Coordination in a Multi-Cell Multi-Antenna Multi-User W-CDMA System: A Beamforming Approach

Botella, C. Pinero, G. Gonzalez, A. Diego, M.D. Student Member, IEEE; This paper appears in: Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: November 2008 Volume: 7, Issue: 11, Part 2 On page(s): 4479-4485 ISSN: 1536-1276 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/T-WC.2008.070844 Current Version Published: 2008-12-02 Abstract The problem of designing Joint Power Control and Optimal Beamforming (JPCOB) algorithms for the downlink of a coordinated multi-cellW-CDMA system is considered throughout this paper. In this case, the JPCOB design is formulated as the problem of minimizing the total transmitted power in the coordinated multi-cell system, subject to a certain quality of service requirement for each user. In this paper, the performance of two JPCOB algorithms based on different beamforming approaches is compared over the coordinated multi-cell system. The first one, obtains local beamformers by means of the well-known virtual uplink-downlink duality. In contrast, the second algorithm implements multi-base beamformers, taking into account match filter equalizers at the receivers. Moreover, realistic system parameters, such as per-base station power constraints or the asynchronous nature of the signals arriving at the receivers, are taken into account. Simulation results show that the algorithm based on multi-base beamforming presents attractive properties, such as an inherent multi-base scheduling technique or a decreasing total transmitted power as the degree of coordination between base stations is increased.

WAP and SMS based emerging techniques for remote monitoring and control of a process plant
Ravi, S. Chathish, M.S. Prasanna, H. Anna Univ., Chennai, India; This paper appears in: Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings. ICSP '04. 2004 7th International Conference on Publication Date: 31 Aug.-4 Sept. 2004 Volume: 3, On page(s): 2672- 2675 vol.3 ISSN: ISBN: 0-7803-8406-7 INSPEC Accession Number: 8412376 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICOSP.2004.1442332 Current Version Published: 2005-06-27 Abstract Remote monitoring and control of data (usually large in number) present in a plant is conventionally done using structured cables (large number of wires) running between the field devices and the control room. The control room makes use of custom made programs to perform the necessary man-machine-interface (MMI). Now-a-days, new devices appear (mobile phones supporting WAP protocols, PDA's etc.) offering the possibility to be instantly and more efficiently informed, the instantaneous changes occurring in the critical parameters of the plant. This paper presents how cellular telephony technologies like the short message service (SMS) and the wireless application protocol (WAP) may be implemented effectively to assist the control and monitoring of a process plant. The techniques that can be used to provide visualization and control signals along with messages and alarms from the plant is explored in this paper. This is particularly useful in large and distributed processes such as chemical, oil industry etc. The objective is to equip the plant decision makers with all the possible plant information as quickly as possible in pocket-sized devices and also eliminate the need for wires. The work enables the technical and maintenance personnel supervision and control of machinery and processes from a single mobile phone. The proposed work has been implemented in a real time process plant (used in the manufacture of additives) consisting of heat exchanger elements, drums, reactors etc. On-line data are successfully transferred to the mobile device of the expert people at regular time intervals. An alarm management program is written using WAP protocol to provide an alert signal as and when any received data exceeds a set threshold value. The operational range of the plant is expected to improve significantly with these new emerging data transfer techniques. In this paper, the

