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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS
YEAR 2

Curriculum Development Centre


Ministry of Education Malaysia
2003
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS
YEAR 2

Curriculum Development Centre


Ministry of Education Malaysia
2003
Copyright (C) 2003 Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia
Pesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta
50604 Kuala Lumpur

First published 2003

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the


reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any
electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter
invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden
without the prior written permission from the Director of the
Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
CONTENTS
RUKUNEGARA v
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION vii
PREFACE ix
INTRODUCTION xi

WHOLE NUMBERS Numbers to 1000 1


Addition with the Highest Total of 1000 8
Subtraction within the Range of 1000 13
Multiplication within 2, 3, 4 and 5 Times-tables 19
Division within 2, 3, 4 and 5 Times-tables 24

MONEY Money to RM50 28

TIME Reading and Writing Time 32


Relationship between Units of Time 34
Solving Problems involving Time 35

LENGTH Introduction to Length 36


Measuring and Comparing Lengths 37

MASS Introduction to Mass 39


Measuring and Comparing Masses 40

VOLUME OF LIQUID Introduction to Volume of Liquid 42


Measuring and Comparing Volumes of Liquids 43

SHAPE AND SPACE Three-Dimensional Shapes 45


Two-Dimensional Shapes 48

CONTRIBUTORS 51

PANEL OF WRITERS 52

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RUKUNEGARA

DECLARATION
OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated
to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;
to maintaining a democratic way of life;
to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared;
to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions;

to building a progressive society which shall be orientated to modern science and technology;

WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:
Belief in God
Loyalty to King and Country
Upholding the Constitution
Rule of Law
Good Behaviour and Morality

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NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of


individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who
are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious
based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce
Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high
moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of
personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and
betterment of the family, society and the nation at large.

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PREFACE
Science and technology plays a crucial role in greater opportunities for pupils to enhance
meeting Malaysia’s aspiration to achieve developed their knowledge and skills because they are able to
nation status. Since mathematics is instrumental in source the various repositories of knowledge written in
developing scientific and technological knowledge, the mathematical English whether in electronic or print
provision of quality mathematics education from an forms. Pupils will be able to communicate
early age in the education process is critical. mathematically in English not only in the immediate
enviroment but also with pupils from other countries
The primary school Mathematics curriculum as thus increasing their overall English proficiency and
outlined in the syllabus has been designed to provide mathematical competence in the process.
opportunities for pupils to acquire mathematical
knowledge and skills and develop the higher order The development of a set of Curriculum Specifications
problem solving and decision making skills that they as a supporting document to the syllabus is the work
can apply in their everyday lives. But, more of many individuals and experts in the field. To those
importantly, together with the other subjects in the who have contributed in one way or another to this
primary school curriculum, the mathematics effort, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, I would
curriculum seeks to inculcate noble values and love like to thank them and express my deepest
for the nation towards the final aim of developing the appreciation.
holistic person who is capable of contributing to the
harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people.

Beginning in 2003, science and mathematics will be


taught in English following a phased implementation
schedule, which will be completed by 2008. (Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN)
Mathematics education in English makes use of Director
ICT in its delivery. Studying mathematics in the Curriculum Development Centre
medium of English assisted by ICT will provide Ministry of Education Malaysia

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INTRODUCTION

Our nation’s vision can be achieved through a society later in life and in the process, benefit the society and
that is educated and competent in the application of the nation.
mathematical knowledge. To achieve this vision,
society must be inclined towards mathematics. Several factors have been taken into account when
Therefore, problem solving and communicational skills designing the curriculum and these are: mathematical
in mathematics have to be nurtured so that decisions concepts and skills, terminology and vocabulary used,
can be made effectively. and the level of proficiency of English among teachers
and pupils.
Mathematics is integral in the development of science
The Mathematics Curriculum at the primary level
and technology. As such, the acquisition of
(KBSR) emphasises the acquisition of basic concepts
mathematical knowledge must be upgraded
and skills. The content is categorised into four
periodically to create a skilled workforce in preparing
interrelated areas, namely, Numbers, Measurement,
the country to become a developed nation. In order to
Shape and Space and Statistics.
create a K-based economy, research and development
skills in Mathematics must be taught and instilled at The learning of mathematics at all levels involves more
school level. than just the basic acquisition of concepts and skills. It
involves, more importantly, an understanding of the
Achieving this requires a sound mathematics
underlying mathematical thinking, general strategies of
curriculum, competent and knowledgeable teachers
problem solving, communicating mathematically and
who can integrate instruction with assessment,
inculcating positive attitudes towards an appreciation
classrooms with ready access to technology, and a
of mathematics as an important and powerful tool in
commitment to both equity and excellence.
everyday life.
The Mathematics Curriculum has been designed to
It is hoped that with the knowledge and skills acquired
provide knowledge and mathematical skills to pupils
in Mathematics, pupils will discover, adapt, modify and
from various backgrounds and levels of ability.
be innovative in facing changes and future challenges.
Acquisition of these skills will help them in their careers

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AIM

The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum aims 4. master basic mathematical skills, namely:
to build pupils’ understanding of number concepts • making estimates and approximates,
and their basic skills in computation that they can • measuring,
apply in their daily routines effectively and responsibly • handling data
in keeping with the aspirations of a developed society • representing information in the form
and nation, and at the same time to use this of graphs and charts;
knowledge to further their studies.
5. use mathematical skills and knowledge to
OBJECTIVES solve problems in everyday life effectively
and responsibly;
The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum will
enable pupils to: 6. use the language of mathematics correctly;
1. know and understand the concepts,
7. use suitable technology in concept building,
definition, rules sand principles related to
acquiring mathematical skills and solving
numbers, operations, space, measures and
problems;
data representation;
8. apply the knowledge of mathematics
2. master the basic operations of mathematics:
systematically, heuristically, accurately and
• addition, carefully;
• subtraction,
• multiplication, 9. participate in activities related to mathematics;
• division; and

3. master the skills of combined operations; 10. appreciate the importance and beauty of
mathematics.

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CONTENT ORGANISATION
The Mathematics Curriculum at the primary level 4. Statistics
encompasses four main areas, namely, Numbers, • Average;
Measures, Shape and Space and Statistics. The • Data Representation.
topics for each area have been arranged from the
basic to the abstract. Teachers need to teach the The Learning Areas outline the breadth and depth of
basics before abstract topics are introduced to pupils. the scope of knowledge and skills that have to be
Each main area is divided into topics as follows: mastered during the allocated time for learning. These
learning areas are, in turn, broken down into more
1. Numbers
manageable objectives. Details as to teaching-learning
• Whole Numbers; strategies, vocabulary to be used and points to note
• Fractions; are set out in five columns as follows:
• Decimals;
• Money; Column 1: Learning Objectives.
• Percentage. Column 2: Suggested Teaching and
2. Measures Learning Activities.
• Time; Column 3: Learning Outcomes.
• Length; Column 4: Points To Note.
• Mass; Column 5: Vocabulary.
• Volume of Liquid.
The purpose of these columns is to illustrate, for a
3. Shape and Space particular teaching objective, a list of what pupils
• Two-dimensional Shapes; should know, understand and be able to do by the
• Three-dimensional Shapes. end of each respective topic.

