This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Preparation of Papers - Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Air Engine Piston
Chetan K.Tembhurkar a Prashant D.Kamble b
student of G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India
Lecturer of Department of Mechanical Engineering, G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, RTM
Nagpur University, Nagpur,India
Abstract— There is a demand for safer, cleaner and more affordable civil air engines and found to be of greater importance. Few years before, the European Union took a action for the design and construction of efficient and environmental friendly air engines. The benefits of this type of engine are focused on to reduced pollutants and decreased fuel consumption. In a wheeled vehicle engine system comprising a compressed air powered engine and tank assemblies, an engine connects to the vehicle drive wheels and is powered by compressed air and operates without emitting air pollutants and the tank assembly comprises a replaceable and/or rechargeable main air tank assembly containing air at high pressure and recovery tanks both so connected to the engine and arranged such that to recover and store energy of the vehicle and engine developed during braking and high speed engine operation which was not fully utilize to propel the vehicle. This paper is very helpful for finding the difference between the design of air engine with design of SI and CI engine. This paper is also very useful for developing and design of piston for further analysis. Keywords— analysis, air-engine, design, piston. I. INTRODUCTION The air engine runs on air and needs no gas. The gas tank is removed and thrown away. The carburetor is not needed. The engine is easily converted to run on compressed air . This air engine is comparable powerful enough as a four-stroke engine, but has a better and more powerful take off . Any engine or motor that runs on gasoline or propane can be converted to run on compressed air, and of high efficient. Pistons are designed with features which perform specific functions during engine operation. The piston head or crown receives the majority of
۫ Corresponding author.Tel.:+91 712 2632767,9420248189 E-mail address: email@example.com (C.K.Tembhurkar)
the initial pressure and force caused by the combustion process. The piston pin area is exposed to a significant amount of force due to rapid directional changes. It is also subjected to thermal expansion caused by the transfer of heat from the head to the body of the piston. The piston pin area is the part which subjected to more thermal expansion than other areas of the piston. This is due to from the thermal expansion properties of cast aluminum alloy and the mass in the piston pin area .
The air engine and its idea of using air as an energy carrier is not new . Air has been used since the 19th century to power mine locomotives, and has been the basis of naval torpedo propulsion since 1866. Compressed air is still currently used in racecars to provide the initial energy needed to start the car's main power plant, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In 1991 the inventor Guy Niger invented a dual-energy engine, capable of running on both compressed air and regular fuel . He then afterwards managed to create a compressed air only-engine, and improved his design to make it more powerful. In the last 15 years he has been working on this engine, and has made successful progress thereafter: this engine is now claimed to be competitive with modern Internal Combustion Engine’s (ICEs). It is may be still not as powerful as an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) (although depending on which model of air engine vs. model ICE). Proponents claim that this is of little importance since the car can simply be made lighter, or the tanks can be put on a higher pressure, pushing the engine to above a comparable Internal Combustion Engine. Extensive research is going on the idea of compressed air vehicles, among them Armando Regusci, Angelo Di Pietro, Tony Salvino, and Chul-Seung Cho. They
978-0-7695-3884-6/09 $26.00 © 2009 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL - Dumlupinar University. Downloaded on March 19,2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
The distance from top to the first groove (tg) Fig.The thickness based on Empirical formula t1 = 0. Restrictions apply. Their goals appear to be individual transport and taxi-bikes as the projects proposed on the site are mainly made of a motor-bike and trucks (with 1 to 3 seats).41 KW Step 3:. tg = 1. Tata Motors plan on producing City CAT that is powered by an air engine.S.7 × 5.too have companies. Still.128 cm3. tr = D × (3Pr/σ)1/2 tr = 102 × (((3×0. Also since 2007.Calculation of Diameter Vc = Area × Displacement Vc = π D2 ×100 4 D= 102 mm. In 2012. No. and other regulated markets around the world. Tony Salvino.0 t1 to 1.032 (102) + 1. however is a high school student who is pursuing for more efficient engine.66 mm. D = bore diameter = 102 mm.Aluminum alloy piston for a four-stroke air engine Volume per cylinder. ………… (for medium power O/P)  Step 4 :.712 mm.2 t1 = 1.500 "scooter replacement" people's car that recently made headlines.5 mm = 0. Length of Piston. 93 Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL .Calculation of Power BP = PLAN KW 1000×60 = 0.5 = 4. Step 6 :.02746)/26.0tr = 0. Di Pietro's EngineAir and Chul-Seung Cho's Energine.743 MPa Speed (N) =3500 rpm. selling their engines.7tr =0. L =D = 102 mm. where. DESIGN OF ALUMINUM ALLOY PISTON FOR A FOUR-STROKE AIR ENGINE Radial thickness.2 t2 = 1. Compression Ratio = 19.032 D + 1.743×100 × π × (102)2 × 3500 1000 4 60 BP = 35. Step 7 :. Step 2:.Design of Piston Rings III. Tata has not made a decision on building one of the MDI prototype cars or.1. . the addition of air power to an already inexpensive and efficient model would be quite appealing in the Indian market and others where fundamental transportation is in demand and air pollution may be a serious challenge as exponentially greater numbers of vehicles make their way to the highway. Vc = 817. Gas Pressure (P) = 5MPa. Downloaded on March 19. of cylinders = 4 .7tr to 1. this inexpensive car clearly would not meet federal emissions and safety requirements in the U.02746 N/mm2 (MPa) Step 5:The depth of piston rings (h) h = 0. Regusci's RegusciAir. The Nano is Tata's $2. Bmep = 0. Pr = magnitude of radial pressure on piston rings.2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore. = 0. While sought after in developing countries. K'Airmobiles looks at commercializing some urban and leisure VPP vehicles (Vehicles with Pneumatic Propulsion) and tries to gain partnerships and sponsors.Dumlupinar University.76 = 5.962 mm h ~ 4 mm.7))1/2 tr = 5.764 mm.In 2007. Displacement of piston = 100 mm. Step1:.The lands between the ring grooves (t land ) t land = h = 4 mm. to install the MDI technology in one of its existing cars like the light weight Nano.2 × 4. Tata Motors licensed the rights from MDI (Motor Development International) for $28 million to build and sell Tata-branded air cars in India.66 =3.