We shall show that the SE/ST ultrawideband system provides an appropriate multi-user capacity in realistic UWB channels. K. the tradeoff leans towards more redundancy on erasure-correction coding across packets. Y. For channels with better fading conditions. Student Member. parameter-id. and less so on error-correction coding within each packet. Part 2 On page(s): 4586-4595 ISSN: 1536-1276 Digital Object Identifier: 10. J.16e/WiMAX Systems . For severe fading channels. Willett. Issue: 11. or to maximize the resource utilization efficiency subject to a prescribed performance. and a scenario where only discrete rates are available via a finite number of transmission modes. such as Rayleigh fading channels. The paper also presents a scheme for secure transfer of data by using crypto coding schemes. more redundancy can be spent on error-correction coding.A. Each information packet is coded to consist of the plant-id. the effect of variations of the main system parameters and some of the relevant trade-offs will be numerically demonstrated.WAP content is provided with a graphic screen along with the usual text display. Wen. Optimizing Joint Erasure. Furthermore. Graphical displays are incorporated in the form of trend graphs for the selected process variables in the mobile device itself. M. This layered approach is also applicable to an end-to-end data transport over a network where a wireless link is the performance bottleneck. which depends on the fading statistics and the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the wireless channel. Pattipati. S. We investigate how to optimally combine the strengths of error. after obtaining a suitable statistical model for spectrallyencoded spread-time signals.1109/T-WC. we investigate the performance of the system in the presence of multiple-access and narrowband interferers. Student Member. Salehi. along with the ability of narrowband interference (NBI) suppression. Part 2 On page(s): 4608-4616 ISSN: 1536-1276 Digital Object Identifier: 10. IEEE. IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: November 2008 Volume: 7. C. Our results determine the optimum tradeoff in splitting redundancy between error-correction coding and erasure-correction codes. Varying access rights are incorporated to define different data to be viewed. On the Performance of Spectrally-Encoded Spread-Time Ultrawideband CDMA Communication Systems Farhang.070581 Current Version Published: 2008-12-02 Abstract To achieve reliable packet transmission over a wireless link without feedback. This paper appears in: Wireless Communications.and Error-Correction Coding for Wireless Packet Transmissions Berger.R. Issue: 11. This paper appears in: Wireless Communications.070633 Current Version Published: 2008-12-02 Abstract In this paper we study the performance of Spectrally-Encoded Spread-Time (SE/ST) technique when applied to ultrawideband (UWB) signals in the context of wireless code-division multiple-access (CDMA) communication.2008. we propose a layered coding approach that uses error-correction coding within each packet and erasure-correction coding across the packets. IEEE. user-id along with t. In this technique UWB pulses are spectrally encoded with pseudorandom codes that are assigned uniquely to each user. Zhou. The analysis has been extended to a limiting case with a large number of packets. IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: November 2008 Volume: 7. P. and simple and accurate approximations will also be developed which are in good agreement with simulation results. Coverage Analysis for IEEE 802. To this end.1109/T-WC.2008.he actual data.and erasurecorrection coding to optimize the system performance with a given resource constraint.

L. In this contribution both the capacity and error performance of a downlink space-division multiple-access (SDMA) system is investigated. S. respectively. it is shown that a combination of cyclic delay diversity (CDD) with segmented frequency reuse of 3 significantly improves coverage performance.P. it can be shown that the MPDR-TMP scheme is highly efficient for achieving the capacity and for suppressing the multiuser interference (MUI). Also. The reduced-rank techniques can be employed by the MPDR-TMP.070724 Current Version Published: 2008-12-02 Abstract In this contribution we first derive a transmitter multiuser preprocessing (TMP) scheme for a general multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system based on the minimum power distortionless response (MPDR) criterion. It is shown that there is a tradeoff between the uplink sector throughput and coverage performance. Issue: 11. IEEE. shown is a comparison of downlink coverage performance between maximum ratio combining (MRC) and minimum mean square (MMSE) receivers at the subscriber station.070665 Current Version Published: 2008-12-02 Abstract This paper describes a frame work for evaluating the coverage performance of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system as defined in the IEEE 802. On the downlink.M. Senior Member. Part 2 On page(s): 4646-4655 ISSN: 1536-1276 Digital Object Identifier: 10. so as to reduce its implementation complexity while achieving the near full-rank performance of the full-rank MPDR-TMP.16e/ WiMAX standard.1109/T-WC. when either the full-rank or reduced-rank MPDR-TMP is invoked. In our study three classes of rank-reduction algorithms are considered. IEEE. From our study and simulation results. This paper appears in: Wireless Communications. Alex. This optimization problem results in a solution. which has the same form as the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) multiuser detection (MUD). which are derived.2008. Hence. which does not depend on the eigenanalysis. Our results show that a WiMAX system can be uplink coverage limited for base station receivers with only two antennas. which minimizes the power in the context of a given downlink mobile terminal (MT) under the distortionless condition. based on the eigen-analysis methods of principal components (PC) and crossspectral metrics (CSMs) as well as on the Taylor polynomial approximation (TPA) approach. IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: November 2008 Volume: 7. Issue: 11.2008.A. WAP Applications . we then extend the well-known rank-reduction techniques in MMSE-MUD to the MPDR-TMP in order to mitigate the possible implementation problems of the MPDRTMP.Jalloul. This paper appears in: Wireless Communications. Both the downlink and the uplink coverage are presented under a system with multiple cells and sectors. IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: November 2008 Volume: 7.1109/T-WC. The spatial area coverage for a single frequency reuse and reuse of 3 are evaluated. It is shown that for a single frequency reuse an MMSE receiver with CDD at the transmitter are needed for adequate downlink coverage performance Capacity and Error Performance of Reduced-Rank Transmitter Multiuser Preprocessing Based on Minimum Power Distortionless Response Lie-Liang Yang Senior Member. Part 2 On page(s): 4627-4634 ISSN: 1536-1276 Digital Object Identifier: 10.

