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Matematik - Tahun 2

- HURAIAN SUKATAN PELAJARAN MATEMATIK TAHUN 6
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Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS

YEAR 2

Ministry of Education Malaysia

2003

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS

YEAR 2

Ministry of Education Malaysia

2003

Copyright (C) 2003 Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia

Pesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta

50604 Kuala Lumpur

reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any

electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter

invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden

without the prior written permission from the Director of the

Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.

CONTENTS

RUKUNEGARA v

NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION vii

PREFACE ix

INTRODUCTION xi

Addition with the Highest Total of 1000 8

Subtraction within the Range of 1000 13

Multiplication within 2, 3, 4 and 5 Times-tables 19

Division within 2, 3, 4 and 5 Times-tables 24

Relationship between Units of Time 34

Solving Problems involving Time 35

Measuring and Comparing Lengths 37

Measuring and Comparing Masses 40

Measuring and Comparing Volumes of Liquids 43

Two-Dimensional Shapes 48

CONTRIBUTORS 51

PANEL OF WRITERS 52

iii

RUKUNEGARA

DECLARATION

OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated

to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;

to maintaining a democratic way of life;

to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared;

to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions;

to building a progressive society which shall be orientated to modern science and technology;

WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:

Belief in God

Loyalty to King and Country

Upholding the Constitution

Rule of Law

Good Behaviour and Morality

v

NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who

are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious

based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce

Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high

moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of

personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and

betterment of the family, society and the nation at large.

vii

PREFACE

Science and technology plays a crucial role in greater opportunities for pupils to enhance

meeting Malaysia’s aspiration to achieve developed their knowledge and skills because they are able to

nation status. Since mathematics is instrumental in source the various repositories of knowledge written in

developing scientific and technological knowledge, the mathematical English whether in electronic or print

provision of quality mathematics education from an forms. Pupils will be able to communicate

early age in the education process is critical. mathematically in English not only in the immediate

enviroment but also with pupils from other countries

The primary school Mathematics curriculum as thus increasing their overall English proficiency and

outlined in the syllabus has been designed to provide mathematical competence in the process.

opportunities for pupils to acquire mathematical

knowledge and skills and develop the higher order The development of a set of Curriculum Specifications

problem solving and decision making skills that they as a supporting document to the syllabus is the work

can apply in their everyday lives. But, more of many individuals and experts in the field. To those

importantly, together with the other subjects in the who have contributed in one way or another to this

primary school curriculum, the mathematics effort, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, I would

curriculum seeks to inculcate noble values and love like to thank them and express my deepest

for the nation towards the final aim of developing the appreciation.

holistic person who is capable of contributing to the

harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people.

taught in English following a phased implementation

schedule, which will be completed by 2008. (Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN)

Mathematics education in English makes use of Director

ICT in its delivery. Studying mathematics in the Curriculum Development Centre

medium of English assisted by ICT will provide Ministry of Education Malaysia

ix

INTRODUCTION

Our nation’s vision can be achieved through a society later in life and in the process, benefit the society and

that is educated and competent in the application of the nation.

mathematical knowledge. To achieve this vision,

society must be inclined towards mathematics. Several factors have been taken into account when

Therefore, problem solving and communicational skills designing the curriculum and these are: mathematical

in mathematics have to be nurtured so that decisions concepts and skills, terminology and vocabulary used,

can be made effectively. and the level of proficiency of English among teachers

and pupils.

Mathematics is integral in the development of science

The Mathematics Curriculum at the primary level

and technology. As such, the acquisition of

(KBSR) emphasises the acquisition of basic concepts

mathematical knowledge must be upgraded

and skills. The content is categorised into four

periodically to create a skilled workforce in preparing

interrelated areas, namely, Numbers, Measurement,

the country to become a developed nation. In order to

Shape and Space and Statistics.

create a K-based economy, research and development

skills in Mathematics must be taught and instilled at The learning of mathematics at all levels involves more

school level. than just the basic acquisition of concepts and skills. It

involves, more importantly, an understanding of the

Achieving this requires a sound mathematics

underlying mathematical thinking, general strategies of

curriculum, competent and knowledgeable teachers

problem solving, communicating mathematically and

who can integrate instruction with assessment,

inculcating positive attitudes towards an appreciation

classrooms with ready access to technology, and a

of mathematics as an important and powerful tool in

commitment to both equity and excellence.

everyday life.

The Mathematics Curriculum has been designed to

It is hoped that with the knowledge and skills acquired

provide knowledge and mathematical skills to pupils

in Mathematics, pupils will discover, adapt, modify and

from various backgrounds and levels of ability.

be innovative in facing changes and future challenges.

Acquisition of these skills will help them in their careers

xi

AIM

The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum aims 4. master basic mathematical skills, namely:

to build pupils’ understanding of number concepts • making estimates and approximates,

and their basic skills in computation that they can • measuring,

apply in their daily routines effectively and responsibly • handling data

in keeping with the aspirations of a developed society • representing information in the form

and nation, and at the same time to use this of graphs and charts;

knowledge to further their studies.

5. use mathematical skills and knowledge to

OBJECTIVES solve problems in everyday life effectively

and responsibly;

The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum will

enable pupils to: 6. use the language of mathematics correctly;

1. know and understand the concepts,

7. use suitable technology in concept building,

definition, rules sand principles related to

acquiring mathematical skills and solving

numbers, operations, space, measures and

problems;

data representation;

8. apply the knowledge of mathematics

2. master the basic operations of mathematics:

systematically, heuristically, accurately and

• addition, carefully;

• subtraction,

• multiplication, 9. participate in activities related to mathematics;

• division; and

3. master the skills of combined operations; 10. appreciate the importance and beauty of

mathematics.

xii

CONTENT ORGANISATION

The Mathematics Curriculum at the primary level 4. Statistics

encompasses four main areas, namely, Numbers, • Average;

Measures, Shape and Space and Statistics. The • Data Representation.

topics for each area have been arranged from the

basic to the abstract. Teachers need to teach the The Learning Areas outline the breadth and depth of

basics before abstract topics are introduced to pupils. the scope of knowledge and skills that have to be

Each main area is divided into topics as follows: mastered during the allocated time for learning. These

learning areas are, in turn, broken down into more

1. Numbers

manageable objectives. Details as to teaching-learning

• Whole Numbers; strategies, vocabulary to be used and points to note

• Fractions; are set out in five columns as follows:

• Decimals;

• Money; Column 1: Learning Objectives.

• Percentage. Column 2: Suggested Teaching and

2. Measures Learning Activities.

• Time; Column 3: Learning Outcomes.

• Length; Column 4: Points To Note.

• Mass; Column 5: Vocabulary.

• Volume of Liquid.

