration of teachers. The responsibility for the public primary schools. the national primary school legislation of 1993 lays emphasis on the importance of the differentiation of teaching to match pupils’’ individual speeds and learning styles. is shared by the state and the municipalities.e. and initiating the practical physical and pedagogical changes afterwards. as it will offer new ways of learning outside the traditional educational institutions and will thereby contribute to developing both a flexible workforce and a flexible labour market. 143 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .1. There has been a parallel move towards a greater focus on competencies (i. away from a narrow focus on qualifications (i. the distribution of subjects over the week. the formal education an individual has received).1 Framework conditions This chapter concerns the framework conditions at the national level which have influenced the development processes at the Maglegårdsskole. All schools go through a process of first creating a programme of values for the school. In this respect. Compared to the more traditional teaching pattern in which all pupils are supposed to learn at the same rate. a project organisation has been established. while the municipalities have responsibility for the operational facilities.5. and the predicted future scarcity of labour on the other. one of which will be brand new. The schools are usually autonomous regarding the fixing of start and end times for the school day. but the specific pedagogical change processes take place in the individual schools via a close co-operation involving the management. the current thrust of Danish policy generally attaches a strong emphasis to lifelong learning and the development of a more inclusive and flexible labour market as tools with which to qualify the Danish workforce and make it more flexible and resilient. which are attended by 88% of children. 85 Denmark has three levels of public authorities.

produce and test educational material. 86 The latest centrally produced practical primary school initiative is the ““virtual primary school””. should be used to increase co-operation both among schools and between schools and parents. They were offered a free PC to use at home. The focus is not on the technical use of IT. the role of the teacher must to a certain extent evolve towards that of an instructor and interlocutor. and that it should be used to promote international co-operation and the development of networks. ““ICT in the education system 19982003””. Part One (““Moving on””) and Part Two (““Better education for all””). The purpose of the first phase was to develop. the strategies state that a decisive element in the integration of information technology in schools will be that of enabling children to sort. which is a pedagogical driver’’s licence obtained via a certified supplementary training course to enable teachers to use computers in education. with the aim of enforcing the development and the pedagogical use of IT in primary schools. and to accumulate knowledge about the integration of IT and electronic media for use in primary schools. The target groups are children whose parents work overseas plus hospitalized and handicapped children. it is of limited relevance in the current context. 144 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . During 2001-2004. the attention hitherto given to learning about IT is being shifted towards learning with IT.edu). IT should be used to promote greater inclusiveness and flexibility in relation to individual learning patterns and speeds. the Ministry of Education is conducting its initiative entitled ““IT. which was initiated in 1998.The current ICT and schools strategy was launched by the Danish Ministry of Education in 2001. Finally. and to use it creatively and in a superior manner. the Danish Ministry of Education launched the PC driver’’s licence in 1997 which 33% of all teachers had obtained in 2001 (ICT@europe. in two phases. and the Internet in particular. and in return they committed themselves to obtaining either the pedagogical or the basic PC driver’’s licence. select and manipulate the large volume of information which IT makes available. The pilot project for this ran from 1997 to 2001. The current strategy is the successor to the overall action plan. and consists of two parts. However. In general. learning and information technology””. Now the goal is that most teachers must obtain the socalled school IT permit. it states that because of the learning opportunities and the volume of information made available by IT. the political focus has been evolving away from access and infrastructure issues towards how the use of ICT can improve the quality and content of instruction. Accordingly. More specifically. The purpose of the second phase was to qualify the staff members in the state and primary schools. and encompassing change in both the content and the process of educational delivery. This concept is of a school capable of offering classes which are independent of time and location. It is entitled ““Denmark’’s strategy for education. It also states that IT. Generally speaking. but on the integration of IT into normal teaching86. media and primary school”” (ITMF).

But since the new learning methods have only been applied in full for two years.2 Negative framework conditions There seem to be no framework conditions at the national or regional level that have hindered or impeded the change processes at the Maglegårdsskole.e.2 The organisational setting (Rules) This chapter describes the school organisation in terms of its workplace characteristics.Looking at these impact of these national tendencies on the primary school.1. It also covers the issues of who is responsible for the development 87 This also applies to private schools. 6. and what kinds of meetings are held and how often. media and primary school”” initiative to set up a project focusing on supporting the pupils’’ use of ICT in the daily learning processes.000 Euros from the national ““IT. which will be described further below. individual effort).5. is possible almost anytime it is needed.5. there is no doubt that general trends in school policies have promoted the development of the innovative learning environments in the Gentofte municipality. how work is organized (teamwork vs. fits very well with the general ideas concerning the direction in which the school should be moving. it seems that the school is far ahead in integrating ICT in a manner which for most Danish schools is only just beginning. This means that obtaining access to a digital camera. as they have solely been used for buying hardware. i. 145 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . It also has the sub-purpose of opening the teachers’’ eyes to the many educational possibilities of the new media. teachers and the municipal political and administrative actors consider the ITMF resources decisive for the thorough integration of ICT at the Maglegårdsskole. The Maglegårdsskole has received around 270. it is possible to apply for a special dispensation from the Danish Ministry of Education and conduct alternative examinations that are more coherent with the project-oriented work that the pupils carry out on a daily basis. The management. However. Since the pupils of the Maglegårdsskolen have to pass the same school leaving examination as all other pupils in Denmark87. with a particular emphasis on how digital cameras and video cameras can be used for storytelling purposes. The actual development at the Maglegårdsskole. the role of the management. as measured by the marks they achieved during the traditional final examinations. However. the requirement for it to conform with the national school leaving examination regulations does partially hinder the full implementation of the innovative learning environment. On the other hand. So to some degree there is a positive development towards adjusting the measurement system in favour of innovative environments. and it is also a front-runner in relation to national concepts and strategies concerning the transformation of new educational theories into actual learning practices. Anyway. for instance. the school must spend some time during the final year in preparing the pupils to fit the standard modes of evaluating qualifications and competencies. it is difficult to use this result to judge whether the traditional examinations will be to the disadvantage of the children at Maglegårdsskolen. which has made it possible to make ICT available to the pupils to a much higher degree than before. 6. on average the 2002 Maglegårdsskole school leavers were the second-best pupils in Denmark.

Each home area consists of three ””classes”” from three different learning levels. In a way. 6. which in principle might encompass every level from 1st to 10th grade according to a schedule set by the management. A teacher can only belong to one team. another important reason that the team-based structure works well is that teachers are generally much more 146 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . In this way. 5th and 6th grade class. to manage the change processes. a home area hosts around 75 children across 3 age groups. All the teachers have completed a five-week course covering the new pedagogical ideas and values underpinning the school’’s innovative learning environment. Maglegårdsskolen has changed both its organisational structure and culture. each home area can therefore be regarded as a small self-contained school. and who is in charge of the ICT facilities. to perform management tasks based on the values set for the school development.2. According to the teachers interviewed. It also discusses which aspects of the school organisation are respectively promoting and impeding the development of the new learning environment. 5-7 teachers form a team which shares the responsibility for planning and facilitating all the learning for a single home area.1 The school organisation During the past 2-3 years. a 4th. These mostly take the form of workshops in which new ideas and practices are discussed and knowledge is shared. 2nd and 3rd grade class.5. The school is now organised into nine self-managing entities known as home areas. There are some 16-18 meetings of this kind per year. and also as the reason that it works successfully. The ““we culture”” is maintained and developed via the management planning of meetings involving all the teachers. The fact that all the teachers have followed exactly the same course which ran either concurrently or back-to-back with the other teachers’’ courses is seen both by management and the teachers interviewed as an important step towards creating a collective ““we culture”” instead of the more solipsistic ““me culture”” that used to characterize the school.and maintenance of the innovative learning environment and pedagogical methods. 8th and 9th grade class. and to be responsible for maintaining a general overview. The development of the teachers’’ competencies has been a central element in the Maglegårdsskole change processes. to maintain the pedagogical focus. Traditional classroom-based teaching has been altered to so-called team managed home area learning. to that of a participant in a team which has to plan. The successful creation of a ““we culture”” is seen as a precondition for the team-based structure. Accordingly. and a 7th. which means that the organisational roles of both management and teachers have been radically changed. co-ordinate and administer and facilitate the learning of a home area. The role of the management has been redefined to focus on setting the agenda for the continuing development of the pedagogical practices. the organisational role of each teacher has changed from that of an individual agent planning and performing his or her individual teaching in different classes. that is a home area consisting of a 1st.

whereas the teaching staff discuss the pedagogical opportunities and difficulties in relation to the actual teaching situations. The teachers have supported and defended these developments in the school against the external criticism from parents who did not understand them. and that the job feels more demanding. Therefore he supports and welcomes the changes introduced by the creation of 88 However. They feel they need to take more responsibility for the planning. and both teachers and pupils participated.2 Strengths and weaknesses of the school organisation The management of the school is responsible for the overall pedagogic development at Maglegårdsskolen. 6.2. The further development of the teachers’’ competencies with regard to the use of ICT has primarily taken place in internal workshops. Whereas the teachers used to have many administrative or other meetings which. some teachers chose to leave the school and find employment elsewhere because they were not willing or able to adapt to the drastic changes induced. administration and co-ordination of the content of their instruction with other teachers. One example is a workshop on how to use digital cameras and digital video cameras. according to the teachers. the latter is mainly responsible for deciding and maintaining the overall pedagogical environment. The average age of the teachers is 42. and have fruitful pedagogical discussions. which caused some minor disruption. now they meet on a regular basis with a small but static number of colleagues. This means that although the pedagogical responsibility theoretically belongs to the management. Professional users managed the workshop.5. since it succeeded in providing the teachers with both practical inspiration and selfconfidence regarding the use of digital photographic media for learning purposes. The starting point in relation to the integration of ICT competencies into the learning processes was that most teachers were normal users of ICT. The meetings have to some extent taken on the format of a study circle.satisfied and happy with their work than previously. a few teachers have left the school because they were unhappy with the new structure and culture. Most of them (though not all) have obtained the IT driver’’s licences described above. but it seems that they are all enjoying their new roles88. There are only two teachers who fall chronologically between these groupings. 147 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . One of the new teachers in the school claims that all organisations are development-oriented except for the compulsory school. the team-based structure means that pedagogical development and discussions have to a large extent been decentralised to the teaching teams. but to focus on the pedagogical issues. were frequently largely futile. Nevertheless. The idea was to do practical work using the technology. The workshop was considered very successful. and against other critical forces like the media and educational experts who do not believe in the school’’s pedagogical approach. The workshop was held just before the experience gained was to be applied. the innovative learning environment has attracted many job applications from teachers wishing to join this innovatory workplace. which is sceptical towards change. However. There is a big cohort of teachers aged between 27 and 35. This new role of the teachers seems to have created an enormous enthusiasm among them which appears to be a primary driver in the development of the new learning environment. On the other hand. and another aged between 42 and 55.

the innovative learning environment. Among the teaching staff.3 The educational setting (Resources) This chapter describes the educational setting. The reason is that with the new pedagogical approach. i.e. the classrooms were 48 square metres. along with space previously comprising the corridors linking the classrooms. the home areas have at their disposal a wireless network and portable computers. finances and architecture. The organisation of the ICT integration effort is highly developed at Maglegårdsskolen. languages. mathematics and the natural sciences. 148 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . which in itself becomes a driver for the further development of the school. the available learning material and technology. during the rebuilding. Additionally.5. Instead. not least because of the flexibility demonstrated by those bearing the technical responsibilities. This is an open area with corners and nooks for group and/or project work. and constitute the support team which assists teachers or pupils when they are having technical problems with the equipment. The school has been rebuilt in such a way that each selfmanaging unit occupies a physical home area consisting of 3 classrooms and a central shared space. 6.1 Description The shift from traditional classroom instruction towards learning in small project-based teams has been supported by a change in the physical framework of the school. This gives the teachers a sense of security. the surplus space has been incorporated into the central shared room. An additional two individuals have been given the technical responsibilities. All the static IT equipment has been consolidated in the central room. Before the school was rebuilt. individuals have been appointed to be responsible for ensuring the integration of ICT in Danish. they were reduced to 35 square metres. 6. in which roles and assignments are adapted to the changes occurring in the surrounding society.3. digital cameras and digital video cameras. It also discusses which aspects of the educational setting are respectively promoting or impeding the development of the innovative learning environment. Therefore an important strength of the new school organisation appears to be that it is attracting teachers who are more than averagely interested in new pedagogical theories and practices.5. not much time is devoted to traditional classroom teaching.

This means that the only time the bell rings. The flexibility of the common open space seems to facilitate the use of ICT.10: The school before and now 149 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The stationary computers appear to comprise a gathering place. it is to signal the lunch break. The physical framework at Maglegårdsskolen makes it simple and easy to work with ICT. Figure 6.The traditional timetable structure has been removed. The open space also seems to be functioning as a social room where the teachers also take their breaks. whereas the portable equipment supports the general project pedagogy applicable to those activities which are supposed to be independent of a fixed physical location.

One main criticism is that the physical reorganisation allows more pupils to be gathered into less space. Another criticism raised is that the teaching which takes place across a big group of children and partly in the open space. experience and seek out knowledge. 150 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . It is not within the scope of this study.3. the school’’s basic values and principles. The viewpoints of the interviewees are naturally also included. It is the coherence of the organisation of the physical space and time with the new pedagogical ideas concerning project-based learning which takes account of the individual learning style and pace that creates the innovative culture of the school. Their learning is closely related to their emotional life.4 The learning environment The chapter describes the pedagogical principles and values guiding the innovative learning environment. as described above. and should create the basis for values that support the development of the community and the individual development of the children. 6. and its aims and strategies for the year(s) to come.5.5. The municipality of Gentofte has been criticised for taking the opportunity of the SKUB school development project to save money by permitting more children in the ““classes”” and allocating fewer square metres per child. to determine whether this criticism represents a real threat to the learning and well-being of some of the children.2 Strengths and weaknesses of the educational setting According to both the teachers and the SKUB secretariat. this issue was not raised by either the children or the teachers interviewed. 89 Every year the school prepares a mission statement which reviews the work of the school during the past year.4. both pupils and teachers claim that the main downside to the reorganisation is the fact that pre-existing social networks have been disrupted. and the source of the criticism. is disadvantageous to children who need to feel secure.6. The advantages and disadvantages of the new pedagogical principles and values are also discussed. 6. nor is it possible to judge from the observations carried out. The school should be a multifarious pedagogical and professional environment that stimulates and strengthens the self-respect of the children and their inclination to learn. However.5. although it does seem possible. The learning environment should be challenging and inspiring. as well as to very quiet children who might disappear in the crowd. And it is the innovative culture that to a large extent appears to be the driver for the high degree of ICT integration. On the other hand. there may be some downsides to the school’’s new physical environments. A feeling of self-respect and hence the belief that they can be successful is a precondition for optimal learning. However. its work is supposed to be guided by the following values and pedagogical principles: Children are different and learn in different ways. including the problems occurring during their implementation. the criticisms made of the school.1 Description According to the school’’s mission statement89. and that they miss their previous social life. the physical structure and the organisation of learning in home areas are integral aspects of the new pedagogy being practised at Maglegårdsskolen.

and that they do not need to make advance reservations in order to ensure it is available. towards that of someone whose role is to support the development of the individual child in such a way that it discovers its own learning strengths and weaknesses. In practice this means that the teacher must facilitate each child in learning according to his or her individual capabilities. the roles of both teachers and pupils have been changed from the traditional classroom learning that was practised before. 6. experiencing and using knowledge to create output. It has encouraged the pupils to use information technologies and different media in their storytelling activities. That would make the everyday integration of ICT complicated. According to the teachers. ICT has to a large extent been integrated into the daily schoolwork of the pupils. fully compatible with the possibilities of using digital cameras and other advanced equipment for the purpose of storytelling.2 Advantages and disadvantages of the pedagogical approach The basic pedagogical approach at Maglegårdsskolen is focused on the individual. Accordingly. The role of the teacher has shifted from that of the instructor of a group which is supposed to learn exactly the same things at more or less the same pace. and is based upon an acceptance that different types of intelligence exist. The everyday pedagogical activities should take place at a highly professional level.4. at Maglegårdsskolen the primary pedagogical approach in the innovative learning environment is. Working with a new learning practice in a different physical environment from the traditional one. From the interviews. and one where co-operation and solidarity is valued and prioritised.5. In order to live up to the guiding values and principles listed above. as it would give insufficient opportunity for improvisation. content and methods of different subjects and interdisciplinary activities. artistic. enabling the pupils to become confident regarding the concepts. Another aspect is the fact that the computers are not only 151 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and accordingly learns to learn in the best way possible. there seems to be a common understanding that essentially this means that the guiding principles practised must be as follows: To focus on the needs of the individual child To make room for differences. taking account of his or her own learning style and pace. and hence to become a more inclusive school To respect and work with individual learning styles and different intelligences To focus on the acquisition of qualifications and their transformation into competencies. practical and physical elements. and learning from the process of doing so.The everyday life of the school should be influenced by different activities that contain intellectual. has been one of the primary drivers in the process of integrating ICT in the learning process. An important factor in this development is the fact that the ICT equipment is available to all the pupils. the role of the pupils has shifted from being a group of more or less passive recipients of instruction to that of individual actors who are actively seeking out. in other words. In fact.

the other is from the 3rd grade. around 10 children are sitting at desks. The children lying on the ground are reading and doing mathematics. One girl is from the 1st grade. which is that those pupils who need the computers for schoolwork take precedence over those using the equipment for fun and games. However. Some are lying on the ground.5. Another boy is working on a socalled compulsory assignment. With each. General principles guiding the learning situation: 152 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . it appears that most of them are working. and B) Instruction in a 7th. He has transferred the pictures to the computer and printed out a kind of booklet. and two of them are working together.5 The learning situation This chapter describes the actual learning situation. A teacher is present and helping the children with their work individually. 6. 2nd and 3rd grade home area. He finds information and pictures on the Internet and puts it together in his own little report. the focus is on the respective roles of the pupils and teachers. the advantages and disadvantages of the kinds of learning situations described are highlighted via the perceptions of the pupils. the children at the computer are working on individual projects. also doing mathematics or spelling exercises. At the end of the week. Two boys are working together doing mathematics. Learning situation A: At first glance you would not expect this scene to be taking place in a school. and one is walking around.used for schoolwork but are also an element in the school’’s social life. Beside them a girl is writing a creative story that she has composed herself. and how ICT has been integrated into the learning situation. i. since the pupils use the computers for games and e-mail etc. what characterizes a typical learning situation in this school compared to other ““ordinary”” schools as explained by interviewees. and two new kids will be appointed as the journalists for the coming week. He has used a digital camera to take photos of objects representing ten nouns. In addition. Some children are moving around. all the children will get a copy of the newspaper. where all the children were present and were learning Danish and mathematics. Now he has to inflect all the words. All doors are open between the shared open space and the three classrooms.5. and at the centre of the open space six children are sitting in front of desktop computers. the teachers and the parents interviewed. One is sitting with the children working at the stationary computers. and other children are working alone. the two girls in the sofa are reading. there is one rule.1 Description of two learning situations During the visit at the school two types of instruction were observed: A) Instruction in a 1st. 8th and 9th grade home area. The two girls working together on the computer are the ““journalists of the week””. They have taken pictures of their home area schoolmates and interviewed them. Walking around and observing and talking to the children. two girls are sitting very relaxed in a sofa. They are using a desktop publishing program and writing an article on some of the other children’’s activities. some of them together and some of them individually. 6. Two other teachers are present in the home area.5. It includes descriptions of two learning situations observed. talking to the children spread all over and helping them do their work. In one of the classrooms.e. and a boy is working on a project about the artist Eminem. where only the 7th grade was present and was learning English. which together comprise the home area of this unit.

