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Faculty of Education
EDU 704- PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGY FOR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES
Lecturer: P.M. DR. ABU BAKAR HJ IBRAHIM
ATTUNNING YOUR TEACHING TOWARDS LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLES AND LEARNING STRATEGIES.
Name: WAN RAIHAN BINTI WAN SHAAIDI ID no: 2010416998 email: firstname.lastname@example.org HP: 012-2437793 Date of Submission: 19th February 2011
ATTUNNING YOUR TEACHING TOWARDS LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLES AND LEARNING STRATEGIES. ABSTRACT
Students’ lack of interest in learning English has become a crucial issue in schools nowadays. Due to that administration has put in a great effort to know the resolutions to end this predicament. Thus by knowing what the student preferred learning styles and attuning to learning strategies somehow given a new perspective to teachers to cater to the students need. Keywords: attuning, learning styles, learning strategies
INTRODUCTION Born as human with various attitudes, characteristics, norms and values have made
human as unique entities that inimitably respond towards surrounding and what more toward learning and teaching styles. Due to that, has derived education institutions to pay a great detail on students learning styles and strategies as to nurture them to be responsible towards their own learning process. Some students prefer to learn by themselves in their own time pace, in familiar surrounding rather than in groups. Students tend to perceive information differently, such as by seeing and hearing, reflective and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively and also analyzing and visualizing (Azlinda, 2006). Thus has clearly portrayed that all students display characteristics of both ends at each dimension, and may move from one extreme to the other depending in the topic, its context, and the particular task demands made on the students (Wong, 2004). The learning styles of the students influence their ability to acquire information and respond to the learning environment (Azlinda, 2006). Students can plan and manage their language learning activities better if they can discover their preferred learning styles. Thus can assist the students in enhancing and take advantage of their natural skills and inclinations. Because of that students’ motivation will be sustained and thus can process well in language learning process (Azlinda, 2006). What more, when learning styles of the students in a class and teaching styles of the instructor are incompatible, with adverse potential effects, the students may be bored and become inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the course, the
one of the characteristic of a good language learner is the ability to reflect on and articulate the processes underlying their own learning. Furthermore. and in numerous cases change to another program or drop out from school (Felder & Spurlin.1 DEFINITIONS OF LEARNING. school achievement and other behaviour predicted by diverse learning style terms (Nel. as both teaching strategies and learning styles play a crucial role in language learning process and achievement. As cited from Lewenfeld (1945). As learning a language is among the most challenging lifelong pursuits to undertake (Almasa. according to Nunan (1991). LEARNING STYLES AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Learning according to Kolb (1984). 1.curriculum and themselves. 2006). refer to the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. There is perplexity that comes from variation in the scale and scope of learning. 2008). but the concept of learning style has not been well explored at present. As stated by numerous researchers. teachers should not neglect significance of choosing the appropriate teaching strategies to suite students learning styles. Hence more researchers have taken great interest discovering learning styles and strategies among students. Therefore. researched visual versus hepatic memory preferences. There are numerous of definitions of learning styles being defined and redefined by researchers to suite their purpose of studies. Parilah & Fauziah. teachers can observe that usually successful learning shows positive attitude towards English (Azlinda. 2005). In English as second language classroom. 2005). the term ‘learning style’ has different 3 .