The purpose of these columns is to illustrate, for a

3. Shape and Space particular teaching objective, a list of what pupils

• Two-dimensional Shapes; should know, understand and be able to do by the

• Three-dimensional Shapes. end of each respective topic.

xiii

The Learning Objectives define clearly what should The Vocabulary column consists of standard

be taught. They cover all aspects of the Mathematics mathematical terms, instructional words and phrases

curriculum and are presented in a developmental that are relevant when structuring activities, asking

sequence to enable pupils to grasp concepts and questions and in setting tasks. It is important to pay

master skills essential to a basic understanding of careful attention to the use of correct terminology.

mathematics. These terms need to be introduced systematically to

pupils and in various contexts so that pupils get to know

The Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities of their meaning and learn how to use

list some examples of teaching and learning activities. them appropriately.

These include methods, techniques, strategies and

resources useful in the teaching of a specific

concepts and skills. These are however not the only

approaches to be used in classrooms.

pupils should be able to do. They prescribe the

knowledge, skills or mathematical processes and

values that should be inculcated and developed at

the appropriate levels. These behavioural objectives

are measurable in all aspects.

significant aspects of mathematical concepts and

skills. These aspects must be taken into accounts

so as to ensure that the concepts and skills are taught

and learnt effectively as intended.

xiv

EMPHASIS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING 1. Problem Solving in Mathematics

The Mathematics Curriculum is ordered in such a way Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and

so as to give flexibility to the teachers to create an learning of mathematics. Understanding mathematical

environment that is enjoyable, meaningful, useful and procedures and solving problems

challenging for teaching and learning. At the same time are two skills that emerge naturally when relational

it is important to ensure that pupils show progression understanding is focussed upon. As a result, problem

in acquiring the mathematical concepts and skills. solving approaches should be used to investigate and

understand mathematical content. The teaching-

On completion of a certain topic and in deciding to

learning process must include exercises on problem

progress to another learning area or topic, the following

solving skills which are comprehensive and cover the

need to be taken into accounts:

whole curriculum. The development of these skills

• The skills or concepts acquired in the new must to be emphasised so that pupils are able to solve

learning area or topics; various problems effectively. The skills

• Ensuring that the hierarchy or relationship involved are:

between learning areas or topics have been

followed through accordingly; and • Interpreting problems;

• Ensuring the basic learning areas have or • Planning the strategy;

skills have been acquired or mastered before • Carrying out the strategy; and

progressing to the more abstract areas. • Looking back at the solutions.

The teaching and learning processes emphasise Various strategies and steps are used to solve

concept building, skill acquisition as well as the problems and these can be applied to other learning

inculcation of positive values. Besides these, there areas. In solving these problems, pupils learn to apply

are other elements that need to be taken into account mathematics and gradually become confident in facing

and learnt through the teaching and learning new challenging situations. Among the problem solving

processes in the classroom. The main emphasis are strategies to consider are:

as follows:

xv

• Trying a simple case; and concise mathematical terms during oral

• Trial and improvement; presentation and written work. This is also expanded

• Draw a diagram; to the listening skills involved.

• Identifying patterns and sequences;

Communication in mathematics through the listening

• Make a table, chart or a systematic list;

process occurs when individuals respond to what

• Simulation;

they hear and this encourages them to think using

• Make analogy; and

their mathematical knowledge in making decisions.

• Working backwards.

Communication in mathematics through the reading

2. Communication in Mathematics process takes place when an individual collects

information or data and rearranges the relationship

Communication is one way to share ideas and clarify between ideas and concepts.

the understanding of Mathematics. Through talking

and questioning, mathematical ideas can be reflected Communication in mathematics through the

upon, discussed and modified. The process of visualization process takes place when an individual

reasoning analytically and systematically can help makes observation, analyses it, interprets and

reinforce and strengthen pupils’ knowledge and synthesises the data into graphic forms, such as

understanding of mathematics to a deeper level. pictures, diagrams, tables and graphs.

Through effective communications pupils will become

efficient in problem solving and be able to explain The following methods can create an effective

concepts and mathematical skills to their peers and communication environment:

teachers.

• Identifying relevant contexts associated

Pupils who have developed the above skills will with environment and everyday life

become more inquisitive gaining confidence in the experiences of pupils;

process. Communicational skills in mathematics • Identifying interests of pupils;

include reading and understanding problems, • Identifying teaching materials;

interpreting diagrams and graphs, and using correct • Ensuring active learning;

xvi

• Stimulating meta-cognitive skills; Written communication is the process whereby

• Inculcating positive attitudes; and mathematical ideas and information are

• Creating a conducive learning environment. shared with others through writing. The written work

is usually the result of discussions, contributions and

Oral communication is an interactive process that

brain-storming activities when working on

involves activities like listening, speaking, reading and

assignments. Through writing, the pupils will be

observing. It is a two-way interaction that takes place

encouraged to think more deeply about the

between teacher-pupil, pupil-pupil, and pupil-object.

mathematics content and observe the relationships

When pupils are challenged to think and reason about

between concepts.

mathematics and to tell others the results of their

thinking, they learn to be clear and convincing. Listening

Examples of written communication activities are:

to others’ explanations gives pupils the opportunities

• Doing exercises;

to develop their own understanding. Conversations in

• Keeping scrap books;

which mathematical ideas are explored from multiple

• Keeping folios;

perspectives help sharpen pupils thinking and help

• Undertaking projects; and

make connections between ideas. Such activity helps

• Doing written tests.

pupils develop a language for expressing mathematical

ideas and appreciation of the need for precision in the

language. Some effective and meaningful oral Representation is a process of analysing a

communication techniques in mathematics are as mathematical problem and interpreting it from one

follows: mode to another. Mathematical representation enables

pupils to find relationship between mathematical ideas

• Story-telling, question and answer sessions that are informal, intuitive and abstract using their

using own words; everyday language. Pupils will realise that some

• Asking and answering questions; methods of representation are more effective and

• Structured and unstructure interviews; useful if they know how to use the elements of

• Discussions during forums, seminars mathematical representation.

debates and brain-storming sessions; and

• Presentation of findings of assignments.

xvii

3. Mathematical Reasoning The mathematics curriculum consists of several

areas such as arithmetic, geometry, measures and

Logical reasoning or thinking is the basis for

problem solving. Without connections between these

understanding and solving mathematical problems.

areas, pupils will have to learn and memorise too many

The development of mathematical reasoning is closely

concepts and skills separately. By making connections

related to the intellectual and communicative

pupils are able to see mathematics as an integrated

development of the pupils. Emphasis on logical

whole rather than a jumble of unconnected ideas.

thinking during mathematical activities opens up pupils’

Teachers can foster connections in a problem-oriented

minds to accept mathematics as a powerful tool in

classrooms by having pupils to communicate, reason

the world today.