The children are allowed to take a break when they feel like it. writing a story on the computer. writing a book review. Between 8 and 9. Before asking a teacher for help. This encourages 153 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The children are only asked to read aloud for the teacher. At this stage. The children are intended to be able to choose their work from a number of options. and working from their maths book etc. The children have to write about what they are working with. They can leave the home area to go outside and play. Between the ages of 9 and 11. The ability of children of the same age to read ranges between being able to read simple primer texts containing basic phrases to reading standard children’’s literature which has not been written for educational purposes. and continue to develop their reading in their own individual style. who makes individual agreements with them about what is to be read. working with spelling exercises. All the children do this at their own pace. and also to create a more general shared sense of belonging through singing and other joint activities. one week at a time. subject to the teacher’’s permission. and make notes on how far they have progressed. the children can choose what to work on from a menu of 6-8 different exercises. every time they start a new activity. such as handwriting practice. all the children must learn to read.Every morning there is a morning assembly for all the children belonging to the unit. Pieces of paper are clothes-pegged along the wall on a length of string. The teacher makes notes on what each individual child has accomplished and the progression of their reading capabilities. The purpose is to bring the children together in order to give them information. learning to read occupies a high priority. the children are supposed to ask two other (usually older and/or more experienced) children for help. working on a project.

Learning situation B: During the instruction observed. On that desk stand a number of boxes labelled with the names of the teachers. which they first wrote in Danish and translated afterwards. Also in this room and available to the children in an unlocked drawer were some digital cameras and a portable computer. and the third one was writing a project in English about Joan of Arc. all the girls were gathered around the same big table. and the teacher will respond with comments on it. The 7th graders were learning English. The teacher walked among the different pupils. and the teacher interrupted some of the discussions on the spelling of words with explanations concerning the origin of a word and why it was spelled the way it was. At one end of the open room is a kitchen with a wide desk. acting as a counsellor and asking them what they were doing. Two of them were reading books in English. The home area consists of a common open room. Again. discussing very loudly in Danish and English whether the words presented had been spelled correctly. three boys were on the Internet. only the 7th grade children belonging to the home area of a 7th. In one of the classrooms.the children to take care of each other. at first glance it was not easy to detect that instruction was actually taking place. At another big table. a group of girls was playing Scrabble in English. At one end. The boys producing the comic were told to speed up their drawing and get to the part where they had to write the text. and a media room with a PowerPoint projector in the middle and some rows of chairs for the audience. Three girls sat at the other end of the table. two boys were working together on producing a comic in English. three classrooms. The Scrabble players were told only to speak in English. reading texts about some computer games characters. In the common open room. 8th and 9th grade unit was present in the home area (the other two classes were in special subject rooms). 154 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The children put their finished work into the box of the teacher responsible for a particular subject. and it also improves their subject skills to have to explain the solution to a problem to other people.

At the end of the lesson they were told to produce a poster on their favourite characters for the following lesson. and the new organisational model allows them to seek equals at all levels. The stronger children have greater freedom to take the initiative. 6. Those pupils with learning difficulties. Some children have stronger abilities in some assignments than others. According to the teachers.5.2 Advantages and disadvantages of the learning situation It is not yet possible to evaluate the long-term effects of the new learning situations which characterise the new learning environment at Maglegårdsskolen. making it possible for the pupils to give and receive assistance before turning to a teacher. Principles guiding the instruction: All conversation must be in English.Outside in the open common room. or those who simply lack energy or initiative. The children can choose their work from a number of options. The teacher approaches the children in English.5. and they must answer and ask questions in English. On the contrary. which raises the question of what happens to those lacking in initiative or energy. spending most of his time walking around helping the pupils working in groups or individually. The pupils are also supposed to speak English among themselves. The pupils are able to co-operate with a wider range of other pupils that cuts across age boundaries. are not constantly oppressed by the pressure of being compared to their age peers. according to the teachers. in accordance with their capabilities. According to the teachers interviewed. and are not restricted by the slower-paced pupils. The pupils should do something they enjoy doing. the boys were told to read aloud to each other and correct each other’’s mistakes. it benefits both weak and strong and younger and older children that that they are divided into groups of older and younger pupils. While asking the boys to produce a poster. The pupils are corrected to different standards. the new learning environment does not make it more difficult to follow the progress of the individual pupil. Also. It has been suggested that the learning methods and principles are most suitable for those children who are the most resourceful or resilient. Everybody must learn at their own pace. the teacher had a small discussion with them on what a good poster would contain. the autonomy of the children who are now working more independently than 155 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the new learning methods and principles are suitable both for the strong pupils and for those with fewer personal resources. The youngest pupils interviewed nevertheless stated that they were not using the pupils from other levels very much. The teacher acts as a counsellor. Some of them were posed in the course of the school case study. Many questions have been raised in the media by parents and pedagogical experts. It has also been questioned whether it is possible for the teachers to follow the progress of individual pupils sufficiently. and how it might be composed. The progress of both groups is also supported by the co-operation between pupils at different levels in project work etc.

However. One claimed that the little ones were not taking the easy way out.1 Description of monitoring activities The measurement of the skills and competencies of the pupils firstly comprises all the continuing daily measurement and supervision developed within the innovative learning environment. When the pupils were asked what their ideal school would be like. whereas another said she was disappointed that her son was not being challenged more. and is accordingly contextualised in this new environment. and are developing their own systems90. according to the teachers it is also necessary to take account of the perception by some people that the pupils are left alone in the innovative learning environments. 6. they stated that it would be similar to the one they were attending.in a traditional school gives the teachers more time to supervise the children generally. The children remain under the supervision of the teachers. The young pupils claim that it is possible to take the easy way. although it had not yet produced results. and according to one pupil this is not being detected by the teachers. but the teachers appear to be aware of the need for monitoring. The teachers interviewed stated that they were either developing their own evaluation material or using material already produced by another teacher.6. The project manager of the SKUB secretariat interviewed even claims that the new learning environment is very suitable for revealing the weak pupils. but rather in the order in which they choose to carry out the exercises. although he does have a share in it. Parents especially seem to worry whether when given the option to choose what to do. the teachers stated that this was an issue currently being worked on. and although they may choose different subjects and exercises they are still obliged to carry out all the assignments. The parents expressed diverse opinions. 90 When asked how they have been adapting pupil assessment to the new learning environment. and that this is possible because there is no longer the same control system as before.5. and to assist those needing more intensive help. whereas the older pupils give the impression of being very satisfied with the freedom to decide for themselves.5. It seems that no global tools for measuring the development of the children’’s competencies have so far been developed. 6. and whether and how the general learning environment and its methods is being evaluated. The response of the two groups of children interviewed is that some children will and do try to avoid subjects and exercises which do not have their interest or which they find difficult. but with greater teacher presence. The teachers interviewed emphasised that the overall responsibility for the learning process does not belong to the individual pupil.6 Performance measurement and evaluation This chapter describes and discusses how individual performance is measured. The difference lies not so much in what the pupils are studying. the children will try to avoid the subjects and exercises they find difficult and/or boring. but that there is a fear that the stronger children will be neglected. 156 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

the school needs to closely monitor the results of the new pedagogical approach being followed at the school. On the one hand. 6. primarily to determine whether the new pedagogies are effective. 91 Last year this was not a problem. Naturally. On the other hand. The parents interviewed estimated that approximately 35-40% of parents are to some extent critical towards the innovative learning environment. Viewed from the outside. The assessment system and examinations are based on the traditional learning methods. it outlines what can be learned from the case study in terms of good practice. in the sense that people are asking themselves if the children are actually learning anything in the innovative learning environment. According to the parents interviewed. as Maglegårdsskolen was ranked second among all the schools of Denmark in terms of its school leavers’’ average final examination marks. most parents have a different. This includes the continuous assessment of the pupils’’ level of attainment. Constant communication and information about the children is considered extremely important in the current situation. it appears important that Maglegårdsskolen (and the SKUB project in general) must be able both to monitor the the school’’s development according to traditional measures. 157 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . a gulf has developed between the school and a substantial group of parents. it will need to live up to and even prove itself in terms of the traditional assessment requirements that all schools must comply with91.2 Discussion of monitoring activities carried out The teachers interviewed stressed the importance of developing a measurement and evaluation system not simply for their own use in their daily work. for as long as the pedagogical approach at Maglegårdsskolen differs so much from the general picture of schools in Denmark.Secondly. 6.5.6. Secondly. This stresses the importance of the development of a proper measurement system. and the conducting of annual and final examinations. more traditional interpretation of school education than the practices carried out at Maglegårdsskolen. due to the lack of proper information about the development process at the school. but also in order to keep the parents on track regarding their children’’s development. To make them understand and believe in the new practices requires a substantial dialogue.7 The future This chapter first describes the principal challenges faced by the new learning environment. but also in order to be able to inform the parents about their children’’s progress. The deputy head of Maglegårdsskolen has stated that a feeling of insecurity lies behind the majority of the criticism towards the school. and to develop tools for measuring the development of the children within the terms of the school’’s (and the project’’s) new pedagogical approach. the awarding of marks. the school measures the attainments of the older pupils in the manner prescribed by law.5.

and relieve the pressure on the teacher.7. namely teachers. To establish performance and evaluation measures is considered a very important challenge for the following reasons: . they highlighted the following points: School development should start at the structural/organisational and pedagogical level. But until now no severe problems have occurred.7. in the spring of 2003. It is important to specify the roles of the different participants in the development process. Organising the teachers of the school into self-managing teams makes the teacher’’s job more attractive and challenging. Resources are needed for the competence development of the teachers.2 Good practice The management.6. starting out with a value-oriented discussion involving all the stakeholders. It has particularly been the Gentofte Municipality’’s school development aims that have provided the primary driving force behind the continued structural and organisational development at Maglegårdsskolen. The changes occurring at Maglegårdsskolen and the integration of ICT would not have been so successful if the school had not been working very purposefully and in a goal-oriented manner. . there was a national-level discussion concerning the possibility of prohibiting the instruction of big groups drawn from the traditional classes.5. would lose out on entering the more traditional teaching environment that characterises most of the remainder of the educational system.To ensure that that the school will maintain its self-development.To keep up morale in order to stand up to criticism and pressure from parents and the media.5.1 Future challenges Future educational initiatives at the national level might interfere with the praxis carried out at Maglegårdsskolen. The rules stipulate that they should ask each other before asking a teacher. The students should be allowed to actively participate in their own competence development. .To produce visible results. The schools will be able to share experiences and learn from each others’’ successes and failures. parents. . . though front-runners at the primary school level.To ensure that the school keeps developing coherently. . the teachers and the SKUB project organisation all consider the change processes at Maglegårdsskolen to be a success. 6. When asked what other schools could learn from their experiences. pupils and the municipality. It is helpful to begin the process in more than one school. Some of the parents interviewed expressed anxiety as to whether their children. For instance.To ensure a smooth transition to post-compulsory general and vocational upper secondary education. and not as nine individual schools.To make parents fully believe that the new learning approaches are successful. because it was feared that municipalities would use such an opportunity to reduce their educational expenditure. 158 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This will strengthen the co-operation among the students.

because the flexibility of the framework improves the overview. parent Charlotte Herbert. parent Henriette Engelbrecht. The integration of ICT would have been much more restricted if the educational method had not been changed. Home areas. vice president of Maglegårdsskolen Annemette Hansen. thereby ensuring that the development of competences is goal. the president of Gentofte municipality’’s school board Hanna Bohn Vinkel. pupil from the 7th grade 159 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . teacher Mads Lynge Clausson-Kaas. The existence of one particular front-runner has been a significant driving force behind the change of ICT practice at Maglegårdsskolen. and the advice is not to rush things. teacher Lone Lauridsen. List of people interviewed: Steen Mogensen. parent Louise Jarvad. teacher Eva Frydensberg Holm. with limited use of the equipment. teacher Stine Schou. The students do not all need to work together at the same time. teacher Annette Nielsen. The PCs in the middle of the big common room become a social meeting-place. and the close co-operation between teachers in the home areas have had great significance for the extent of the integration of IT and multimedia.It is important not to leave much time between competence development and the use of the skills attained. thus inspiring the development of the other teachers’’ competences. The structure and organisation of Maglegårdsskolen has been decisive for the practical integration of ICT. the dissolution of the uniform lesson format. teacher Lars Johnsen. project manager of the SKUB project Peter Vinkel. parent Kathrine Myrtue.and practice-oriented. Too much hardware equals loss of overview. teacher Gitte Tjellesen. Getting accustomed to using the high-tech equipment takes time. This front-runner has inspired the other staff to be willing to try new technology and has set the technological agenda. parent Erik Rasmussen. parent Jørgen Kaufmann. parent Line Kongsted. parent Marie Louise Fenger. The big common room is also a familiar space –– the teachers take their breaks here. parent Susanne Gormsen. and to start at the beginning. The physical framework of Maglegårdsskolen makes it relatively simple to work with IT and multimedia. teacher Kim Menne. and the portable equipment helps support the educational approach in which activities are no longer dependent on physical location. teacher Jeannette Koustrup Duus. which gives a dimension of joint ownership and safety. teacher Jeppe Kobberøe.

Eurostat: ““Key Data on Education in Europe 2002”” 160 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . www. pupil from the 3rd grade Carl Mosbech. http://www. e-Watch .dk school development project.maglegaard. pupil from the 7th grade Caroline Bjerglund Andersen.gentofte. Eurydice.dk Maglegårdsskole. pupil from the 3rd grade Nynne Kunde.dk/ municipality of Gentofte. www. pupil from the 3rd grade Olivia Meyer.skub. pupil from the 3rd grade Marie-Louise Hoffmann.Anna Rolin. Public Policies for ICT in Schools”” European Commission.European Electronic Education-Watch: ““Education in e-Europe.gentofte-skoler. pupil from the 3rd grade Simon Conradt-Eberlin pupil from the 3rd grade Links: Website Website Website Website of of of of the the the the Danish Ministry of Education. Learning and IT””.dk Documents: The Danish Ministry of Education: ““The Danish Strategy for Education. pupil from the 7th grade Nilas Steinmetz. pupil from the 3rd grade Simon Brink. DG Information Society: ““eEurope benchmarking 2001”” European Commission. pupil from the 3rd grade Nikolaj F Erhardtsen.uvm. pupil from the 7th grade Asta Knudsen. pupil from the 7th grade Gro Koldberg Lundsvig. pupil from the 3rd grade Philip Stilling. www. pupil from the 7th grade Emil Duus Flyger.

including its architecture At the end of the report is a list of the people interviewed in the course of the case study. plus the global framework conditions 2) An interview with the politically appointed deputy director of the educational department of the autonomous community of Catalonia. budgets. the DG of information technologies.11 Entrance of Lavinia 161 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .6. in May 2003.6 Lavinia. internal evaluations etc. Figure 6. XTEC 4) A focus group interview with the parents of children attending Lavinia Educational Centre 5) An interview with the school principal 6) Two group interviews of teachers 7) An interview with the school’’s ICT co-ordinator 8) A group interview of pupils 9) Three observations of instruction. including strategies. Barcelona This case study was undertaken at Lavinia Educational Centre in Barcelona. City District of Les Corts. Spain. two involving younger children and one involving older ones 10) Observation of the general physical environment of the school. action plans. project plans.. The Lavinia Educational Centre case study has encompassed the following activities: 1) A thorough desk study of relevant documents. 3) An interview with a school and information society administrator at the Catalan department of education.

since it is a so-called historic region whose governmental and administrative structures have developed faster than in most others due to regional political pressures and the importance of the Catalan language. There are two official languages in Catalonia: the state language. and are taught by a teaching staff of 14 who teach all levels and subjects. Accordingly. namely the Spanish state. Attendance is not compulsory. 94 Spain has three levels of public authority. Spanish). The regional government has extra responsibility for education in some regions such as Catalonia. such as Catalonia. In historic regions possessing their own languages. and the remaining 35% is decided by the regional governments. The autonomous region specifies the curriculum in terms of the subjects and the number of hours spent on each of them. The teachers at Lavinia describe the families of the pupils that attend the school as being educated and higher middle-class families belonging to both Spanish and Catalan linguistic groups92. but most parents elect to send their children to preschools at age 3. Today. The school is regarded as a pioneer in integrating ICT in teaching and promoting pedagogical innovation.e. Catalonia must therefore respect national legislation. 65% of the curriculum is compulsory and is decided by the state authorities. and a computer has been installed in one of the classrooms in order to assist a multi-handicapped student. the Autonomous Regions. External personnel assist the teaching staff to cover shortages. 223 children attend the school. Les Corts is dominated by such schools (75% of schools in the area are private). Lavinia is a small primary educational centre.1 Framework conditions In Spain. and became a public school. There is a close relationship between the teachers and the individual classes. for example for creative subjects. 93 In Spain. the school has been subsidised by the Department of Education of the Autonomous Region of Catalonia. since these are areas where the school’’s own personnel needs assistance. and the minority language. The school is located in the northwestern part of Barcelona. Although there are generally few private schools in Catalonia. and has earned several awards for some multimedia learning programmes which it shares with other schools in Catalonia and internationally. In 1988. It was a private school whose main purpose was to create a learning institution that differentiated itself from the traditional religious schools which predominated at that time. and the municipalities.6. the responsibility for education in schools is shared by the state and the decentralised governments of the Autonomous Regions94. The Les Corts school district mostly comprises middleclass. Catalan. Lavinia is one of 7 public schools in the area. Lavinia has a computer laboratory. 6. in the city district of Les Corts. and provides preschool and primary school education to children aged between 3 and 1293. Castilian (i. preschool education is offered to children aged between 3-5. and since then it has made an effort to integrate ICT into everyday education both as an instructional tool and as an item of equipment like a pencil or a schoolbook. The school develops its own learning material. Lavinia was integrated into the Collective of Schools for Catalan Public Education (CEPEPC). 92 162 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . well-educated inhabitants. Since then. Education is decentralised from the state level to the regional level. 55% of the curriculum is compulsory. Lavinia began its first information and communication technology (ICT) project in 1986.The Lavinia Educational Centre was founded in 1968 as a teachers’’ cooperative.

In 1986. political forces are driving the change processes to a significant extent. 6. Catalonia has also had an explicit information society strategy for integrating and promoting the use of ICT in school education. but does provide logistical support for schools. 65% of the 80. Both the Spanish state and the Catalan Government have developed information society strategies which emphasise the importance of ICT in school education. teacher education is not only an important tool for introducing ICT to the schools. Nevertheless. The integration of ICT into school education is considered a social necessity by the Catalan Department of Education. Development of social and team working skills 4. the Catalan Ministry of Education established a unit to co-ordinate ICT in its schools. 95 In Catalonia.000 school teachers in Catalonia have benefited from continuing education in ICT. content development for the integration of ICT into the curriculum. and infrastructure and technical support for the 2000 Catalan schools95. private schools predominate. The Catalan strategy is coherent with the state strategies for promoting the integration of all citizens into the information society. in Les Corts. methodology and pedagogy. Active learning 2. Student responsibility for the learning process 3. 163 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the regional administration is offering technical assistance and teacher education to the schools of the region. The integration of student diversity as an asset 5. Self-paced student learning and more student-specific learning processes which are adapted to the needs of the individual pupil. The ideas concerning teaching and the approach to learning must change.1 Positive framework conditions There are many framework conditions promoting the development of the change processes at the Lavinia school. the courses have focused on changing the teacher profile concept to encourage: 1. Since 1998. According to the Department of Education’’s representatives. In conclusion. but also for encouraging the integration of ICT into the schools’’ curricula. and the development of educational material.6. The Spanish strategy views the educational system as a useful tool for promoting the integration of today’’s pupils into the future information society. The regional school administration has a strategic aim to provide ICT teacher education. As previously mentioned. Educational activities concentrate on the access of all pupils through the provision of equipment and teacher education. there are approximately 2000 public schools. So far.The local administration has hardly any influence on primary school education. 500 semi-private schools and only a few private schools.1. including the influence of both national and regional school policies. otherwise it is pointless to be developing new learning material. Lately. public school education in the Catalan region falls under the responsibility of the Catalan Autonomous Government. For this reason.