and offers content tailored to that geography. Scala has developed several WAP products for small to medium-sized companies which would allow. mapping and location services. In Finland. e-mail. including: • Infotainment : They could include weather forecasts.restaurants or theaters. As Ericsson puts it. but as higher speeds become available and some of the technical issues specific to WAP are resolved. Weather forecasts. which enable the modification of personal information • Financial services : mobile banking and mobile e-commerce services • Location-based services : services that are dependent on location include mapping and vehicle location information . finding and booking a plumber. A key growth area for the technology will be business-to-workforce. “the content providers will know where their users are geographically and will be able to direct them to specific destinations . voicemail and unified messaging • Personal information management : services such as call management and personal directories. with companies using WAP applications to reach employees at any time. for example handheld devices are mobile. In the music world. the most popular mobile Internet service is likely to be e-mail. for example. This opens up a huge opportunity for highly customized services. dating services (with pre-recorded video profiles and e-mail or voicemail exchanges) any service where physical proximity is important can migrate a vital part of its value-added to the new devices. • • • • As brought out by [1] and the examples above WAP services are currently limited to simple information services. but their position is instantly identifiable. Virgin Mobile in the UK offers to download the latest pop hits to customers in a daily offering. Nokia says applications that will benefit from WAP include customer care and provisioning. touch screen technology and WAP to allow would-be shoppers to hot-link to order-entry pages on the web. Scala is currently working on timesheet applications and techniques for entering and filing expense claims via the mobile phone. a field sales force to access customer order information and stock availability details via a WAP handset. children already play new versions of competitive games such as "Battleships". SMS (short message service) messages have proved a big success in the Nordic nations and volumes are growing rapidly throughout western Europe” One of the most significant advantages of Internet access from mobile rather that your PC is the ability to instantly identify users geographic location. several new service types will emerge. address book and directory services and corporate intranet applications.” Some of the interesting applications of WAP (already existing or being worked on) are: • Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Nokia are working with a Finnish fashion retailer who plans to send clothing offers direct to mobile telephones using a combination of cursors. via the cellular networks. message notification and call management. restaurant locations (with table availability and instant reservations fast food delivery. sports and financial services. horoscopes and news • Messaging : services such as e-mail. So think of content that knows where the user is. weather and traffic alerts. stock quotes.“At first.

e-mail. weather forecasts. Finland Sprint. directories and email News. mapping. The Netherlands Omnitel. weather forecasts and e-mail Cinema information. where the mobile data access has seen a unprecedented rate of growth. language translation and directories Information services. last minute offers (via lastminute. directories and email Source: Ovum (WAP Market Strategies/B) The Problem areas One of the problem. Further developments in WAP are still required and in the meantime. Spain Examples of the current services offered Cinema information.The table below should give an idea about the kind of services being offered by operators around the world. lottery information and movie listings Share prices. unless the infrastructure is geared up to expect unexpected volumes. A live example is Imode services in Japan. Italy Optus. Hong Kong Sonera. directories and financial data News. news and business directories News. share prices and some banking services Movie information. So. news. So. this presents a big opportunity for the developer community to develop new and innovative applications that can realize the advantage of WAP. UK SmarTone. increases it is likely to put ever greater demands on existing technology infrastructures as it encourages higher m-commerce volumes. share prices. flight information. unless some killer applications hit the market. basically to do with infrastructure (and not WAP) is that as the mobile Internet access. WAP just like other technologies has a difficult path ahead. Operator/country France Telecom KPN Telecom. Australia Orange. which influence the mood of the enduser. e-mail. while the proposed developments in faster mobile networks and more sophisticated terminals come closer. some banking transactions. US Telefonica Moviles. Already due to lots of hype WAP proponents find them selves in a little tight position. Another problem area is that the delay in the delivery of long-promised terminals and service launches are narrowing the window of opportunity for WAP. So there is a possibility of unsatisfactory performances observed by mobile data users. thanks to WAP. hotel information and news News. traffic updates. this can have significant impact on these data services since most of these systems are simply inadequate for big volumes. Also as with many other technologies what matters most and what guides the development of a technology is the emergence of “killer applications”. There is going to be big appetite for WAP applications in the very near future. SmarTone WAP portal. other solutions will emerge. .

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