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1) Name the program which makes supervisor more alert, as it is his responsibility to rate his
1. Periodic appraisal
2. Yearly appraisal
3. Monthly appraisal
4. Weekly appraisal

2) The HRD programmes fail due

1. Crime factor
2. Social justice
3. Inflation
4. Poverty

3) Name the recruitment process which is said to be a costly affair

1. Internal
2. External
3. International
4. National

4) In resent times, which department and head of the same usually initiates the manpower
1. Operation department
2. production department
3. H R department
4. Logistics department 

5) The job evaluation programme once installed must be continued on a ________ basis.
1. Permanent
2. Unplanned
3. Planned
4. Daily

6) The process of 360 Degree appraisal is broken into two stages - planning and
1. Succession
2. Implementation
3. Non planning
4. Action planning
Ö) Human resource management is responsible for getting the best people, training and
providingmechanism to achieve organization ____________.
1. Goal
2. Target
3. loss
4. profit

8) The process of analyzing jobs from which job descriptions are developed are called
1. Company analysis
2. Job Analysis
3. Appraisal
4. Job enrichment

9) Which is not the method of performance appraisal ?

1. Straight ranking method
2. Grading method
3. Group Appraisal
4. Circle Method

10) MBO Means

1. Management by Operation
2. Management by Organization
3. Management by Objectives
4. All the above 


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Planning career is a wholly worthwhile step to ensure future happiness. Enjoying work, the
environment one works in and duties is essential to have a fulfilling career ahead. If one has a
strong idea of the direction one would like his career to head in, it¶s a good idea to take some
time out in order to think through what will be needed to make career plans flourish. Work is
a fundamental aspect of life, the decisions one makes will inevitably impact on one¶s
lifestyle and happiness, so forward-planning can only enrich career, helping one to hit
personal targets.

Career planning involves efforts on the part of the organizations to provide avenues for
growth to its employees. Certainly this growth should be accompanied by development. The
other side of the coin is the role of employees in career planning. It involves effort on the part
of employees to clearly think through and decided areas in which they would like to make a
career for themselves.

When employees have assessed their career needs and have become aware of organizational
career opportunities, the problem is one of alignment. The crucial role has to be played by
HRD in ensuring this alignment to build up morale in the organization. A systematic choice
of development techniques like training, special assignment, counseling and rotational
assignments should be made to ensure this alignment.

Employees are often uncertain as to the type of work that would suit them best. There are a
number of evaluation instruments available to determine basic aptitudes. Human Resource
Development Managers should be able to guide employees by administering these
instruments on them. Employees should also find out whether they are loners or socially
active. These exercises with some assistance from HRD Managers should help in career need

Realizing that employees have definite career needs, organization should chart different
career paths. These should be made known to all employees. As every employee wishes to
see bright future for himself, these career paths do provide the hope to achieve success.

At certain stage the upward mobility stops for many employees. This is inescapable in view
of pyramid organizations structure. This phenomenon is called plateauing. It takes place
around the age f 40. Some suggested measures to deal with such employees are:
· Mentors should be assigned measures to deal with such employees are:
Depending on the maturity of such mentors, good results can be achieved in assuaging the
hurt feelings of plateaued employees. Additional career ladders could be established to retain
some valuable resource. Giving them importance by assigning them to some important task
force or committee.Assisting them to choose a new career. Some organizations assist their
plateau executives to start their own business.

Career path models developed by a large public sector undertaking:

This organization has developed career paths models for the major discipline

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Human Resource Development is a process of increasing knowledge, capabilities and

positive work attitude of all people working in a business underrating, in other words in can
be defined as an organized working experience within a given period of time with the
objective of producing the possibility of performance change.

Nature and Scope of Human Resource Development

The dynamic environment of the organizations demand regular updating of job requirements,
which is necessary for continuous flow of qualified persons for the changed jobs. Its scope
can be understood with the help of following points:
1. Since HRD is made up of dependent parts so the design of the system should also take into
consideration its linkage with other departments of the organization.
2. Since HRD is a proactive function so its function is not only to cope with the needs of the
organization but also to anticipate and act on these needs in a continuous and planned
3. It aims at developing the capabilities of the line managers so that they can increasingly
handle functions like industrial relations, rewards and punishments etc.
4. HRD emphasizes on building a right work culture in the organization that identifies the
nature and capabilities of the people working in the organization.
5. Its main aim is to motivate the people though job enrichment, participative management
6. HRD also aims at the better utilization of human resources which leads to an improved
performance which in turn leads job satisfaction and morale boosting.
So we can say that HRD has given us the problem solving techniques and more committed
work force.