The majority of those working with ICT in school education are former teachers. and will restore the previous pupil-teacher roles. curriculum development and multimedia educational materials. and external consultants. The law embodies conservative values such as the importance of religion and teaching on the basis of a centralised curriculum. but a proper paradigmatic change never occurred. this legislative reform will have severe consequences for learning conditions. support for ICT co-ordinators in the form of seminars. The infrastructure required for integrating ICT in learning is also being provided by the regional government.1. According to the administrative and political representatives. 6. According to the regional government and school staff representatives. software. as well as the situations that the teachers have to face daily. and leaves little scope for innovative activities. the law will centralise the education system by reducing the number of Catalan language classes. technical support is provided by the regional government. the proposed reform of the State Law of Quality Education (LOCE) has aroused criticism in Catalonia. The training of teachers Some conditions are internal to the school. Internet access and other services. In addition. This consists of the provision of computer equipment. The staff of the regional administration iii. which has been running since 1988 and currently provides Internet access to 70. the Department of Education’’s ability to provide schools with these services is dependent on its staff. and increasing the time spent on topics such as national history and politics (rather than regional topics). The school infrastructure / architecture vi. Meanwhile. primarily: v. the criticisms state that the moderate evolution towards a constructivist learning approach will be set back considerably by the new law. National educational legislation ii. Finally. They therefore understand the requirements and the mode of thinking of the interventions’’ target groups. which is also attempting to stimulate educational innovation through the continuing education of teachers in information society skills.000 teachers in Catalonia. It also includes the XTEC programme. The constructivist approach was introduced in the 1980s in the Spanish educational reform. which will instead reinforce the didactic learning approach.2 Negative framework conditions Some conditions do appear to be hindering the development of the innovative learning environment at Lavinia. therefore. Actions have also been initiated to encourage methodological innovation. Some are external to the school: i. It is feared that the new Law of Quality Education will make it difficult to continue the current process of innovation.6.The Catalan schools are free to innovate individually both in their pedagogical development and their governing methodology. ICT equipment maintenance support to schools. Limited degree of knowledge sharing iv. The limited financial resources available The existing political disagreements between the Spanish state and the regional level are reflected in the educational policies. most probably due to the diffi- 164 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Not surprisingly.

On the other hand. and are no longer fully familiar with the needs of the schools. What is required is better training in innovation in pedagogical practice. This therefore strongly suggests that the co-operation between the administration and the individual leaves something to be desired in such areas as the understanding of current learning needs and conditions. the regional government now recognises the need to involve the entire school in the visits paid to them. The regional government representatives also consider that the state level is not showing due respect for Catalonia’’s encouragement of the integration of the Catalan language via the school projects and multimedia school materials that are being developed with the support of the regional government. The director of educational and methodological innovation at the Open University of Catalonia added to this criticism in a telephone interview by stating that the training of Spanish school teachers has been misdirected. This turned out not to be the case. and is raising awareness of the need for innovation in compulsory education. From the point of view of the Lavinia teachers. Nevertheless.e. It also covers the issues of who is responsible for the development and maintenance of the new learning environment and pedagogical methods. the regional representatives interviewed for this study admitted that the teacher education has not so far had the desired effect. its organisational structure has remained practically unchanged. how work is organized (teamwork vs. The regional government had anticipated that the teachers who had received continuing education in ICT would return to their normal workplaces and engage in knowledge sharing. and who is in charge of the ICT facilities. From private to public school Ever since the Lavinia educational centre joined the public school system run by Catalonia’’s regional government. the role of the management. according to the staff at Lavinia. in addition to learning how to use the technology.6.2 The organisational setting (Rules) 6. during which combined learning sessions must be conducted. On the positive side. the school also differed from 165 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . some movement away from instructivism has been observed lately. i.1 The school organisation This chapter describes the school organisation in terms of its workplace characteristics. the regional administration’’s staff have been away from the school environment for too long. Instead. and what kinds of meetings are held and how often. in the sense that ICT has not been properly integrated into the school environment in the way that had been hoped. 6.culty of bringing about behavioural changes among the teaching staff. individual effort).2. however. Accordingly. in the sense that while it is teaching them how to use ICT it fails to teach them how to use it innovatively in their teaching. the interviewees acknowledged the need for the administrative representatives to make themselves known in the schools and to introduce entire school communities to the various forms of ICT. together with a broader curriculum and more reflection on the part of the actors involved. a more flexible state law is desirable. Instead.6. the threat of a new education law that leaves little room for innovation and flexibility seems to be sending people a wake-up call. From the outset. but according to our interviewees the new legislation will undermine this type of development.

He assists the teaching staff. which has representation from the teachers. traditional classroom-based teaching remains the basis of teaching. local government and the school management. In Spain. school is compulsory from ages 6 to 16. each in their own class. who has been appointed to be the person responsible for the technical aspects of the school’’s ICT implementation. Usually the teachers working within the same cycle plan the school year together and teach all subjects. Their main responsibility is to prepare the syllabus before it is presented to the teaching staff. each teacher is responsible for one particular topic or subject. The compulsory school system is divided into primary and secondary schools. She works closely with. The school is led by the school principal assisted by two teachers who have been elected to serve as deputy heads. and most teachers also participate in transversal projects that either cut across the school cycles or involve several schools. are appointed by the regional administration. each consisting of two grades for pupils aged 6-8. Lavinia teaches at the primary school level. The teaching staff appoints the school principal for a 4-year period. much of the teaching is still based on individual planning. and each teacher is responsible for one class. The physical environment hampers any radical organisational changes in the learning situation. The current school principal was a teacher at the school until she applied for the post of principal. rather than being a typical school with a lesser degree of involvement of the teaching staff and parents in deciding its objectives. but the work is nevertheless gradually becoming more project-oriented. Work organisation At Lavinia. and the classes are divided into smaller groups for particular learning activities. The teachers. Two teachers work together in each cycle. 8-10 and 10-12. particularly in day-to-day planning and teaching. which are reflected in the procedures for electing the school principal. and this decision must be approved by the school board. The purpose behind the projects involving the transversal co-operation of two or more cycles is to enable the pupils to acquire some knowledge and understanding about the next cycle. and is supported by. 166 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The primary school is organised into three cycles. is integrated in the teaching at Lavinia by a teacher who has been the school’’s driving force in this area for three years. The preparatory work is carried out in so-called commissions which are established on a voluntary basis. on the other hand. Nevertheless. for example. This mode of organising the work at Lavinia arises from the school’’s democratic management culture. and to carry out large-scale projects. in addition to retaining their function as educators. ICT. Lavinia’’s teachers are usually organised in accordance with these three cycles. parents. who are still somewhat deficient in technical skills even though all of them have received basic continuing education in ICT. another teacher. In addition to his or her individual class responsibilities. and as has been mentioned earlier. in addition to preschool. the school management adheres to basic democratic principles. In line with the ideas on which the school was founded.the majority of primary schools in having been founded as a co-operative by teachers and parents.

with each teacher having both responsibility and a large degree of autonomy in the decision-making process concerning the planning of activities and the introduction of new learning methods etc. although the existence of the transversal projects planned by the ‘‘commissions’’ and the collaborations taking place across the age cycles are both indications of a different mode of work organisation in which ideas and methods are developed through discussion and co-operation among the teachers. explained that she was very inspired by the methods of Johnson and Johnson (1989). It is responsible for developing the curriculum presented to the teaching staff for approval.southampton. which comprise the primary classroom learning structure. 2) secretary.B. Face-to-face interaction 3.us/english9/Adobe%20Files/Student%20Roles%20in %20a%20Collaborative%20Classroom. The responsibility for the daily teaching is decentralised to the teachers individually. and each individual assumes a role of 1) communicator. has not been systematically integrated into the teaching at Lavinia.k12. et. http://www. The management intends to preserve the pedagogical restructuring represented by the co-ordination of tasks and their allocation among the teachers. On the other hand. Effective group process skills96 The 1989 Johnson and Johnson-inspired model of co-operative working. 3) facilitator. one of the teachers. and uses them in the learning situation. the management. This is where the management structure is more traditional in giving autonomy to each teacher. Groups of 1-4 pupils come together. M. or 5) the person responsible for the group’’s materials. The purpose of the technique is to teach three skills to the pupils. but are not necessarily shared and are not always based on the teachers being involved in a consensus-based process.pdf 167 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . a caretaker and a cook. although introduced and applied by Anna. These examples illustrate that the school has to a certain extent maintained a classic management structure. 4) spokesperson. for instance if there is a particular project or subject that needs to be discussed. is primarily concerned with the tasks of administration and coordination. the school employs an administrative worker. consisting of the school principal and the two deputy heads. it mainly occurs as the result of individual initiative. Anna uses a group learning technique within a co-operative learning framework. Anna. The democratic character of the school is also illustrated in the daily organisation of the teaching. While knowledge-sharing exists. Meetings are held among the teachers and/or the management on a regular basis. i. Assuming personal responsibility for working to achieve collective goals 2.: 1.e. al (1990): What Is the Collaborative Classroom? NCREL: Oak Brook. besides having overall pedagogical responsibility. New ideas and methods of teaching are introduced to the school. Some teachers meet every Wednesday as necessary.In addition to the teaching staff. It takes place in small groups.ny. On her own initiative she underwent training in North America which induced her to use this method in her teaching. and all the 96 Tinzmann. a secretary for the parents’’ association. It is based on the principle of simultaneously giving the pupils free choice while still maintaining teacher control. The keywords are learning for the sake of learning.

the teaching staff has remained practically the same throughout the school’’s existence. In addition. and expressed general satisfaction with the prevailing organisational culture. A group of representatives from different Catalan educational centres and from the Barcelona resource centre undertake continued co-operation. The school council consists of 15 individuals representing the school management. This process is therefore largely dependent on individual teacher initiatives rather than management decision-making. All teachers have received training in ICT. This illustrates the school’’s predominantly bottom-up approach.6. the Lavinia Parents’’ Association. but there is still a need for greater knowledge about when to use these technologies. which rewards continuity and the long-lasting tenure of positions. Pedagogical innovation The teachers and the school management take responsibility either individually or in smaller groups for developing and maintaining the new learning environment and pedagogical methods. city council representatives. The integration of information technologies in the school has for three years been co-ordinated by one particular teacher who considers it important to encourage new didactic processes. or by several teachers working as a group. and a councillor representing the regional government. and hold meetings to discuss and develop the pedagogical structure of the centres involved. meetings involving the school council and representatives of the parents’’ association (AMPA97) are held frequently98.2. Due to the Spanish system of acquiring credentials. New school initiatives in IT and other fields are usually undertaken by a single pioneering teacher. last year the teachers collectively proposed to promote pedagogical innovation and to create and develop transversal axes with the purpose of promoting globallyapplicable work. although the school management has the clear objective of maintaining the evolution which is currently taking place. according to the 2002-2003 annual plan. but all were agreed that it is an interesting and pleasant place to work. the parents (delegated by AMPA). Nevertheless. which is used for multilateral projects involving schools in both Latin America and Catalonia. In general in Catalonia and Spain the teaching staff’’s overall attitude in primary and secondary education appears to represent a general issue for concern and an obstacle 21 parents have set up AMPA. initiate projects. there is a deficiency in the pedagogical knowledge among the teaching staff in this area. teachers. The school is actively co-operating with other school representatives in developing innovative learning material and multimedia projects for the pupils. Some of the teachers were unable to explain exactly why they felt so much at ease in the school. The teaching staff at Lavinia were very positive towards the management structures at the school.2 Discussion This section discusses which aspects of the educational setting are respectively promoting or impeding the development of the new learning environment. There are also external stimuli which encourage pedagogical innovation. 98 97 168 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .teachers meet at least once a month. 6. In other words.

The school generally appears to have very few resources.3 The educational setting (Resources) 6. The school is regarded as a pioneer in terms of how it has managed to implement ICT in its educational activities. At present. The projects involve all the children in both the preschool and the primary school. school management and parents alike. has sponsored another computer. This is expressed among others by the representative from the Open University of Catalonia interviewed for the study. the available learning material and technology. The multimedia and learning material used in the school is usually supplied either by the regional government or has been developed by the school working alone or in co-operation with other schools. AMPA. finances and architecture. For the same reason. but it may also to some extent hinder the introduction of new theoretical approaches and enthusiasm. the Bongoh telecommunications project was begun. At Lavinia.to change.6. The buildings are old and decrepit. ICT was introduced to the school in 1986 as part of a three-year project. The project consists of a simulation game which currently involves two schools in Catalonia and three in Argentina.6. every school year it attracts many pupil applications. i. Nevertheless. A further computer has been sponsored under an EU project.1 Description This chapter describes the educational setting. the school has 5 different projects covering the different cycles. the children and their families are very satisfied with the school. and may thus tend to cause the school to stagnate in terms of the development of its pedagogy and educational methodology. According to teachers. In 1990.e. this is a positive factor in the sense that there is a stability among the teaching staff which is valued by the pupils’’ parents. The school has participated in the development of several multimedia programmes.3. 169 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and the resulting low rate of mobility in the education system can be regarded as a problematic inhibitor of change. with the teachers being generally conservative and reluctant to modify their practices. but this is a rare occurrence. the parents’’ association. 6. The school’’s ICT equipment consists of a computer lab containing 8 computers. the parents are able to stay in regular contact with the school. resource centres and the like. In addition. and the sanitation facilities are extremely poor. due to its teaching staff and management. This is related to the system governing the acquisition of credentials. As a result. some new teachers have been appointed.

classrooms and on the Internet. Among its other activities.3. The teachers belong to a regional working group which holds meetings regularly.htm The school has also entered into an agreement with the Condis supermarket chain whereby like all its other customers. The school is characterised by an abundance of its children’’s work in the form of portraits. this has enabled the school to obtain a printer.12: Lavinia’’s Five Multimedia projects Source: http://www. it plans the development of innovative learning programmes which are intended to benefit a number of the region’’s schools. The points acquired by all the parents are collected up and used to provide equipment for the school. So far.xtec. where the children exchange their own portraits with those of children from other schools. Whereas in other advanced societies the development of innovative learning environments has been promoted by financial investment in the renewal of 170 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 6. all of which is displayed in the school halls.Figure 6. the parents and personnel of the school receive purchase points whenever they shop in one of its supermarkets.es/ceiplavinia/projectes.2 Discussion This section discusses which aspects of the educational setting are respectively promoting or impeding the development of the new learning environment.6. paintings and the output of their projects and other activities. either free of charge or at a discount.

6. Spain is relatively underdeveloped in terms of its schools provision of ICT and the restructuring of its pedagogical approach. According to the political representative of the Regional Government of Catalonia’’s Department of Education. and it is one of the regional government’’s objectives that it should be integrated as such into the learning process. Due to the above-mentioned factors. that following the Lisbon summit. Maybe the absence of such obvious changes is the reason that most parents do not perceive Lavinia as being a new learning environment.1 Description This chapter describes the pedagogical principles and values guiding the new learning environment. collaboration. The Lavinia school staff have focused their attention on the creation of a constructive learning environment for the children.4 The learning environment 6. who was interviewed for the present case study. teaching materials etc. involving acceptance and listening. and that compared to the other regions of Spain. Every activity demands different methodologies. the architecture of Lavinia remains unaltered. This is the case even though they are aware that their children belong to a school that is different and has given them valuable skills via their use of computers and participation in interesting projects.4. However. but it should be borne in mind that compared to central or northern European countries. It appears as though the change processes are occurring largely unobserved and unnoticed. and have acquired skills which differ from those learned by children in traditional schools. but not to the extent that the pupils have unrestricted access to ICT.physical infrastructure and the purchase of ICT equipment. this is 171 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the keywords in Catalan pedagogy are. which requires flexibility on the part of the teachers. 6. According to the teachers and management. or should be.6. The regional government supports and encourages the process which is underway by providing hardware. the Spanish Government introduced a national information society action plan. the school’’s personnel and the parents’’ association have found alternative sources of essential technological equipment. Catalonia is one of the technologically most advanced. and the setting of the traditional school environment remains dominant. The teachers and management at Lavinia are deliberately but gradually trying to change the teachers’’ and pupils’’ roles in a way that encourages the development of pupils and individuals who are able to participate more actively in the learning process. although the personnel intends to create innovation within the existing structures. This includes: Greater focus on reflective thinking than on memorization Working on the children’’s self-esteem Diversity Open learning. The use of ICT is considered to be an interdisciplinary activity. however. the shortage of finances at Lavinia represents an obstacle to the development of the learning environment. intercultural motivation and the reinforcement of the Catalan language and culture. active learning. The teachers regard themselves as learning facilitators.. It should also be mentioned. but the main overall theoretical approach is constructivist.

The high level of involvement of the pupils’’ parents in the daily life of the school is helpful. They are assisted in consolidating their critical thinking skills. Working in groups creates the framework conditions for the children to exercise their individual capacities. the parents list the following as being important aspects of their relationship with the school: The high degree of information The positive attitude of the teachers The focus on developing the children’’s personalities The daily contact with the school The fact that the majority of the school work is carried out at school 172 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .. since this represents a mode of teaching for which there are no clear signposts and which uses very different guidelines to the instructivist approach. This is considered important in assisting the pupils to become autonomous in the learning process.not always easy. In addition. For their part. At Lavinia. moral and financial support. The starting-point is always the richness of diversity and the right to express it. for the pupils and teachers to escape their normal surroundings during their co-operation in a virtual environment. as they provide physical.13 Guidance in the process. the school maintains continuous contact with the parents. the use of ICT represents a seed of change. but also stresses the children’’s need to learn social skills and to be able to co-operate in groups. either directly or by phone and e-mail. In this process. speaking figuratively. and are thereby also encouraged to make their own decisions and to question the demands set by the teachers. Figure 6. the pupils are taught about emotions and values. and the ICT projects also ensure that each individual is able to attain his own level of accomplishment. The multimedia projects also make it possible. as opposed to being restrained or pressured by the abilities of the remaining pupils.