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The Learning Objectives define clearly what should The Vocabulary column consists of standard
be taught. They cover all aspects of the Mathematics mathematical terms, instructional words and phrases
curriculum and are presented in a developmental that are relevant when structuring activities, asking
sequence to enable pupils to grasp concepts and questions and in setting tasks. It is important to pay
master skills essential to a basic understanding of careful attention to the use of correct terminology.
mathematics. These terms need to be introduced systematically to
pupils and in various contexts so that pupils get to know
The Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities of their meaning and learn how to use
list some examples of teaching and learning activities. them appropriately.
These include methods, techniques, strategies and
resources useful in the teaching of a specific
concepts and skills. These are however not the only
approaches to be used in classrooms.

The Learning Outcomes define specifically what


pupils should be able to do. They prescribe the
knowledge, skills or mathematical processes and
values that should be inculcated and developed at
the appropriate levels. These behavioural objectives
are measurable in all aspects.

In Points To Note, attention is drawn to the more


significant aspects of mathematical concepts and
skills. These aspects must be taken into accounts
so as to ensure that the concepts and skills are taught
and learnt effectively as intended.

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EMPHASIS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING 1. Problem Solving in Mathematics
The Mathematics Curriculum is ordered in such a way Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and
so as to give flexibility to the teachers to create an learning of mathematics. Understanding mathematical
environment that is enjoyable, meaningful, useful and procedures and solving problems
challenging for teaching and learning. At the same time are two skills that emerge naturally when relational
it is important to ensure that pupils show progression understanding is focussed upon. As a result, problem
in acquiring the mathematical concepts and skills. solving approaches should be used to investigate and
understand mathematical content. The teaching-
On completion of a certain topic and in deciding to
learning process must include exercises on problem
progress to another learning area or topic, the following
solving skills which are comprehensive and cover the
need to be taken into accounts:
whole curriculum. The development of these skills
• The skills or concepts acquired in the new must to be emphasised so that pupils are able to solve
learning area or topics; various problems effectively. The skills
• Ensuring that the hierarchy or relationship involved are:
between learning areas or topics have been
followed through accordingly; and • Interpreting problems;
• Ensuring the basic learning areas have or • Planning the strategy;
skills have been acquired or mastered before • Carrying out the strategy; and
progressing to the more abstract areas. • Looking back at the solutions.

The teaching and learning processes emphasise Various strategies and steps are used to solve
concept building, skill acquisition as well as the problems and these can be applied to other learning
inculcation of positive values. Besides these, there areas. In solving these problems, pupils learn to apply
are other elements that need to be taken into account mathematics and gradually become confident in facing
and learnt through the teaching and learning new challenging situations. Among the problem solving
processes in the classroom. The main emphasis are strategies to consider are:
as follows:

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• Trying a simple case; and concise mathematical terms during oral
• Trial and improvement; presentation and written work. This is also expanded
• Draw a diagram; to the listening skills involved.
• Identifying patterns and sequences;
Communication in mathematics through the listening
• Make a table, chart or a systematic list;
process occurs when individuals respond to what
• Simulation;
they hear and this encourages them to think using
• Make analogy; and
their mathematical knowledge in making decisions.
• Working backwards.
Communication in mathematics through the reading
2. Communication in Mathematics process takes place when an individual collects
information or data and rearranges the relationship
Communication is one way to share ideas and clarify between ideas and concepts.
the understanding of Mathematics. Through talking
and questioning, mathematical ideas can be reflected Communication in mathematics through the
upon, discussed and modified. The process of visualization process takes place when an individual
reasoning analytically and systematically can help makes observation, analyses it, interprets and
reinforce and strengthen pupils’ knowledge and synthesises the data into graphic forms, such as
understanding of mathematics to a deeper level. pictures, diagrams, tables and graphs.
Through effective communications pupils will become
efficient in problem solving and be able to explain The following methods can create an effective
concepts and mathematical skills to their peers and communication environment:
teachers.
• Identifying relevant contexts associated
Pupils who have developed the above skills will with environment and everyday life
become more inquisitive gaining confidence in the experiences of pupils;
process. Communicational skills in mathematics • Identifying interests of pupils;
include reading and understanding problems, • Identifying teaching materials;
interpreting diagrams and graphs, and using correct • Ensuring active learning;

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• Stimulating meta-cognitive skills; Written communication is the process whereby
• Inculcating positive attitudes; and mathematical ideas and information are
• Creating a conducive learning environment. shared with others through writing. The written work
is usually the result of discussions, contributions and
Oral communication is an interactive process that
brain-storming activities when working on
involves activities like listening, speaking, reading and
assignments. Through writing, the pupils will be
observing. It is a two-way interaction that takes place
encouraged to think more deeply about the
between teacher-pupil, pupil-pupil, and pupil-object.
mathematics content and observe the relationships
When pupils are challenged to think and reason about
between concepts.
mathematics and to tell others the results of their
thinking, they learn to be clear and convincing. Listening
Examples of written communication activities are:
to others’ explanations gives pupils the opportunities
• Doing exercises;
to develop their own understanding. Conversations in
• Keeping scrap books;
which mathematical ideas are explored from multiple
• Keeping folios;
perspectives help sharpen pupils thinking and help
• Undertaking projects; and
make connections between ideas. Such activity helps
• Doing written tests.
pupils develop a language for expressing mathematical
ideas and appreciation of the need for precision in the
language. Some effective and meaningful oral Representation is a process of analysing a
communication techniques in mathematics are as mathematical problem and interpreting it from one
follows: mode to another. Mathematical representation enables
pupils to find relationship between mathematical ideas
• Story-telling, question and answer sessions that are informal, intuitive and abstract using their
using own words; everyday language. Pupils will realise that some
• Asking and answering questions; methods of representation are more effective and
• Structured and unstructure interviews; useful if they know how to use the elements of
• Discussions during forums, seminars mathematical representation.
debates and brain-storming sessions; and
• Presentation of findings of assignments.