Model of Piston by means of Pro-E/Wildfire4.5 t3 = 13.5 d) × 15. of piston rings i= D 10 h = 102 10×4 i ~ 3 no. The analysis of piston is based on static analysis of piston based on ANSYS 9. mm b = tr + 0.5 D = 1.62 t4 = 4.The minimum depth of piston ring h =D 10 i i = No.Step 8 :.086 mm.85 KN. .7 MPa l1 = 1.0 V. b = depth of ring groove.25t3 to 0.3 t3 = 0. Step 13:.5 mm. d = 41.5 × 102 Ls = 153 mm.62 mm.Stroke length (Ls) Ls = 1.Diameter of piston pin (d) d = π D2 Pmax 4 × l1 ×Pb Gas pressure (Pmax) = 5 Mpa Bearing pressure (Pb) = 15.2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore. Step 12:. PISTON DESIGN Fig.The wall thickness towards the open end of piston (t4) t4 = 0.5D Ls = 1. t3 = 0.7 2 IV.0’ software.(b).06 + 4.Dumlupinar University.4 b = 6.Force on Piston (Fp) Fp = Pressure × Area = 5 ×π× (102)2 4 Fp = 40.35t3 = 0. Downloaded on March 19. Step 10 :.06 mm.4 mm.5 d d = π × (102) ×5 4 × (1.3D to 1.66 + 0.2.(a) Piston design Fig. ANALYSIS OF PISTON The analysis of piston is based on ‘ANSYS 9. b = 5.The maximum thickness of the piston barrel (t3) t3 = 0. Step 11:.03 D + b + 4.03 × 102 + 6.65 mm. 94 Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL . Restrictions apply.3 × 13.0 software. Step 9 :.2.
Restrictions apply. Compressed air is stored at 300 bar (4351 psi) in carbon fiber tanks mounted longitudinally beneath the vehicle floor.3. Downloaded on March 19. The large piston then turns the crankshaft with greater power as the pair combine to produce power over 270 degrees of crankshaft rotation.Displacement of Piston based on ANSYS software Fig.Compressed air engine In air engine. The technology can potentially be paired in two. the small piston has a conventional connecting rod for turning the crankshaft.Vector solution based on ANSYS software VI. . to turn a crankshaft that produces a rotational force.(c). Fig. Refilling can be accomplished in a Fig.Von Misses-stress based on ANSYS software 95 Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL .(b) Boundary conditions applied on piston (Fixed support and pressure). Prototype air cars are minimize transportation that typically exhibit a top speed of about 70 mph and a range of approximately 125 miles on flat roads before requiring a refill.(a). or six cylinder engine configurations and the design is quite inventive and attractive. WORKING OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE The working of the compressed air engine is simple .3.Dumlupinar University.4. four. while its neighboring larger piston utilizes an innovative rocker arm configuration with the connecting rod.3. This design allows the large piston to pause at top-dead-center for 70 degrees of crankshaft rotation while metered air pressure builds in a prechamber as the small piston keeps the crank turning during its power stroke.Fig.2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore. one large and one small.(d). the engine can be made primarily from lightweight aluminum. The design uses a pair of air driven pistons.3. Fig. Since there is no combustion and the only engine heat comes from friction.