The observations made for this study involved 3rd-cycle pupils (mostly 11year-olds) in a class which was divided into two groups.1 Description This chapter describes the actual learning situation. and the source of the criticism.m.2 Discussion In this section the advantages and disadvantages of the new pedagogical principles and values are discussed. In the learning situation observed. and those children who cannot return home at that time because of their parents’’ work schedule are offered recreational facilities on the school premises. i. School finishes at 3 p. and is run in parallel and to some extent interactively with 9 different Catalan schools.6. for which they naturally required computer facilities100.e. the criticisms made of the school. 6.5. and which according to both teachers and parents is appropriate to their needs. Whenever possible. The other half of the class 99 In Spain.The fact that the school operates an unorthodox timetable (as compared with most other Spanish schools)99 6. the parents and teachers explained that this was mainly due to the fact that some people thought too much emphasis was being given in the Lavinia Educational Centre to alternative approaches to learning. while the second involved preschoolers.. The pupils eat at the school. and presented the results in the form of written reports. one of the two groups of pupils was conducting measurements and statistical calculations on the computer.6. This kind of criticism of the Lavinia approach is the exception rather than the rule.4. At Lavinia. The viewpoints of the interviewees are naturally also included. In addition.5 The learning situation 6. However. This project is concerned with climate and meteorology. The first learning situation observed involved primary school pupils. what characterizes a typical learning situation in this school compared to other ““ordinary”” schools as explained by interviewees. the pupils return home during the break in order to have lunch etc. an arrangement that costs the parents 25 Euro a month. 100 The pupils work with the computers approximately twice a week. There has not been any general criticism of the school.6. One group was working on the ““Edumet”” IT-based project. In each. 173 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . compulsory school usually consists of morning and afternoon classes with a 1-2 hour break at midday. the focus is on the respective roles of the pupils and teachers and how ICT has been integrated into the learning situation. including any problems occurring during their implementation. usually in private schools that tend to maintain the classic educational roles in which the teacher is the active party and the pupil adopts a more passive role. a few parents have chosen to remove their children from it. since the founding of the school the midday break has been shorter than in other more traditional schools. During the interviews. These parents have chosen instead to enrol their children in schools with a more traditional approach. It includes descriptions of two of the learning situations observed. the characteristics of a typical learning situation in this school compared to those of other ““ordinary”” schools are described. Common to both was that the children were working on the multimedia projects that are characteristic of the schools.

worked independently on different projects covering various school topics. and showed themselves to be highly motivated in terms of participating in projects leading to innovation in materials. teachers and pupils were interacting to a high degree. 174 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Figure 6. The school work at Lavinia is largely project-based. The pupils were all located close to each other. All the teachers interviewed expressed satisfaction with their workplace. The preschool project ““Sàlix i els sentits”” (Salix and the senses) involves 4-5 year-olds. This is a 2-year project encompassing topics pertaining to the social sciences. The teacher. languages and Nature. since half the class was in the computer lab and the other half was in a classroom next to the computer lab. both on her own initiative and at their request. walked between the two rooms and assisted the pupils in following the coursework. They were also taught to stand before a group and give presentations. who is heavily engaged in using ICT in education and has been involved in the integration of ICT at the Lavinia Educational Centre for a number of years. Some of the teachers said that they were happier at this school than in their previous jobs. but could not say why exactly. and in this particular case the pupils were either working in groups or were from time to time receiving process guidance or corrections in relation to the work they had done up to that point. Both the observations and the interviews with teachers and pupils demonstrated a highly motivated teaching staff. Both computer and tape recorders were used in the learning situation in order to teach the pupils about the senses. The pupils who were not working near the computers were occupied in finishing other projects.14 Pupils working by the computer The observations showed that in the learning situations. pedagogical styles etc.

In general. either as an entire group or individually before the whole class. They state that their teaching approach is fairly typical for public schools nowadays.Figure 6. but that they were one of the schools to pioneer it in Catalonia. whether these are from Catalonia or from other countries around the world. We observed two different preschool groups with approximately 25-30 children in each. This class had both a regular teacher and a student teacher. The teachers do not have the sense that the school particularly differs from Catalonia’’s remaining private schools. The first class was taught by one preschool teacher who played games with the children and let them test their senses using fruits and vegetables. In these more traditional schools. writing and arithmetic. the learning situation at Lavinia is distinguished by its modification of the roles of the actors involved. The last-mentioned are required to make presentations and 175 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . This teaching approach differs from the previous methods used in the public schools. what appears to make this school special compared to other schools in Spain is: 1) The focus on project work 2) Transversal projects undertaken internally in the school which bring together children of different ages and abilities 3) Multimedia projects in co-operation with other schools. Compared to private and religious schools.15 Preschool pupils working with Salix The project is being carried out in several Catalan schools. The second class observed consisted of children who were somewhat older. They performed different exercises. Lavinia’’s teaching is characterised by a high degree of interaction between the teachers and pupils. preschool pupils are taught classic subjects such as reading. The observations took place in normal classrooms. as well as from some contemporary Spanish private schools.

According to the parents. but they like using them for schoolwork as well. Another parent stated that for him. They are treated as individuals. The pupils are satisfied with their use of computers in the school. 6. it is important that the school is small.6. In addition.5.e. The multimedia programmes developed since the 1980s and 1990s also ensure that all students have experience of using the internet and the computer in general. and because the teaching staff value the pupils’’ personalities. and they use it to search for information and photographs on the Internet. In general.2 Discussion In this section. the end result seems to be that the children learn additional skills on top of the same knowledge as that acquired by the pupils of other schools. but are also allowed to enter the computer lab unsupervised in order to search 176 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . However. In sum. the teachers. there is a high degree of satisfaction with the learning situation at Lavinia among all the parties involved. the computer in the Castilian class is used for writing stories. since less time is dedicated to traditional topics and it is feared that the children are not learning skills in these areas as quickly as they would in a traditional school. some of the positive factors are that the school: Has a good reputation Has good morale Promotes Catalan culture (all the classes except the Castilian Spanish language classes are conducted in Catalan) Applies the teachers’’ imagination in using the classrooms in alternative ways Gives the children only limited homework. For example. the advantages and disadvantages of the kinds of learning situations described are highlighted via the perceptions of the pupils. They also use the computer for e-mail. and one pupil said that she enjoys expressing herself with the computer. According to these. which is more important than the acquisition of academic skills. according to the parents. i. since they are involved in a multischool project with children from other schools.to participate actively in the learning process. One parent explained that she had chosen the school for her children because the learning process is interactive. the approach being taken in the school was wholly positive. The pupils are usually supervised when they use the computer at school. They all have computers at home. the observations in the classroom showed that Pupils are divided into smaller groups Pupils carry out different assignments / work on different topics at the same time Pupils are working independently on the computer The teacher instructs the pupils initially concerning the lesson they are about to have The teacher guides the pupils individually. some people do not appreciate this way of teaching. and the pupils participate when the teacher corrects their work. the teachers and the parents interviewed. This has resulted in a tightly-knit unit which has a feeling of family. parents and pupils.

6. One issue is learning how to use the ICT tools. and the children’’s performance is measured in accordance with the educational requirements of the Catalan Generalitat and the State Department of Education. The attitude of the management is that there are general requirements which the children’’s learning must meet. At the micro level. the older children in Lavinia have a certain degree of access to the equipment. and to respond to some questions concerning the history of Rome. ICT is also being used outside of school within the framework of a school excursion.6. and according to the management and teaching personnel at Lavinia. 6. the main daily challenge is now one of how to create multimedia education. but knowing when to use them is a completely different one. 6. the main challenge ahead is a. When they visited a museum in Tarragona. is sent to the parents. The performance of the children is measured three times a year.2 Discussion The development processes at Lavinia appear to be somewhat constrained by the fact that the pupils are measured in terms of the traditional requirements. However. as well as by the fact that the extracurricular skills which they acquire in the innovative learning environment at Lavinia are not especially valued under the current evaluation system. The school is still considerably dominated by the old learning paradigm. No assessment of the children’’s general level of knowledge or attitudes is included in these evaluations.1 Description This chapter discusses how individual performance is measured. Accordingly. and whether and how the general learning environment and its methods are being evaluated. to create teaching tools 177 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .7.6.6.6. they were asked to search for information using the museum’’s computer equipment. From the political/administrative point of view. In that sense.for information on the internet or for general assignment work.1 Challenges ahead This chapter discusses the principal challenges faced by the new learning environment.6. 6. with the aim of ensuring continuity in the assessment of the pupils. for the teachers of both Lavinia and supposedly many other primary or secondary schools.6 Performance measurement and evaluation 6. Secondly it is outlined what can be learned in terms of good practise from the case. The pupils have also used computers in another educational context. which is rather formal. the new school reform proposed by the government will further hamper its development. 6. the teachers plan to observe each individual’’s development in order to ensure a more tailored evaluation that also focuses on other values. but that when required these can be achieved using less orthodox methods. The education system is still fairly traditional overall. The evaluation report.7 The future This chapter first describes the primary challenges that the new learning environment faces.6.

6. will be required in order to continue the development process. parents.6.b. The primary challenge will be to overcome the constraints imposed by the proposed new Law of Quality in Education. In sum. i. to motivate and train teachers to find and implement an organisational style that works. the perception of the future challenges is that the support of everyone. national or international educational institutions.2 Good practice This section discusses what can be learned from the case study in terms of good practice.8 Sources 6. or. The important factors here are: A stable learning environment A small environment A relatively flat.6. bottom-up democratic organisation Individual autonomy Interdisciplinary co-operation.8. 6. particularly in the Scandinavian countries. the Catalan school is an example of innovation occurring under unfavourable circumstances.1 Interviews Catalan Department of Education: Fina Denia Jordi Castells Lavinia Educational Centre: Anna Traball Piqueras (Principal) Maria Teresa Gavalda Mas (Head of Studies) Anna Piñero (Teacher) Vicent Martínez Centelles (Teacher and person responsible for the technical implementation of ICT at Lavinia) Mari Angeles (Preschool teacher) 178 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the regional government etc. the support centres. this law will leave very little room for flexibility and innovation. It is also interesting that this is possible without the same level of resource expenditure as that being applied to similar but more highly-developed learning environments. teachers. The school is part of a network with different local. of the actors involved.7. to a certain extent. and communicate and / or cooperate with other pupils via educational programmes that are available on the Internet. At Lavinia.e. teachers and pupils are changing. and Parental support. c. Another example is the exercises that are carried out during class in order to motivate the different intelligences of the pupils as has also been explained here. but without the conscious awareness of society. According to our informants. that when the above factors are brought together with individual initiative it can produce innovative results.. A concrete example of this is the participation of Lavinia in school twinning as explained in this report. What can be learned from Lavinia is.6. It is interesting to note how at Lavinia a learning environment is gradually developing in which the roles of parents.

usk. It comprised the following activities: 1) A thorough desk study of relevant documents. The district is a typical suburb comprising both houses and apartment blocks which house a correspondingly mixed 101 http://www. internal evaluations etc.. the Open University of Catalonia Pla Annual. the Municipality of Stockholm The Vinstagårdsskolan case study was performed at the school in the municipality of Stockholm in Sweden in April 2003.stockholm. and is located in the Vinsta industrial suburb of Stockholm.824101.se/internet/omrfakta/omrfakta. with a population of 58.Laura Pareja Pané (Preschool teacher) Pupils: Ares (11 years) Nico (11 years) Saul (11 years) Natalia (11 years) Parents: Raimon Galbán (Father of a 4-year-old girl) Cristina Ribas (Mother of an 11-year-old boy) Telephone interview: Albert Sangrá. Curs 2002-2003.asp?omrade=sdn04&typ=s dn 179 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . It is housed in the former headquarters of Konsumentverket (the Swedish Consumer Agency). including its architecture Vinstagårdsskolan is a new school that enrolled its first pupils in 2001. action plans. director of educational and methodological innovation.7 Vinstagårdsskolan. CEIP Lavínia Websites http://www. including strategies. plus the global framework conditions.xtec. 2) An interview with the principal of the school 3) A conversation with the vice-principal about the construction of the school 4) An interview with a school administrator working in the schools administration department of the city district of Hässelby-Vällingby 5) An interview with a local politician from the city district of HässelbyVällingby 6) An interview with parents of children attending Vinstagårdsskolan (focus group) 7) An group interview with teachers 8) Two group interviews with pupils 9) Three observations of learning in three different work units 10) Observation of the general physical environment of the school. The city district council to which the school belongs is Hässelby-Vällingby.es/ceiplavinia/ 6.

At the moment. The outer walls and the administration wing remain more or less as they were when the consumer organisation occupied the building. and in 2002. the principal was appointed. and mostly enrols pupils from three grade 1-6 schools in the district. The school will be expanded in several phases. In 2001.population in terms of age. the first grade seven started. 352 pupils attend the school. So this year the school comprises grades 7 and 8. The school will not be fully operational until next school year. school administrators and politicians supported the idea. occupation and level of education. Many options were investigated before Konsumentverket’’s former headquarters building was selected as the basis for the new school. the first teachers were employed. and shortly before the school opened in August 2001. and 8% of the population is of foreign origin. Vinstagårdsskolan is a school for grades 7 to 9. However. After considering different options. and where children sometimes sit and work on their projects. and all three year groups will be represented. In April 2001. when the grade 7 of 2001 will become grade 9. a new grade seven started. although a limited number of pupils come from other schools and other school districts as well. income. and 37 teachers work there. as a group of parents considered it unsatisfactory that their children had to be dispersed among a number of other schools when they finished grade 6. The rebuilding of Konsumentverket’’s former residence is being carried out at a rate to match the need for more space as new pupils join the school. it has the highest unemployment rate in the city. So from the outside the school resembles the surrounding office and industrial buildings. The building of a new school was motivated by the need for more space in existing schools. but on entering the front door you find yourself in a café in which pop and rock music is played during breaks. 25% of the pupils are of foreign origin. due to a growing number of children in the area. The choice to build a new school instead of enlarging existing ones was primarily based on a parental initiative. 180 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

passed by the Swedish Parliament.16 Overview of the work units at Vinstagårdsskolan and the administration in the 2002/03 school year Work unit 1 Grade 7 8 circa 80 pupils circa 7 teachers Work unit 2 Grade 7 8 circa 80 pupils circa 7 teachers Work unit 5 Grade 7 8 circa 80 pupils circa 7 teachers Management Principal Vice-principal Work unit 6 Grade 7 8 circa 80 pupils circa 7 teachers Work unit 7 Grade 7 8 circa 40 pupils circa 8 teachers Work unit 9 Administrative and service employees Work unit 8 Grade 7 9 circa 10 pupils circa 10 teachers 6.7. as well as two special units containing 40 pupils plus 8 teachers/assistants. Besides the unit areas there are common areas such as the gym and art and needlework rooms. and 10 pupils plus 10 teachers/assistants respectively. The Education Act. provides the framework for all kinds of educational activity. where the pupils take those particular subjects. When fully operational. The figure below gives an overview of the school organization as it exists in the 2002/03 school year. There is also an office where the teachers can work.The school is currently organized into four units of approximately 80 pupils and 7 teachers each. plus smaller rooms for up to 16 pupils and a teacher. Each unit has its own home area with a meeting place for all pupils. which are mandatory. The Government decides on the curricula.1 Framework conditions The State regulates the school system using aims and guidelines. these regulate the school system alongside the Education Act. 181 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Figure 6. the school will house approximately 540 pupils and 50 teachers altogether.

In the first instance. pupil influence and responsibilities.1.pdf & http://www. and by the curriculum’’s prioritisation of the development of basic skills and competencies. national objectives and the local school plan.pdf http://www. The municipalities in Sweden have autonomy regarding any decision to establish a new school. not the number of hours he must be offered in each subject in a given year. The decision to build a new school instead of enlarging the existing ones was taken by the local authorities following the parents’’ initiative.se/pdf/english/compsyll. Time schedules regulate the amount of teacher-supervised instruction to which the pupils are entitled in each subject.pdf 102 103 182 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .skolverket. The school was established via a co-operative effort involving parent representatives and local authorities. http://www. There are two types of objectives. the levels of attainment. Using the approved curriculum. It is the total amount of time a pupil spends doing each subject which is regulated. as the majority of the school buildings are owned by the municipalities. Numerous possibilities existed concerning how the school should be established and organized. This must be done in consultation with the school’’s teachers and other personnel. This is very unusual in Sweden.The federal budget allocates a sum of money to the municipalities for carrying out the various municipal activities. The curriculum describes the norms and values applicable to the work of the schools. and the district has a ten-year lease on it. the principal of each school draws up a local work plan. as well as their educational roles. The aspirational objectives are those which govern the format of learning and teaching. Each individual municipality may determine how its schools are to be run within the limits set by the objectives and framework established by Government and Parliament. The school building is privately-owned. development and assessment of school activities must be adopted. The mandatory objectives are those which all pupils must be given the opportunity to attain. school managers. This gives the schools considerable latitude for planning and conducting their teaching.1 Positive framework conditions Education Act and curriculum The national curriculum102 sets out the overall objectives for schoolwork in Sweden103. and does not specify teaching methods or subjects.7. assessment and grading. The limits were determined by the framework of the vision for Sweden’’s education system. the curriculum is the framework governing the organization and work of the schools. teachers and pupils can all influence and choose their preferred methods for attaining the objectives it sets out. A local school plan describing the funding. aspirational and mandatory. As mentioned earlier. 6. Vinstagårdsskolan represents a response to the need for a new school that had resulted from the lack of existing capacity in the district.se/pdf/lpo. which formed a group that developed the concept for the new school.skolverket. organization. For each of these main headings there are corresponding objectives and guidelines.skolverket. It is very open in the sense that municipalities. and the responsibilities of head teachers.se/pdf/english/00575. The syllabuses specify the purposes and objectives for the teaching in each subject.

where the basis and motivation for learning is created. Pupils have the right to influence what and how they intend to learn. but it is not the intention to erect boundaries between subjects. inter alia. Naturally. The inspectorate gives feedback if it finds anything unsatisfactory. In the initial phase. Because the school is new. and thereby enable him to participate in society through doing his best in responsible freedom. the greater the responsibility they must take for their own education. as follows: Pupils and teachers plan their teaching together. The local level At the local level. the furniture has been chosen to support the school’’s visions. These most often take the form of a parent-teacher-child discussion conducted each term.Besides being very open and thus providing schools with quite flexible frameworks and a great degree of freedom. education can be individually tailored to each pupil’’s abilities to a higher degree. politicians and administrators support the school’’s work. This means that it has been able to buy furniture that supports a flexible learning environment. and respect for their shared environment. the Education Act and curriculum are quite visionary regarding the teaching/learning process and the organization of the schools. The division into subjects is a practical way of organizing educational content. The local administrative level also promotes international co-operation between schools. An inspectorate appointed by the city visits each school biennially to monitor its work. Schools must let every pupil find his or her uniqueness. up to this point parents are entitled to receive comprehensive reports on their children’’s progress. for instance. This is part of their training in the democratic process. a school or class wishes to visit a school in 183 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The regional level The city of Stockholm has arranged that all 170 municipal schools will be connected to the Stockholm Schools Data Network. Vinstagårdsskolan was provided with ICT equipment to a greater extent than is usual for the schools in the district. values and norms and other areas that are important for improving their quality. Lifelong learning starts in childhood. The school should be a mirror of society. meaningful development of knowledge in accordance with the fundamental values of the curriculum. to enable the school’’s performance to be improved. The aim is that the provision of IT tools and infrastructure will assist both pupils and teachers in strengthening the learning process. The basic values in the Education Act that promote and guide Vinstagårdsskolan’’s way of planning and organizing its work are. Pupils’’ achievements are assessed in the eighth and ninth school years. its goals and guidelines. The older the pupils are. though a written report also can be provided. Through IT. As a supplement to the national Education Act and curricula. Everyone working in the school must promote consideration for the intrinsic value of each human being. Co-operation across subjects is necessary in order to facilitate the allround. If. Stockholm City Council has also drawn up a plan for the work of its schools which focuses on basic knowledge.