a channel by which human expression can take place and is composed of a combination of perception and memory (Clark. has noted that teachers cannot identify students’ learning styles meticulously without an instrument. Oxford 1990). Stewart and Felicetti (1992) elucidated learning styles as those educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn. It is based on modalities. storage. and for others it refers to as preferred approaches to learning based on modality strengths.2. In addition. Auditory. Kinesthetic. 4 . Dunn and Dunn (1998). 1. & Tactile).meanings for different people. In this term paper dissertate a few models of learning styles that can be used in determining learning styles of students.2 MODEL OF LEARNING STYLES These models of learning styles provide good frameworks for designing assessment instruments. retention. Auditory. It is sometimes known as VAKT (Visual. valid and comprehensive instrument can diagnose many learning styles traits that influence individuals. Beaty (1986). 1978. Learning style is a multi-dimensional construct. It is difficult to single out learning styles without appropriate assessment instruments. 2008). and Kinesthetic Learning Styles (VAK) The VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers: Visual. recall and use of new information (Rigney.1 Visual. but rather "how" they prefer to learn. As for learning strategies stand for conscious steps or behaviour used by language learners to enhance the acquisition. many variables have an impact on each other and produce unique patterns. In such a way. it is congruent with ‘cognitive style’. stated that decisive. and Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style. learning styles are not really concerned with "what" learners learn. 1. For some. Auditory.
educators need to present information using all three styles. This allows all learners the opportunity to become involved. This is probably because it is more of a preference. This dominant style delineates the best way for a person to learn new information by filtering what is to be learned. Clark (2008) also mentioned. classically learning style is enforced via stages. thus VAK theorists have come up with there main categories as follows: 1. They may have difficulty with reading and writing tasks.VAK is derived from the accelerated learning world and seems to be about the most popular model nowadays due to its simplicity. In kindergarten till third grade information is presented kinesthetically. They also may move their lips and read out loud. often talk to themselves. 2008). Nonetheless. The learner may prefer one style of learning for one task. This style may not always to be the same for some tasks. while starting fourth until eight grade information are usually presented visually. however. 2008). while ninth to college and on into the business environment. rather than a style (Clark. according to the VAK or modality theory. its shortcoming is that the research does not support it. Based on VAK theorists. According to Clark learners use all three modalities to receive and learn new information and experiences. 2008). and a combination of others for a different task (Clark. 5 . Auditory learners. one or two of these receiving styles is normally dominant. They often do better talking to a classmate or a tape recorder and hearing what has been said. information is presented to us mostly auditory through the use of lectures. no matter what their preferred style may be (Clark.
linguistic and spatial. diagrams. Visual learners. have two sub-channels . When reading. Kolb learning theory defines the cognitive mechanism of learning and attests the importance of critical reflection in learning. Kurt Lewin. They tend to lose enthrallment if there is little or no external stimulation or movement. demonstrations. there are kinesthetic (movement) and tactile (touch). Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky (Azlinda. They remember what has been written down.2. Learners who are visual-spatial usually have difficulty with the written language and do better with charts. do best while touching and moving. they like to scan the material first. Learners who are visual-linguistic like to learn through written language. and then focus in on the details to get the big picture. effective learning incorporate four phrases as listed below: 6 . 3. They easily visualize faces and places by using their imagination and seldom get lost in new surroundings. They like to write down directions and pay better attention to lectures if they watch them. and that its applications are drawn from the work of John Dewey. Carl Jung. and other visual materials. Kolb acknowledges that his theory is eclectic. videos. or doodling. Professor of Organizational Behavior at Case Western Reserve University. They use color highlighters and take notes by drawing pictures. Kinesthetic learners. Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model Kolb learning styles are popularized by Professor David Kolb. When listening to lectures they may want to take notes for the sake of moving their hands. such as reading and writing tasks. According to Kolb. It also has two subchannels. even if they do not read it more than once. 2006).
2005). Active Experimentation. Reflective Observation. thus knowing one student learning style will help to attract the student to focus in the lesson. in which the students like to watch and observe others and develop surveillances about their own experience. 2006). the researchers wanted to investigate how to adapt Kolb’s theory to online instruction.Concrete Experience. This research been done via online in which the questionnaire as well as interactive discussion about the matter were done via online chatting box. Richmond and Cummings (2005). 1. Here. 2006). where the students create ideas or theories to explain observations (Azlinda. has looked into application of Kolb’s theory to online distance education. Significant of this research proven that students enjoyment in one class assist the learning process. as to accommodate students learning styles is crucial to initiate courses.2 The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model The Dunn and Dunn learning style model (1993) bestow a clinical or 7 . Thus.2. where the students correspond to knowledge by acquaintance which means direct practical experience (or "Apprehension" in Kolb's terms) (Atherton. to see the effectiveness of learning environment supportive of diverse student learning styles and learning modes may first want to identify the distribution of the four learning styles of students enrolled in the educational psychology course (Richmond & Cummings. 2010). in which students use theories to solve problems and make decisions (Azlinda. The research engrossed undergraduate students in Educational Psychology from University of Nevada-Reno. Abstract Conceptualization.