Scope of HRD in India

HR being the only factor that can facilitate effective use of science and technology it can help
the developing countries like India to attain the goal of molding HR in the right perspective.
HRD helps in incorporating high levels of skills and knowledge, which leads to improvement
in quality, and reduction of cost of production. HRD also assist in evolving policies which
will be useful in generating job satisfaction, career development opportunities etc. The
various elements on which HRD system is based are as follows:

r Evolving a system of Human Resources Planning.

r Selection of right people for the right job.
r Imparting proper training based on the principal of learning, teaching basic work kills,
motion study and training to foremen.
r Evolving suitable compensation plans
r Evolving a good performance appraisal system.

Many organizations in India have started implementing the HRD programmes and so we can
say that HRD programmes have started having its impact on the different organization in

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Performance appraisal are considered to be the vital tool, to measure the performance of an
employee and use the information collected, to optimize the resource of individuals in an
organization. It is systematic evaluation of individuals with respect to their task performance
and their potential for development individually and collectively. It refers to the assessments
of an employee¶s actual performance, behaviour on jobs and his/her potential for further
performance. The main purposes of appraisal are to assess training need to effect promotion
and to give high pay.

We may say that appraising the performance of an individual has been known as merit rating,
but in recent years, we may closure different terminologies have been used to denote this
process such as performance appraisal, performance review, performance evaluation,
employee appraisal, progress appraisal report, personal preview and so on.

Following methods are widely used in Performance Appraisal.

1.   

This technique was developed to reduce bias and establish objective standards of comparison
between individuals, but it does not involve the intervention of a third party. Although there
are many variations of this method, the most common one asks raters to choose from among
groups of statements those which best fit the individual being rated and those those which
least fit him. The statements are then weighted or scored, very much the way a psychological
test is scored. People with high scores are, by definition, the better employees; those with low
scores are the poorer ones. Since the rater does not know what the scoring weights for each
statement are, in theory at least, he cannot play favorites. He simply describes his people, and
someone in the personnel department applies the scoring weights to determine who gets the
best rating.

The rationale behind this technique is difficult to fault. It is the same rationale used in
developing selection test batteries. In practice, however, the forced choice methods tend to
irritate raters, who feel they are not being trusted. They want to say openly how they rate
someone and not be second-guessed or tricked into making ³honest´ appraisals.

2. 

When there is reason to suspect rater bias, when some raters appear to be using higher
standards than others, or when comparability of ratings is essential, essay or graphic ratings
are often combined with a systematic review process. The field review is one of several
techniques for doing this. A member of the personnel or central administrative staff meets
with small groups of raters from each supervisory unit and goes over each employee¶s rating
with them to (a) identify areas of inter-rater disagreement, (b) help the group arrive at a
consensus, and (c) determine that each rater conceives the standards similarly.

This group-judgment technique tends to be fairer and more valid then individual ratings and
permits the central staff to develop an awareness of the varying degrees of leniency or
severity-as well as bias- exhibited by raters in different departments. On the negative side, the
process is very time consuming.


In its simplest form, this technique asks the rater to write a paragraph or more covering an
individual¶s strengths, weaknesses, potential, and so on. In most selection situations,
particularly those former employers, teachers, or associates carry significant weight. The
assumptions seems to be that an honest and informed statement ±either by word of mouth or
in writing form someone who knows a man well, is fully as valid as more formal and more
complicated methods.

The biggest drawback to essay appraisals is their variability in length and content. Moreover,
since different essays touch on different aspects of a mans performance or personal
qualifications, essay ratings are difficult to combine or compare. For comparability, some
type of more formal method, like the graphic rating scale, is desirable.


To avoid, or to deal with, the feeling that they are being judged by unfairly high standards,
employees in some organizations are being asked to set-or help set-their own performance
goals. Within the last five or six years, MBO has become something of a fad and is so
familiar to most managers that I will not dwell on it here.