in the sense that the teachers often instruct their pupils. This concentrates attention on this kind of work. and has also been the subject of discussions among parents and in the press. The fact that pupils must take their examinations in Swedish.another country. Other The vice-principal sits in on the meetings of the local chamber of commerce (Företagforeningen). writing.2 Negative framework conditions There are no national. and developed their competencies in the use of computers for personal. Swedish is an exception to this pattern. The teachers explain that they have chosen this mode of teaching because they want to make sure that the pupils pass their exams just as satisfactorily as pupils from other schools. the quality of learning at Vinstagårdsskolan has been called into question. administrative and learning purposes. As a consequence of this. English and mathematics by the end of grade 9 is the single most important factor influencing how learning occurs. International level The school is also participating in a European Union project on school and quality development. ICT initiatives The National Action Programme for ICT in Schools (ITiS) was a 1999-2001 national initiative which aimed. which they do in most cases. either by funding or via the measurement 184 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the local board must sanction it. Stockholmsproven (laid down by the city of Stockholm). who then work individually. the pedagogical methods applied in these subjects are still very traditional. because the way in which the work is being conducted at Vinstagårdsskolan is new to them too. and the purpose of the co-operation between itself and the school is for the pupils and teachers to gain knowledge about working life.1. It is therefore important for the principal and the teachers to be able to demonstrate that their methods are working just as well as those of traditional schools. The chamber has an education board. and how learning is organized and undertaken differs considerably from other schools. among other things. and also strengthens the school’’s international perspective. which consists of examinations conducted during grade 7. Another impeding factor is that national and municipal guidelines and objectives are too seldom followed up. to give 60.000 teachers IT competence training and access to their own computers. is also one of the factors that influences the teachers’’ work similarly. for instance. 6. They were equipped with a personal computer. The questions concerning whether or not the school’’s pupils are achieving a basic knowledge of mathematics. and for the local companies to be able to benefit from the pupils’’ projects. Nevertheless. reading and listening in Swedish and English are among the most important. regional and/or local framework conditions which directly impede the development of the new learning environment and the work of the teachers and pupils.7. Because of this. some of the conditions do influence the extent to which some work has to be reorganised in the school. The school is new. But they themselves also need to develop their competencies in planning and carrying out learning step by step. Half of the Vinstagårdsskolan teachers took part. as it is often integrated into other subjects in the course of project work.

there was resistance to the establishment of the new school. they belong to and work within a work unit which cuts across the traditional grade demarcations.2. work environment and pedagogical approach. which came mainly from two sides. as long as they adhere to the framework of the school’’s overall work plan. intellectual aptitudes and knowledge of skills. during which he was asked to draw up a work plan for the school. The pupils are aged 13-15. One side was represented by other schools. its pedagogical objectives. The teachers have a shared office in the unit. emotional and intellectual development for a relatively long time (3 years) Obtain a holistic picture of the pupil Create security Achieve continuity and holism in teaching and other activities Focus on the pupils’’ maturity. The work plan describes the organization of work at the school. well-equipped workplace with a good atmosphere for both students and employees. as well as focusing on their interests instead of their chronological age. 6.7.of the objectives attained. ICT is viewed merely as a means of attaining the pedagogical objectives and aims. He had a preparatory period of 5 months. and to be a modern. This was later used when recruiting the new teachers. and before any of the teachers were even aware that it was possible to apply for a job at the school. This means that schools neither follow the guidelines nor attain the objectives. and the other comprised parents who felt uncertain about the methods to be applied at Vinstagårdsskolan. and must be present at the school for 35 hours a week. The reasons for organizing the work into smaller units (which are known as ‘‘schools within a school’’) are that this organizational model makes it possible to: Follow pupils’’ social. its visions and the concrete goals to be attained by the end of the development period in the summer of 2003. This is also reflected in how the work is organized by the teachers and pupils. whereas the other two work in more than one unit because they are specialists in minor subjects such as art or physical exercise. The work units are completely autonomous in the sense that they plan and carry out their work precisely as they wish. as it formed the foundation for their future work. There is no special ICT strategy for the school. proximity and visibility. The work environment is intended to create safety. and to plan their learning on this basis. 8 and 9. stage of development. which would have fewer pupils as a result of these attending Vinstagårdsskolan instead.2 The organisational setting (Rules) The interior of the school has been planned and built to support important fundamental principles governing its organisation. 6. In the beginning.1 The school organisation The principal of the school was hired before the school was finished. The work plan describes how the school is organized into smaller units comprising 75 to 90 children and 7 teachers. and instead of dividing them into grades 7. and is therefore not 185 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 5 of the 7 teachers in each unit work only within that unit. its physical environment.7.

viewed as deserving any special emphasis. However, there is an ICT group at the school which discusses the use of ICT and sets out guidelines for the work to be done with ICT. All pupils and teachers also have their own e-mail address, and weekly letters and information to parents are published on the Internet. There is also no overall strategy for the competence development of teachers. Teachers’’ competencies and skills are developed on an as-required basis, which seems to work quite well. The principal and the vice-principal bear the pedagogical responsibility for the school. However, they are not directly involved in the work of the units, but handle the overall management of the school. Part of this task, for instance, is to follow up the quality plan, to carry out surveys on how pupils and teachers view the work being undertaken in the school, and to initiate and plan common activities across the units such as debates and working groups on specific topics, for instance concerning common indicators for the units’’ work. Another issue to be addressed in the future is that of disseminating good tools and experiences from one work unit to the others. A specific example is that of a computer-based tool for keeping track of pupils’’ performance, which has been developed and applied in one of the work units. Teachers work mainly within their own units, but recently an art project involved all pupils and teachers working across units. It is planned that there should be more activities across units in the future. There are three weekly conferences in each unit in which the teachers plan their work and discuss important matters. There are also meetings across units on specific topics in which teachers from different units can discuss their work experiences. There are also groups of teachers across units who discuss organizational matters such as quality criteria. There is one technician who takes care of the entire school’’s network and computers, as well as a librarian and kitchen staff, etc. During the existence of the school there has been a board of parents which continuously appoints working groups to work on school affairs. 6.7.2.2 Discussion Teachers find it much more motivating and challenging to work and learn in this school than in other schools they have been in. However, some teachers have left the school, mainly because they disliked or did not fully fit into the way in which the work was organized, or the manner in which learning is planned and carried out. This was especially so during the first year of the schools’’ existence. The second year has been quieter, probably due to the fact that the teachers who now work at the school have settled into a satisfactory way of organizing their work. In their pevious jobs, many of the teachers at the school were accustomed to working on their own, teaching only a few subjects and working within narrowly-defined frameworks. Starting at Vinstagårdsskolan has also been a challenge to them, as there is no principal who plans their working day, and they must find new ways to plan and conduct the learning process. Some teachers have left the school for these and other reasons, primarily because they did not fit in.

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All the teachers we talked to view the fact there none of the units has a leader a strength, because they have a considerable influence on their own work. The theoretical risk of such autonomy might be that critical issues such as the allocation of time and duties would give rise to conflict. But so far this has not been the case, and the teachers are very satisfied with being in charge of their own work organization. However, there is one area where teachers would prefer the principal and the vice-principal to be more visible. These two individuals have the primary overall pedagogical responsibility for the school, as set out in the work plan. The teachers would like them to provide more feedback on their practical work and to follow up with new ideas, e.g. through being present in the units during learning sessions. The principal is well aware of this, and finds himself in a dilemma in which he is forced to find a balance between a traditional managerial role and a new role in which he needs to be more of a stage manager or director than a supervisor. On the one hand, the units are supposed to function as schools within a school, and on the other hand the school also needs to be an entity in itself. So far, there has been much work to do with the work units to get them to function properly, but in the long run increased working across the work units might become necessary. Another issue that could be viewed as both a strength and a weakness is the fact that the units organize their work and learning very differently. An example is that in one unit, all the teachers carry out joint planning and cooperate on conducting the programme they have planned. In another unit, the mathematics teacher and the English teacher plan and carry out all their work on their own, separate from the rest of the group. 6.7.3 The educational setting (Resources) 6.7.3.1 Description In each of the units at the school there is a large room in which all the pupils can be present simultaneously, six smaller rooms where 16 pupils can be present at the same time, and a media lab. There is also a wardrobe where each pupil has a locker and can store his jackets and footwear. Besides the units’’ own individual areas, there are rooms for such activities as physical exercise, physics, art, chemistry etc., as well as a café, a cafeteria and a library in which pupils can work on projects. There are also two units for special needs education in the school. The school has one computer per 8 pupils, and all the computers are connected to the Internet. The computers are located throughout the units and in the library in such a way that the pupils can access them whenever and wherever they want to work, provided of course that they are not already in use. Besides computers, there are printers and scanners in each unit. The school’’s furniture is bought from Kinnarps, a company that specializes in creating flexible, mobile furniture, with the purpose of being able to reorganize the learning environment. Each unit is responsible for buying or making its own learning material. Purchases are also made in co-operation with the library, and all units have access to the learning material available from Skolverket’’s website104. At the moment, the computers are mainly used for word processing and internet

104

See http://www.skolverket.se

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searches, and therefore the need for buying or accessing digital learning material is not urgent. Now that the school is established, it has the same budget as the other schools in the municipality. 6.7.3.2 Discussion When the school was converted from offices, it was rebuilt in such a way as to support the organizational, environmental and pedagogical objectives. Extra funding was made available in order to provide the school with networks, furniture, computer equipment etc., to a greater extent than with any other school. Of course, this means that the school has had a better starting-point than other schools. Nevertheless, the teachers agree that the way in which their work is organized and the learning takes place could be copied even in a traditional school building with long corridors and classrooms. The parents endorse this view, and emphasise that the really crucial factor for the success of such a learning environment is the attitudes of management and teachers. Among other things, the parents say that they have received the strong impression that the teachers at this school really believe in what they are doing, and that this influences them as well as the pupils. According to them, there is also a kind of openness in the school which they do not recognise from other schools. This means, for instance, that the parents can come and go as they please in the school –– even in the teachers’’ rooms –– and always feel welcome. 6.7.4 The learning environment The learning environment is determined by the set of pedagogical rules and objectives described in the school’’s work plan. As mentioned earlier, the school principal regards the school’’s organization, work environment and pedagogical approach as being closely related and interwoven. When a school wants to initiate change, it is necessary to include all three levels. Therefore the pedagogical principles at Vinstagårdsskolan should be viewed in the context of the organizational structure. Additionally, the learning environment is characterized by the means through which its objectives are reached. 6.7.4.1 Description At Vinstagårdsskolan, the following pedagogical principles and values guide the new learning environment: The school aims to promote job satisfaction and well-being, as well as knowledge and skills within the areas of language acquisition, mathematics, information handling and knowledge seeking Vinstagårdsskolan will: Create holism in pupils’’ school attendance, and will therefore to a great extent work with cross-disciplinary projects/themes for longer periods of time Train pupils to be responsible for their own learning process Involve pupils in planning, carrying out and following up their own learning process Develop pupils’’ social competencies through co-operation in flexible groupings Give every pupil an individual development plan Plan and carry out activities in such a way that the majority of them can be achieved within the framework of the school day

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Create learning environments that promote and develop creativity and knowledge seeking. This presupposes an array of pedagogical methods and work formats, and the taking into account of every pupil’’s individual learning style. Traditional didactic pedagogical methods are moderated in favour of more tailored learning methods. The school’’s work plan lists its five most important cornerstones: Personal and social development Acquisition of knowledge and skills Development of work methods Development of forms of influence and co-operation Development of a good work environment and organization. For each of the cornerstones, the fundamental perspective, vision and views are stated in addition to the aims. Some of the basic perspectives influencing how learning takes place are: The school will create the basis for transforming pupils into independent and democratic citizens through participation and co-operation The school prepares and trains pupils for society and work as it exists both today and in the future The school develops the pupils’’ lifelong learning strategies The organization and its work are founded on the basic assumption that each and every person is unique, and has different qualifications and backgrounds for learning The teachers’’ ways of working and co-operating comprise models and examples for their pupils’’ work Parents play an important and active role in developing the pupils’’ social and knowledge-based competencies ICT is an important tool in the pupils’’ work The focus should not be on all pupils learning similar content, but on the quality of what they are learning There should be constant alternation between written and oral work Individual assignments are also part of the group work. The overall principle for the work in each of the units is to realize a number of aims. This means that teachers as well as pupils must always be working within the framework of the school’’s overall aims and objectives, and within the aims and objectives established for each of the pupils. The school provides a number of tools for this work: Syllabus and curriculum guidelines Development plan and dialogue for each pupil Mentors Visibility of objectives Portfolio Log books. By the end of this school year, Vinstagårdsskolan is supposed to have developed syllabus and curriculum guidelines for all its subjects, including aims and objectives for three different levels of pupil achievement. All pupils should have an individual, documented development plan. The development plan contains written documentation of the pupils’’, parents’’ and teachers’’ views concerning the aims, methods and evaluations affecting the social and knowledge development of the pupil. It is continuously updated, or at least at twice-yearly minimum intervals prior to a development dialogue in which the pupil, parents and teachers participate, and discuss and decide the aims for the subsequent period. Some pupils have more than two dialogues a year if it is considered necessary.

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Each of the 5 teachers that works solely in one unit takes on the role of mentor for circa 15 pupils of different ages. This means that they have close contact with these pupils and follow their performance throughout their three years in the school. Throughout the pupils’’ progression through the school, the objectives of their current activities are always visible to them. They know, and are continuously informed about, their school’’s overall educational aims. During class they are informed about the aims of each activity. They also know the aims and objectives pertaining to themselves, because they have participated in the process of their formulation. All of the objectives and aims are followed up by different kinds of measurement. The purpose of using portfolios is to collect each pupil’’s work together in order to use it as the basis for an end-of-year assessment. At the moment, all the pupils have a portfolio divided into sections, but they are not yet using it. The pupils learn how to plan and carry out their own work in order to attain the goals set out in the development plan. One of the tools for monitoring this process is the log book in which the pupils are intended to note down their aims, methods and results. Pupils show the log books to their parents every Monday, when the parents sign them; they show them to their mentors on Tuesdays, and update them on Thursdays. The children work together in groups across age boundaries, and are not kept in the same groups for more than one project in a row. The teachers put the groups together on the basis of a number of criteria, for instance interests, level of knowledge or skill within the area, age, etc. 6.7.4.2 Discussion The overall view of pupils, parents and teachers alike is that the school and the manner in which learning is planned and carried out has been a success. Both the teachers and the pupils have stated that the first year was a challenge. This was certainly the case for those pupils who came from schools where traditional teaching methods had primarily been used. The new methods employed at Vinstagårdsskolan, and the freedom to choose them (and to a certain extent content), together with the free planning of time and space, was both thrilling and frustrating. Pupils in the present grade 8 say that they were confused by the lack of direct control, and found it hard to handle in the beginning. The pupils in the current grade 7 have only partially shared this experience. The pupils themselves are convinced that the new grade 7 has benefited from grade 8’’s experiences and help. It is therefore anticipated that the newcomers’’ problems will increasingly diminish. Especially during the first year, a number of pupils left the school after having been there for a relatively brief period. In the second year, a number of parents chose not to send their children to Vinstagårdsskolan at all, but the number of pupils leaving the school was much smaller. The parents stated that the reason that some of them had moved their children was that they were anxious, because this school did not at all resemble what they knew from their own childhood. A minority of parents was not sure that the children were learning what they were supposed to through the new methods. The parents who were interviewed for this case study said that the teachers believed in what they were doing, which had convinced them that the school was on the right track.

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But in those subjects where national examinations are used to assess the pupils. When asked why ICT is not more clearly emphasised in the school plan. the focus on methods rather than content. All the teachers use ICT as a natural part of their work. but the pupils say that they never lack access to a computer. and in the pedagogical objectives it describes. Is this school equally suited to all kinds of pupils? This question is highly relevant. The tools being used to follow up the learning process and the children’’s progress are all working well except for the portfolios. The fact that there are more classmates than usual in the school ensures that all the pupils will find friends with whom they can feel comfortable. 40% of the time spent at the school is supposed to be spent on creative working methods and projects which mirror holistic thinking. because they were now accustomed to planning. the teachers continue to teach in the traditional way. At the moment this is not the case. not as a topic in itself. The methods used are very varied. there was only minor publicity surrounding the school. But both teachers and parents have no doubt that this school is at least better for more of the children than a traditional school.7. The mentors follow the students for three years in all subjects. and the pupils say that they use ICT much more in this school than they have done before.7. ICT is used daily.5 The learning situation When we visited Vinstagårdsskolan. The main themes of the learning activities were: World history Job interview 191 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . ““It’’s all in my head now!”” The world outside the school is not separated into subjects. 6. All the people we interviewed agree that there was no longer any fuss being made about the school.5. and therefore the learning process should not be either. physical and knowledge-based skills.In the second year. and have the opportunity to follow up in various different ways. As a consequence of this. and the use of ICT for learning purposes. As one girl said.1 Description The visit to Vinstagårdsskolan gave us an idea of the variety of learning methods being used. carrying out and following up their own work. the traditional division into subjects should not be the dominant model for the organisation of work. We also caught glimpses of other activities in progress while we were there. Pupils. ICT is viewed mainly as a learning tool. 6. The competencies developed are also more varied. as they include social. and they are not using computers all the time. The goal is to have 6 pupils per computer at the school.e. three specific learning activities which were planned and carried out. and is of course is hard to answer at the present time. The teachers’’ presence among all the pupils during the entire school day creates a safe and secure environment for them. parents and teachers are all very satisfied with the mentor arrangement and the development dialogues. including via the involvement of other teachers. Some of the pupils in the 8th grade said that they were not using the log book any more. and thereby stimulate more learning styles. This is reflected in the minor focus on ICT which exists in the work plan. both for lesson preparation and for teaching. This is due to the fact that the work methods of the pupils are mixed. i. we observed three learning situations. the principal and the teachers both state that the focus is on learning.

with questions surrounding it such as ““what happened?””. Job interview Another example was that of a job interview. Pupils are supposed to do their practical during the 8th grade. the emphasis was on the method which the pupils were supposed to be applying in their work after choosing their topic. The topic had to be in the middle. and was selected from among a number of topics outlined by the teacher. and try to find the answers to them Revise and correct the text During the presentation. Instead. together with a list of activities which the pupils were to carry out: Select the topic to investigate Draw up a mind map. ““where did it happen?””. either on paper or using the computer. from which they 192 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and was presented on a big screen. They used the process of applying for a job as practice preparation for finding a place to do their practical. the computer functioned as an information bank in which students were able to find supplementary information on the topic they were working on. since it is a strategic aim that pupils should both learn how to search the Internet for information and be able to distinguish reliable information from the less reliable. World history 24 pupils were working in groups of varying sizes with world history projects. As they worked.Advertising project. A cartoon crocodile was used to represent a pupil who was supposed to start work on a project concerning the Boston Tea Party. the pupils started working on their projects in groups. the children had a basis on which they were able to search for and sort the information they obtained. This reflects the outcome of careful consideration. the pupils were able to seek help from the teacher. and thereby getting an overview of the topic. ““why did it happen?”” Find two written texts (in book format) describing the topic Find and list key words Write a brief summary outlining the two different views represented in the two texts Ask questions desired to be answered in the form of additional information Search the Internet for the additional information Write a longer text on the topic Ask new questions. the teachers provided pupils with nine job ads. Prior to our observation. The presentation had been created using PowerPoint. ““who was involved?””. The objective in this learning situation was not to introduce or describe a single event of world history. ““when did it happen?””. the pupils were all gathered in the common area of their unit. The aim of the project was outlined. After the presentation. By using two books first. ““what happened afterwards?””. the teacher used concrete examples to illustrate how the crocodile was working. and how the pupils were supposed to be working afterwards. The order in which the children were recommended to work was first to find information on the topic in two books. The pupils’’ choice of topic was motivated by their own interests. At the beginning of our observation. and then to look for additional information on the Internet. In this example. in order to hear one of their teachers introduce the work. The teacher presented a work method to the pupils.