and present their thinking. When these mathematical

ideas are connected with real life situations and the

Pupils are encouraged to predict and do guess work

curriculum, pupils will become more conscious in the

in the process of seeking solutions. Pupils at all

application of mathematics. They will also be able to

levels have to be trained to investigate their

use mathematics contextually in different learning

predictions or guesses by using concrete

areas in real life.

materials, calculators, computers, mathematical

representation and others. Logical reasoning has to

be infused in the teaching of mathematics so that 5. Application of Technology

pupils can recognise, construct and evaluate

predictions and mathematical arguments. The application of technology helps pupils to

understand mathematical concepts in depth,

4. Mathematical Connections meaningfully and precisely enabling them to explore

mathematical concepts. The use of calculators,

In the mathematics curriculum, opportunities for computers, educational software, websites in the

making connections must be created so that pupils internet and available learning packages can help to

can link conceptual to procedural knowledge and upgrade the pedagogical skills in the teaching and

relate topics in mathematics with other learning learning of mathematics.

areas in general.

xviii

The use of teaching resources is very important in attitudes and personalities, the intrinsic mathematical

mathematics. This will ensure that pupils absorb values of exactness, confidence and thinking

abstract ideas, be creative, feel confident and be able systematically have to be absorbed through the

to work independently or in groups. Most of these learning areas.

resources are designed for self-access learning.

Through self-access learning, pupils will be able to Good moral values can be cultivated through suitable

access knowledge or skills and informations context. For example, learning in groups can help

independently according to their pace. This will serve pupils develop social skills and encourage cooperation

to stimulate pupils’ interests and responsibility in and self-confidence in the subject. The element of

learning mathematics. patriotism can also be inculcated through the teaching-

learning process in the classroom using planned

topics. These values should be imbibed throughout

APPROACHES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

the process of teaching and learning mathematics.

Various changes occur that influence the content and Among the approaches that can be given consideration

pedagogy in the teaching of mathematics in primary are:

schools. These changes require variety in the way of

teaching mathematics in schools. The use of teaching • Pupil centered learning that is interesting;

resources is vital in forming mathematical concepts. • The learning ability and styles of learning;

Teachers can use real or concrete objects in teaching • The use of relevant, suitable and effective

and learning to help pupils gain experience, construct teaching materials; and

abstract ideas, make inventions, build self confidence, • Formative evaluation to determine the

encourage independence and inculcate cooperation. effectiveness of teaching and learning.

should contain self-diagnostic elements so that pupils

can know how far they have understood the concepts

and skills. To assist the pupils in having positive

xix

The choice of an approach that is suitable will stimulate

the teaching and learning environment in the classroom

or outside it. The approaches that are suitable include

the following:

• Cooperative learning;

• Contextual learning;

• Mastery learning;

• Constructivism;

• Enquiry-discovery; and

• Futures Study.

ASSESSMENT

Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning

process. It has to be well-structured and carried out

continuously as part of the classroom activities. By

focusing on a broad range of mathematical tasks, the

strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed.

Different methods of assessment can be conducted using

multiple assessment techniques, including written and

oral work as well as demonstration. These may be in

the form of interviews, open-ended questions,

observations and assignments. Based on the results,

the teachers can rectify the pupils’ misconceptions and

weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching

skills. As such, teachers can take subsequent effective

measures in conducting remedial and enrichment

activities to upgrade pupils’ performance.

xx

CONTRIBUTORS

Curriculum Development Centre

Curriculum Development Centre

Advisors (Head of Mathematics Unit)

Curriculum Development Centre

(Head of English Language Unit)

Curriculum Development Centre

(Mathematics Unit)

Curriculum Development Centre

(English LanguageUnit)

Curriculum Development Centre

51

PANEL OF WRITERS

Assistant Director Curriculum Officer

(Head of Mathematics Unit) (Mathematics Unit)

Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Maktab Perguruan Ilmu Khas, Kuala Lumpur

Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu, Melaka Maktab Perguruan Kota Bahru, Kelantan

Institut Bahasa Melayu Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Maktab Perguruan Batu Rakit, Terengganu

Maktab Perguruan Temenggong Ibrahim, Johor SK (P) Treacher Methodist, Perak

SK Convent St. Jesus (2), Melaka SK Convent St. Jesus (1), Melaka

SK Bukit Bandaraya, Kuala Lumpur Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah, Pulau Pinang

Balkis Ahmad

SMK Sultan Sallahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Selangor

Mohd Razif Hashim

Mathematics Unit

Curriculum Development Centre

52

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Say and use the • Teacher show s picture cards or i. Say the number names to Encourage pupils to number

num ber names in number cards. Pupils listen and 1000. pronounce the number numerals

fam iliar contexts. repeat each number after teacher. names correctly.

ii. Recognise numerals to 1000. one hundred,

• Pupils recite the number sequence Pupils should count one hundred

to 1000. systematically to keep track and one, one

iii. Count up to 1000 objects by

of the count. hundred and

grouping them in hundreds,

• Pupils count to 1000 using objects tw o, …, nine-

tens, fives, twos and ones.

such as ice-cream sticks, straws, Count a larger collection of hundred and

chips, multi-based blocks and objects by grouping them in ninety-nine,

Cuisenaire rods. hundreds, tens, fives, twos one thousand

and ones. count

recognise recitation errors. fives

tw os

Check on pronunciation of

number names. ones

1

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Read and w rite • Teacher says a number, pupils i. Write numerals to 1000. Overcome difficulties in number names

num bers to 1000. write the numeral. spelling. number w ords

ii. Read number w ords to one

• Teacher flashes a number w ord thousand. Check on pronunciation of one hundred,

card, pupils read the number number names. one hundred

word: iii. Write number w ords to one and one, one

thousand. Check for accuracy in hundred and

e.g. . spelling. tw o, …, nine

hundred and

Six hundred and forty-two. ninety-nine,

one thousand

• Pupils read and spell the number

words to one thousand.

number w ords up to one

thousand.

2

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Know w hat each • Represent 568 w ith objects such i. Recognise the place value of Emphasise the place value of number

digit in a number as Cuisenaire rods or multi-based numbers. each digit in tw o-digit and digit

represents. blocks. three-digit numbers.

e.g. hundreds

e.g. tens

1. 83

ones

2. 190 place holder

tw o-digit

Hundreds T ens On es

5 hundreds H T O three-digit

partition

8 3

8 ones 1 9 0

6 tens

6 represents 60 and 8 represents a place holder.

8.

e.g. In 406, 0 represents

• Pupils partition tw o-digit or three-

tens.

digit numbers into hundreds, tens

and ones.

e.g. 702

702 is 7 hundreds,

0 tens and 2 ones.