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3. Mathematical Reasoning The mathematics curriculum consists of several
areas such as arithmetic, geometry, measures and
Logical reasoning or thinking is the basis for
problem solving. Without connections between these
understanding and solving mathematical problems.
areas, pupils will have to learn and memorise too many
The development of mathematical reasoning is closely
concepts and skills separately. By making connections
related to the intellectual and communicative
pupils are able to see mathematics as an integrated
development of the pupils. Emphasis on logical
whole rather than a jumble of unconnected ideas.
thinking during mathematical activities opens up pupils’
Teachers can foster connections in a problem-oriented
minds to accept mathematics as a powerful tool in
classrooms by having pupils to communicate, reason
the world today.
and present their thinking. When these mathematical
ideas are connected with real life situations and the
Pupils are encouraged to predict and do guess work
curriculum, pupils will become more conscious in the
in the process of seeking solutions. Pupils at all
application of mathematics. They will also be able to
levels have to be trained to investigate their
use mathematics contextually in different learning
predictions or guesses by using concrete
areas in real life.
materials, calculators, computers, mathematical
representation and others. Logical reasoning has to
be infused in the teaching of mathematics so that 5. Application of Technology
pupils can recognise, construct and evaluate
predictions and mathematical arguments. The application of technology helps pupils to
understand mathematical concepts in depth,
4. Mathematical Connections meaningfully and precisely enabling them to explore
mathematical concepts. The use of calculators,
In the mathematics curriculum, opportunities for computers, educational software, websites in the
making connections must be created so that pupils internet and available learning packages can help to
can link conceptual to procedural knowledge and upgrade the pedagogical skills in the teaching and
relate topics in mathematics with other learning learning of mathematics.
areas in general.

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The use of teaching resources is very important in attitudes and personalities, the intrinsic mathematical
mathematics. This will ensure that pupils absorb values of exactness, confidence and thinking
abstract ideas, be creative, feel confident and be able systematically have to be absorbed through the
to work independently or in groups. Most of these learning areas.
resources are designed for self-access learning.
Through self-access learning, pupils will be able to Good moral values can be cultivated through suitable
access knowledge or skills and informations context. For example, learning in groups can help
independently according to their pace. This will serve pupils develop social skills and encourage cooperation
to stimulate pupils’ interests and responsibility in and self-confidence in the subject. The element of
learning mathematics. patriotism can also be inculcated through the teaching-
learning process in the classroom using planned
topics. These values should be imbibed throughout
APPROACHES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
the process of teaching and learning mathematics.
Various changes occur that influence the content and Among the approaches that can be given consideration
pedagogy in the teaching of mathematics in primary are:
schools. These changes require variety in the way of
teaching mathematics in schools. The use of teaching • Pupil centered learning that is interesting;
resources is vital in forming mathematical concepts. • The learning ability and styles of learning;
Teachers can use real or concrete objects in teaching • The use of relevant, suitable and effective
and learning to help pupils gain experience, construct teaching materials; and
abstract ideas, make inventions, build self confidence, • Formative evaluation to determine the
encourage independence and inculcate cooperation. effectiveness of teaching and learning.

The teaching and learning materials that are used


should contain self-diagnostic elements so that pupils
can know how far they have understood the concepts
and skills. To assist the pupils in having positive

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The choice of an approach that is suitable will stimulate
the teaching and learning environment in the classroom
or outside it. The approaches that are suitable include
the following:
• Cooperative learning;
• Contextual learning;
• Mastery learning;
• Constructivism;
• Enquiry-discovery; and
• Futures Study.

ASSESSMENT
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning
process. It has to be well-structured and carried out
continuously as part of the classroom activities. By
focusing on a broad range of mathematical tasks, the
strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed.
Different methods of assessment can be conducted using
multiple assessment techniques, including written and
oral work as well as demonstration. These may be in
the form of interviews, open-ended questions,
observations and assignments. Based on the results,
the teachers can rectify the pupils’ misconceptions and
weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching
skills. As such, teachers can take subsequent effective
measures in conducting remedial and enrichment
activities to upgrade pupils’ performance.

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CONTRIBUTORS

Advisors Dr. Sharifah Maimunah bt Syed Zin Director


Curriculum Development Centre

Dr. Rohani Abdul Hamid Deputy Director


Curriculum Development Centre

Editorial Rusnani Mohd Sirin Assistant Director


Advisors (Head of Mathematics Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director


(Head of English Language Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Editors Sugara Abd Latif Curriculum Officer


(Mathematics Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

B. Jagdeesh Kaur Gill Curriculum Officer


(English LanguageUnit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Helen Henry Sarjit SK Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur

Lee Tan Yen Peng SK St. Anthony, Penampang, Sabah

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PANEL OF WRITERS

Rusnani Mohd Sirin Sugara Abd Latif


Assistant Director Curriculum Officer
(Head of Mathematics Unit) (Mathematics Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre

Dr. Lim Chap Sum Shanti Periasamy


Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Maktab Perguruan Ilmu Khas, Kuala Lumpur

Wan Yusof Wan Ngah Maimunah Tahir


Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu, Melaka Maktab Perguruan Kota Bahru, Kelantan

Jeya Velu Abdul Razak Salleh


Institut Bahasa Melayu Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Maktab Perguruan Batu Rakit, Terengganu

Repiah Singah Lee Gik Lean


Maktab Perguruan Temenggong Ibrahim, Johor SK (P) Treacher Methodist, Perak

Tan Swee Hong Katherine Tan


SK Convent St. Jesus (2), Melaka SK Convent St. Jesus (1), Melaka

Ragu Ramasamy Latiff Darus


SK Bukit Bandaraya, Kuala Lumpur Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah, Pulau Pinang

Balkis Ahmad
SMK Sultan Sallahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Selangor

LAYOUT & ILLUSTRATIONS

Sugara Abd Latif


Mohd Razif Hashim
Mathematics Unit
Curriculum Development Centre

52
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Say and use the • Teacher show s picture cards or i. Say the number names to Encourage pupils to number
num ber names in number cards. Pupils listen and 1000. pronounce the number numerals
fam iliar contexts. repeat each number after teacher. names correctly.
ii. Recognise numerals to 1000. one hundred,
• Pupils recite the number sequence Pupils should count one hundred
to 1000. systematically to keep track and one, one
iii. Count up to 1000 objects by
of the count. hundred and
grouping them in hundreds,
• Pupils count to 1000 using objects tw o, …, nine-
tens, fives, twos and ones.
such as ice-cream sticks, straws, Count a larger collection of hundred and
chips, multi-based blocks and objects by grouping them in ninety-nine,
Cuisenaire rods. hundreds, tens, fives, twos one thousand
and ones. count

Overcome difficulties and tens


recognise recitation errors. fives
tw os
Check on pronunciation of
number names. ones

Check for accuracy.

1
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Read and w rite • Teacher says a number, pupils i. Write numerals to 1000. Overcome difficulties in number names
num bers to 1000. write the numeral. spelling. number w ords
ii. Read number w ords to one
• Teacher flashes a number w ord thousand. Check on pronunciation of one hundred,
card, pupils read the number number names. one hundred
word: iii. Write number w ords to one and one, one
thousand. Check for accuracy in hundred and
e.g. . spelling. tw o, …, nine
hundred and
Six hundred and forty-two. ninety-nine,
one thousand
• Pupils read and spell the number
words to one thousand.

• Pupils match numerals w ith


number w ords up to one
thousand.

• Pupils w rite the number w ords.