Computers were used as a tool for creating the advertisement and laying out the text and graphics. Prior to the interview.were asked to choose two to apply for. Two teachers were interviewing him. Finally. the pupils were receiving this training in a safe environment before they had to perform an interview in real life. groups of pupils were supposed to create a single-page ad for the jacket. We followed the progress of one pupil’’s job interview as he applied for a job at Volvo as an engineer. the other pupils were working on their applications or other topics with their fellow-pupils and the other teachers. They were to use both text and graphics to market the jacket. On the basis of a brief description of the jacket (or one of the other products). They were also given advice on how to work. they were being trained to write in Swedish. the Internet was used to find information about the company. The pupils worked 3 days on this project. they were intended to help prepare and train pupils for life after school. When the pupils knew beforehand that the other pupils would ask critical questions. and to sort and use it constructively. instead of just analysing one or a few of them. and a word processor was used to write the application and the curriculum vitae. Secondly. In addition. One of these described a jacket that changed its appearance in accordance with the current fashion trend. as would have been the case in real life. The application was also supposed to contain fictitious curriculum vitae. and to put together an application and a CV using a word processing program. The pupils knew the purpose of the project and its anticipated result. he got feedback on his application. Each of the smaller groups was also asked to prepare a number of critical questions concerning each of the products prior to the in plenum presentation. While one pupil was being interviewed. Teachers provided the pupils with 6 different product descriptions. pencils and crayons. After finishing the advertisement. The creation of an advertisement was also intended to stimulate and develop the pupils’’ analytical skills and their creativity and skills in Swedish. Afterwards. they also had to prepare for these. The purpose here was to make the children consider the strengths and weaknesses of their products and 193 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . they were used to find information and inspiration for the pupils’’ advertisements. and how he did in the interview. his curriculum vitae. it had to be presented to the entire group working on producing advertisements. The pupils were supposed learn to work together in a group to plan and accomplish a task. they were supposed to learn how to search for information. but the planning and completion of the project were their own responsibility. Advertising project Another project we observed was that the construction of a product advertisement. The computer was used as a creative tool in conjunction with paper. First of all. In addition. They were of course able to seek help from the teachers during their work. They were also supposed to learn about the methods and effects employed by commercials and advertisements through creating an advertisement themselves. There are other reasons for carrying out this kind of project. These activities had manifold purposes.

7. The activities are manifold. Both pupils and teachers were quite enthusiastic and positive.2 Discussion At Vinstagårdsskolan. which improves the latter’’s performance Their contact with pupils is much more positive and constructive. The children were very positive because: The organization of their school day is much freer than in their previous schools The methods used are much more varied than the ones employed in their previous schools Co-operation is motivating The development plans make the purpose of learning visible. One unit combines project work and traditional teacher-directed teaching in such a way that the activities continue each week according to a fixed routine. 6. although some of the parents wonder why the gender division takes place. and set up aims to strive for The things they do are related to the world outside the school They develop independence They have learned how to use computers for different purposes.5. and at the beginning some pupils are frustrated and anxious that they might not learn what they are supposed to There is a risk of getting lazy or just sitting passively. they are positive about how the learning is organized because: The assessment criteria are always visible to all the pupils within the unit. as they are functioning more as coaches and moderators than as supervisors and controllers Their contact with each pupil is much closer and much more personal than they are accustomed to. The more sceptical comments made by pupils were: A great degree of self-discipline is required Some pupils cannot take responsibility for their own learning process It takes quite a long time to get used to the new way of learning and working. One unit also splits the pupils according to gender. In addition. Neither the teachers nor the parents or pupils see this as a problem. and has traditional teacher-directed classes for 3 weeks. e. All the pupils and teachers we talked to during our visit found it motivating and challenging (in a positive sense) to work and learn in the way they did. for instance. and sometimes (40% of their time) they are doing project work in smaller groups. argue and reason with others. Sometimes the pupils are gathered into larger groups to listen to a teacher explaining about content or methods. which improves their opportunities for meeting the pupils’’ individual needs 194 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . sometimes they work alone.advertisements.g. Teachers agree about the advantages mentioned by the pupils. They needed to be prepared to discuss. The way in which the work is planned in each of the units is very different. so that sometimes the girls work together and the boys work together. to search the Internet for information and to write in a process-oriented manner They have hardly any homework There is no rote learning. Another unit works on projects for one week. and the way in which the work is organized reflects this. learning takes place within the work units.

First of all. because they continuously discuss why they are doing what they are doing Teachers and pupils are close. and is based on objectives and aims The pupils are motivated. where they have the same teachers and can work without interruption for three years The children are able to plan their work and work more independently. the pupils have little or no homework.1 Description 195 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . However. Secondly. and have very trusting relationships There is hardly any bullying. The purpose would be to exchange experiences. this can be measured by their motivation and the regular dialogues with teachers. At the same time. Parents see the following advantages for their children: There are fewer pupils in each unit in a school than normal. and it is stimulating to discuss learning in the context of the different perspectives held by their colleagues The quality of teaching is better when the teachers have close contact with just 15-16 pupils. there are things which the teachers would like to discuss in greater depth across units. which aims to develop mutual support among pupils The environment is peaceful and quiet It is important that there is continuity in the children’’s schooling such as here. But they do mention that they need to have confidence in what is happening.7. in order to discuss whether or not they should be the same across units The exchange of information and experiences concerning the different approaches to running projects and the different methods used How to use the log books and the portfolio.6 Performance measurement and evaluation 6. there are more pupils than normal in a class. which means that the children will always be able to find others with whom they share values and interests When children work in small groups.6. and perhaps find more homogeneous ways of working across units. The things they would like to work on in the near future are: Assessment criteria. because it differs so much from what they are accustomed to from other schools.7. these can be regrouped if there are conflicts or if the children simply don’’t function well in a group Pupils with whom there are problems can be separated and work in different groups. which make them feel safe and confident. so it is not apparent from work performed at home what/how much they are doing and achieving. 6.The teachers’’ work is never monotonous. the school is part of the FRIENDS project. which means that they are constantly learning and developing themselves It gives the teachers confidence to work together and give each other feedback. All the teachers are very motivated. probably due to the fact that teachers are always present and the pupils are learning how to work together. although the teachers would not at all prefer to have uniform rules for their work. which can reduce noise and disturbance Teaching and learning is tailored to meet the individual pupils’’ needs. In addition. and can do more by themselves. the organization and the methods employed are different. The parents themselves do not have anything negative to say about the school and the learning which takes place there. which motivates the children as well The children’’s work is occasionally presented to their parents. However.

7. log books and portfolios. There have already been more initiatives to improve the school organization on the basis of performance measurements. as well as undertaking such intitiatives in response to teachers’’ needs. speak and write in Swedish and English. and their ability to listen.There are several forms of measurement and evaluation being used in the school. the pupils’’ answers resulted in an average score of 3. ability to find information etc.7 The future Vinstagårdsskolan will not be fully operational until the 2003/2004 school year. the pupils’’ individual performances regarding both knowledge and skills such as those mentioned above are systematically evaluated via development plans. 6. They do not measure other things which are emphasized in Vinstagårdsskolan. 6. when there will be pupils in grades 7 to 9 and all the work units will be employed.7. It is not that the principal and the teachers do not believe in their own methods –– they certainly do.08. which means that the results of the organization and the pedagogical approach being followed in the school can also be benchmarked against the results from other schools for the first time. pupils from the school will take examinations (Stockholmsproven) for the first time. there is an evaluation and a follow-up plan.1 Challenges ahead One of the main challenges for Vinstagårdsskolan is naturally to prove that it is on the right track. This year. and that its pupils can perform well against other 196 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . The areas in which the scores were lower concerned pupils taking action when someone was bullied. The areas that scored highly were areas such as the pupils’’ opportunity to take responsibility for their own work. The performance of the pupils is measured and evaluated externally in Stockholmsproven during grade 7. the fact that they were able to use what they learned at school outside the school. What these examinations measure is the pupils’’ factual knowledge. social and democratic competencies. but also to a great extent for the principal and the teachers in the school. Additionally. The other concerns the pupils’’ learning process. The school has a plan for quality work which sets out the performance measures for the school in terms of various criteria. This is a big concern not only for parents and pupils (apart from the ones already attending Vinstagårdsskolan). and pupils taking part in the planning of what they were supposed to be doing. During the school year. where 4 was the maximum possible score for each question. and is intended to be. ability in mathematics.6. In the first operational year of the school. evaluated continuously by the principal and the teachers jointly. and via the national examination at the end of grade 9. 6.7. and the fact that they had the opportunity to work on their own. such as the ability to work in groups. The main cause for scepticism towards the school is that people are anxious about the pupils doing as well in the national examinations as the pupils from other schools. This plan includes the filling-out by pupils of a questionnaire whose answers will form the basis for deciding which areas to focus on during the following year’’s work. But there has been a lot of pressure and scepticism among the general public which the school would like to neutralise. and 1 was the minimum.2 Discussion The organization of the work is.7. One of them pertains to the organization and the work environment.

and after grade 9 they go on to the gymnasium (i. for instance. these two individuals face new challenges in maintaining the high level of morale and the teachers’’ motivation. the teachers are motivated by the new way of working. For the local politicians and administrators. it will be a challenge for them to integrate the new methods into those subjects (English. What will happen in the future? The teachers also face great challenges. problem-solving abilities etc. as it is a new school housed in a building which supports the overall organizational and pedagogical objectives. There are current plans to build a new gymnasium in the district. But according to 197 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Secondly. are viewed by their future employers. For instance. it will be interesting to see if the organization of their work will be as smooth in the future as it is today. which could be partially based on the same model as Vinstagårdsskolan. Another challenge exists for general teacher training.e. At the moment. The teachers know that there might be reductions in hours within each unit as the school grows next year. upper secondary school). the pupils do not receive a holistic education. because they come from schools which use traditional methods. and to what extent. mathematics and to a certain extent Swedish). Another important issue is to analyze to what extent the school’’s methods are beneficial for all types of pupils. it is important to analyze if.schools in the national examinations. For the moment.7. which also teaches using traditional methods. They feel that they are presently working many hours already. In addition. During the initial phase. Those competencies are not measured by the examinations that take place within the school system. the budget for next school year has not yet been adopted. One of the pupils said. But as we see it. which today are taught in the traditional way. and fear that the workload might grow next year if reductions are made. and in continuing the development of the school. In addition. but what happens when the daily round takes over? Another issue is that of the absence of leadership within the work units. There is a tendency at the moment for some teachers to take the responsibility for a work unit onto themselves. it will be a challenge to integrate the new ways of organizing and learning into other schools if Vinstagårdsskolan proves to be a success. First of all. How could the methods used at Vinstagårdsskolan be taught in teacher training colleges if they proved to be successful in the long run? 6. it will be important for the school to have feedback on how its pupils’’ competencies. so we don’’t actually need Göran (the principal) and Magnus (the vice-principal) any more””. This cannot of course be measured before the end of the 2003/2004 school year. such as their ability to work together and independently.. the creation of a safe and secure work environment influences the pupils’’ self-confidence positively and really does develop their competencies on the basis of their individual skills and abilities. it has been possible to recruit new teachers who have signed up to the principles embodied in the work plan. ““Everything is on track now.7.2 Good practice Vinstagårdsskolan has had the best possible start.

see: http://www. the methods used.se/english/index. teachers.org2/eun/en/Insight_SchoolPractice/sub_area . In an existing school.8 Additional case studies and information concerning schools using ICT for learning This section contains a number of links and references to other studies involving the use of ICT for learning in schools. läsåret 2002/03. other schools could apply a number of principles from Vinstagårdsskolan. Teachers could take on the responsibility for one or more grades. the teamwork model for teachers could also be applied in other schools. The Vinstagårdsskolan work plan.vinstagardsskolan.shtml (in English) Information concerning the national initiatives on ICT in schools. Examples from outstanding schools in France.8 Sources Rektorsbrev nr. see: http://www.org2/eun/en/index_insight.cfm?sa=2320.se/ki/eng/comp. and the integration of computers into learning. all teachers could take part in formulating a vision for their school.htm (in Swedish only) Syllabuses for compulsory schools.cfm. The principal’’s newsletter in which he describes the findings from the first questionnaire completed by the pupils. every school could draw up a work plan covering its organization.skolverket.stockholm. provided of course that they had bought or were able to buy computers and connect them to the Internet. Ireland and the Netherlands can be found at www. Links to INSIGHT schools can be found at http://insight. environment and pedagogical approach.org/eun.7. The conclusions of an analysis of the cases can be found in the report Schooling for Tomorrow.se/verksam/verksamindex.se/verksam/verksamindex. 3. and what has happened during the most recent period. could also be applied in other schools.owinsp.the principal.eun. while here is a description of ICT practices in the world of European school education: http://insight.oecd.vinstagardsskolan.se/it_i_skolan/ (in Swedish only) 6.nl/tifkas (click on Producten).skolverket. 198 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .org/eun.eun.skolutveckling. www. Learning to Change: ICT in Schools. Thirdly.stockholm. Sweden. published by the OECD. 6. see: http://www3. see: http://www. although it will probably be a slower process there. see: http://www.org contains 107 documents describing national case studies concerning ICT in schools worldwide. First of all.htm (in Swedish only) The plan covering the work of schools in Stockholm. parents and pupils.pdf (in English) Information on the Swedish school system and curriculum. Secondly.

and the contextual factors that supported and influenced them. national panels used common selection criteria. see: http://sitesm2. the European Network of Innovative Schools. In each of the 28 countries that participated in the study. at http://www. to identify 174 innovative classrooms. adjusted for the national context.org2/eun/en/enis2/entry_page. The International Co-ordinating Committee (ICC) conducted a cross-case analysis using qualitative and quantitative methods.org/eun. the role that ICT played in these practices. For more information. National research teams used a common set of case study methods to collect data on the pedagogical practices of teachers and learners.The Second Information Technology in Education Study: Module 2 is an international study of innovative pedagogical practices that use information and communication technology.cfm?id_area=18 199 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .eun.org/ There are links to ENIS.

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including the potential role of e-learning. ICT holds great potential for encouraging change and innovation in the systems of education and training. The Future School ““All of our experience is with the past. it is possible to influence the future. Every day we are confronted with uncertainty. what kinds of responses to the challenges facing schools are likely to be made. two sets of scenarios for future schooling are presented. The chapter is based on conclusions drawn from the preceding phases of the study. the scenarios are used as input into a discussion of possible assumptions concerning how the development of schools will be influenced in practical terms by various driving forces in the future –– that is. It is primarily the boom in new technologies that has brought about a recognition of the need to speed up the innovation and change processes in education and training in order to keep pace with the rapid changes occurring in the wider society. 7. Finally. Secondly. and on a scenario workshop for school experts (both practitioners and theoreticians) from different EU Member States that was held in Brussels in October 2003. all of our experience is with the past. imagining the future is a difficult task. Institute of Alternative Futures. 201 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . but all of our decisions are about the future.7. and that it is occurring faster than before. it must attempt to imagine probable and alternative futures. In that sense. successful strategic planning –– especially that which involves such a core societal institution as the school –– must involve an understanding of what might happen. Taking into consideration the rapidity of change in society. This was demonstrated during a workshop run in October 2003 as part of this study. The chapter firstly outlines a variety of general societal trends that either currently or potentially challenge and influence the development of schools in the future. Hence it becomes increasingly accurate to say that the past is not necessarily a relible guide to the future. Underlying this proposition is the notion that armed with a set of identified trends and key factors plus a variety of possible political decisions and strategic tools. we define ‘‘trends’’ as patterns of change over time in relation to some factor that is of interest to the observer. but all of our decisions are about the future””105 The purpose of this chapter is to identify trends and possible scenarios for the future school. We do not know what is going to happen. School experts in 105 Wiser Futures: Using Futures Tools to Better Understand and Create the Future. on desk research. in other words. However. while ‘‘key factors’’ are defined as trends that according to our mental map are expected to change the future of an organization or field.1 Why try to imagine the future? As the above quotation states. but we know and sense that change is occurring. It is apparent that the education world and the training sector has until recently been characterised by a substantial absence of planning and ‘‘future visions’’. and the probability of a given type of school model emerging as a result. An interesting strategic planning exercise is to express what one would like to see happening in the future instead of attempting to predict what actually will happen. In this sense.

On the contrary. Hence in this case. Below. the use of scenarios in a strategic process is illustrated: Figure 7. ‘‘Plausible and alternative visions of the future’’ represents a good discussion framework for individuals and institutions involved with any given issue. and to assess what strategies/choices/actions will match the scenarios’’ demands. although they should not be taken as a prediction of the development of an individual school. or of schooling in a specific locality. to appraise how current strategies match the scenario demands and challenges (i.1: Using scenarios in a strategic process L ik e l y & A lt e r n a t iv e F u t u r e s Scanning for Trends P re fe rre d F u tu re Vision Identify Key Forces Values Scenarios Mission Revised & New Strategies Goals Prioritzed Action Plan 202 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . challenges and opportunities. scenarios can be used to facilitate the development of a future strategy/policy. the benefit of employing scenarios as an instrument is that they can be used to describe in a generalised and hypothetical manner how schooling might develop overall in society.e. a strategy review). challenges and potentials. in practice one would expect that complex mixes of the alternative futures identified via the scenarios are likely to emerge.both practice and theory participated. a worst-case and a best-case scenario for school development. The workshop’’s purpose was to generate a set of plausible and alternative scenarios for the future. including a most probable case. The underlying purpose was for the results of the workshop to be reported in this study and thereby provide a basis for the discussion and assessment of the Commission’’s e-Learning initiative in order to assist in drawing up recommendations for future action. scenarios can be used to generate and identify hypothetical demands. Finally. It also provides a good framework for the review of a current strategy. or establishes a basis for strategic decision making in the sense of ““what do we do if……?”” Accordingly.

