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Naringenin is one of the most abundant citrus bioflavonoids. A highvegetable diet with various fruits and vegetables daily including on average one glass of orange juice, one-half orange and one-half mandarin provides 130 mg of hesperetin and 30 mg of naringenin. Naringenin has been shown to inhibit in vitro growth of in human cancer cells. Naringenin has anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activity. Naringinen may play a role in cancer prevention or perhaps treatment, Heart disease prevention, hypertension, improving circulation, and Alzheimer's disease. Eyesight Rx with Naringenin Supports Healthy Vision Developed by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Unlike some vision products that provide nutrients and herbs for long term healthy vision support, and prevention of visual impairment, but don't seem to have much of an immediate effect on visual acuity, Eyesight Rx was formulated to provide a quick and noticeable vision improvement within hours or days of use. Reports from Eyesight Rx users indicate enhanced clarity of vision, colors being brighter, better focus, and overall improvement in close and distance vision. Vitamin C - (Ascorbic acid) Citrus bioflavonoids (eriocitrin, hesperidin, flavonols, flavones, flavonoids, naringenin, and quercetin) Mixed carotenoids (alpha carotene, astaxanthin, beta carotene, cryptoxanthin, Lutein, Lycopene, Zeaxanthin) Bilberry extract (Vaccinium myrtillus) Eyebright extract (Euphrasia officianales) Jujube extract (Zizyphus jujube) Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba) Suma extract (Pfaffia paniculata) Mucuna pruriens extract (Cowhage) Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Lycium berry extract (Lycium Barbarum) - also known as Goji Berry Alpha Lipoic Acid antioxidant Role in atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries Naringenin decreases progression of atherosclerosis by improving dyslipidemia in high-fat-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Apr; Mulvihill EE, Assini JM, Sutherland BG,
6%. Sawyez CG. stomach (KATOIII. TD96125) to test the hypothesis that naringenin prevents atherosclerosis. i. The results provide further insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and confirm the antioxidant potential of Naringenin. Naringenin reduced the extent of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin-induced alterations in renal cortex lipid peroxides and GST activity were markedly improved by Naringenin. liver (HepG2. London. Robarts Research Institute. Koppes JB.) was investigated in the rat. 2005 Mar 18. injection.28(3):527-30.5. respectively compared to cisplatin treated group. Hep3B. Inhibitory effects of naringenin on tumor growth in human cancer cell lines and sarcoma S-180-implanted mice. reduction in body weight loss. produced significant protection of renal function. Platinum renal content was not affected by Naringenin treatment. In the present study. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid that potently inhibits the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins in cultured hepatocytes and improves the dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in a mouse model of the metabolic syndrome. on the acute nephrotoxicity produced by cisplatin (7 mg/kg.76(18):2125-35. marked reduction in urinary fractional sodium excretion and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. MDAMB-231). Biol Pharm Bull. Cisplatin-induced alterations in renal cortex antioxidant defense system were greatly prevented by Naringenin. cervix . Huff MW.3 and 35.DiMattia AS. 30. and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased to 54. These in vivo studies demonstrate that the citrus flavonoid naringenin ameliorates the dyslipidemia in Western-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice. a naturally occurring citrus flavanone. The University of Western Ontario. Canada. In cisplatin-Naringenin combined treatment group. We have investigated the effect of naringenin on tumor growth in various human cancer cell lines and sarcoma S-180-implanted mice. decreased polyuria. Whitman SC. we used low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a high-fat diet (Western. Naringenin Research study Naringenin attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats. 100 Perth Dr. 2005 Mar. Oral administration of NAR (20 mg/kg/day) for 10 days. Life Sci. Vascular Biology Group. starting 5 days before cisplatin single i. and increased creatinine clearance. The effect of naringenin. NGEN showed cytotoxicity in cell lines derived from cancer of the breast (MCF-7. leading to decreased atherosclerosis. as evidenced by significant reduction in serum urea and creatinine concentrations.v. ON. Khami M. Epub 2005 Jan 22. and suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for the hyperlipidemia and increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with insulin resistance. Huh7).v. antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD). glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). MKN-7).
