The principal aim of this publication is to specify minimum standards for hydrographic surveys in order that hydrographic data

collected according to these standards is sufficiently accurate and that the spatial uncertainty of data is adequately quantified to be safely used by mariners (commercial, military or recreational) as primary users of this information. Chapter 1 Classification of survey
The requirements of safe navigation is vary with water depth and expected shipping types.Divided intofour categories Special order

Special Order hydrographic surveys approach engineering standards and their use is intended to be restricted to specific critical areas with minimum underkeel clearance and where bottom characteristics are potentially hazardous to vessels. Special Order requires the use of closely spaced lines in conjunction with side scan sonar, multi transducer arrays or high resolution multibeam echosounders to obtain 100% bottom search. It must be ensured that cubic features greater than 1m can be discerned by the sounding equipment. Order 1 Order 1 hydrographic survey are intended for harbours, harbour approach channels, recommended tracks, inland navigation channels, and coastal areas of high commercial traffic density where underkeel clearance is less critical and the geophysical properties of the seafloor are less hazardous to vessels (e.g. soft silt or sand bottom). Order 1 surveys should be limited to areas with less than 100 m water depth. Although the requirement for seafloor search is less stringent than for Special Order, full bottom search is required in selected areas where the bottom characteristics and the risk of obstructions are potentially hazardous to vessels. Order 2 Order 2 hydrographic surveys are intended for areas with depths less than 200 m. general description of the bathymetry is sufficient to ensure there are no obstructions on the seafloor that will endanger the type of vessel expected to transit or work the area. It is the criteria for a variety of maritime uses for which higher order hydrographic surveys cannot be justified. Full bottom search may be required in selected areas where the bottom characteristics and the risk of obstructions may be potentially hazardous to vessels. Order 3 Order 3 hydrographic surveys are intended for all areas not covered by Special Order, and Orders 1 and 2 in water depths in excess of 200 m.

t e sum of all constant errors b*d dept dependent error. i. t e sum of all dept dependent errors b factor of dept dependent error d dept P siti ning           Chapter Positions should be referenced to a geocentric reference system. If. the error should not exceed cm at 95% confidence level.      u˜[a2+(b*d) 2]  it a constant dept error. When geodetic satellite positioning methods areused to establish such points. recommended as the World Geodetic System 84 WGS 84 . using geodetic satellite positioning. Positioning of soun ing The accuracy of the position of a sounding is the accuracy at the position of the sounding on the bottom located ithin a geodetic reference frame. Horizontal Control Primary shore control points should be located by ground survey methods to a relative accuracy of part in . positions are referenced to the local hori ontal datum. " $ ! # !!! ! " " ! !!! !!     ¢  ¢ ¥¥ To l Table l t t or li it for t racy t ave to be introduced into t e formula £¤ ¡¤©     ¤ £¨ § ¦ £ £¤ £  ¡¤ ¡ ¢      corresponding al es of a and listed in . recommended as the World Geodetic System 84 WGS 84 .e. this local datum should be tied to a geocentric re ference system. . i. Secondary stations for local positioning hich ill not be used for extending the control should be for ground survey techni ues or 5 cm located such that the error does not exceed part in .e. exceptionally.

the sources of individual errors need to be quantified. determined statistically at the 95% confidence level. chart datum. Where the under-keel clearances are an issue. And the si e of features that will be detected or not detected by the survey. and the maximum available water for safe navigation. All error sources should be combined to obtain a Total Propagated Error TPE . In determining the depth accuracy. it should be defined and understood.Navigation Ai s an Important Features At 95% confidence level % % The navigation of vessels requires accurate nowledge of the water depth in order for a maximum cargo capacity for safe carrying. Depth accuracy is to be understood as the accuracy of the reduced depths. is the value used to describe the depth accuracy achieved. TPE results from the combination of all contributing errors which include among other things: a) measurement system and sound velocity errors b) tidal measurement and modelling errors.g. LAT. MSL. The measured depths and drying heights shall be referenced to a vertical datum that is compatible with the survey to be made or updated from the survey e. The TPE should be recorded together with the sounding value 1 0 )) Depth A u racy ' ( & Chapter Depths . The TPE. and c) data processing errors. a geocentric reference frame based on ITRS or a geodetic reference level. so the depth uncertainties must be more tightly controlled and better understood.