Governments increase the production of strategies for the integration of ICT in schools.2. The transition towards the knowledge society might apply pressure on schools to develop skills and competencies centred on the production of knowledge. Education is regarded as the driving force for continued economic development. mathematics.2 Main challenges facing the schools Prior to staging this workshop. Trends with a potential influence on the future school The following is the list of trends identified as potentially influencing the future school: 7. which can create conflicts.1 7.1 Political factors Factors Globalization/ internationalization Increasing attention to benchmarking Description The overall political tendency that will also be a driving force for school development in the future. The volume of content to be learned during school education and the competencies which must be developed are increasing and will probably continue to increase in the future. The way that pupils’’ performance is measured does not always correspond with the demands for skills and competencies. Guidelines and demands may be centralized while budgets are decentralized.1. The need for the development of pupils’’ abilities to learn throughout their lives is liable to increase the pressure on schools to develop such competencies. Demands for development of additional competencies and skills Transition to knowledge society Focus on lifelong learning Mismatch between demands and assessment Pressure on education as initiator of economic growth Centralization/decentralization ICT strategies for school development 203 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . There is a tendency for more and more aspects of the activities of schools and the performance of pupils to be measured and benchmarked across schools at the regional. religion and history do not encompass the entire body of essential knowledge that pupils must learn.7. The list was intended as a broad but not exhaustive list of relevant trends to stimulate the discussion concerning the nature of the key factors influencing the future school. Nowadays. national and international level.2. RAMBOLL had prepared a list of societal trends which was given to the participants. mother tongue.

regional.2. On the other hand. Local. schools will be forced to reinvest in both hardware and software technology.2 Economic factors Factors Increased focus on natural sciences Description A scarcity of students and employees working with the natural sciences stimulates the demand for a particular focus on the development of these topics in school education.g.1. Lack of resources in public administration Increased pressure for investment in ICT Increasing numbers of pupils per class Public support for projects Competence development Increasing amount of information 7. Increased acknowledgement of national linguistic minorities in the EU Member States and in the accession countries requires educators to respect and respond to the need for bi. Natural sciences are regarded as representing an area with a great potential for growth. An increasing amount of information is distributed. Due to an increased use of technology. Teachers’’ competence development is still needed in relation to the use of ICT in teaching and in the creation of new learning practices.3 Socio-cultural factors Factors Individualization Description Increasing attention on the individual learner. New pedagogical trends such as problem-solving. The number of pupils in each class will probably grow. The increasing demand for people’’s ability to cope with flexibility and complexity emphasises the importance of incorporating this into schoolwork. it might lead to an information overload that pupils and teachers will need time to cope with. requiring new ways of teaching and learning. co-operation. as this is regarded as the foundation for learning. The increasing cultural diversity of pupils resulting from migration flows from third world countries in particular calls for a specific focus on the ability of learners to respond to cultural diversity and take it into account in education. differentiation and different learning styles (e. and to employ people with technical skills. Lack of competencies could impede the development of innovative learning environments.7.2. in accordance with Howard Gardner’’s theories) There is an increased focus on the creation of learning environments in which both pupils and teachers feel secure. On the one hand. national and EU funding of projects in schools might stimulate new ways of learning and teaching. this could be a source of general inspiration. etc.1.or multilingual Focus on learning environments New pedagogical trends Increasing demand for handling flexibility and complexity Emphasis on respect for cultural diversity Increased acknowledgement of linguistic diversity 204 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . A lack of resources due to a decrease in taxation income might result in reduced school funding. project work.

hearing and sight. Ageing computers must be replaced. teachers and co-learners from almost anywhere. together with other competencies needed in the workplace.. StarOffice and other free software products open up the market. Technology continues to get cheaper. which makes it possible for both schools and pupils to buy computers and other devices and hook up to the internet.g. Pupils and teachers will have more and more communication options. Increased pressure for educators to break the cycle of negative social inheritance Educators have to take on the parents’’ educating role Focus on school management Teamwork versus isolation among teachers Movement from content to competencies Pupils’’ demands Intercultural focus Need for reflection 7. Pupils demand an increase in the use of ICT in their schoolwork. in the sense that it is possible to carry one’’s device(s) around and connect to the internet remotely regardless of location. This makes it possible to access learning resources. are a focal point in schools.Factors Description education. Increased globalisation and immigration make it important to focus on intercultural factors.2. The same applies to networks etc. Project work. The increasing volume of information and new media makes it ever more necessary for individuals to learn how to reflect on the information they have been exposed to. e. School management needs to have a more visible role in creating innovative learning environments. New digital learning material is being created to support differentiated learning in schools.1. The school is increasingly taking over the parental role in providing pupils with essential social skills. touch. Cheaper technology Need for up-to-date technology Unlimited possibilities for communication Different sorts of technology Development of new learning material Free software 205 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . etc. problem-solving. Technology can be designed in ways that supports different ways of learning and stimulates more of the senses. Teachers must learn to co-operate instead of working in isolation in order to create robust and innovative learning environments.4 Technical factors Factors More flexible technology Description Technology devices are becoming increasingly compact and flexible. There is an increased focus on negative social inheritance that requires educators to meet the individual child’’s needs in relation to changing its otherwise preordained future. creating great flexibility in relation to where and when learning takes place. Linux.

2. the participants would again be divided into three groups and work out a most probable. This does not mean that the relative importance or probability of the factors was not discussed. key factors? To what extent is each of these factors relevant for the future development of education? What factors do you consider to be the most important? What other factors are central driving forces? How probable do you consider the development of each of these factors? Afterwards. each group first explained the outcome of the discussions in their group to the rest of the participants. It should be noted that this list does not prioritise the factors according to the degree of probability or importance. The next objective was to reach consensus on a common list of key factors. the above-mentioned political. economic. This proved to be a very difficult exercise. both in relation to the inclusion of a given factor and how its influence on the future school scenario can be explained and interpreted. but it was agreed that the factors included in the list are all highly important for envisioning the future of the school. Connection to the internet 7. a worst case and a best case scenario for the future development of the school. The list produced during the workshop comprises the following: 1. The subsequent planned stage was that on the basis of the list of key factors identified. Increased connectivity to the internet in both schools and homes makes it possible to create virtual learning environments. lessening pressure on schools to buy and maintain such equipment. since the attempt to agree on a common list to work from generated lengthy and intense debate among the participants. Increased Increased Increased Increased demand for coping with flexibility and diversity complexity of society (demand for) use of differentiated learning (demand for) use of ICT for learning 206 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . There was no undivided consensus among the participants as to how the individual factors and their influence on schools should be explained. the participants were asked to consider the following questions: Which of the trends listed are central driving forces –– in other words. In fact. and the workshop culminated in the list of key factors influencing the school which is reproduced below. 4. 3. the workshop did not succeed in reaching that stage. On the contrary. time ran out.Factors Pupils have their own laptops Description Pupils can bring their own laptops to school.2 Factors of key importance for future school development During the workshop. but reflects the fact that insufficient consensus existed to permit assigning a priority ranking in relation to the importance or probability of the factors identified. However. it must be concluded that there exists a multiplicity of interpretations and consequent explanations concerning the factors listed. ‘‘What key factors will influence school development in the future?’’ Divided into three groups. sociocultural and technological trends that might be of importance for the development of schools were discussed. The workshop participants were asked to consider the question.2.

thereby recognising the importance of making compromises. while the creation of knowledge is in vogue. Need for reflection 18. With regard to the methodological point raised during the workshop concerning whether it would be more appropriate to work with ‘‘axes of tension’’ (or polarities). It was felt that there was also a danger of ignoring tensions in the relative weightings that ought to be given to the school’’s three main functions. Pressure for inclusiveness / inclusive learning 13. it is 207 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Increased focus on school management 7. Mismatch between the current roles of teachers. Thirdly.5. we believe that the items identified should be regarded as representing some of the main challenges facing the school as seen from the perspective of the participating experts. who are working with school development across Europe at both the practical and theoretical level. Increased pressure for democratisation of schools 11. As the discussion did not reach a stage that would enable a ranking according to the importance or degree of probability concerning the factors included in the list above. Development of alternative pathways to education 12. For example: ‘‘Back to basics’’ versus ‘‘learning to learn’’ ‘‘Top down’’ versus ‘‘bottom up’’ ‘‘Standard certification schemes’’ versus ‘‘peer validation’’ ‘‘Globalisation’’ versus ‘‘territorialisation’’ Short-term ‘‘employability’’ versus ‘‘autonomy building’’ and ‘‘social and economic empowerment’’ ‘‘Teacher empowerment’’ (and better pay) versus ‘‘devaluation of the teaching function’’. Secondly. Rapid change 14. Pressure on education as an initiator of economic growth (short-term demand for skills) 8. They suggested that due attention should be paid to ‘‘axes of tension’’ rather than ‘‘drivers’’. education and salaries 15. A change in learning philosophies concerning the reproduction of facts is passé. Increased demand for benchmarking of qualifications 6. Later in this chapter we will return to the question of dominant values and the more general long-term goals and visions of the school. there is a danger that such scenarios will merely reflect what is ‘‘politically correct’’ in our current political environment and give an account of the dominant ideologies. Need for ethical debate 17. Increased social division 16. they might not give sufficient weight to long-term visions and the three main objectives which the school must achieve. Institutionalisation of child care 9. Increased pressure from stakeholders to be involved in the development of the school 10. namely: 1) Personal development and ‘‘flourishing’’ 2) Preparing pupils as citizens 3) Preparing pupils as ‘‘professionals’’ and ‘‘producers’’. Some of the participants argued against the creation of scenarios along the following lines: Firstly. a more interesting exercise might be to work with polarities.

knitted together under complex administrative arrangements. 00. The purpose is twofold: To present some scenarios for future school development that we believe are relevant for the development or revision of strategies concerning learning and the use of ICT in schools To use the scenarios for a further discussion of the future school and the role of ICT.3 OECD scenarios Below are cited in brief the six schooling scenarios for the years up to 2020 which were developed by the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) 106.2340. but despite the criticisms. in the following we will cite both the OECD scenarios and those of the Scenario and Forecast Report Year 2.html. and then we present descriptions of the six scenarios in an overview table. opposites. We believe that our workshop’’s discussion to a great extent corroborates the OECD’’s identification of six scenarios under three main headings as well as the creation of the three scenarios described in the Scenario and Forecast Report Year 2. the basic features of existing systems are maintained well into the future. we briefly introduce the clusters and their scenarios. Schools are highly distinct institutions. For more information. First of all. One of these was worked out by the OECD. radical change is resisted. and another set was developed in the ‘‘Scenario and Forecast Report Year 2’’. including the generation of recommendations for future action and study.org/document/10/0. Scenario A: Bureaucratic school systems continue The future unfolds as a gradual evolution of the present school. CERI has developed six scenarios which are grouped under three main headings.1 First cluster: Attempting to maintain the status quo In this cluster. please see http://www. Many fear that alternatives would not address fundamental tasks such as guardianship and socialisation in parallel with the goals relating to cognitive knowledge and diplomas. 7. Accordingly. contrasts etc. 7. nor deliver equality of opportunity. Confronted with the inability in this study to create the hoped-for scenarios. and resistance to radical change. in the sense that these kinds of scenarios might well have resulted if our workshop had been more resultsoriented.en_2649_34521_2078922_1_1_1_37455. Political and media commentaries are frequently critical in tone. Schools continue to be institutionally quite strong. as the creation of scenarios forces their creators to think in terms of poles. we have tried to analyse and interpret the discussion which took place in our workshop in relation to two different sets of scenarios. The scenarios cited are taken from the OECD website. strong pressures towards uniformity. but their ability to implement fundamental change is absent. whether from public choice or due to an inability to implement fundamental change.3.oecd.our belief that capturing the polarities in the school debate is precisely what scenarios are good at. The scenario assumes the continuation of powerfully bureaucratic systems. 106 208 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education .

Generous levels of financial support are needed to meet the demanding requirements for quality learning environments in all communities. hastened by the extensive possibilities of powerful. the dissatisfaction of a range of key players leads to the dismantling of school systems to a greater or lesser degree. shaping but not conflicting with high teacher professionalism. some of them very local in character. emergency strategies spurring radical innovation and collective change. 209 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . There are wide socio-geographic and subject-area disparities in the depth of the crisis. the school enjoys widespread recognition as the most effective bulwark against social. the future school would see major investment and widespread recognition for schools and their achievements. They have extensive links to tertiary education and a variety of other organisations. There is a process involving the de-institutionalisation or even dismantling of school systems as part of the emerging ‘‘network society’’. in a culture of high quality. Scenario A: Learning networks and the network society New forms of co-operative networks come to predominate. diversity and innovation. It is triggered by a rapidly ageing profession and exacerbated by low teacher morale and buoyant opportunities in more attractive graduate jobs. with long lead times for measures to show tangible results in terms of overall numbers. both traditional and new. Scenario B: Schools as focused learning organisations The focus is on knowledge. inexpensive ICT.2 Second cluster: Re-schooling Within the second cluster. Schools are revitalised around a strong knowledge-oriented rather than a social agenda. Knowledge management is to the fore. a vicious circle of retrenchment and conflict. and to ensure elevated esteem for teachers and schools. and institutions of further and continuing education. Scenario A: Schools as core social centres The focus is on socialisation goals and schools in communities. 7. religious and community voices are to the fore in the socialisation and learning arrangements for children. precipitated by teacher shortages. The large size of the teaching force makes improvements in relative attractiveness costly. including those of their professionals. others employing distance and cross-border networking.3. This leads to extensive shared responsibilities between schools and other community bodies. and at the other. family and community fragmentation. ICT is used extensively alongside other learning media.Scenario B: Teacher exodus The meltdown scenario: Schools will enter a phase of major crisis. 7. Very different outcomes might follow: at one extreme. Various cultural. experimentation. Dissatisfaction with institutionalised provision and the expression given to diversified demand leads to the abandonment of schools in favour of a multitude of learning networks. It is now heavily defined by collective and community tasks. sources of expertise.3. New forms of evaluation and competence assessment flourish. Here. that is highly resistant to conventional policy responses. with high priority attached to both quality and equity.3 Third cluster: De-schooling Rather than high status and generous resourcing for schools. and the overwhelming majority of schools justify the label ‘‘learning organisations’’ (hence equality of opportunity is the norm).

encouraged by thoroughgoing reforms of funding structures.Scenario B: Extending the market model Competitive mechanisms become dominant. Teachers107 107 The text in the individual boxes is quoted more or less directly from the website referred to in the previous footnote. Many new providers are stimulated to come into the learning market. 3. Learning and organisation. incentives and regulation. Table 7. 4. measures. Flourishing indicators. and accreditation arrangements start to displace direct public monitoring and curriculum regulation. Resources and infrastructure.1 below sums up the OECD scenarios with regard to the following issues: 1. Management and governance. as do painful transitions and inequalities. 210 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 2. This is fuelled by dissatisfaction by ‘‘strategic consumers’’ in cultures where schooling is commonly viewed as a private as well as a public good. Existing market features in education are significantly extended as governments encourage diversification in a broader environment of market-led change. Innovation abounds.

Decision-making root-ed strongly within schools and the profession. Leadership is widely distributed and often collective. authority becomes widely diffused. some regulation and framework-setting. National authorities are initially strengthened. The nation (state/province in federal systems) remains central. corporate interests in learning markets. home schooling and individualised arrangements become widespread. while entrepreneurial management modes are more prominent.and possibly develop capacities to greater use of ICT. but progressively weakened the longer the crises remain unresolved. There is a substantial reduction of existing patterns of governance and accountability. assessments are key Widely different organelements of acisational responses to countability. A strong focus on non-cognitive outcomes and values might be expected to emerge. values and citizenship. learn. Crisis management predominates. organisations and tertiary education. and globalisation. ‘‘Learning organisation’’ schools characterised by flat hierarchy structures. A competitive international teaching market develops apace. particularly where social infrastructure is weakest. while drawing on welldeveloped national/ international support frameworks. and student on student learning. Re-schooling Schools as core social centres The focus of learning broadens. Extending the market model The most valued learning is importantly determined by choices and demands whether of those buying educational services or of those. though public policy responsibilities might still include addressing the ‘‘digital divide’’. some highly inover how far these novative . though shortages . with more explicit attention given to non-cognitive outcomes. Management And governance Priority is given to administration and capacity to handle accountability pressures. which would oversee market regulation but would be less involved through organising provision or ‘‘steering’’ and ‘‘monitoring’’. Quality norms typically replace regulatory and punitive accountability approaches. acquiring extended powers in the face of crisis. as the school is in dynamic interplay with diverse community interests and formal and nonformal programmes. with the close involvement of parents. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education 211 .Table 7. Even in areas which escape the worst difficulties. A wide range of organisational forms and settings emerge. a fortress mentality prevails. such as employers. Small group. for example. Individual classroom and teacher models remain dominant.some tradiquestions persist tional. De-schooling Learning networks and the network society Greater expression given to learning for different cultures and values through networks of community interests. giving market value to different forms of learning routes. and overseeing remaining schools. Strong local dimension of decision-making.1: OECD future school scenarios Attempting to maintain status quo ScenarBureaucratic school Teacher exodus ios systems continue Learning Curriculum and Where teacher shortand qualifications are ages are acute they organicentral areas of polhave detrimental effects sation icy. networks and diverse sources of expertise. with strong emphasis on efficiency. Flourishing research on pedagogy and the science of learning is systematically applied. Management is complex. but faces tensions due. with strong emphasis on non-formal learning Schools as focused learning organisations Demanding expectations for all for teaching and learning combines with the widespread development of specialisms and diversity of organisational forms. Important roles for information and guidance services and for indicators and competence assessments that provide market ‘‘currency’’. using teams. to decentralisation. With schooling assured through inter-locking networks. and with well-developed guiding frameworks and support systems. There is a substantially reduced role for public education authorities. Wide organisational diversity.

state-of-the-art facilities. A wide range of marketdriven changes would be introduced into the ownership and running of the learning infrastructure. Highly motivated and enjoying favourable conditions.strategies adopted to tures.are created in the learning markets. especially in the most affected areas. parttime . with strong emphasis on R&D. Extending the market model Funding arrangements and incentives are critical in shaping learning markets and determining absolute levels of resources. and new training and accreditation opportunities would emerge for them. though major investments in ICT could be expected. overall funding. full-time.these imbalances would ing schools' main be rectified depends on organisational struc. especially its communication capabilities. to open school facilities to the community. would worsen with growing shortages. Market forces might see these professionals in much readier supply in areas of residential desirability and/or learning market opportunity than elsewhere. might limit new investments. with schooling organised by groups and individuals. blur and sometimes break down. Problems might be the diseconomies of scale and the inequalities associated with market failure. group activities. etc. sometimes with civil service status. De-schooling Learning networks and the network society There would be a substantial reduction in public facilities and institutionalised premises. New learning professionals emerge. to develop flexible. whether employed locally to teach or as consultants. Teachers A distinct teacher corps. escape ‘‘meltdown’’ Re-schooling Schools as core social centres Significant investments would be made to update the quality of premises and equipment in general. The partnerships with organisations and tertiary education enhance the diversity of educational plant and facilities. General teacher rewards could well increase. New learning professionals . Schools as focused learning organisations Substantial investments in all aspects of schooling. A core of high-status teaching professionals. with remits with new sopossible detrimental cial responsibilities consequences for infurther stretches vestments in areas such resources. with varied contractual arrangements and conditions. networking (including internationally).Scenarios Resources and infra structure Attempting to maintain status quo Bureaucratic school Teacher exodus systems continue No major increase in As the crisis takes hold. in part caused by teaching's unattractiveness. Around this core would be many other professionals. continuous professional development. and to ensure that the divides of affluence and social capital do not widen. education and community. The use as ICT and physical inof ICT continues to frastructure. and a blurring of roles. some highly innovative and with the extensive use of ICT. parent and teacher. parents. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education 212 . Whether grow without chang.public. funds flow increasingly while continual exinto salaries to attract tension of schools' more teachers. Diseconomies of small scale. though with good rewards for all. There is no longer reliance on particular professionals called ‘‘teachers’’: the demarcations between teacher and student. private. The crisis. though established arrangements may eventually erode with ‘‘meltdown’’. Extensive use is made of ICT. especially in disadvantaged communities. Contractual arrangements might well be diverse. community players. ICT is used extensively.. strong unions/associations but problematic professional status and rewards. with mobility in and out of teaching. Whether there would be an overall reduction in learning resources is hard to predict. as might the distinctiveness of the teacher corps in reflection of their relative scarcity.