As a consequence. Most individuals can learn. Most teachers can learn to use learning styles as a cornerstone of their instruction. 2. As a result the student will improve his or her ability to learn. 7. 4. a productive approach to teaching and learning can be carried out to identify the ways (modalities. 5. Everyone has strengths. Individual instructional preferences exist and can be measured reliably. Teachers and administrators must be committed to the following principles: 1. to plan instructional procedures and arrange learning situations to accommodate the students’ learning preferences or styles. 2. Given suitable environments. The findings then can be used. but different people have different strengths. 8 . The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model has distinguished several main principles or theoretical assumptions. preferences and styles) in which an individual student learns best. resources and approaches respond to diversified learning style strengths. 3. 6.diagnostic teaching framework. rather than mismatched treatment. It is possible to identify individual student preferences for learning process. The model is designed and planned based on the theory that individual students learn best in different ways. Many students can learn to capitalize their learning style strengths when concentrating on new or difficult academic materials. resources and approaches. The model is based on the assumptions that: 1. students will be able to attain statistically higher achievement and attitude test scores in matched. It is possible to use a variety of instructional procedures and to modify the instructional environment to match the preferences. Instructional environment.
1. 2003). If students use limited learning styles as their preference. when I really have a lot of studying to do. The responses are rated on a five-point likert scale and can be completed in approximately thirty to forty minutes.Dunn and Dunn (1998). students learning styles have been ignored and have been considered an insignificant component in language learning process. teacher do not seemed to understand students learning styles.. on that account unable to assess students learning styles without administering proper learning styles inventory (Almasa. the most manifold used of instruments in experimental research on learning styles is the Dunn and Dunn and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) for young students and Productivity and Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) for college students and adults. As 9 . For that matter many researchers have conducted numerous delving to investigate students learning styles either in school or institution of higher learning (Azlinda. The inventory was easy to administer and interpret as they used more than one hundred dichotomous items. 2006). teachers may misinterpret students’ lack of attention or hyperactivity in class as students’ bad attitudes due to no proper evaluation about students preferred learning styles. Parilah & Fauziah. Thus. for example. pointed out that for the last few decades. LSI was developed through content and factor analysis. as well as academic community. it is more challenging for them to adjust to teachers’ teaching styles ( Chiya. 2005) that. I like to work alone. Moreover.3 LITERATURE REVIEW Students’ learning styles and preferences have been of considerable interest in the administrative and organizational sciences. 2005). It has found later (Almasa et al.
however most learners are not fully aware of the strategies they use or the strategies that might be most beneficial to employ. strategies can be assessed in various ways such as journal or diary entries. aware of their learners’ needs. As what has been mentioned in ‘The role of Styles and Strategies in Second Language Learning’ article. and that this hugely influence students attitudes and motivation (Almasa. Parilah & Fauziah. 2003). potentials and learning styles preferences in meeting these needs. 2009). and to their own goals. building the gap between teaching and learning styles can only be achieved when teachers are first of all.a consequence. to the task. yet they are teaching based on their own learning styles and teaching styles. 1989). 2005). 1. learning styles of students do not match with teaching style of the instructors (teachers). students may be bored and pay less attention in the class or lesson. think-aloud procedures. According to Rao (2002). Furthermore. In addition. and this will result to poor grade and lead to uninterested in the learning process. competent learners tend to indulge in learning strategies that are appropriate to the material. Whence. The gap between students learning styles and teachers teaching styles and the lack instruction on language strategies might hinder students learning (Chiya. most teachers do not teach according to learning styles preferred by students. capacities. needs and stage of learning (Skehan.. Investigation into the teaching styles asserts that mismatch between teaching and learning are continuous. Research indicates that language learners at all levels use strategies (Chamot & Kupper.4 LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLES AND STRATEGIES 10 . the need to assess the learning style of students becomes obvious in order to accommodate different learners (Almasa et al. observation and surveys. 1989).
grouping the material for 11 . As a consequence. if the students are failing to identify their preferred or compatible learning styles. Even if they use the same strategies. Whether the strategies that learners selected are thriving depends on their choice of learning style preferences and learning strategies. students study differently. they might lose interest in learning English subjects as they fail to find suitable activities that can boost up their learning interest. from culture to culture and from context to context. language strategies can be derived from identifying the language material that needs to be learned. Thence. findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of people’s temporary perceptions of their learning preferences to a selected subject surveyed. Withal. Once the students distinguish and know their own learning styles they can find suitable activities that suite their learning preference and due to that will enhance their performance in English subject. To such a degree. it has become one of the pivotal factors to know students preferred learning style and to adapt suitable language strategies that can assist the learning process. it has become a crucial point for students to excavate their own learning styles to able them to perceive adeptly language learning process. they may end up not using them for the same principle nor in the same way. According to Style and Strategies-Based Instruction. Furthermore. ‘A Teachers’ Guide’ booklet. 2010). What more proficient language learners do not inevitably use identical language strategies.A great deal of attention has been given to way individuals learn or understand new information and as well as their preferred methods in language learning. distinguish this language material from other material. what works well for one learner may not be useful or favourable for another (Man & Tomoko. Man and Tomoko added that individuals learn in different ways from time to time. In addition. no single set of strategies will suite for all learners or for all tasks (Language-Learning Strategies).
note-taking. arranging a study space and schedule. gathering and organizing materials. Thus. or some other memory technique. This enables students to learn and retrieve information in an orderly string (coinage an acronym). outlining. organizing information (knowledge structure). 2) Metacognitive strategies refer to strategy that need the students to identify their own learning style preferences and needs planning for an L2 task. 3) Memory related strategies help students (learners) to link one L2 concept with another but do not necessarily involve deep understanding. teachers must know the 6 basic subsets of language strategies which all of them have been identified by Oxford (1990): 1) Cognitive strategies enables students to manipulate language material in direct way such as through reasoning. 12 . the use of memories. monitoring mistake and evaluating task success and evaluating the success of any type of learning strategies as employed for managing the learning process overall. synthesizing. practising material through participation in classroom activities and homework and also by committing the material to memory using techniques such as repetition. images (mental picture of the meaning of the word).easier learning. to enhance learning strategies. practice in naturalistic settings and practicing structures and sounds formally. Through these wide range of language strategies teachers can assist their students to use these strategies by modelling how to look up words or how to group material according to its classified group. analysis. while other techniques create learning and retrieval via sounds (rhyming). summarizing. a combination of sounds and images (key word method) or location.
talking about feelings. having a conversation with a native-speaking partner and exploring cultural and social norms tend to help the students to comprehend the target culture as well as the language. Cohen (1998) asserted that compensatory strategies are used for speaking and writing and often known as a form of communication strategies and must not be considered to be language learning strategies. This strategies support the students to make up for missing knowledge. 6) Social strategies are situation where students will ask questions to get verification. asking for help in doing a language task. using synonyms and having conversation with missing word to aid speaking and writing. 13 . have been shown to be crucial related to L2 proficiency. asking for clarification of confusing point. and strictly for speaking. However Oxford and Ehrman (1995) demonstrated that compensatory strategies are significantly related to L2 proficiency in their study of native-speaker learners of foreign languages. I have list down four implications for classroom practice. Despite this. rewarding oneself for something good. and using deep breathing or positive self-talk. 5) Affective strategies such as identifying one’s mood and anxiety level.4) Compensatory strategies are requiring students to guess from the context in listening and reading. 1.5 IMPLICATIONS FOR L2 TEACHING Implication of knowing students (learners) learning styles will be an ease to educators as it lift out burden of trying to figure out the hidden vindications of students lack of interest in learning English.
cogently they can acclimatize their L2 instruction. while others might require auditory and to name a few. as well as the strategy teaching that can be interwoven into language instruction. Besides that. no distinction L2 instructional practice suite all students and last but not least is preparing for and conducting strategy instruction.assessing styles and strategies in L2 classroom. 2003). teachers also need to assess their own learning styles and strategies thus to create awareness of their preferences and possible biases that they might doing it unintentionally. Attuning L2 Instruction and Strategy Instruction to Learners’ Style Needs Once teachers apprehend their students’ style preferences. Assessing Styles and Strategies in L2 Classroom By conducting assessment of students learning styles and strategies teachers will benefits a lot as such assessment can give a deeper understanding of styles and strategies that are used by the students in their learning of English. Teachers can use variety of costless instruments to assess either theirs or their students preferred learning styles and strategies that can be implemented to suite their need. No Distinction L2 Instructional Practice Suite All Students 14 . Without sufficient attainments regarding their students’ style preferences teachers might not able to systematically cater instructional variety that are needed by the students as some student might need more visual presentations. attuning L2 instruction and strategy instruction to learners’ style preferences. matched to those style preferences (Oxford.
writing. notably the best version of the communicative approach that contains a combined focus on form and fluency to bestow their students learning preferences.Styles and strategies assist particular student’s ability and willingness to work within the framework of sundry instructional methodologies. As a result. The outcomes will provide the students opportunity to assess their learning preferences especially in learning English language. rather than with full-scale strategies-based instruction involving a vast array of learning strategies and the four language skills that are reading. 2003). 2003). also they need to find relevant information in print or on the Internet and have a close networking with specialist in the field to assist them in conducting strategy instruction in class. it will enlighten them that there are more than one learning styles or strategies in learning (Azlinda. Thus teachers should best choose a holistic instructional approach.6 CONCLUSION By having great knowledge of learning styles along with learning strategies will facilitate teachers as well as school administration. Preparing For and Conducting Strategy Instruction Teachers should take up development courses to expand their dogma regarding strategy instruction. Besides that. speaking and listening (Oxford. 1. It is foolhardy to think that a single L2 methodology could possibly fit an entire class filled with students who have a range of stylistic and strategic preferences (Oxford. 2005). For some teachers it might be better to start with small strategy interventions. students will have sense of responsibility 15 . such as helping L2 learners to analyze words and guess meaning from the context when they are doing reading exercise.
as a successful teaching and learning process will be the main predictor of students’ success. & Fauziah. activities or instructional materials that suite students learning styles. the school administration will also be beneficial as it will apprise the variety of learning styles and strategies that students adapt in learning language. In addition it will enhance teachers teaching styles as teachers will approach their lessons differently by using appropriate instructions activities and materials that will proffer according to students learning styles. find condign measures to rectify the problems. A. Withal. Learning-style preference of 16 . What more. References Almasa. On the other hand. M.. The information can help administrator to establish courses. it will make the administrators realize that there is a need for them to look into the problems regarding students’ performance in English and due to that.. Parilah. by knowing and implementing suitable learning styles and learning strategies will also benefits English teachers as it will give egregious opportunity for English teachers to understand their students learning styles and execute learning strategies better. (2005).for their own learning and in the same time they may want to adopt other learning styles and strategies to adorn themselves for advance language learning in the future. S. as it will make them aware that variety of learning styles and learning strategies do exist in their classrooms. M.
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