2
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Know w hat each • Represent 568 w ith objects such i. Recognise the place value of Emphasise the place value of number
digit in a number as Cuisenaire rods or multi-based numbers. each digit in tw o-digit and digit
represents. blocks. three-digit numbers.
e.g. hundreds
e.g. tens
1. 83
ones
2. 190 place holder
tw o-digit
Hundreds T ens On es
5 hundreds H T O three-digit
partition
8 3

8 ones 1 9 0
6 tens

The digit 5 in 568 represents 500, Emphasise the use of zero as


6 represents 60 and 8 represents a place holder.
8.
e.g. In 406, 0 represents
• Pupils partition tw o-digit or three-
tens.
digit numbers into hundreds, tens
and ones.
e.g. 702
702 is 7 hundreds,
0 tens and 2 ones.

3
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

4. Understand and use • Pupils count on and count back i. Arrange numbers to 1000: Arrange in order a complete number names
the vocabulary of in ones: a. count on and count back set of numbers. number w ords
comparing and e.g. 300, 301, 302 … in ones.
arranging num bers e.g. 241, 240, 239 … Include counting on and back one hundred,
or quantities to b. count on and count back in multiples of 10 and 100. one hundred
1000. • Pupils count on and count back in tw os. e.g: 10, 20, 30 … and one, one
in tw os: 100, 200, 300 … hundred and
c. count on and count back tw o, …, nine
e.g. 0, 2, 4, … in fives. hundred and
Emphasise that a number
e.g. 122, 120, 118 … ninety-nine,
follow ing another number in
d. count on and count back the counting on sequence is one thousand
• Pupils count on and count back
in fives: in tens. larger. arrange
e.g. 30, 35, 40, … count on
e. count on and count back
e.g 570, 565, 555 … Emphasise that a number
in hundreds. count back
follow ing another number in
• Pupils count on and count back next
in tens: the counting back sequence
is smaller. before
e.g. 283, 293, 303 …
e.g. 600, 590, 580 … after
Check for accuracy in
• Pupils count on and count back counting on and counting betw een
in hundreds: back.
e.g. 418, 518, 618 …
e.g. 1000, 900, 800 …

4
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils locate the correct position Use hundred grids for


of a number on a hundred grid counting on and back in tens
by counting on or back in tens and hundreds.
or hundreds.

e.g. Write 670 on the grid.

10

1000

5
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils compare tw o numbers ii. Compare tw o numbers and Arrange numbers in more
using concrete or manipulative say w hich is more or less. sequence of ones, twos, less
mater ials such as Cuisenaire fives and tens.
rods or multi-based blocks. iii. Arrange numbers in order: arrange
a. compare the numbers;
order
e.g. Which is more, 217 or and
271? number line
b. position the numbers on a smaller
• Pupils arrange a group of number line.
numbers in order. smallest
e.g. larger
37
31 largest
39
41 35
33 ascending
descending
Ascending order:
31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41

Descending order:
41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 31

• Pupils use number line to arrange


numbers in order.
e.g. 65, 40, 80, 25

0 25 40 65 80 100

6
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

5. Understand and use • Teacher introduces ordinal i. Say ordinal numbers from Pupils recall ordinal numbers arrange
ordinal num bers in numbers eleventh to tw entieth eleventh to tw entieth. from first to tenth to denote order
different contexts. through activities. position.
first, second,
e.g. 20 pupils line up in a third, fourth
ii. Use ordinal numbers in Emphasise the relationship
straight line. Each pupil fifth, sixth,
different contexts. betw een cardinal and ordinal
says his/her number: seventh, eighth
numbers up to tw entieth.
One, tw o, … tw enty. The ninth, tenth,
pupil w ho says ‘eleven’ is eleventh,
Check pupils’ pronunciation
the ‘eleventh’ in the line. tw elfth,
and spelling of ordinal
thirteenth,
numbers.
• Pupils respond to questions in fourteenth,
different contexts such as: fifteenth,
a. Who is the eleventh, tw elf th, sixteenth,
… in this queue? seventeenth,
eighteenth,
b. What is the tw elfth month of nineteenth,
the year? tw entieth.
c. Point to the thirteenth bead last
from the right. next
before
d. What position is the eleventh after
boy in the row ?

7
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Model concept of addition i. Add tw o numbers w ithout Emphasise that adding zero numbers
addition as using concrete and manipulative regrouping: to a number leaves the add
combining tw o mater ials such as chips, multi- number unchanged.
groups of objects. based blocks and Cuisenaire rods. a. tw o 1-digit numbers; plus
e.g: 768 + 0 = 768
total
• Pupils carry out addition mentally b. a 2-digit number and a
involving: 1-digit number; and Emphasise mental sum
a. 1-digit numbers and multiples calculation. groups
of 10. c. tw o 2-digit numbers.
e.g. 3 + 50 = Include addition using regrouping
standard written method. zero
b. 1-digit numbers and multiples
of 100. e.g. digit
e.g. 400 + 7 = 1. 5 multiples
+ 8
c. pairs of multiples of 10 to standard
make 100. written method
e.g. 20 + = 100 one-digit
2. 62
• Pupils add tw o numbers up to tw o tw o-digit
+ 7
digits w ithout regrouping.
e.g.
Tens Ones
T O
5 1
+ 4 3

8
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils add tw o numbers up to tw o ii. Add tw o numbers w ith Emphasise that adding zero numbers
digits w ith regrouping. regrouping: to a number leaves the add
number unchanged.
e.g. a. a 2-digit number and a plus
1. 15 + 7 = 1-digit number; and Emphasise mental total
calculation.
2. 76 + 29 = b. tw o 2-digit numbers. sum
Include addition using groups
T ens On es standard written method.
T O regrouping
iii. Add tw o numbers w ithout
e.g. zero
regrouping:
7 6 1. 49
+ 38 digit
+ 2 9 a. a 3-digit number and a
1-digit number; multiples
standard
• Pupils add tw o numbers up to b. a 3-digit number and a
written method
three digits w ithout regrouping. 2-digit number; and 2. 502
+ 61 one-digit
e.g. c. tw o 3-digit numbers.
tw o-digit
1. 521 + 6 =
three-digit
2. 350 + 48 =

3. 647 + 102 =

9
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils add three 1-digit numbers; iv. Add three 1-digit numbers. Emphasise that adding zero numbers
a. w ithout regrouping: to a number leaves the add
e.g. 4 + 3 + 2 = number unchanged.
plus
b. w ith regrouping: Emphasise mental total
e.g. 5 + 7 + 6 = calculation.
sum
Include addition using groups
standard written method.
regrouping
e.g. zero
1. 5
1 digit
+ 2 multiples
standard
written method
2. 6 one-digit
3
+ 8

10
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of add
knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. addition in a variety of
contexts including real life plus
addition in real life.
situations. sum
Emphasise finding unknow n total
numbers in number unknow n
sentences as follows:
number
a. 16 + 5 = sentence
regrouping
b. 34 + = 60
zero
c. + 27 = 138 digit
multiples
d. + = 85
one-digit
e. = 74 + 9 tw o-digit
three-digit
f. 519 = 300 +

g. 600 = + 200

h. 463 = +

Emphasise mental
calculation.