3

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

4. Understand and use • Pupils count on and count back i. Arrange numbers to 1000: Arrange in order a complete number names

the vocabulary of in ones: a. count on and count back set of numbers. number w ords

comparing and e.g. 300, 301, 302 … in ones.

arranging num bers e.g. 241, 240, 239 … Include counting on and back one hundred,

or quantities to b. count on and count back in multiples of 10 and 100. one hundred

1000. • Pupils count on and count back in tw os. e.g: 10, 20, 30 … and one, one

in tw os: 100, 200, 300 … hundred and

c. count on and count back tw o, …, nine

e.g. 0, 2, 4, … in fives. hundred and

Emphasise that a number

e.g. 122, 120, 118 … ninety-nine,

follow ing another number in

d. count on and count back the counting on sequence is one thousand

• Pupils count on and count back

in fives: in tens. larger. arrange

e.g. 30, 35, 40, … count on

e. count on and count back

e.g 570, 565, 555 … Emphasise that a number

in hundreds. count back

follow ing another number in

• Pupils count on and count back next

in tens: the counting back sequence

is smaller. before

e.g. 283, 293, 303 …

e.g. 600, 590, 580 … after

Check for accuracy in

• Pupils count on and count back counting on and counting betw een

in hundreds: back.

e.g. 418, 518, 618 …

e.g. 1000, 900, 800 …

4

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

of a number on a hundred grid counting on and back in tens

by counting on or back in tens and hundreds.

or hundreds.

10

1000

5

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils compare tw o numbers ii. Compare tw o numbers and Arrange numbers in more

using concrete or manipulative say w hich is more or less. sequence of ones, twos, less

mater ials such as Cuisenaire fives and tens.

rods or multi-based blocks. iii. Arrange numbers in order: arrange

a. compare the numbers;

order

e.g. Which is more, 217 or and

271? number line

b. position the numbers on a smaller

• Pupils arrange a group of number line.

numbers in order. smallest

e.g. larger

37

31 largest

39

41 35

33 ascending

descending

Ascending order:

31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41

Descending order:

41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 31

numbers in order.

e.g. 65, 40, 80, 25

0 25 40 65 80 100

6

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: NUMBERS TO 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

5. Understand and use • Teacher introduces ordinal i. Say ordinal numbers from Pupils recall ordinal numbers arrange

ordinal num bers in numbers eleventh to tw entieth eleventh to tw entieth. from first to tenth to denote order

different contexts. through activities. position.

first, second,

e.g. 20 pupils line up in a third, fourth

ii. Use ordinal numbers in Emphasise the relationship

straight line. Each pupil fifth, sixth,

different contexts. betw een cardinal and ordinal

says his/her number: seventh, eighth

numbers up to tw entieth.

One, tw o, … tw enty. The ninth, tenth,

pupil w ho says ‘eleven’ is eleventh,

Check pupils’ pronunciation

the ‘eleventh’ in the line. tw elfth,

and spelling of ordinal

thirteenth,

numbers.

• Pupils respond to questions in fourteenth,

different contexts such as: fifteenth,

a. Who is the eleventh, tw elf th, sixteenth,

… in this queue? seventeenth,

eighteenth,

b. What is the tw elfth month of nineteenth,

the year? tw entieth.

c. Point to the thirteenth bead last

from the right. next

before

d. What position is the eleventh after

boy in the row ?

7

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Model concept of addition i. Add tw o numbers w ithout Emphasise that adding zero numbers

addition as using concrete and manipulative regrouping: to a number leaves the add

combining tw o mater ials such as chips, multi- number unchanged.

groups of objects. based blocks and Cuisenaire rods. a. tw o 1-digit numbers; plus

e.g: 768 + 0 = 768

total

• Pupils carry out addition mentally b. a 2-digit number and a

involving: 1-digit number; and Emphasise mental sum

a. 1-digit numbers and multiples calculation. groups

of 10. c. tw o 2-digit numbers.

e.g. 3 + 50 = Include addition using regrouping

standard written method. zero

b. 1-digit numbers and multiples

of 100. e.g. digit

e.g. 400 + 7 = 1. 5 multiples

+ 8

c. pairs of multiples of 10 to standard

make 100. written method

e.g. 20 + = 100 one-digit

2. 62

• Pupils add tw o numbers up to tw o tw o-digit

+ 7

digits w ithout regrouping.

e.g.

Tens Ones

T O

5 1

+ 4 3

8

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils add tw o numbers up to tw o ii. Add tw o numbers w ith Emphasise that adding zero numbers

digits w ith regrouping. regrouping: to a number leaves the add

number unchanged.

e.g. a. a 2-digit number and a plus

1. 15 + 7 = 1-digit number; and Emphasise mental total

calculation.

2. 76 + 29 = b. tw o 2-digit numbers. sum

Include addition using groups

T ens On es standard written method.

T O regrouping

iii. Add tw o numbers w ithout

e.g. zero

regrouping:

7 6 1. 49

+ 38 digit

+ 2 9 a. a 3-digit number and a

1-digit number; multiples

standard

• Pupils add tw o numbers up to b. a 3-digit number and a

written method

three digits w ithout regrouping. 2-digit number; and 2. 502

+ 61 one-digit

e.g. c. tw o 3-digit numbers.

tw o-digit

1. 521 + 6 =

three-digit

2. 350 + 48 =

3. 647 + 102 =

9

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils add three 1-digit numbers; iv. Add three 1-digit numbers. Emphasise that adding zero numbers

a. w ithout regrouping: to a number leaves the add

e.g. 4 + 3 + 2 = number unchanged.

plus

b. w ith regrouping: Emphasise mental total

e.g. 5 + 7 + 6 = calculation.

sum

Include addition using groups

standard written method.

regrouping

e.g. zero

1. 5

1 digit

+ 2 multiples

standard

written method

2. 6 one-digit

3

+ 8

10

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of add

knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. addition in a variety of

contexts including real life plus

addition in real life.

situations. sum

Emphasise finding unknow n total

numbers in number unknow n

sentences as follows:

number

a. 16 + 5 = sentence

regrouping

b. 34 + = 60

zero

c. + 27 = 138 digit

multiples

d. + = 85

one-digit

e. = 74 + 9 tw o-digit

three-digit

f. 519 = 300 +

g. 600 = + 200

h. 463 = +

Emphasise mental

calculation.

11

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: ADDITION WITH THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils solve problems by ii. Solve problems involving Use and apply know ledge of add

simulating or modelling the addition in real life situations. addition in a variety of plus

situation. contexts including real life

situations. sum

e.g. total

Mat has 23 chickens. Select problems according to

He buys 6 more chickens. pupils’ ability and proficiency number

How many chickens has he now ? in language. sentence

regrouping

• Pupils make up a number story to zero

a given number sentence.

digit

46 + 12 = 58 multiples

one-digit

e.g.