2. guidance. Below. by the L241 CHANGE Consortium for the European Commission. 7. Change related to innovation processes takes place within or through the initiative of education and training in the following directions: lifelong learning philosophy. also thanks to ICT. Scenario 2 –– Lifelong learning in place In this scenario. based on a higher level of responsiveness to the changes and needs of both economy and society. In this scenario. so it 108 7. A push towards de-institutionalisation and ‘‘marketisation’’ of education and training.4 Scenarios of the Scenario and Forecast Report Another set of scenarios was generated by the L-CHANGE Consortium in the Scenario and Forecast Report Year 2. whereas this is not so certain in relation to content and pedagogical approaches. the autonomy of learners and a shift from teaching-based to learning-based approaches. or out of no policy at all. certification. In this scenario.2 For details. according to which an increased autonomy of learners who are choosing and buying from among a vast multiplicity of learning opportunities is not supported and mediated very substantially by the conventional education and training organisations. community or workplace learning. either at home or at workplace learning centres. most eLearning is integrated into classroom. which have frequently absorbed technological innovations in the past without substantially changing their way of working. The three main directions highlighted are: 1. The development of this scenario may emerge out of policies supporting the privatisation of education and training.1 Scenario 1 –– De-institutionalisation In this scenario. since market forces are already operating in this direction. we present the three scenarios derived from these three main directions of change. community building and animation are the ‘‘proximity services’’ that constitute a significant part of the quality of the learning experience.4. please see Scenario and Forecast Report Year 2. conventional education and training institutions are losing importance. the L-CHANGE Consortium behind the Scenario and Forecast report has highlighted three main directions of change that appear to emerge from it.4. to the advantage of new market actors who are able to assemble and offer a wide choice of content and services to different segments of learners/consumers. A tremendous moment of inertia exists in education and training systems. while content availability is not the key asset for the success of learning providers: individual counselling. including a higher degree of integration among the different subsystems of education and training. the key assets are the considerable availability of learning content and the capacity to distribute it effectively to the highest number of potential learners/buyers. the introduction of flexibility and quality elements. with a possible improvement in the efficiency of the learning production process and improvement of learning options in terms of market relevance and formal ‘‘aesthetic’’ quality. the service rather than the product aspect of learning is well perceived by individuals and ‘‘organised’’ collective users. so inhibiting both the previously-mentioned drivers of change. and at other times they diverge. while emphasising that sometimes the three directions converge and produce similar effects. Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . evaluation. March 2003. 3. monitoring. On the basis of a very thorough analysis108.7.

In fact. and 3. 7.builds on existing groups of learners who are interested in sharing at least a part of their learning experience. but simply in order to continue the same modes of teaching based on content transmission. 2. This implies the existence of additional room for alternative interpretations of trends and key factors. emphasis on requirement for formal titles in order to work in public administration.) or from failure of the implementation of the innovation policies presented in Scenario 2.3 Scenario 3 –– Inertia In this scenario. etc. the two sets of scenarios cited above operate within the same set of reference frameworks concerning the likely future of the school. this does not mean that nothing will change around them in education and training. conservative driving forces that make fundamental changes in the nature of the school unlikely. This applies both to the question of which of the fundamental driving forces will 242 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . They identify the same three fundamental evolutionary forces: 1. This scenario is the explicit objective of most of the European public policies that are focused on the innovation of education and training systems through the use of ICT and lifelong learning. Behind these policies. if conventional institutions will not change substantially (they may well buy and use ICT. 7. we regard the more detailed OECD scenarios as being the more useful for the discussion of recommendations for future actions and study in relation to innovative learning environments. It also emphasises the need for the consideration of what directions it would be desirable to see change processes taking. and hence creating a qualitative development of education that still takes place within core learning institutions. It is interesting that the OECD’’s CERI has tried to develop two scenarios for each of the overall patterns of change processes identified. Of course.4. and hence for alternative scenario outputs. This scenario could emerge both as a result of ‘‘protectionist’’ public policies that prevent private and new actors in general from interfering in the formal provision of education and training (via closed accreditation systems. the principle of considering education and training as goods of public interest (‘‘public goods’’) that deserve public investment and cannot be left solely to market forces can readily be found. while most competence-oriented learners will find other suppliers who can better serve their requirements/desires. driving forces pushing for a phasing out of the institutionalised manner in which schools currently operate. However. albeit in a different manner). the resistance of education and training systems to change in any of the directions towards which innovation programmes and market forces would tend to push is the characteristic element. since different political strategies and allocations of resources are important factors in this respect. a ‘‘dual market’’ may develop in which title-oriented learners will continue to address conventional institutions. but mainly as partners of education and training institutions and within the parameters of defined education/training policy aims. Industrial actors are involved in the implementation of these policies. An awareness of the risk of new social exclusion deriving from an unequal distribution of access to ICT and learning opportunities is also inspiring lifelong learning policy orientations that support the establishment of this scenario.5 Imagining the future school and working out school strategies At a generalised level. driving forces pushing for a focus on change processes. We believe that both sets of scenarios are interesting and realistic in the sense that they undoubtedly identify the main driving forces which are creating challenges for the future school.

including e-learning strategies. We believe the same considerations apply to the development of new strategies for school development. local communities and other groups. as this would give them greater scope for the different assessments of the challenges for schools that they identified. We believe it would have been important to the participants to develop the more detailed scenarios. What is the purpose of the school.1 Links between values. we also believe that the OECD scenarios are more in line with the likely output that would have emerged if we had had sufficient time to agree on a set of scenarios. In other words. although it is plainly a precondition for certain new learning practices. On the contrary. ICT prompts the reappraisal of the teaching and learning process.prevail and what the most likely detailed scenario falling under the rubric of an overall developmental pattern will be. observation and analysis conducted all emphasise that education and learning are not value-free areas. Our desk research. Even though the scenarios of the L-CHANGE consortium give greater attention to the role of e-learning. A good school should help pupils to solve the problems they will encounter at work and in their personal relationships. ICT approaches make many new opportunities in school education possible. The question of the purpose of the school is closely linked to that of dominant values. Since we have encountered great variations in the identification of trends and key factors and the interpretations of how they might influence future schooling during the workshop staged for this study. family members or citizens in a democratic society? Most people would tend to answer that the school ought to fulfil all these requirements.5. and how does such a discussion fit together with the discussion concerning the future school? Is the purpose of the school to prepare pupils to become successful workers. ICT can be used to shift schools towards more learner-oriented ways of working. as we have tried to demonstrate in this report. This is connected with our previously-stated position that any discussion of innovative learning environments and the role of e-learning within them first and foremost requires attention to be paid to learning strategies and pedagogies from a child development perspective. contributing members of a democratic society. adopt. we tend to view it more as a facilitator. to take on the responsibility of caring for themselves and their families. strategies and future school development We stated above that we would return to the question of dominant values and the overall long-term goals and visions for the school. we still tend to favour the OECD scenarios as being more helpful as a basis for discussing the future potential of elearning. oppose and/or produce society’’s values. to get along well in a variety of life settings. and only afterwards to how e-learning can be used as a means of strengthening both the development and implementation of new learning theories and practices. they reflect. and networking opens up a range of new and mutually beneficial links for parents. Where disagreements might arise is in relation to the relative weightings to be given to these objectives. While some people tend to see ICT as the driving force behind these changes. 7. A thorough analysis of the detailed scenarios would also reveal the key factors related to the values arising out of a variety of expectations and hypotheses concerning causality relationships between multiple factors and the 243 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . interviews. and to become motivated.

in each of these subsystems. But they cannot rear themselves. the role of school management. D. intellectual-cognitive. Accordingly. and. In other words. schools must create the conditions that make sound development and hence learning possible109. There are many possible directions that the evolution of the various school-related subsystems might take in the future (such as the competence development of teachers. and eventually the academic. Yale Child Study Center: Schools that Develop Children. 7. Through its early interactions.12 no. identify with and internalise the attitudes. values and habits of its parents. children still have the same needs they have always had: They need to be protected. role of teachers and pupils etc. 109 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . and will determine the most important objective of the school. and therefore that learning ought to promote positive child and youth development. vol. To be successful. the development of the future organization. technological and social change. These people become important because they help the child to make sense of and manage its experiences.development of schooling. see the commentary by James P. Understanding this process is essential. curriculum. grow and flourish in society in general. often in the absence of emotionally significant or influential adults. linguistic. ethical. the child learns to imitate. the responses made to the current challenges will shape the future school. teachers. grandparents and other people around them. development of pedagogies). For an elaboration of this line of argument. psychoemotional. The American 244Prospect. At a basic level we tend to agree with the argument that despite massive and rapid scientific. namely the physical. specifically. will be the basis of the recommendations for future actions and study presented in the next chapter. They thereby protect and assist the child in growing along the important developmental pathways. and these will probably depend on what values will prevail. in future learning environments will largely be governed by how different values continue to coexist or conflict in the schooling subsystems. social-interactive. and their development must be guided and supported by the people around them. 23 April 2001. use of ICT. centralized/decentralized school legislation. Comer M. An adherence to the basic notion that learning is both an aspect of development and is simultaneously a facilitator of development. Children encounter many stimulating models of behaviour via the television and the Internet.

Considerable emphasis is therefore being placed on ICT in education as a key instrument in meeting the EU goals of being at the forefront of the knowledge society of the future. Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter firstly presents our overall study conclusions concerning the identification of specific subjects for further research. Nevertheless. and that the ICT infrastructure of schools has been improved considerably in the past few years. the chapter presents a set of recommendations for future action and study concerning innovative learning environments and the integration of ICT. 1. 2. The concept is not exclusively regarded as a learning tool that is confined to educational settings. issues requiring indepth analysis or empirical testing. As pointed out in Chapter 1 of the present study. it is a major goal which is jointly recognised as representing a priority need among both central and local government politicians. but as one that has broader ramifications encompassing lifelong learning and a general adaptation to the requirements of the knowledge society. school management. school administrators. There is a general awareness in all Member States that ICT potentially has an important part to play in promoting social inclusion and equal opportunities. Therefore this chapter attempts to draw some more general and visionary conclusions covering the study as a whole. there are many conclusions and sub-conclusions to be stated in relation to the issues discussed in this report.1 Conclusions Given the broad scope of the terms of references for this study. and in particular the advances made due to innovative learning environments in relation to the four main foci of the elearning initiative were considered. The executive summary at the beginning of the report summarises the findings and conclusions concerning each of the issues it covers. and the constructivist/constructionist concept of knowledge and learning on the other. parents and pupils. Secondly. 3. In the study we have shown that in all the Member States there is a strong tendency in the direction of integrating ICT into education. these are: The provision of high-quality information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and equipment in the field of education An improvement in the standard and level of ICT training for teachers and those involved in the wider workforce The development of high-quality educational content The reinforcement of ICT-related co-operation and dialogue 8. and the problems and opportunities which exist for integrating and developing the use of ICT for education and training. the advances made in the Member States. The concept or notion of a learning environment as a separate topic has become current in educational discourse in close connection with the emerging use of ICT for educational purposes on the one hand. This means that even where the integration of ICT in schools is not yet underway. teachers. The findings of the study confirm a strong public involvement in promoting the integration of ICT in learning in the school environment.8. generally speaking the study has demonstrated that the important differences in the level of infrastructure among Member States are partly replicating the differences in the level of investment in edu- 245 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . As a background for the undertaking of drawing both conclusions and recommendations.

not only for infrastructure but for teacher education. With regard to praxis. and information seeking. Classroom activities are being reorganised so that the pupils either work together in smaller groups or individually. the use of ICT for information and communication is widespread. simulation and other experimental uses. The use of ICT gives schools the opportunity to network with other institutions –– both cultural institutions and other educational institutions –– and gives them access to new forms of learning / multimedia material. and the fact that in practice ICT as a learning tool is being applied only to a very limited degree. Classroom activities are being reorganised across subjects. We believe that the manner in which some of the innovative learning environments described in this report’’s case studies have additionally succeeded in exploring and taking advantage of the learning potential of ICT unquestionably represents the minority in relation to the overall reality prevailing among Europe’’s schools. the innovative use of technology often only occurs within the classroom. and not very often between classrooms. On the other hand. increasing their social participation and improving their communication and collaboration skills. Expectations concerning what is achievable through the use of ICT must accordingly be (re)adjusted. Pupils are also supposed to be collaborating more. ICT is used more seldom for game playing. but does not in itself determine the direction of change. production. ICT is used mainly for collaborative and communication activities. it appears to be the case that the information and communication benefits of ICT technologies are being exploited much more than its learning potential. ICT is often a catalyst of change. There is a paradoxical mismatch between our finding that the constructivist approach to learning represents a trend and a common vision among new pedagogical theories. although such activities have been observed. as well as providers of the frameworks for the learning process of their students. Some of the general characteristics of new and innovative learning environments in which ICT is being used to support new ways of learning can be described as follows: The role of school management is important as it is changing from traditional ““schedule planners”” towards managers of change as regards implementing new organizational structures and exploring the possibilities of setting up new ICT infrastructure and value managers as regards being drivers of implementing new pedagogical practises. 6. 5. We consider that ICT should not be regarded as the primary driver of school change in itself. services and education at large. This implies the overall conclu- 246 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 7. However. and especially when comparing some countries in the Northern part and some in the Southern part of Europe.cation that may be observed among European countries. though to a much greater extent in some Member States than in others. across entire schools. 4. but instead ought to be perceived as a facilitator or intermediary of change. or between schools and other institutions and organisations. The role of teachers tend to change from a ‘‘teacher to pupils’’ process of knowledge processing to more ‘‘group-based’’ or ‘‘pupil to pupil’’ processes where the teachers act more systematically as advisors. guides and supervisors for students. Pupils are supposed to have a more active participation in their own learning process.

other factors may impede the integration of ICT for learning. However. There is clearly a difference in the level of incorporation of change processes. assessment. The result can be innovative when either a bottom-up or top-down approach is followed. This trend contradicts the trend towards the mainstreaming of constructivistic approaches to learning. 8. This is especially the case in those countries which have been keen to invest public money and establishing the widespread access to and use of ICT for information and communication purposes. 10.. More evidence should be given of the possible virtues of ‘‘change’’ and added value to the learning process. such a change is most likely to occur when the management encourages change and is supportive of new initiatives. Many colleges of education still do not equip future teachers or administrators with adequate knowledge or skills to enable them to promote a culture that is supportive of general child development. accordingly. 11. although those innovative learning environments that are taking advantage of the learning potential of ICT remain few in number. such as the Netherlands.sion that the new learning theories still remain to be fully explored. but since the innovative learning environments typically require systematic changes in the organisation of work etc. Parents themselves tend to express concern about the ‘‘teaching methods’’ being employed in the innovative learning environments. Sweden and Denmark. More research should be done to evaluate the impact of change. The introduction of new pedagogies and the full exploitation of ICT as a learning tool are just as dependent on sympathetic political attitudes as on the cultural capacity for incorporating change. compromises should be found between the ““back to basics”” approach and the ““constructivism””. instruction. In others. In some countries this process is being supported and further encouraged both financially and morally by the responsible public authorities. This study has shown that an important factor in the paradigm shift towards constructivism is the school management style. development is more gradual and is mostly being introduced into the school system via a bottom-up approach that is driven by individual initiatives rather than by public support for educational innovation. they are representative of a growing trend. tested and implemented. and (occa- 247 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . Concerning the capacity for the cultural incorporation of change. some countries have come a long way in initiating a paradigmatic change in which constructivism is becoming fully incorporated into educational practice. 9. it appears from our research that amid the movement for the integration of ICT are many new school projects that also seek to integrate its learning potential. 12. based on providing learners with a greater ability to build their own knowledge. The greatest emphasis is still on the curriculum. However. the advance of new technologies appears to be faster than the rate of progress in education and training. administration. it appears that such investment tend to pave the way for the more substantial use of ICT in connection with any pedagogical and organisational changes occurring in the schools. Existing in parallel with the pedagogical constructivist tendencies of current pedagogical theories is a conservative education movement in most Member States that is demanding a refocusing of the purpose of the school towards teaching traditional disciplines and basic skills. Accordingly. In some Member States in particular. Some claim that this results from a generally conservative attitude which would prevail among teachers and school managers. However.

the need for training in the integration of new pedagogies is underestimated. 4. but relates to the general educational ‘‘ethos’’. This kind of prioritisation in the training and competence development of teachers and school administrators also represents a barrier to change processes in the direction of the new kinds of learning environments discussed and presented in this study. for instance pupils with special needs. There is a need for a both theoretical and empirical based study on the special conditions that distinguish school management from other management. A mapping and comparison of practical tools for school management in everyday life and in particular of change processes is needed. The study has shown that there is a new and growing focus and pressure on school management as an important factor for school development. pupils of refugee and immigrant origin and pupils of different social classes. More empirical based studies on how the new learning practises influence the ability to learn and develop of different groups of pupils are needed.sionally) the use of technology. on the premises of the traditional educational system. Hence. There seems to be a need for a both theoretical and empirical based study on the special conditions that distinguish school management from other management. as is presently the case. There seems to be a need for more empirical based studies on how the new learning practises influence the ability to learn and develop of different groups of pupils. There is a need for developing new tools for assessing learning progress in relation to the innovative learning environments. 248 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . 3. The study has shown that there is a need for developing new tools for assessing learning progress in relation to the innovative learning environments in order to make it possible to measure the abilities of the pupils on the premises that they are taught by and not.2 Recommendations for future actions and study As regards future action and study. In addition there is a need for a mapping and comparison of practical tools for school management in everyday life and in particular in change processes as school managers seem to be left with their own experiences or general management theories and tools. 2. This recommendation is based on the finding that there are huge differences in the perception of the ability of the innovative learning environments to cope with some of the more fundamental problems of education. In most of those countries that do give priority to improving the standard and level of teachers’’ ICT training. The inspiring role of school managers should also be taken into account as change is not just a matter of management. the findings and conclusions of the present study on innovative learning environments give occasion for the following recommendations from RAMBOLL Management: 1. 13. 8. it is recommended that a study on what kind of assessment tools already exist in relation to new learning paradigms and the development of additional assessment tools should be carried out.

7. the training in basic knowledge about and in the use of ICT should be accompanied by training in new pedagogies and innovative learning practices. new learning practises and ICT programmes for learning. More studies on good practise examples of the existence and promotion of networks between cultural and educational institutions is needed. and which depends upon local contexts. For example. cross institutional dialogue on innovative learning environments should be intensified. and the exchange of knowledge. 9.5. Also. It seems from the study that it could be to the benefit of both school managers. This is based on our finding that innovative learning environments are not created by ICT ‘‘per se’’ but result from the combination of a number of factors of which ICT merely constitutes one. As the ICT has improved the possibilities of cooperation between institutions considerably. 6. between different schools. There is a need for studies on integration of knowledge as regards child development and learning in educational policies. Training of teachers in basic knowledge about and use of ICT should be accompanied by training in new pedagogies and innovative learning practices. In addition. A cross country. Nevertheless if the intention is to promote innovative learning environments. it must be an aim that teachers and administrators. A handbook of practical tools and experiences within the use of ICT for different purposes in different educational disciplines is needed. learning material etc. A guide to cultural institutions that provide good material and experiences for educational purposes across Europe should be produced. 10. local municipalities and regions in and across Member States. pupils and their parents to gather in the form of a handbook in depth information of the concrete tools and concrete experiences within the use of ICT in different learning processes and educational disciplines across the EU. Educational policies should be based in knowledge of children’’s development and its relationship to learning patterns. more studies should be carried out that map and compare how knowledge about child development and learning is and can be integrated in educational policies. it seems interesting to conduct more studies on good practise examples of the existence and promotion of networks between cultural and educational institutions. the evolving knowledge of children’’s development and its relationship to learning patters should be taken into account. teachers. know how children develop generally and academically and how to support that development. it seems relevant to assess and compare educational material and proposed experiences. 8. which are –– in some cases designed jointly by educational and cultural or scientific institutions. In order to help the knowledge sharing and in order to get input from the various sub divisions of 249 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . in addition to having thorough knowledge of their disciplines. In order to realize the full learning potential of ICT for schools and pupils. The study has shown that continuing training of teachers in ICT is a priority in most Member States. 11. ICTintegrated policies should be based on educational visions and principles. This should include a review of the learning philosophy and purpose behind the individual tools.”” This applies to general national and EU policy frameworks like for instance the eLearning action plan and the eLearning initiative.

the educational environments. 250 Final Report –– Innovative Learning Environments in School Education . the European Commission should take measures to keep various forum for round table discussions for instance in the form of scenario workshops about the different elements of innovative learning environments among both school practitioners (teachers and managers). school administrators and educational theorists.

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