66% higher as that of SI engine and 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper entitled “Computer aided design and analysis of air engine piston” is the output of the project work carried out at G.998 2800 26.Dumlupinar University. They will likely be less robust than ordinary or conventional vehicles which posses a danger to users sharing the road with larger. CONCLUSION The design and analysis of piston in four-cylinder. Compressed-air vehicles are comparable in many ways to electric vehicles. Their potential advantages over other vehicles include: Like electrical vehicles.0 is Min=0mm.86% higher as that of CI engine.031226mm. but lot of work is to be done on engine performance. VII. Max=0. (4) The boundary condition is applied in piston pin area having pressure of 10 MPa at upper surface of piston. This report reflects the contribution of a lot of people from time to time in completing the work.88 % higher as that of SI engine and 13. Through this acknowledgement “Chetan Kishor Tembhurkar” thanks to “Prof. Compressed air technology reduces the cost of vehicle production by about 20%.Vihari” for valuable suggestions at right time. fuel tank. it will cool down via adiabatic cooling and lose pressure. the analysis technique by means of present analysis software available.16 39. Raisoni College of Engineering. (3) The force on piston in air engine is 9. (5) The displacement of piston obtained after analyzing the piston in ANSYS 11. but use compressed air to store the energy instead of batteries. Pollution created during fuel transportation would be eliminated. This will results in not only in low manufacture and maintenance costs but also in easy and quick maintenance.03052mm.68 Air engine 817. is non-flammable.14% higher as that of SI engine and 0. (6) The vector solution obtained after analyzing the piston in ANSYS 11. air powered vehicles would be powered through the electrical grid which makes it appealing to focus on reducing pollution from one source.5 0. as the vehicles are currently at the pre-production stage and not been extensively tested by independent observer.65 40.6 40. The price of fueling air powered vehicles will be significantly cheaper than current fuels.0 is DMX=0. ADVANTAGES The advantages are well publicized since the developers need to make their machines attractive to investors. . IX. VIII. (2) The stroke length obtained in air engine is 5. Lighter vehicles would mean less abuse on roads.33% as that of CI engine. The mechanical design of the engine is simple and robust. When the air is expanded in the engine. Vc (cm3) D (mm) L(mm) rc bmep (MPa) N(rpm) BP(KW) Ls(mm) d(mm) Fp(KN) SI engine 579 96 80 9. spark plugs or silencers. Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries. heavier and more rigid vehicles.743 3500 35.Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the electrical grid. The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged. X. (5) The maximum Von-Misses stress is obtained in upper portion of the piston as seen as red color after analyzing it on ANSYS 11.matter of minutes at a special high-pressure pump or in about four hours via a home refueling appliance or even an on-board compressor. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS Although the analysis of piston can be diagnosed by the currently presented method.96 144 39. The lot of work is carried out on the intake air pressure of air engine because the intake air pressure required is higher for turning the crankshaft. Compressed-air vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems. thus the ideal isothermal energy capacity of the tank will not be realized. fourstroke engine have been studied and the following results are obtained :- 96 Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL . He provided the guidance at any point of time whenever asked for to the best of their capabilities. as there is no need to build a cooling system. Air.H. as comparative to the millions of other vehicles on the road .41 153 41. This presents and draws significant cost benefits. with re-fueling rates comparable to liquid fuels.886 3500 42.20 36. This will bring in longer lasting roads. It is difficult to maintain or restore the air temperature by simply using a heat exchanger with ambient heat at the high flow rates used in a vehicle.85 (1) The compression ratio required in air engine is 29.9 CI engine 817 102 100 17 0. DISADVANTAGES Compressed-air vehicles are less well known. Restrictions apply.2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore.128 102 100 19 0.0.K.015% of CI engine.43 132. on its own. Downloaded on March 19.
F.Yang.Hill. Nagpur. VTU Learning Center.Suleyman Yigit.Yeh. New Delhi. Experimental investigation of a comfort heating system for a passenger vehicle with an air-cooled engine.Huang.L. DhanpatRai Publications. Downloaded on March 19.D. 1973 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. Intext Education Publishers. V.theaircar. Theory and design of automotive engines. Journal of Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 32 (2008) 115 9.Juro Miyasaka .Macmillan. Journal of Terramechanics 44 (2007) 329-338. Internal Combustion Engines. . Heywood. Development of a new type of electric off-road vehicle powered by microwaves transmitted through air. Akira Oida. In-cylinder flows of a motored fourstroke engine with flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons. Hiroshi Nakashima. C. Paul Storm. (2005) 214-249.F.Optimization of the design of recuperative heat exchangers in the exhaust nozzle of an aero-engine.S.Huang. International Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Apostolos Goulas. Applied Mathematical Modeling31 (2007) 2524-2541. Central Techno Publications. 1985. Edward Obert. Internal Combustion Engines.(2005) 1-6. Richard Stone.N.REFERENCES              http://www. Naoki Shinohara. H. Restrictions apply. R. New York.Katsuaki Ohdoi. http://www.In-cylinder flows of a motored fourstroke engine with flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons.Yang. Kyros Yakinthos. Tata McGraw. R.Mathur.Burkhard Simon.Govindaraju. C. Chitradurga.Dumlupinar University. New Delhi. Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 2790-2799.com/media/MDI_History.B. McGraw-Hill.Hiroshi Matsumoto. Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution.S.zevcat.Yeh.  97 Authorized licensed use limited to: ULAKBIM UASL .K. (1988) 823-887.2010 at 09:25:54 EDT from IEEE Xplore. R.Sharma. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 32 (2008) 1156-1167.N. K. Achilles Palikaras.Ganesan. Design of Piston. M. H.com/acf B.pdf J. H. New York. VTU-EDUSAT Programme.Shiwalkar. Dimitris Missirlis. (2005) 33-44. Design Data for Machine Elements.P.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.