I have 46 stickers and Kumar has tw o-digit

12 stickers. Altogether w e have three-digit

58 stickers.

12

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Model concept of subtraction i. Subtract tw o numbers w ithout Emphasise that subtracting subtract

subtraction as using concrete and manipulative regrouping: zero leaves a number

unchanged. take aw ay

“take aw ay” or mater ials such as, chips, multi-

“difference” based blocks and Cuisenaire rods. a. a 1-digit number from a minus

e.g. 415 – 0 = 415

between two 1-digit number; How many

groups of objects. • Pupils carry out subtraction

Emphasise mental left?

mentally involving: b. a 1-digit number from a

calculation. What is left?

2-digit number; and

a. multiples of 10

regrouping

e.g. 70 – 40 = Include subtraction using

c. a 2-digit number from a zero

standard written method.

b. multiples of 100 2-digit number.

e.g. 600 – 200 = e.g. digit

1. 6

1-digit number. – 2 standard

e.g. 15 – 3 = written method

• Pupils subtract tw o numbers one-digit

2. 47

w ithout regrouping: tw o-digit

– 3

e.g. 54 – 31 =

T ens On es

T O 3. 98

–50

5 4

– 3 1

13

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils subtract tw o numbers ii. Subtract tw o numbers w ith Emphasise that subtracting subtract

w ith regrouping. regrouping: zero leaves a number take aw ay

e.g. unchanged.

1. 24 – 8 = a. a 1-digit number from a minus

2-digit number; and Emphasise mental How many

2. 71 – 53 = calculation. left?

b. a 2-digit number from a

2-digit number. Include subtraction using What is left?

T ens On es

T O standard written method. regrouping

7 1 zero

iii. Subtract tw o numbers w ithout e.g.

– 5 3 regrouping: 1. 82 digit

– 5 multiples

a. a 1-digit number from a

3-digit number; standard

written method

• Pupils subtract tw o numbers

w ithout regrouping. b. a 2-digit number from a 2. 639 one-digit

e.g. 3-digit number; and –107 tw o-digit

1. 748 – 6 =

c. a 3-digit number from a three-digit

2. 365 – 20 = 3-digit number.

3. 914 – 503 =

14

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils subtract three 1-digit iv. Subtract three 1-digit numbers. Emphasise that subtracting subtract

numbers. zero leaves a number take aw ay

e.g. 9 – 1 – 3 = unchanged.

minus

Emphasise mental How many

calculation. left?

Include subtraction using What is left?

standard written method. standard

written method

e.g. 8–2–5 = regrouping

8 6 zero

– 2 – 5 digit

6 1

multiples

Use manipulatives to help standard

pupils see the relationship written method

betw een addition and one-digit

subtraction.

e.g.

4+5=9

9–4=5

9–5=4

15

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of subtract

knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. subtraction in a variety of take aw ay

subtraction in contexts including real life

real life. situations. minus

difference

Emphasise finding unknow n

numbers in number How many

sentences as follows: left?

What is left?

a. 8 – 6 =

regrouping

b. 45 – = 20 zero

c. – 13 = 76 digit

d. – = 58 multiples

standard

e. = 149 – 25 written method

f. 300 = 867 – one-digit

tw o-digit

g. 275 = – 43

three-digit

h. 180 = –

Emphasise mental

calculation.

16

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils respond to questions ii. Solve problems involving Continue to develop the subtract

phrased in a variety of ways subtraction in real life understanding of subtraction take aw ay

such as: situations. as taking aw ay and finding

the difference between two minus

1. What is the difference numbers. difference

betw een 20 and 32?

Use and apply know ledge betw een

2. What number must you take of subtraction in a variety How many

from 40 to leave 26? of contexts including real life. left?

What is left?

3. Find pairs of numbers w ith a Select problems according

difference of 10. to pupils’ ability and regrouping

proficiency in language. zero

• Pupils solve problems by

digit

simulating or modelling the

situation. multiples

standard

e.g. written method

1. Hema buys 20 cards.

If she gives 6 cards to her one-digit

sister, how many cards has tw o-digit

she left?

three-digit

17

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: SUBTRACTION WITHIN THE RANGE OF 1000

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

and Class Maju has 38 pupils.

How many more pupils are

there in Class Bestari?

a given number sentence.

e.g.

50 - 12 = 38

12 are standing and 38 are

sitting.

18

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand • Pupils model concept of i. Recognise multiplication as Introduce multiplication as add 2 and 2 …

m ultiplication as multiplication as repeated repeated addition. repeated addition. add 3 and 3 …

repeated addition. addition using concrete and

(2, 3, 4 and 5 times- manipulative materials. add 4 and 4 …

tables) add 5 and 5 …

e.g.

Pupils form 3 groups of 2 equals

cookies. times

Pupils count the number of

groups and the number of multiply

cookies in each group. multiplied by

Pupils w rite the number double

sentences to find the total skip counting

number of cookies in 3 groups.

times-tables

multiplication

tables

2+2+2 =6

3x 2=6

addition.

19

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils w rite number sentences ii. Wr ite number sentences for Use ‘x’ and ‘=’ signs in a times

for multiplication. multiplication. number sentence. multiply

e.g. Relate ‘x’ to times and multiplied by

multiply. double

4 x 5 = 20 as “four times five times-tables

equals tw enty” or “four number

1. 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 +3 + 3 + 3 = 21 multiplied by five is equal to

7 x 3 = 21 sentence

tw enty”.

multiplication

2. 3 x 4 = 12

2 2 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3. 3 x 2 = 6

20

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils build up multiplication iii. Build up the multiplication Include activities such as times

tables of 2, 3, 4 and 5 using tables of 2, 3, 4 and 5. making number patterns multiply

concrete or manipulative using manipulatives or ICT

mater ials or pictorial to build up multiplication by

representation. iv. Multiply tw o 1-digit numbers. tables. multiplied by

e.g. double

skip counting

times-tables

build

method.

e.g. 8

x 3

21

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Know by heart the • Pupils list all possible i. Recall rapidly the Pupils must know by heart times

m ultiplication combinations of tw o numbers that multiplication tables of 2, 3, 4 the basic facts of multiply

tables of 2, 3, 4, equal to a given product. and 5. multiplication involving the 2,

and 5. e.g. Product is 12 3, 4 and 5 times-tables. times-tables

6 x 2 = 12 skip counting

4 x 3 = 12 Relate skip counting by tw os,

3 x 4 = 12 threes, fours and fives to equals

multiplication. recall

• Activities such as using flash

cards and saying aloud Emphasise mental

multiplication facts can be carried calculation.

out.

• Pupils memorise multiplication

tables by singing or chanting.

written questions such as:

e.g. 6 times 2 equals …?