It should be noted, however, that when MBO is applied at lower organizational levels,
employees do not always want to be involved in their own goal setting. As Arthur N. Turner
and Paul R. Lawrence discovered, many do not want self-direction or autonomy. As a result,
more coercive variations of MBO drifting into a kind of manipulative form of management in
which pseudo-participation substitutes for the real thing. Employees are consulted, but
management ends up imposing its standards and its objectives.

Some organizations, therefore, are introducing a work-standards approach to goal setting in

which management openly sets the goals. In fact, there appears to be something of a vogue in
the setting of such work standards in white-collar and service areas.


So far, we have been talking about assessing past performance. What about the assessment of
future performance or potential? In any placement decision and even more so in promotion
decisions, some prediction of future performance is necessary. How can this kind of
prediction be made most validly and most fairly?

One widely used rule of thumb is that ³what a man has done is the best predictor of what he
will do in the future´. But suppose you are picking a man to be a supervisor and this person
has never held supervisory responsibility? Or suppose you are selecting a man for a job from
among a group of candidates, none of who has done the job or one like it? In these situation,
many organizations use assessment centers to predict future performance more accurately.

Typically, individuals from different departments are brought together to spend two or three
days working on individual and group assignments similar to the ones they will be handling if
they are promoted. The pooled judgment of observers ± sometimes derived by paired
comparison or alternation ranking ± leads to an order ±of-merit ranking for each participant.
Less structured, subjective judgment is also made.

There are good deals of evidence that people chosen by assessment center methods work out
better than those not chosen by these methods. The center also makes it possible for people
who are working for departments of low status or low visibility in an organization to become
visible and, in the competitive situation of an assessment center, show how they stack up
against people from better-known departments. This has the effect of equalizing opportunity,
improving morale, and enlarging the pool of possible promotion candidates.


This method is more consistent and reliable. Typically, a graphic scale assesses a person on
the quality and quantity of his work and on a variety of other factors that vary with the job
but usually include personal traits like reliability and cooperation. It may also include specific
performance items like oral and written communication.

The graphic scale has come under frequent attack, but remains the most widely used rating
method. In a classic comparison between the ³old-fashioned´ graphic scale and the much
more sophisticated force-choices technique, the former proved to be fully as valid as the best
of the forced-choice forms, and better than most of them. It is also cheaper to develop and
more acceptable to raters than the forced-choice form. For many purposes there is no need to
use anything more complicated than a graphic scale supplement by a few essay questions.

For comparative purposes, particularly when it is necessary to compare people who work for
different supervisors, individual statements, ratings, or appraisal forms are not particularly
useful. Instead, it is necessary to recognize that comparisons involve an overall subjective
judgment to which a host of additional facts and impressions must somehow be added. There
is no single form or way to do this.

r Alternation ranking: In this method, the names of employees are listed on the left-
hand side of the sheet of paper ± preferably in random order. If the rankings are for
salary purposes, a supervisor is asked to choose the ³most valuable´ employee on the
list, cross his name off, and put it at the top of the column on the right-hand side of
the sheet. Next, he selects the ³least valuable´ employee on the list, cross his name
off, and puts it at the bottom of the right-hand column. The ranker then selects the
most valuable person from the remaining list, crosses his name off and enters it below
the top name on the right-hand list, and so on.
r Paired ± comparison ranking: This technique is probably just as accurate as
alternation ranking and might be more so. But with large numbers of employees it
becomes extremely time consuming and cumbersome.

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is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this
way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should
be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established
with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques
include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships,
job rotation and coaching.

O   include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or

discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory
training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be
too costly.

There are distinct advantages of on-the-job training. The first advantage is that the employee
is obtaining revenue for the company or business while he is working and the company is
benefiting while the employee is learning. If the employee were sent off-site, he would not be
earning revenue for the company. Also, the employee can be monitored at all times while he
is training. If he is working as a cashier, another cashier can be standing by observing and
ready to answer questions. If the employee is training to be a waiter, he can follow a current
wait staff member and observe and assist with customers.Managers or supervisors are on site
to give feedback and guidance to new employees while they are training on the job. If you
send an employee off-site to train, you won't have the luxury of being able to give immediate
feedback. Also, the employee is working in real time and can see firsthand exactly how
things are done at the company.