11
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils solve problems by ii. Solve problems involving Use and apply know ledge of add
simulating or modelling the addition in real life situations. addition in a variety of plus
situation. contexts including real life
situations. sum
e.g. total
Mat has 23 chickens. Select problems according to
He buys 6 more chickens. pupils’ ability and proficiency number
How many chickens has he now ? in language. sentence
regrouping
• Pupils make up a number story to zero
a given number sentence.
digit
46 + 12 = 58 multiples
one-digit
e.g.
I have 46 stickers and Kumar has tw o-digit
12 stickers. Altogether w e have three-digit
58 stickers.

12
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Model concept of subtraction i. Subtract tw o numbers w ithout Emphasise that subtracting subtract
subtraction as using concrete and manipulative regrouping: zero leaves a number
unchanged. take aw ay
“take aw ay” or mater ials such as, chips, multi-
“difference” based blocks and Cuisenaire rods. a. a 1-digit number from a minus
e.g. 415 – 0 = 415
between two 1-digit number; How many
groups of objects. • Pupils carry out subtraction
Emphasise mental left?
mentally involving: b. a 1-digit number from a
calculation. What is left?
2-digit number; and
a. multiples of 10
regrouping
e.g. 70 – 40 = Include subtraction using
c. a 2-digit number from a zero
standard written method.
b. multiples of 100 2-digit number.
e.g. 600 – 200 = e.g. digit

c. a 2-digit number and a multiples


1. 6
1-digit number. – 2 standard
e.g. 15 – 3 = written method
• Pupils subtract tw o numbers one-digit
2. 47
w ithout regrouping: tw o-digit
– 3
e.g. 54 – 31 =
T ens On es
T O 3. 98
–50
5 4
– 3 1

13
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils subtract tw o numbers ii. Subtract tw o numbers w ith Emphasise that subtracting subtract
w ith regrouping. regrouping: zero leaves a number take aw ay
e.g. unchanged.
1. 24 – 8 = a. a 1-digit number from a minus
2-digit number; and Emphasise mental How many
2. 71 – 53 = calculation. left?
b. a 2-digit number from a
2-digit number. Include subtraction using What is left?
T ens On es
T O standard written method. regrouping
7 1 zero
iii. Subtract tw o numbers w ithout e.g.
– 5 3 regrouping: 1. 82 digit
– 5 multiples
a. a 1-digit number from a
3-digit number; standard
written method
• Pupils subtract tw o numbers
w ithout regrouping. b. a 2-digit number from a 2. 639 one-digit
e.g. 3-digit number; and –107 tw o-digit
1. 748 – 6 =
c. a 3-digit number from a three-digit
2. 365 – 20 = 3-digit number.

3. 914 – 503 =

14
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils subtract three 1-digit iv. Subtract three 1-digit numbers. Emphasise that subtracting subtract
numbers. zero leaves a number take aw ay
e.g. 9 – 1 – 3 = unchanged.
minus
Emphasise mental How many
calculation. left?
Include subtraction using What is left?
standard written method. standard
written method
e.g. 8–2–5 = regrouping
8 6 zero
– 2 – 5 digit
6 1
multiples
Use manipulatives to help standard
pupils see the relationship written method
betw een addition and one-digit
subtraction.

e.g.
4+5=9
9–4=5
9–5=4

15
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of subtract
knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. subtraction in a variety of take aw ay
subtraction in contexts including real life
real life. situations. minus
difference
Emphasise finding unknow n
numbers in number How many
sentences as follows: left?
What is left?
a. 8 – 6 =
regrouping
b. 45 – = 20 zero
c. – 13 = 76 digit
d. – = 58 multiples
standard
e. = 149 – 25 written method
f. 300 = 867 – one-digit
tw o-digit
g. 275 = – 43
three-digit
h. 180 = –

Emphasise mental
calculation.

16
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils respond to questions ii. Solve problems involving Continue to develop the subtract
phrased in a variety of ways subtraction in real life understanding of subtraction take aw ay
such as: situations. as taking aw ay and finding
the difference between two minus
1. What is the difference numbers. difference
betw een 20 and 32?
Use and apply know ledge betw een
2. What number must you take of subtraction in a variety How many
from 40 to leave 26? of contexts including real life. left?
What is left?
3. Find pairs of numbers w ith a Select problems according
difference of 10. to pupils’ ability and regrouping
proficiency in language. zero
• Pupils solve problems by
digit
simulating or modelling the
situation. multiples
standard
e.g. written method
1. Hema buys 20 cards.
If she gives 6 cards to her one-digit
sister, how many cards has tw o-digit
she left?
three-digit

17
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Class Bestari has 45 pupils


and Class Maju has 38 pupils.
How many more pupils are
there in Class Bestari?

• Pupils make up a number story to


a given number sentence.

e.g.
50 - 12 = 38

There are 50 children in the bus.


12 are standing and 38 are
sitting.

18
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Pupils model concept of i. Recognise multiplication as Introduce multiplication as add 2 and 2 …
m ultiplication as multiplication as repeated repeated addition. repeated addition. add 3 and 3 …
repeated addition. addition using concrete and
(2, 3, 4 and 5 times- manipulative materials. add 4 and 4 …
tables) add 5 and 5 …
e.g.
Pupils form 3 groups of 2 equals
cookies. times
Pupils count the number of
groups and the number of multiply
cookies in each group. multiplied by
Pupils w rite the number double
sentences to find the total skip counting
number of cookies in 3 groups.
times-tables
multiplication
tables

2+2+2 =6
3x 2=6

Relate multiplication to repeated


addition.

19
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils w rite number sentences ii. Wr ite number sentences for Use ‘x’ and ‘=’ signs in a times
for multiplication. multiplication. number sentence. multiply
e.g. Relate ‘x’ to times and multiplied by
multiply. double

Read number sentence, skip counting


4 x 5 = 20 as “four times five times-tables
equals tw enty” or “four number
1. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 +3 + 3 + 3 = 21 multiplied by five is equal to
7 x 3 = 21 sentence
tw enty”.
multiplication

2. 3 x 4 = 12

2 2 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3. 3 x 2 = 6

20
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils build up multiplication iii. Build up the multiplication Include activities such as times
tables of 2, 3, 4 and 5 using tables of 2, 3, 4 and 5. making number patterns multiply
concrete or manipulative using manipulatives or ICT
mater ials or pictorial to build up multiplication by
representation. iv. Multiply tw o 1-digit numbers. tables. multiplied by
e.g. double
skip counting
times-tables
build

Include standard w ritten


method.

e.g. 8
x 3

21
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Know by heart the • Pupils list all possible i. Recall rapidly the Pupils must know by heart times
m ultiplication combinations of tw o numbers that multiplication tables of 2, 3, 4 the basic facts of multiply
tables of 2, 3, 4, equal to a given product. and 5. multiplication involving the 2,
and 5. e.g. Product is 12 3, 4 and 5 times-tables. times-tables
6 x 2 = 12 skip counting
4 x 3 = 12 Relate skip counting by tw os,
3 x 4 = 12 threes, fours and fives to equals
multiplication. recall
• Activities such as using flash
cards and saying aloud Emphasise mental
multiplication facts can be carried calculation.
out.
• Pupils memorise multiplication
tables by singing or chanting.

• Pupils respond rapidly to oral and


written questions such as:
e.g. 6 times 2 equals …?
Multiply 7 by 4.

22
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find the unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of unknow n
knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. multiplication in a variety of numbers
m ultiplication in contexts including real life times
real life. e.g. x 3 = 15 situations.
ii. Solve problems involving multiply
x = 36 Emphasise finding unknow n
multiplication in real life multiplied by
situations. numbers in number sentences
• Pupils solve problems by doubles
such as:
simulating or modelling the
situation. a. 4 x 2 = times as many
times-tables
e.g. b. 9 x = 18
1. A bicycle has 2 wheels. How skip counting
c. x 3=9
many w heels are there on 7 equals
bicycles? d. x = 24 solve
2. Tina puts 5 buns each in 3 e. =7x 4
plates. Altogether there are
…buns. f. 32 = 8 x

• Pupils make up a number story g. 30 = x5


to a given number sentence. h. 45 = x
e.g. 9 x 2 = 18 Emphasise mental calculation.
Zam bought 9 packets of Select problems according to
balloons. Each packet has 2 pupils’ ability and proficiency
balloons. Altogether he has 18 in language.
balloons.

23
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand division • Pupils model concept of division i. Recognise division as sharing Relate division as sharing share
as sharing equally using concrete and manipulative equally. equally or grouping. sharing equally
or grouping. mater ials.
(Corresponding to group
a. Sharing equally ii. Recognise division as
2, 3, 4 and 5 grouping. grouping
times- tables) e g.
6 ice-creams are shared equally times-tables
betw een 2 boys. division
Each boy gets 3 ice-creams.

b. Grouping

e.g.
There are 12 bottles. A box can be
filled w ith 4 bottles. Therefore 3
boxes are needed.

12 y 4 = 3

24
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils w rite number sentences iii. Write number sentences for Use ‘÷’ and ‘=’ signs in a number share equally
for division. division. sentence. group in tw os
e.g.
21 ÷ 3 = 7 Relate ‘÷’ to share equally, group group in threes
in twos, group in threes, group
iv. Divide numbers w ithin the group in fours
in fours or group in fives and
multiplication tables. group in fives
divide.
• Pupils use concrete or divide
manipulative materials or Read number sentence,
divided by
pictorial representation to 24 ÷ 4 = 6 as “tw enty-four
divided by four equals 6” or standard
divide numbers.
“tw enty-four divided by four is written method
equal to six”.
Use manipulatives to help pupils
see the relationship betw een
division and multiplication.
e.g. 20 ÷ 4 =
4x = 20
Use multiplication tables to
develop division skills.
Include standard w ritten method.
e.g. 3 27
Exclude division w ith
remainders.

25
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Derive quickly • Activities such as using flash i. Derive quickly division facts Pupils derive quickly the share equally
division facts. cards and saying aloud can be of 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables. division facts involving the group in tw os
(Corresponding to carried out. 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables.
2, 3. 4 and 5 times- group in threes
tables) • Pupils respond rapidly to oral Emphasise mental group in fours
and w ritten questions, such as: calculation.
Share 18 betw een 2. group in fives
Divide 32 by 4. divide
divided by
derive

26
Year 2
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS
LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find the unknow n numbers Use and apply know ledge divide
knowledge of number sentences. in number sentences. of division in a variety of share equally
division in real life. contexts including real life
e.g. 18 ÷ =9 ii. Solve problems involving situations. group
• Pupils solve problems by simulating division in real life situations. number
Emphasise finding unknow n
or modelling the situation. sentence
numbers in number
sentences as follows:
e.g.
1. A baker bakes 16 buns. She
puts 2 buns in every box. How a. 8 ÷ 2 =
many boxes can she fill? b. 16 ÷ =8
2. There are 36 books. Four c. ÷ 3=5
children share them equally.
How many books does each d. ÷ =9
child get?
e. = 32 ÷ 4
• Pupils make up a number story to
a given number sentence. f. 9 = 36 ÷
e.g. g. 7 = ÷5
28 ÷ 4 = 7
h. 8 = ÷
Mrs.Tan has 28 stamps. She has
four children. Each child gets 7 Select problems according
stamps. to pupils’ ability and
proficiency in language.

27
Year 2
TOPIC: MONEY
LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils show enough coins to make i. Represent the value of money Encourage pupils to tell the money
the vocabulary up a small amount. in ‘RM’ and ‘sen’. value of money correctly. sen
related to money.
e.g. RM1.35 Introduce RM50 note. ringgit
RM
50sen 50sen Show pupils genuine notes
and coins. coins
notes
20sen 10sen 5sen Pupils are aw are that RM1 value
is available in both forms,
coin and note. amount
• Pupils show enough notes to make
up a given amount. Emphasise ‘0’ in the ‘sen’
value.
e.g. RM31
e.g.
RM10 RM10 1. RM12.05

RM5 RM5 2. RM38.60

RM1

28
Year 2
TOPIC: MONEY
LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Understand that RM5.25 means ii. Exchange: Pupils check for accurate money
RM5 and 25 sen. amount exchanged. sen
a. coins up to RM5; and
• Pupils respond to questions such ringgit
as: b. notes up to RM50. RM
1. How many sen are there in
RM1? coins
2. Write 165 sen in RM and sen. notes
3. Write in RM and sen the total value
of two RM10 notes, three RM5
notes and six 10 sen coins. How much?

• Provide coins of different


denominations and pupils make
up to RM5 using different
combinations of coins.

• Provide notes of different


denominations and pupils make
up to RM50 using different
combinations of notes.

29
Year 2
TOPIC: MONEY
LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Set up bargain counters w ith i. Add money up to RM50. Addition and subtraction money
knowledge of articles priced up to RM50 for involves: sen
m oney in real life. practical buying and selling. a. sen only;
Provide a box of coins and notes ii. Subtract money up to RM50. b. RM only; and ringgit
of different denominations for c. RM and sen. RM
“shopkeeper” and provide
“customers” w ith some Limit: coins
denominations of coins and notes. a. addition to the highest notes
Show transactions in written total of RM50; and
b. subtraction w ithin the value
forms.
range of RM50. add
• Create “ Card Shop” scenario. subtract
Include addition and
Pupils bring old cards from home. subtraction of money using
Each card is labelled w ith a price How much?
standard written method.
tag. Pupils carry out buying and
selling activities. e.g.
1. RM13.45
• Pupils use mental addition or + RM 6.10
subtraction to solve problems.