Waterbury. one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits. with hypodiploid cells detected in both Caco-2 and HL-60 by flow cytometric analysis. The total methanol extract of Citrus junos had a significant inhibitory effect on AChE in vitro. The attachment of rutinose and/or methoxy group in the structure did not affect the ocular blood flow one way or the other. In vivo. Naringenin dose-dependently induced apoptosis. with three the best to increase the ocular blood flow. Pfalts and Bauer. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) between some natural flavonoids and ocular blood flow in the rabbit. CT). U937). Naringenin inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner. 2004. junos. When OH groups are four (rutin. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. following intraperitoneal or peroral injection once a day for 5 d. when administered to mice at 4. with or without sugar. . Colored microsphere technique was used to determine the ocular blood flow in rabbit eyes. pancreas (PK-1). Jurkat. Naringenin. Flavonoids with two to five hydroxy groups. significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced amnesia as measured in both the passive avoidance and the Y-maze test.5 mg/kg body weight. Waterbury. Naringenin. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. Pfalts and Bauer. Naringin (NG) also inhibited tumor growth by peroral injection but not intraperitoneal injection. Naringenin inhibited tumor growth in sarcoma S-180-implanted mice. Naringenin from Citrus junos has an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and a mitigating effect on amnesia. These results suggest that naringenin may be a useful chemopreventive agent against Alzheimer's disease. WI). 2004 Feb. CT) or above four (Quercetin. Whether the OH groups are below three (naringenin. it produced mixed effects on ocular blood flow. This study was performed to identify safe and more effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. and/or methoxy groups were studied on their effects to affect ocular blood flow. and colon (Caco-2) as well as leukemia (HL-60. in vivo using ICR mice with amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight). By sequential fractionation of C.17(3):151-7. Aldrich. Milwaukee. In this study. we also evaluated the anti-amnesic activity of naringenin. RESULTS: Flavonoids with three free hydroxy (OH) groups seemed to produce the optimal effects in increasing ocular blood flow (naringenin and hesperitin. The ocular blood flow is increased significantly by the number of OH group in the molecule. they produced no effects on the ocular blood flow. a major flavanone constituent isolated from C. Pfalts and Bauer.junos. Hela-TG).(Hela.20(1):35-42. the active component was finally identified as naringenin. hesperitin. Naringenin -induced cytotoxicity was low in Caco-2 and high in leukemia cells compared to other cell lines. CT). may have a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth. Waterbury. NALM-6.
is known to have anticarcinogenic properties.02 to 2. Both naringenin and 17 beta-oestradiolacetate. suggesting a tissue specific effect of naringenin on oestrogen receptor alpha distribution.5. followed by the kidneys and liver. respectively. Gavage administration of the citrus flavonoid naringenin.4. the distribution of an oral dose of tritiated naringenin (4 mg/kg) was investigated in 3-week-old female mice. significantly increased uterine weights 3 and 4 times. Analysis of uterine oestrogen receptor alpha revealed that naringenin significantly increased the cytosolic concentration of oestrogen receptor alpha. This could be taken to suggests that ingestion of orange juice and other citrus fruits and juices may give rise to sufficiently high tissue levels of naringenin in man to exert a biological effect. The concentration of naringenin in uterus and ovaries was found to be ten times higher as compared to the mammary tissue. Naringenin concentrations ranging from 0. within 8 hr after dosing indicated that naringenin is absorbed extensively in mice.The citrus-derived flavonoid naringenin exerts uterotrophic effects in female mice at human relevant doses. Significant inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in HT29 colon cancer cells exposed to Naringenin at doses greater than 0.6 microM) observed in man following ingestion of 400-760 ml of orange juice (Erlund et al. however. 2001). 