Cost savings is another advantage of on-the-job training. Companies will not need to go to
the expense of sending the employee to off-site training. This can be particularly expensive if
off-site training is held in another city. Expenses such as car rental or airplane travel can add
up. Another advantage is that no extra or separate materials will have to be purchased for
training. The materials that the employee will be using for the job are likely already on hand.


There are some disadvantages to on-the-job training. One big disadvantage is the time it takes
to train a new employee. Training a new employee can slow down whomever is training that
person, as he will need to answer questions and repeat tasks along the way.
There may also be difficulty finding the right person to train the new employee. Some
employees may be very good at their job but don't possess the right attitude or have the
willingness to take on the responsibility. Oftentimes, it is best to leave certain training
aspects, particularly having to deal with sensitive information or finances, up to a manager or

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I think the HR strategies of India Tele -Linkages (ITL) are very much in alignment with
the corporate strategy of the company. ITL had restructured itself into a multi product/
service group by diversifying into other telecom and non -telecom services like healthcare
too. ITL was the first company to get ISO 9002 accreditation in India. In the year
2000, it entered into a tie -up with LDC Telecom, Oman to manufacture SDH, digital control
multiplier and some network access products. ITL had forged an alliance with the global
giant German Telecom for a complete range of office automation produ cts. The company
had started distributing ISDN handsets and terminal adapters. The company had also
set up a joint venture with Tkahami Ltd., Japan to manufacture pagers.ITL had chosen a
strategy of building brands whether it was Tulip in telephone instrum ents or Spacetel in
cellular services. So overall, if we see ITL is a company which is into building brands with
progressive approach and diversifying also. It is a company which has been trying to build
competencies in the sector it works.HR strategies al so works hard to build on competencies
of the employees. ITL recruited people on the basis of employee¶s suitability vis -à-vis the job
requirement or competencies required to do the job effectively. A detailed competency
mapping exercise was undertaken for all the positions and each individual¶s competencies
were identified and mapped against the desirable ones. All this was document in the Role
Description Directory, listing individual¶s job responsibilities (KRAs) competencies needed,
performance areas an d measurement parameters. This exercise was done rigorously and
updated at regular intervals. For middle and higher levels, the feedback was given after
every six months and for junior levels it was given quarterly. This formed an essential part of
the Annual Performance Appraisal System. 360 -degree appraisal system was followed for
the higher levels, whereas for lower levels it did not apply. The data generated out of this
exercise was solely used for the employee development. The promotion in the company was
performance-based. The high performers were identified and given fast track career growth
in the company.Performance Linked Incentive (PLI) were also introduced. There were
measures to suitably reward people for their performances in terms of cash rewa rds and
recognition. In addition to this, salary benchmarking was also done after two years to reduce
disparity between the existing salary structure of the company and the salary structure of the
leading companies in the telecom industry after reviewing t he figures that would appear in
the business bulletins. The company also had the practice of celebrating birthdays, monthly
fun days and breakfast meetings for the employees. For employees¶ wives, there was Teletel
Wives Welfare Association that would arra nge tours, meals, Porting, gettogethers and
various contents to build a culture in the organization, wherein fun would be an intrinsic part
while not losing the business head¶s wives. All the expenses were borne by the company.
All these things show that H R strategies were keeping people motivated and performance
oriented as the company itself was highly performance driven.

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If I were Kamal Kumar, apart from the steps already taken by Kamal Kumar, I¶d take the
following steps:

r V Ê Ê 


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r Reverse Training. Encourage your supervisors to obtain informal training from their
people. Why? It builds their own skills, and helps them prepare to train others.
r Ê





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r Exit Interviews. They're great for identifying problems employees had while on the
job, and for gaining insight into the way things can be done better in the future.
r ƒnowledge Base. This ³warehouse´ of data contains critical information about the
organization: financial performance, sales histories, customer data, work processes,
products and services under development. Whether it's computer-based or paper-
based, it's an invaluable continuity tool.
r Orientation Program. A good orientation program packages information and ideas for
new employees, and acquaints them with the history and culture of the organization.

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Many people are motivated by money²at least for a period of time. But the motivational
power of money often wears off as employees simply get used to their current level of
compensation. Many studies have confirmed that as long as employees are paid
competitively, money is not the main factor that leads to job selection or performance.