Physical samples should be gathered at a spacing dependent on the seabed geology and as required to ground truth any inference technique. tidal reduction. the vertical datum used for tidal observations should be connected to the general land survey datum via prominent fixed marks in the vicinity of the tide gauge / station / observatory. IHO Technical Resolution A2. by the application of tidal or water level height. 9 E D F C B 9 99 Chart a d La d Survey Vertical Datum Co 8 9 A 8 9 @ 8 9 8 3 2 9 2 ity ectio 9 9 88 . For wrecks and obstructions which may have less than 0 m clearance above them and may be dangerousto normal surface navigation. both the nature of the seabed in the area and the requirements of the users have to be taken into account to ensure adequate bottom search. and detection. . These procedures may include an appropriate statistical error analysis which should take into consideration interpolation errors. ine Spacing 7 The results of a survey have to be assessed using procedures developed by the agency responsible for the survey quality. easured depths should be reduced to chart or survey datum. preferably geodetic reference level. 63 3 5 5 4 3 Sou di De In planning the density of soundings. classification and measurement of seabed hazards are fundamental hydrographic surveying tasks. etc.Tidal reductions should not be applied to depths greater than 200 m. video. or to an appropriate made relative to a geocentric reference frame based on ITRS.Depth Mea ureme t Determination of the general seabed topography.). as set out in IHO Publication -3. Tidal Predictio Tidal data may be required for analysis for the future prediction of tidal heights and the production of Tide Tables in which case observations should cover as long a period of time as possible and preferably ot le tha 30 day . it may be determined by physical sampling or inferred from other sensors (e. Ellipsoidal height determinations of the vertical reference marks used for tidal observations should be S . requires that the datum used for tidal predictions should be the same as that used for chart datum. single beam echo sounders. except when tides contribute significantly to the TPE. as well as depth and positioning errors of the measured depths Chapter 4 Other mea ureme t Seabed Sampli The nature of the seabed should be determined in potential anchorage areas. subbottom profiler. side scan sonar. echanical sweeping may be used when guaranteeing a minimum safe clearance depth. In order for the preparation of bathymetric data. Based on these procedures it has to be decided whether the extent of bottom search is adequate and whether the line spacing should be reduced or extended. the least depth over them shou be determined either by ld high definition sonarexamination or physical examination (diving).g.

To confirm the existence of such data it is necessary to carefully define the area to be searched and subsequently survey that area according to the outlined IHO S standards. The speed and direction of the tidal stream and current should be mea ured to 0. And simultaneous ob servations of tidal height and meteorological conditions should be made and the period of observation shouldideally be 30 day . The tidal stream and current at each position should be measured at depths sufficient to meet the requirements of normal surface navigation in the survey area. equipment used.1 k ot and the eare t 10º respectively. date.calibration procedures and results .the geodetic reference system used. Chapter 6 Elimi atio of Doubtful Data To improve the safety of navigation it is desirable to eliminate doubtful data which are usually denoted on chart such as PA (Position Approximate). the area in which the doubtful data is reported and the estimated danger of the potential hazard to surface navigation.Tidal Stream a d Curre t Ob ervatio The speed and direction of tidal streams and currents which may exceed 0. area. the surveyor should decide whether to retain the hazard as charted or h cb cb ff d a s S Chapter 5 Data ttributio G G H G H Q H PI s G e R e G t ` q r g W VU X t H e H Y s q pi T G . In order to determine the uncertainty at % confidence level. especially as requirements may not be known when survey data is collected. Y Poi t Data ttributio All data should be attributed with its uncert inty estimate at the % confidence level for both position and. the information on the data quality is called metadata. etadata should comprise at least information on: . the doubtful data should be replaced with the actual data collected during the search.the survey in general as e.g. in anchorages and adjacent to wharf areas. SD (Sounding Doubtful) or as "reported danger". hile the assumed statistical distributionof errors should be recorded in the survey¶s metadata.5 k ot should be observed at the entrances to harbours and channels. the computed scale factor has to be applied to the standard deviation.sound velocity .accuracies achieved and the respective confidence levels. including ties to S if a local datum is used . depth. ED (Existence Doubtful). Exte t of rea to be Searched It is recommended the search area radius should be at least 3 times the estimated position uncert inty at % confidence level as determined by a qualified hydrographic surveyor. The process of documenting the data quality is called data attribution. It is also desirable to measure coastal and offshore streams and currents when they are of sufficient strength to affect surface navigation. name of survey platform . If not detected. at any change in direction of a channel. PD (Position Doubtful).tidal datum and reduction . Pre e tatio of Search Re ult Once the hazard has been detected.e. if relevant. Co ducti the Search The methodology for conducting the search should be based on the nature of thefeature. i. To allow a comprehensive assessment of the quality of survey data it is necessary to record or document certain information together with the survey data. Such information is important to allow exploitation of survey data by a variety of users with different requirements. at % confid nce level. horizontal and vertical datum.

.to delete it.