Multiply 7 by 4.

22

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: MULTIPLICATION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find the unknow n numbers in Use and apply know ledge of unknow n

knowledge of number sentences. number sentences. multiplication in a variety of numbers

m ultiplication in contexts including real life times

real life. e.g. x 3 = 15 situations.

ii. Solve problems involving multiply

x = 36 Emphasise finding unknow n

multiplication in real life multiplied by

situations. numbers in number sentences

• Pupils solve problems by doubles

such as:

simulating or modelling the

situation. a. 4 x 2 = times as many

times-tables

e.g. b. 9 x = 18

1. A bicycle has 2 wheels. How skip counting

c. x 3=9

many w heels are there on 7 equals

bicycles? d. x = 24 solve

2. Tina puts 5 buns each in 3 e. =7x 4

plates. Altogether there are

…buns. f. 32 = 8 x

to a given number sentence. h. 45 = x

e.g. 9 x 2 = 18 Emphasise mental calculation.

Zam bought 9 packets of Select problems according to

balloons. Each packet has 2 pupils’ ability and proficiency

balloons. Altogether he has 18 in language.

balloons.

23

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand division • Pupils model concept of division i. Recognise division as sharing Relate division as sharing share

as sharing equally using concrete and manipulative equally. equally or grouping. sharing equally

or grouping. mater ials.

(Corresponding to group

a. Sharing equally ii. Recognise division as

2, 3, 4 and 5 grouping. grouping

times- tables) e g.

6 ice-creams are shared equally times-tables

betw een 2 boys. division

Each boy gets 3 ice-creams.

b. Grouping

e.g.

There are 12 bottles. A box can be

filled w ith 4 bottles. Therefore 3

boxes are needed.

12 y 4 = 3

24

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils w rite number sentences iii. Write number sentences for Use ‘÷’ and ‘=’ signs in a number share equally

for division. division. sentence. group in tw os

e.g.

21 ÷ 3 = 7 Relate ‘÷’ to share equally, group group in threes

in twos, group in threes, group

iv. Divide numbers w ithin the group in fours

in fours or group in fives and

multiplication tables. group in fives

divide.

• Pupils use concrete or divide

manipulative materials or Read number sentence,

divided by

pictorial representation to 24 ÷ 4 = 6 as “tw enty-four

divided by four equals 6” or standard

divide numbers.

“tw enty-four divided by four is written method

equal to six”.

Use manipulatives to help pupils

see the relationship betw een

division and multiplication.

e.g. 20 ÷ 4 =

4x = 20

Use multiplication tables to

develop division skills.

Include standard w ritten method.

e.g. 3 27

Exclude division w ith

remainders.

25

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Derive quickly • Activities such as using flash i. Derive quickly division facts Pupils derive quickly the share equally

division facts. cards and saying aloud can be of 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables. division facts involving the group in tw os

(Corresponding to carried out. 2, 3, 4 and 5 times-tables.

2, 3. 4 and 5 times- group in threes

tables) • Pupils respond rapidly to oral Emphasise mental group in fours

and w ritten questions, such as: calculation.

Share 18 betw een 2. group in fives

Divide 32 by 4. divide

divided by

derive

26

Year 2

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

LEARNING AREA: DIVISION WITHIN 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TIMES-TABLES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

3. Use and apply • Pupils find unknow n numbers in i. Find the unknow n numbers Use and apply know ledge divide

knowledge of number sentences. in number sentences. of division in a variety of share equally

division in real life. contexts including real life

e.g. 18 ÷ =9 ii. Solve problems involving situations. group

• Pupils solve problems by simulating division in real life situations. number

Emphasise finding unknow n

or modelling the situation. sentence

numbers in number

sentences as follows:

e.g.

1. A baker bakes 16 buns. She

puts 2 buns in every box. How a. 8 ÷ 2 =

many boxes can she fill? b. 16 ÷ =8

2. There are 36 books. Four c. ÷ 3=5

children share them equally.

How many books does each d. ÷ =9

child get?

e. = 32 ÷ 4

• Pupils make up a number story to

a given number sentence. f. 9 = 36 ÷

e.g. g. 7 = ÷5

28 ÷ 4 = 7

h. 8 = ÷

Mrs.Tan has 28 stamps. She has

four children. Each child gets 7 Select problems according

stamps. to pupils’ ability and

proficiency in language.

27

Year 2

TOPIC: MONEY

LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils show enough coins to make i. Represent the value of money Encourage pupils to tell the money

the vocabulary up a small amount. in ‘RM’ and ‘sen’. value of money correctly. sen

related to money.

e.g. RM1.35 Introduce RM50 note. ringgit

RM

50sen 50sen Show pupils genuine notes

and coins. coins

notes

20sen 10sen 5sen Pupils are aw are that RM1 value

is available in both forms,

coin and note. amount

• Pupils show enough notes to make

up a given amount. Emphasise ‘0’ in the ‘sen’

value.

e.g. RM31

e.g.

RM10 RM10 1. RM12.05

RM1

28

Year 2

TOPIC: MONEY

LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Understand that RM5.25 means ii. Exchange: Pupils check for accurate money

RM5 and 25 sen. amount exchanged. sen

a. coins up to RM5; and

• Pupils respond to questions such ringgit

as: b. notes up to RM50. RM

1. How many sen are there in

RM1? coins

2. Write 165 sen in RM and sen. notes

3. Write in RM and sen the total value

of two RM10 notes, three RM5

notes and six 10 sen coins. How much?

denominations and pupils make

up to RM5 using different

combinations of coins.

denominations and pupils make

up to RM50 using different

combinations of notes.

29

Year 2

TOPIC: MONEY

LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Use and apply • Set up bargain counters w ith i. Add money up to RM50. Addition and subtraction money

knowledge of articles priced up to RM50 for involves: sen

m oney in real life. practical buying and selling. a. sen only;

Provide a box of coins and notes ii. Subtract money up to RM50. b. RM only; and ringgit

of different denominations for c. RM and sen. RM

“shopkeeper” and provide

“customers” w ith some Limit: coins

denominations of coins and notes. a. addition to the highest notes

Show transactions in written total of RM50; and

b. subtraction w ithin the value

forms.

range of RM50. add

• Create “ Card Shop” scenario. subtract

Include addition and

Pupils bring old cards from home. subtraction of money using

Each card is labelled w ith a price How much?

standard written method.

tag. Pupils carry out buying and

selling activities. e.g.

1. RM13.45

• Pupils use mental addition or + RM 6.10

subtraction to solve problems.

2. RM40

- RM10

involving money.

30

Year 2

TOPIC: MONEY

LEARNING AREA: MONEY TO RM50

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils solve problems. iii. Solve problems involving Encourage pupils to money

money in real life situations. explain methods used. sen

e.g.

1. I have RM6 and my mother Emphasise the ringgit

gives me RM2. How much development of the ability RM

do I have now ? to choose the correct

operation. coins

2. A banana costs 10 sen less notes

than a mango. A mango costs Select problems according value

70 sen. How much does a to pupils’ ability.

banana cost? How much?

solve

31

Year 2

TOPIC: TIME

LEARNING AREA: READING AND WRITING TIME

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand, read • Teacher introduces the minute i. Read time to five minutes. Begin w ith analogue clock. time

and write the hand using a clock face. hour hand

Use clock faces which

vocabulary related

• Pupils count in fives from 0 to 60 show the numerals 1 to 12 minute hand

to time. ii. Wr ite the time to five

as teacher moves the hand around and have clearly mar ked

minutes. minutes

the clock face. minute intervals.

Emphasise the difference o’clock

• Teacher marks 5, 10, 15 … 60 betw een the hour hand clock face

(minutes) on the clock face and and the minute hand.

pupils count in fives. analogue clock

Emphasise each mark on

e.g. 25 minutes the clock face means 1

minute.

5

12 Pupils read time in at least

11 1 tw o ways.

10

10 2 e.g. 5:10

9 3 15 Five ten.

Ten minutes past five.

8 4

7 5 20 Write the time, for example,

6 seven tw enty as 7:20.

25

32

Year 2

TOPIC: TIME

LEARNING AREA: READING AND WRITING TIME

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

show various times. minute hand is betw een o’clock

tw o numbers.

e.g. “It’s one thirty.” hour hand

“It’s three fifty-five.” Check on pupils’

minute hand

“It’s ten minutes past six.” pronunciation w hen

reading time. minutes

• Pupils w rite the given time.

past

a.

12

11 1

10 2

9 3

8 4

7 5

6

2:35

b. Teacher says the time, for

example nine fifteen and

pupils write: 9:15.

• Pupils draw the hour and the

minute hands to show time.

33

Year 2

TOPIC: TIME

LEARNING AREA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNITS OF TIME

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand the • Teacher explains the comparative i. Use units of time and know the Introduce standard units minutes

relationship order of units of time and that relationship betw een: for time and show the hour

between units there are 60 minutes in an hour a. hour and minutes; and relationship betw een them.

of time. and 24 hours in a day. b. day and hours. day

1 hour = 60 minutes

1 day = 24 hours

34

Year 2

TOPIC: TIME

LEARNING AREA: SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING TIME

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Use and apply • Pupils respond to questions such i. Solve problems involving time Select problems according What time …?

knowledge of time as: in real life situations. to pupils’ ability and

How long?

in real life. a. What do you do at 6:30 proficiency in language.

in the morning? minutes

solve

b. What do you do at 9:55

every night?

e.g.

1. Sonia got on the bus at 10:00

o’clock. The journey took 15

minutes. What time did she get

off the bus?

and came out at 10:45. How

long w as he in the shop?

35

Year 2

TOPIC: LENGTH

LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO LENGTH

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and • Pupils observe the heights of two i. Use the vocabulary related to Emphasise the vocabulary measure

use the vocabulary pupils in class. length in practical contexts. related to length. length

related to length.

Pupils say one is tall and the other height

is short. tall

lengths such as rulers, ribbons, long

pencils, rope, pupils’ fingers, high

hands etc.

Pupils to say: low

a. Ruler is long.

b. Pencil is short.

36

Year 2

TOPIC: LENGTH

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING LENGTHS

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils compare the lengths i. Compare the lengths of tw o Length is the distance length

compare lengths by of tw o objects. objects by direct comparison. measured betw een tw o compare

direct comparison points.

and using uniform e.g. measure

non-standard units. 1. Length of tw o rulers taller than

The rulers must be lined up Compare tw o objects at a

side by side w ith one end of time. Begin w ith tw o shorter than

each ruler aligned. objects of great difference longer than

in length and later of less

difference. higher than

A

low er than

B Emphasise measuring and

comparing lengths by

Ruler A is longer than ruler B direct comparison (side by

or side).

Ruler B is shorter than ruler A.

Use uniform non-standard

2: The heights of 2 pupils. units to measure and

a. Kinu is taller. compare lengths.

b. Diah is shorter.

c. Kinu is taller than Diah.

objects.

37

Year 2

TOPIC: LENGTH

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING LENGTHS

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils measure lengths of objects ii. Measure lengths of objects Use various uniform non- length

using uniform non-standard units. using uniform non-standard standard units to measure measure

units. lengths.

e.g. compare

1. Measure the length of a pencil Introduce standard units tall

with paper clips. for length and show the

relationship betw een metre long

and centimetre. high

1 metre = 100 centimetres low

2. Measure the length of Record measurement in short

classroom w ith pupils’ steps. metres and centimetres. taller

3. Measure the desks using the longer

span of pupils’ hands. shorter

higher

2. Measure and • Repeat the activities above using i. Measure lengths of objects low er

compare lengths standard units, metre and using standard units.

metre

using standard centimetre. a. metre; and

b. centimetre. centimetre

units.

standard unit

38

Year 2

TOPIC: MASS

LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO MASS

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Engage pupils in activities that i. Use the vocabulary related to Mass is the amount of light

the vocabulary w ill create an aw areness of mass. mass in practical contexts. matter in an object. heavy

related to m ass.

e.g. Emphasise the vocabulary small

1. Hold, push, pull and lift related to mass. large

objects such as sand bags,

plasticine, bricks, bags of not heavy

marbles … too heavy

not light

2. Carry and move objects.

lift

3. Sort and separate ‘light push

objects’ and ‘heavy objects’.

size

4. Discuss the idea of splitting a pull

heavy load into several smaller balance

loads.

plasticine

sand

bricks

marbles

39

Year 2

TOPIC: MASS

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING MASSES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils compare tw o masses by i. Compare the masses of tw o It is not alw ays true that: hefting

compare m asses by pushing, pulling or hefting. objects by direct comparison. a. Large things are lighter than

direct comparison heavier than small

and by using e.g. things; and heavier than

uniform non- weigh

standard units. 1. Lift tw o objects, one in each b. Tw o things of the same

hand and decide w hich is size have the same weight

heavier or lighter. mass. small

2. Push tw o boxes in turn across Compare only tw o objects large

the floor and decide w hich is at a time. Begin w ith tw o less mass

heavier or harder to push. objects of great difference more mass

in mass and later of less

3. Pull tw o objects in turn and difference. greater mass

decide w hich is harder or as heavy as

easier to pull. Emphasise measuring and

comparing masses by not as heavy

• Pupils find objects of similar mass direct comparison (side by harder to push

from a variety of objects given. side). easier to lift

not as light

40

Year 2

TOPIC: MASS

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING MASSES

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils experiment w ith the equal ii. Measure masses of objects Use uniform non-standard equal ar m-

arm balance w ith a variety of using uniform non-standard units to measure and balance

mater ials. units. compare masses. guess

1. How many chalks are needed Introduce the standard unit; check

to balance five pencils? kilogram for measuring balance

masses.