Ultimately, most people are motivated more by the work they do and the environment in
which they work than by the money they earn. Therefore, the compensation and rewards
system you offer to employees should include both monetary and non-monetary ideas

The effectiveness of any reward system requires two primary factors. First, the recipient must
perceive the reward as a positive event, and second, the reward needs to encourage the
desired behavior. The desired behavior must be consistent with the strategic goals of the

In the case, monetary rewards are already in place in form of star rating the ideas, wage hike,
in-house inter-department contests, acknowledging the ideas and contributions etc.
Recognition will come to people when they are included in non-monetary ideas like:

     !"Employees work smarter and enjoy their work more when they
know how their job fits into the company¶s success. Many companies have found success by
sharing their financial performance with employees and showing them how they can help
improve it.

#   $ "The world isn¶t fair, but most people hope it will be. Treating people
fairly means treating everyone with respect, rewarding successful performance, and critiquing
unsuccessful performance.

       ! Team members are going to make mistakes. Make the
discussion of mistakes a regular part of meetings. The point is not to focus on mistakes but on
the lessons learned for future applications.

Consider the following three questions to help learn from a mistake:

r What did we do right?

r What did we do wrong?
r What can we improve next time?

Using these questions at every staff meeting and at the end of every project will help create
an organizational culture comfortable with the truth, ready to acknowledge success, and open
to learning and improvement.

  !"When the company wins a big contract, finishes a large project, or
reaches an important milestone, bring everyone together to celebrate. When individuals or
teams do well or reach milestones, acknowledge their results as well. People want to feel part
of a successful company.

c     "When people perform well, provide them with opportunities for
advancement, increase their responsibilities, allow them more freedom to make decisions, or
give them larger portions of the budget to control. Beware not to punish people by
overloading them with too much work " and don¶t assume that everyone will find new
challenges rewarding.

#!   $   ! "When you show others that you trust them, they begin to do
things on their own initiative. They create energy for your organization. If you look over their
shoulders constantly, you¶ll get employees who will only do what they are told.

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The Chinese threat was majorly because of the cost advantage. If cost advantage was not at
their side, it would not be threat. So as to reduce the cost, increasing production and
productivity of workers was the only way out. However, to increase production and
productivity, it was very important to raise the morale of the workers. Apart from all the steps
taken by Suyash to motivate the workers, the following steps could be taken in addition:

     !"Employees work smarter and enjoy their work more when they
know how their job fits into the company¶s success. Many companies have found success by
sharing their financial performance with employees and showing them how they can help
improve it.

#   $ "The world isn¶t fair, but most people hope it will be. Treating people
fairly means treating everyone with respect, rewarding successful performance, and critiquing
unsuccessful performance.

       ! Team members are going to make mistakes. Make the
discussion of mistakes a regular part of meetings. The point is not to focus on mistakes but on
the lessons learned for future applications.

Consider the following three questions to help learn from a mistake:

r What did we do right?

r What did we do wrong?
r What can we improve next time?

  !"When the company wins a big contract, finishes a large project, or
reaches an important milestone, bring everyone together to celebrate. When individuals or
teams do well or reach milestones, acknowledge their results as well. People want to feel part
of a successful company.

c     "When people perform well, provide them with opportunities for
advancement, increase their responsibilities, allow them more freedom to make decisions, or
give them larger portions of the budget to control. Beware not to punish people by
overloading them with too much work " and don¶t assume that everyone will find new
challenges rewarding.

#!   $   ! "When you show others that you trust them, they begin to do
things on their own initiative. They create energy for your organization. If you look over their
shoulders constantly, you¶ll get employees who will only do what they are told.

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Personnel management is productive exploitation of manpower resources. This is also termed

as µManpower Management¶. Manpower Management is choosing the proper type of people
as and when required. It also takes into account the upgrading in existing people. Manpower
Management starts with manpower planning. Every manager in an organization is a
personnel man, dealing with people.

Definition and importance of manpower Planning:

Planning is nothing but using the available assets for the effective implementation of the
production plans. After the preparing the plans, people are grouped together to achieve
organizational objectives.