2004 Jan. whereas in nuclei the oestrogen receptor alpha concentration was significantly decreased as compared to the solvent control.5(2):149-52. to immature female mice (postnatal day 17-20) at 4 or 100 mg/kg b. HT-29 colon cancer cells were cultured in 96-well tissue culture plates. Naringenin. induced nuclear oestrogen receptor alpha in the liver. The urinary excretion of more than 25% of the administered dose.85 mmol were added to the wells of the Test group. 3'. In order to investigate the tissue levels at which the uterotrophic effect was observed. a naturally occurring flavonoid found in citrus fruits. Colorectal Dis.71 mmol. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. The plasma concentration of 0. 2003 Mar. These . Cell proliferation was measured by colourimetric assay using the 2% WST-1 cell proliferation kit.5 microM found in the present study is similar to the peak plasma concentration of naringenin (0.94(1):30-6. Uterus and ovaries were also found to contain relatively high and approximately equal amounts of naringenin. We have examined the effect of Naringenin on cell proliferation of an HT-29 colon cancer cell line.7tetrahydroxyflavanon for 4 consecutive days. The variable effect on proliferation of a colon cancer cell line by the citrus fruit flavonoid Naringenin. significantly. This was in contrast to the positive control 17 betaoestradiolacetate which acted as a true oestrogen by increasing the concentration of both total and nuclear oestrogen receptor alpha. The Control group contained all the elements present in the Test group with the exception of Naringenin.wt. The radioactivity content (ng naringenin equivalents/g tissue) was found to be highest in the gastrointestinal-tract.
whereas the hepatic TBARS concentration was significantly lower in the probucol group than in both normal and HC control or naringin group.END5) and rat (RBE4). hesperetin. The results demonstrate that flavonoids and some metabolites are able to traverse the BBB. In both cell types. As regards the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions. There is considerable current interest in the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids.317(1-2):181-90. However. as well as those of epicatechin and its in vivo metabolites. Twenty male rabbits were served a high-cholesterol (HC. across the in vitro BBB model (apical to basolateral) relative to their more polar glucuronidated conjugates. In support of these observations we report for the first time high apparent permeability (Papp) of the citrus flavonoids. uptake of hesperetin and naringenin was greatest. increasing significantly with time and as a function of concentration. Both naringin and probucol supplements significantly increased the plasma vitamin E concentration compared to the HC-control group. and their known physiologically relevant metabolites. 5 g/kg diet) diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with naringin (0. J Neurochem. The plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was not significantly different between the groups. Clin Chim Acta. We report that the citrus flavonoids.5 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks to compare the antioxidative effects of the citrus bioflavonoid (naringin) and antioxidative cholesterol-lowering drug (probucol). naringenin and their relevant in vivo metabolites.5 g/kg diet) or probucol (0. naringin significantly increased the expression of three antioxidant enzyme . cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. there was no difference in the cytosolic H(2)O(2) content or cytosolic glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the liver between the groups. the dietary anthocyanins and to specific phenolic acids derived from colonic biotransformation of flavonoids. 2002 Mar. Comparison of antioxidant effects of naringin and probucol in cholesterolfed rabbits. and that the potential for permeation is consistent with compound lipophilicity. are taken up by two brain endothelial cell lines from mouse (b. to enter the brain endothelium and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using wellestablished in vitro models (brain endothelial cell lines and ECV304 monolayers co-cultured with C6 glioma cells).results suggest a potential role for citrus fruits as a source of chemoprotective agents for colon cancer. 2003 April. and a decrease in the hepatic mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content compared to the HC-control group. as well as the dietary anthocyanins and in vivo forms. This study focuses on the potential for dietary flavonoids. hesperetin and naringenin. Probucol and naringin supplementation led to an increase in the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Interaction between flavonoids and the blood-brain barrier: in vitro studies.