2. How many marbles are needed measure

1 kilogram = 1000 grams

to balance a cup?

nearly the

• Pupils w ork in groups to guess Record w eights in same

the masses of objects by using kilograms. lightest

different non-standard units.

heaviest

Objects Guess Actual non-standard

Book …marbles … marbles

…chalks ... chalks standard unit

... buttons … buttons kilogram

i. Measure masses of objects

com pare m asses activities using scales.

using standard unit.

using standard

unit. e.g.

Weighing 1 kilogram of sugar

Weighing 2 kilograms of flour

Weighing 3 kilograms of sand

41

Year 2

TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID

LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME OF LIQUID

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils fill and empty containers, i. Use the vocabulary related to Volume of liquid is the volume

the vocabulary describing them as full, half full, volume in practical contexts. amount of space occupied liquid

related to volume of empty, or as having more or less by liquid.

liquid. liquid in them after filling or capacity

emptying. Emphasise the vocabulary measure

related to volume.

• Pupils do ‘Guess and Check’ full

activities. half full

e.g. empty

1. How full w ill this bottle be fill up

when I pour in this jug of more

water?

less

2. Will all the w ater in the glass much

go into the cup?

42

Year 2

TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Measure and • Pupils demonstrate and explain: i. Compare the volumes of tw o When comparing volumes volumes

compare volumes a. that a milk carton holds more liquids by direct comparison. of liquids, containers must liquids

of liquids by direct milk than a cup. be filled to the top.

comparison and by b. that a jug may hold the same capacities

using uniform non- amount of w ater as a milk Compare only tw o volumes full

standard units. carton. of liquids at a time. Begin

c. that if one cup holds more with volumes of great empty

sand than another then it can difference and later of less level

also hold more w ater. difference. holds more

• Pupils investigate the volumes than

Emphasise measuring and

of tw o different containers comparing volumes of holds less than

(of different siz es) by filling the liquids by direct holds about

containers w ith water using a cup. comparison. the same as

more than

A 15 cups Holds holds just a

more little more than

B 12 cups Holds not quite as

less much as

43

Year 2

TOPIC: VOLUME OF LIQUID

LEARNING AREA: MEASURING AND COMPARING VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils experiment w ith a variety of ii. Measure volumes of liquids Use uniform non-standard measure

containers to measure volumes of using uniform non-standard units to measure and

volumes

liquids. units. compare volumes.

liquids

e.g. Emphasise filling each

1. How many cupfuls of w ater w ill capacity

containers w ith water to

fill up a jug? the top. cupfuls

2. How many bottles of w ater will non-standard

Introduce the standard unit;

fill up a pail?

litre for measuring volumes unit

of liquids. standard unit

1 litre = 1000 millilitres

litre

2. Measure and • Engage pupils in measuring

volumes of liquids using using standard unit. in litres.

compare volumes

of liquids using measuring cylinders.

standard unit.

e.g.

Measuring 1 litre of w ater.

Measuring 2 litres of water.

Measuring 3 litres of water.

44

Year 2

TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE

LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and • Pupils identify the appearance of i. Identify the appearance of a Pupils identify the cube

use the vocabulary three-dimensional shapes as a three-dimensional shape as a appearance cuboid

related to 3-D whole. whole. of three-dimensional

shapes. shapes as a whole: cone

e.g. a cube

cylinder

ii. Compare and sort three- a. in draw ing; and

corner dimensional shapes according sphere

face b. in different positions.

(vertex) to properties. pyramid

Pupils may also compare

edge edge

tw o solid shapes w ith one

iii. Label parts of three- another. corner

dimensional shapes. e.g. face

• Teacher puts a selection of

3-D shapes in a box. Pupils a. “They are both flat all vertex

compare and sort shapes by over.”

criteria w hich refer to faces, flat faces

b. “One has longer sides.”

number of edges and corners. curve

e.g. 3- D shapes w ith flat faces. curved faces

same

different

45

Year 2

TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE

LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

shapes w hich are already sorted. more

Pupils say the reasons for sorting

them in that w ay. longer

square

round

circle

triangular

rectangular

circular

46

Year 2

TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE

LEARNING AREA: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (3-D SHAPES)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

2. Describe and • Teacher describes shapes. i. Identify three-dimensional Use mathematical cube

classify comm on Pupils guess the objects and shapes based on descriptions. vocabulary to describe cuboid

3-D shapes. relate the objects to the 3-D features of 3-D shapes.

cone

shapes.

Encourage pupils to ask cylinder

e.g. questions on the features sphere

“It is round all over.” of the 3-D shapes. pyramid

“It is flat on the bottom.” edge

Computer based activities

• Pupils ask ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ questions are encouraged. corner

about a hidden shape in order to face

identify it. curve

e.g. curved faces

“Does it have a curved face?” same

“Does it have a rectangular face?” different

“Does it have three corners?” bigger

longer

square

round

circle

triangular

rectangular

circular

47

Year 2

TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE

LEARNING AREA: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (2-D SHAPES)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

1. Understand and use • Pupils identify the appearance of i. Identify the appearance of a Pupils identify the appearance square

the vocabulary tw o-dimensional shapes as a tw o-dimensional shape as a of two-dimensional shapes triangle

related to 2-D whole. whole. as a w hole:

shapes. a. in draw ing; circle

e.g. b. in different positions; rectangle

1. A triangle in different ii. Compare and sort tw o- and

positions. dimensional shapes according c. in shapes/ diagrams. oval

to properties. faces

sides

corners

flat

2. Pupils identify squares,

rectangles, circles and straight

triangles in a diagram. curve

round

48

Year 2

TOPIC: SHAPE AND SPACE

LEARNING AREA: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES (2-D SHAPES)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Pupils will be taught to: Pupils will be able to:

• Pupils label parts of 2-D shapes. iii. Label parts of two-dimensional Use mathematical square

shapes. vocabulary to describe triangle

e.g. features of 2-D shapes.

circle

straight Descriptions can be verbal rectangle

face

side or written.

oval

corner

faces

2. Describe and i. Identify two-dimensional

classify comm on pupils guess the 2-D shape. shapes based on descriptions. corners

2-D shapes. flat

e.g.

“It has a flat face.” straight

“It has three straight sides.”

curve

“It has three corners.”

round

• Pupils ask ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ questions

about a hidden shape in order to

identify it.

e.g.

“Does it have a curved side?”

“Does it have a round face?”

49

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