2. RM40
- RM10

Inculcate moral values


involving money.

30
Year 2
TOPIC: MONEY
LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils solve problems. iii. Solve problems involving Encourage pupils to money
money in real life situations. explain methods used. sen
e.g.
1. I have RM6 and my mother Emphasise the ringgit
gives me RM2. How much development of the ability RM
do I have now ? to choose the correct
operation. coins
2. A banana costs 10 sen less notes
than a mango. A mango costs Select problems according value
70 sen. How much does a to pupils’ ability.
banana cost? How much?
solve

31
Year 2
TOPIC: TIME
LEARNING AREA: READING AND WRITING TIME

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand, read • Teacher introduces the minute i. Read time to five minutes. Begin w ith analogue clock. time
and write the hand using a clock face. hour hand
Use clock faces which
vocabulary related
• Pupils count in fives from 0 to 60 show the numerals 1 to 12 minute hand
to time. ii. Wr ite the time to five
as teacher moves the hand around and have clearly mar ked
minutes. minutes
the clock face. minute intervals.
Emphasise the difference o’clock
• Teacher marks 5, 10, 15 … 60 betw een the hour hand clock face
(minutes) on the clock face and and the minute hand.
pupils count in fives. analogue clock
Emphasise each mark on
e.g. 25 minutes the clock face means 1
minute.
5
12 Pupils read time in at least
11 1 tw o ways.
10
10 2 e.g. 5:10
9 3 15 Five ten.
Ten minutes past five.
8 4
7 5 20 Write the time, for example,
6 seven tw enty as 7:20.
25

32
Year 2
TOPIC: TIME
LEARNING AREA: READING AND WRITING TIME

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Teacher uses a clock face to Exclude cases w here the clock


show various times. minute hand is betw een o’clock
tw o numbers.
e.g. “It’s one thirty.” hour hand
“It’s three fifty-five.” Check on pupils’
minute hand
“It’s ten minutes past six.” pronunciation w hen
reading time. minutes
• Pupils w rite the given time.
past
a.
12
11 1
10 2
9 3
8 4
7 5
6
2:35
b. Teacher says the time, for
example nine fifteen and
pupils write: 9:15.
• Pupils draw the hour and the
minute hands to show time.

33
Year 2
TOPIC: TIME
LEARNING AREA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNITS OF TIME

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand the • Teacher explains the comparative i. Use units of time and know the Introduce standard units minutes
relationship order of units of time and that relationship betw een: for time and show the hour
between units there are 60 minutes in an hour a. hour and minutes; and relationship betw een them.
of time. and 24 hours in a day. b. day and hours. day
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 day = 24 hours

34
Year 2
TOPIC: TIME
LEARNING AREA: SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING TIME

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Use and apply • Pupils respond to questions such i. Solve problems involving time Select problems according What time …?
knowledge of time as: in real life situations. to pupils’ ability and
How long?
in real life. a. What do you do at 6:30 proficiency in language.
in the morning? minutes
solve
b. What do you do at 9:55
every night?

• Pupils solve problems.

e.g.
1. Sonia got on the bus at 10:00
o’clock. The journey took 15
minutes. What time did she get
off the bus?

2. Raju w ent into a shop at 10:30


and came out at 10:45. How
long w as he in the shop?

35
Year 2
TOPIC: LENGTH
LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO LENGTH

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and • Pupils observe the heights of two i. Use the vocabulary related to Emphasise the vocabulary measure
use the vocabulary pupils in class. length in practical contexts. related to length. length
related to length.
Pupils say one is tall and the other height
is short. tall

• Teacher show s objects of different short


lengths such as rulers, ribbons, long
pencils, rope, pupils’ fingers, high
hands etc.
Pupils to say: low
a. Ruler is long.
b. Pencil is short.

36
Year 2
TOPIC: LENGTH
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING LENGTHS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils compare the lengths i. Compare the lengths of tw o Length is the distance length
compare lengths by of tw o objects. objects by direct comparison. measured betw een tw o compare
direct comparison points.
and using uniform e.g. measure
non-standard units. 1. Length of tw o rulers taller than
The rulers must be lined up Compare tw o objects at a
side by side w ith one end of time. Begin w ith tw o shorter than
each ruler aligned. objects of great difference longer than
in length and later of less
difference. higher than
A
low er than
B Emphasise measuring and
comparing lengths by
Ruler A is longer than ruler B direct comparison (side by
or side).
Ruler B is shorter than ruler A.
Use uniform non-standard
2: The heights of 2 pupils. units to measure and
a. Kinu is taller. compare lengths.
b. Diah is shorter.
c. Kinu is taller than Diah.

Repeat the activity w ith various


objects.

37
Year 2
TOPIC: LENGTH
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING LENGTHS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils measure lengths of objects ii. Measure lengths of objects Use various uniform non- length
using uniform non-standard units. using uniform non-standard standard units to measure measure
units. lengths.
e.g. compare
1. Measure the length of a pencil Introduce standard units tall
with paper clips. for length and show the
relationship betw een metre long
and centimetre. high
1 metre = 100 centimetres low
2. Measure the length of Record measurement in short
classroom w ith pupils’ steps. metres and centimetres. taller
3. Measure the desks using the longer
span of pupils’ hands. shorter
higher
2. Measure and • Repeat the activities above using i. Measure lengths of objects low er
compare lengths standard units, metre and using standard units.
metre
using standard centimetre. a. metre; and
b. centimetre. centimetre
units.
standard unit

38
Year 2
TOPIC: MASS
LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO MASS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Engage pupils in activities that i. Use the vocabulary related to Mass is the amount of light
the vocabulary w ill create an aw areness of mass. mass in practical contexts. matter in an object. heavy
related to m ass.
e.g. Emphasise the vocabulary small
1. Hold, push, pull and lift related to mass. large
objects such as sand bags,
plasticine, bricks, bags of not heavy
marbles … too heavy
not light
2. Carry and move objects.
lift
3. Sort and separate ‘light push
objects’ and ‘heavy objects’.
size
4. Discuss the idea of splitting a pull
heavy load into several smaller balance
loads.
plasticine
sand
bricks
marbles

39
Year 2
TOPIC: MASS
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING MASSES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils compare tw o masses by i. Compare the masses of tw o It is not alw ays true that: hefting
compare m asses by pushing, pulling or hefting. objects by direct comparison. a. Large things are lighter than
direct comparison heavier than small
and by using e.g. things; and heavier than
uniform non- weigh
standard units. 1. Lift tw o objects, one in each b. Tw o things of the same
hand and decide w hich is size have the same weight
heavier or lighter. mass. small
2. Push tw o boxes in turn across Compare only tw o objects large
the floor and decide w hich is at a time. Begin w ith tw o less mass
heavier or harder to push. objects of great difference more mass
in mass and later of less
3. Pull tw o objects in turn and difference. greater mass
decide w hich is harder or as heavy as
easier to pull. Emphasise measuring and
comparing masses by not as heavy
• Pupils find objects of similar mass direct comparison (side by harder to push
from a variety of objects given. side). easier to lift
not as light

40
Year 2
TOPIC: MASS
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING MASSES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils experiment w ith the equal ii. Measure masses of objects Use uniform non-standard equal ar m-
arm balance w ith a variety of using uniform non-standard units to measure and balance
mater ials. units. compare masses. guess
1. How many chalks are needed Introduce the standard unit; check
to balance five pencils? kilogram for measuring balance
masses.
2. How many marbles are needed measure
1 kilogram = 1000 grams
to balance a cup?
nearly the
• Pupils w ork in groups to guess Record w eights in same
the masses of objects by using kilograms. lightest
different non-standard units.
heaviest
Objects Guess Actual non-standard
Book …marbles … marbles
…chalks ... chalks standard unit
... buttons … buttons kilogram

2. Measure and • Engage pupils in w eighing


i. Measure masses of objects
com pare m asses activities using scales.
using standard unit.
using standard
unit. e.g.
Weighing 1 kilogram of sugar
Weighing 2 kilograms of flour
Weighing 3 kilograms of sand

41
Year 2
TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID
LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME OF LIQUID

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils fill and empty containers, i. Use the vocabulary related to Volume of liquid is the volume
the vocabulary describing them as full, half full, volume in practical contexts. amount of space occupied liquid
related to volume of empty, or as having more or less by liquid.
liquid. liquid in them after filling or capacity
emptying. Emphasise the vocabulary measure
related to volume.
• Pupils do ‘Guess and Check’ full
activities. half full

e.g. empty
1. How full w ill this bottle be fill up
when I pour in this jug of more
water?
less
2. Will all the w ater in the glass much
go into the cup?

42
Year 2
TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils demonstrate and explain: i. Compare the volumes of tw o When comparing volumes volumes
compare volumes a. that a milk carton holds more liquids by direct comparison. of liquids, containers must liquids
of liquids by direct milk than a cup. be filled to the top.
comparison and by b. that a jug may hold the same capacities
using uniform non- amount of w ater as a milk Compare only tw o volumes full
standard units. carton. of liquids at a time. Begin
c. that if one cup holds more with volumes of great empty
sand than another then it can difference and later of less level
also hold more w ater. difference. holds more
• Pupils investigate the volumes than
Emphasise measuring and
of tw o different containers comparing volumes of holds less than
(of different siz es) by filling the liquids by direct holds about
containers w ith water using a cup. comparison. the same as

Containers Capacities Results holds a lot


more than
A 15 cups Holds holds just a
more little more than
B 12 cups Holds not quite as
less much as

43
Year 2
TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID
LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils experiment w ith a variety of ii. Measure volumes of liquids Use uniform non-standard measure
containers to measure volumes of using uniform non-standard units to measure and
volumes
liquids. units. compare volumes.
liquids
e.g. Emphasise filling each
1. How many cupfuls of w ater w ill capacity
containers w ith water to
fill up a jug? the top. cupfuls
2. How many bottles of w ater will non-standard
Introduce the standard unit;
fill up a pail?
litre for measuring volumes unit
of liquids. standard unit
1 litre = 1000 millilitres
litre

i. Measure volumes of liquids Record volumes of liquids


2. Measure and • Engage pupils in measuring
volumes of liquids using using standard unit. in litres.
compare volumes
of liquids using measuring cylinders.
standard unit.
e.g.
Measuring 1 litre of w ater.
Measuring 2 litres of water.
Measuring 3 litres of water.

44
Year 2
TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE
LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and • Pupils identify the appearance of i. Identify the appearance of a Pupils identify the cube
use the vocabulary three-dimensional shapes as a three-dimensional shape as a appearance cuboid
related to 3-D whole. whole. of three-dimensional
shapes. shapes as a whole: cone
e.g. a cube
cylinder
ii. Compare and sort three- a. in draw ing; and
corner dimensional shapes according sphere
face b. in different positions.
(vertex) to properties. pyramid
Pupils may also compare
edge edge
tw o solid shapes w ith one
iii. Label parts of three- another. corner
dimensional shapes. e.g. face
• Teacher puts a selection of
3-D shapes in a box. Pupils a. “They are both flat all vertex
compare and sort shapes by over.”
criteria w hich refer to faces, flat faces
b. “One has longer sides.”
number of edges and corners. curve
e.g. 3- D shapes w ith flat faces. curved faces
same
different

45
Year 2
TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE
LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils are given sets of 3-D bigger


shapes w hich are already sorted. more
Pupils say the reasons for sorting
them in that w ay. longer
square
round
circle
triangular
rectangular
circular

46
Year 2
TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE
LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Describe and • Teacher describes shapes. i. Identify three-dimensional Use mathematical cube
classify comm on Pupils guess the objects and shapes based on descriptions. vocabulary to describe cuboid
3-D shapes. relate the objects to the 3-D features of 3-D shapes.
cone
shapes.
Encourage pupils to ask cylinder
e.g. questions on the features sphere
“It is round all over.” of the 3-D shapes. pyramid
“It is flat on the bottom.” edge
Computer based activities
• Pupils ask ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ questions are encouraged. corner
about a hidden shape in order to face
identify it. curve
e.g. curved faces
“Does it have a curved face?” same
“Does it have a rectangular face?” different
“Does it have three corners?” bigger
longer
square
round
circle
triangular
rectangular
circular

47
Year 2
TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE
LEARNING AREA: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (2-D SHAPES)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils identify the appearance of i. Identify the appearance of a Pupils identify the appearance square
the vocabulary tw o-dimensional shapes as a tw o-dimensional shape as a of two-dimensional shapes triangle
related to 2-D whole. whole. as a w hole:
shapes. a. in draw ing; circle
e.g. b. in different positions; rectangle
1. A triangle in different ii. Compare and sort tw o- and
positions. dimensional shapes according c. in shapes/ diagrams. oval
to properties. faces
sides
corners
flat
2. Pupils identify squares,
rectangles, circles and straight
triangles in a diagram. curve
round

48
Year 2
TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE
LEARNING AREA: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (2-D SHAPES)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NO TE VOCABULARY


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils label parts of 2-D shapes. iii. Label parts of two-dimensional Use mathematical square
shapes. vocabulary to describe triangle
e.g. features of 2-D shapes.
circle
straight Descriptions can be verbal rectangle
face
side or written.
oval
corner
faces

• Teacher describes a shape and sides


2. Describe and i. Identify two-dimensional
classify comm on pupils guess the 2-D shape. shapes based on descriptions. corners
2-D shapes. flat
e.g.
“It has a flat face.” straight
“It has three straight sides.”
curve
“It has three corners.”
round
• Pupils ask ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ questions
about a hidden shape in order to
identify it.

e.g.
“Does it have a curved side?”
“Does it have a round face?”

49