and two 5 week dietary periods with a 3 week wash-out period in between. As of 2008. The high-vegetable diet provided 132 mg of hesperetin and 29 mg of naringenin. Naringenin from foods is quite well absorbed. These methoxyflavanones appear to be absorbed from juice. and citrus administration. and diets either high or low in fruit and vegetables. Naringenin supplement questions Q. The probucol supplement was very potent in the antioxidative defense system. Eur J Clin Nutr. Quercetin was detectable in nearly all samples . 2002 Sepember. and four related flavanones.mRNAs compared to the HC-control group. Finland. Absorbed citrus flavanones may undergo glucuronidation before urinary excretion. Flavanone absorption after naringin. we detected naringenin. The high-vegetable diet provided various fruits and vegetables daily including on average one glass of orange juice. hesperitin. To determine the fasting plasma concentrations of quercetin. whereas probucol significantly increased the only SOD mRNA expression. we are not aware of human research with naringenin supplements to determine its benefits and the absorption rate. strictly controlled dietary intervention consisting of a 2 week baseline period. 1996 Jul. one-half orange and onehalf mandarin. Helsinki. The low-vegetable diet contained few fruit and vegetables and no citrus fruit. whereas naringin exhibited a comparable antioxidant capacity based on increasing the gene expressions in the antioxidant enzymes. hesperidin. sparing plasma vitamin E. naringenin and quercetin in human subjects following their habitual diets. After juice administration. Plasma concentrations of the flavonoids hesperetin. The aglycones naringenin and hesperitin were detected in urine and plasma. hesperetin and naringenin were detectable in 54 and 22% of all samples. tentatively identified as monomethoxy and dimethoxy derivatives. and diets high or low in fruit and vegetables. while also increasing the hepatic SOD and CAT activities. Disposition of citrus flavonoids was evaluated after single oral doses of pure compounds (500 mg naringin and 500 mg hesperidin) and after multiple doses of combined grapefruit juice and orange juice and of oncedaily grapefruit. After the high-vegetable diet. The low-vegetable diet contained no flavanones. Cumulative urinary recovery indicated low bioavailability ( < 25%) of naringin and hesperidin. Please advise me as to how effective oral supplementation of naringenin is. Clin Pharmacol Ther. To investigate whether plasma concentrations of flavanones can serve as biomarkers of their intake.60(1):34-40. How much is absorbed by the GI tract? A. hesperetin and naringenin in human subjects consuming their habitual diets. and decreasing the hepatic mitochondrial H(2)O(2) content. National Public Health Institute (KTL). This was a cross-over. Biomarker Laboratory.
I am wanting to test its effects on human liver cancer cells.after all study periods. Our research led us to the negative impact of the fat and sugars in fast food on the pancreas. As part of the competition we are researching a topic in Biomedicine and trying to find a unique solution to a key issue in the body. counteracts the bad effects of fat and sugar on the pancreas. but again. naringenin and quercetin are bioavailable from the diet. but the plasma concentrations of hesperetin and naringenin are poor biomarkers of intake. I just found that Sigma Aldrich sells a purified source. One nutrient or substance alone is not able to counteract the deleterious effect of fats and sugars. there are hardly any human studies with naringenin as a pill taken orally so it is not known what kind of overall benefit or side effect it will have when taken alone as a supplement as opposed to being present and consumed in combination with other substances found naturally in fruits. To break this cycle. I would prefer a purified source from a chemical company. As part of the effort we are to identify a problem as it relates to a specific body part. Even a dietary supplement would be a good start. I am interested in the naringenin content in Eyesight Rx product (per capsule in mg). The high sugar contents of most fast food over stimulate the pancreas causing a peak in sugar. We use a bioflavonoid complex that has several substances in it and it does not say the specific amount. we found that narigenin. We are a group of middle school students participating in the First Lego League robotics competition. I have not been able to identify any biochemical supply house that offers this product. follow by a rapid drop. Hesperetin. there is no substitute for a healthy diet. leaving the individual tired and some cases hungry. I am attempting to locate a source of naringenin but have not had any success. This cycle overstimulates the pancreas and the false sense of repetitive cycle causes obesity and more serious diseases such as diabetes and cancer. . a chemical in citrus peels. Please disregard my prior e-mail about locating a source. I would be most appreciative if you could help me out.