Planning is concerned with coordinating, motivating and controlling of the various activities
within the organization. Time required for acquiring the material, capital and machinery
should be taken into account. Manager has to reasonably predict future events and plan out
the production. The basic purpose of the management is to increase the production, so that
the profit margin can be increased. Manager has to guess the future business and to take
timely and correct decisions in respect of company objectives, policies and cost
performances. The plans need to be supported by all the members of the organization.
Planning is making a decision in advance what is to be done. It is the willpower of course of
action to achieve the desired results. It is a kind of future picture where events are sketched. It
can be defined as a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculty, imagination,
foresight and sound judgment.

It involves problem solving and decision making. Management has to prepare for short term
strategy and measure the achievements, while the long term plans are prepared to develop the
better and new products, services, expansion to keep the interest of the owners.

1. Predict manpower plans
2. Design job description and the job requirements
3. Find adequate sources of recruitment.
4. Give boost to youngsters by appointment to higher posts.
5. Best motivation for internal promotion.
6. Look after the expected losses due to retirement, transfer and other issues.
7. See for replacement due to accident, death, dismissals and promotion.
Importance / Objectives

1. 2"    '

  - The four managerial functions, i.e., planning,
organizing, directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. Human resources
help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. Therefore, staffing
becomes a key to all managerial functions.

'4   - Efficient management of personnels becomes an important

function in the industrialization world of today. Seting of large scale enterprises
require management of large scale manpower. It can be effectively done through
staffing function.
3.    - Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right job, but it
also comprises of motivational programmes, i.e., incentive plans to be framed for
further participation and employment of employees in a concern. Therefore, all types
of incentive plans becomes an integral part of staffing function.
4. ( '   - A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop
and are strong. Human relations become strong trough effective control, clear
communication, effective supervision and leadership in a concern. Staffing function
also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-
operation and better human relations.
5.  ( , "- Productivity level increases when resources are utilized in best
possible manner. Higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time, money,
efforts and energies. This is possible through the staffing and it's related activities (
Performance appraisal, training and development, remuneration)

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Òuality Circle can be defined as ³a small group of employees from the same work area that
meet regularly and voluntarily to identify, solve and implement solutions to work related
problems.´ i.e. it is the group of people who comes together to solve the work related
problems in an effective manner.

Characteristics of Òuality Circles:

r It ranges from 4to 15 members and 8 members are considered to be the norm.
r All members are from the same work area that gives the circle an identity.
r There is one supervisor who usually works as a leader who moderates a discussion
and promotes consensus but does not has the power of issuing orders or decisions.
r Usually meets once a week to work on the problems faced by them.
r Training is being given to each member of the Òuality Circle bout the rules of the
participation in the circle, the mechanics of running a meeting and making
management presentation, and techniques of group problem solving.
r It is the members and not the management who choose the problem to work upon.
r The members of the circle are being helped by technical specialist and management to
solve a particular problem.

Process of Òuality Circle

The basic aim of the circle members is to identify the problem and then analyze the problem
and to find the solutions for the same. It also aims to achieve the objective through the
development of people. The basic process involved in Òuality Circle consists of the following

1. Problem collection: the primary task of the member of the circle is to create a problem
bank and then to give priority to each problem depending on its benefit potential and urgency.
2. Problem Analysis: A good number of data collection tools, charts and statistical techniques
to establish facts, before proceeding to find solutions.
3. Problem Solutions: A proper environment and group thinking together helps in finding the
proper solutions to the problems. The people involved in the work area are best equipped to
find the solutions to the problem in a more practical manner.
4. Management Presentation: Through management presentation, the circle members present
there solutions to the management, highlight the benefits anticipated from the solution and if
there is an acceptance to there solution then it acts a motivation factors.
5. Implementation, review and follow up: After getting the sanction from the management he
next step is to plan for the implementation of the solution and follow up that are to carried out
after a period of time.

So to conclude we can say the quality circle works as group that works in the fulfillment of
the objective that leads to a problem free working toward the objective of the organization.

Advantages of quality circles

‡ Increase Productivity
‡ Improve Òuality
‡ Boost Employee Morale

Disadvantages/problems with ÒC
‡ Inadequate Training
‡ Unsure of Purpose
‡ Not truly Voluntary
‡ Lack of Management Interest
‡ Òuality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions.