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A (Code Division Multiple Access)
Submitted By Ch.siva sankar Y5mc72005
Submitted To Department Of M.C.A V R S Engg.College Vijayawada-7
digital picture taking/sending and assisted-GPS position location applications . making it difficult for the Germans to pick up the complete signal. Because Qualcomm Inc. that use TDMA(time division multiple access). such as GSM(global system for mobile). CDMA assigns unique codes to each communication to differentiate it from others in the same spectrum. More people around the world are subscribing to wireless services and consumers are using their phones more frequently.such as wireless email. every channel uses the full available spectrum. web. CDMA is a military technology first used during World War II by the English allies to foil German attempts at jamming transmissions. Unlike competing systems. instead of one. In a world of finite spectrum resources. Qualcomm claimed patents on the technology and became the first to commercialize it.and wireless networks are asked to do much more than just a few years ago. CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies. CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology. And these networks will be asked to do more tomorrow. and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. The CDMA air interface is used in both 2G and 3G networks. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. Instead. Add in exciting Third-Generation (3G) wireless data services and applications . allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time. The allies decided to transmit over several frequencies. The world is demanding more from wireless communication technologies than ever before. created communications chips for CDMA technology. As its name implies. CDMA is the foundation for 3G services: the two 1 . allowing many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space. 2G CDMA standards are branded cdmaOne and include IS-95A and IS-95B. a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. This is where CDMA technology fits in. CDMA enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time than do alternative technologies.INTRODUCTION: Short for Code-Division Multiple Access. it was privy to the classified information. CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Once the information became public.
The ANSI-J-STD-008 specification. PCS and fixed wireless (wireless local loop). hand-offs. The IS-95A revision was published in May 1995 and is the basis for many of the commercial 2G CDMA systems around the world. call processing. cdmaOne provides a family of related services including cellular. Many operators that have commercialized systems offer 64 kbps packet-switched data. 2 . Due to the data speeds IS-95B is capable of reaching. and registration techniques for system operation. including IS-95A and IS-95B revisions.25 MHz CDMA channels. It represents the end-to-end wireless system and all the necessary specifications that govern its operation.5G technology. IS95A describes the structure of the wideband 1.5G The IS-95B revision. TSB-74 describes interaction between IS-95A and CDMA PCS systems that conform to ANSI-J-STD-008.2-G CDMA: CDMAONE:TheFamilyofIS-95CDMATechnologiescdmaOne describes a complete wireless system based on the TIA/EIA IS-95 CDMA standard.4 kbps. many IS-95A operators provide circuit-switched data connections at 14. ANSI-J-STD-008 and TSB-74 into a single document. IS-95B:2.5G technology. it is categorized as a 2. defines a compatibility standard for 1.95) was first published in July 1993. IS95B is categorized as a 2. IS-95A:ThefirstCDMAcellularstandard: TIA/EIA IS-95 (Telecommunications Industry Association / Electronic Industries Association Interim Standard . IS-95A was first deployed in September 1996 by Hutchison (HK). also termed TIA/EIA-95. power control. published in 1995. combines IS-95A.8 to 2. cdmaOne IS-95B was first deployed in September 1999 in Korea and has since been adopted by operators in Japan and Peru.0 GHz CDMA PCS systems. In addition to voice services. in addition to voice services.
with better and more consistent sound as compared to AMPS systems Simplified system planning through the use of the same frequency in every sector of every cell Enhanced privacy Improved coverage characteristics. cdmaOne Network diagram 3 . allowing for the possibility of fewer cell sites Increased talk time for portables Bandwidth on demand 2G-CdmaOneDeployments cdmaOne is the fastest growing 2G wireless technology reaching 100 million subscribers after only six years of commercial deployment.2GcdmaOneAdvantages When implemented in a cellular network. cdmaOne technology offers numerous benefits to the cellular operators and their subscribers: • • • • • • • Capacity increases of 8 to 10 times that of an AMPS analog system and 4 to 5 times that of a GSM system Improved call quality.
this fundamental service requires a wireless system to verify that the customer's subscription is valid. CDMAInternationalRoaming(CourtesyofTSI) This presentation. that it is not illegally emulating another phone. that the phone is not stolen. from TSI. and testing to enable a service provider to quickly deploy international roaming service for their customers. provides an overview of CDMA International Roaming. it will only get better in the future. WhatisRoaming(CourtesyofCellularNetworkingPerspectives) Roaming is the ability of a system to provide the same services to customers (‘roamers’) from other systems. CDMA subscribers can enjoy some of the finest international roaming available. While there are still many challenges to obtain fully seamless international roaming across various 2G and 3G technologies and frequency bands. Some of the major services that can be provided are: • The ability to make a call (‘Mobile Origination’). International roaming is a critical feature for global travelers today.CdmaOneRoaming Roaming is a key functionality for wireless systems and cdmaOne offers many advantages to enable roaming. We are also spearheading the effort to provide inter-standard (CDMA/GSM) roaming capability to further expand service. 4 . Int'l Roaming Using CDMA (Courtesy of Cellular Networking Perspectives) International roaming allows users of CDMA wireless phones to travel to a foreign country and enjoy many of the same services there that they can at home. Our team members have developed with implementation guidelines for internetworking. and to ensure that the type of call being made is not restricted. billing. even from other countries. the team focuses on ensuring that roaming subscribers will enjoy their CDMA2000 data services wherever they travel. And. This involves the resolution of a number of business and technical challenges. The CDG International Roaming team leads the effort in the CDMA community to provide our subscribers the everincreasing ability to enjoy the benefits of CDMA service globally. While this sounds simple. Today.
They deliver increased network capacity to meet growing demand for wireless services and high-speed data services. Calling Name/Number Presentation. This allows a mobile call to continue uninterrupted when the mobile crosses the boundary between two cellular systems. Short Message Service. CDMA2000 1X is an ITU-approved. IMT-2000 (3G) standards and includes CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV technologies. and requires the roamer's phone to first register in the system in which it wishes to receive calls. IMT-2000 (3G) standard that was the first 3G technology to be commercially deployed (October 2000). It is the platform on which 2G and 3G advanced services are built. This is done automatically. 5 . and causes an exchange of information over the SS7/ANSI-41 network to the home system. Some phones provide a “+” key or equivalent menu option that makes it easy to place an international call without knowing the local access number. When a call comes in to the home system it already knows where the mobile is. wherever it is. and can route a call to it.• The ability to receive a call (‘Mobile Termination’ or ‘Call Delivery’). CDMADeployments CDMA is the fastest growing wireless technology and it will continue to grow at a faster pace than any other technology. the number of the caller or even their name will be displayed on their handset. CDMA2000 1X was the world's first 3G technology commercially deployed (October 2000). CDMA2000:Leadsthe3GrevolutionCDMA2000 represents a family of ITU-approved. International dialing. • • • • Inter-system handoff. This is technically much more complex. When an SMS message comes in to the home system it will be forwarded to the mobile. When receiving a call.
in 1999 ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 standards as a part of the ITU-R M. defines and approves technical requirements and standards as well as the use of spectrum for 3G systems under the IMT-2000 (International Telecommunication Union-2000) program. ITU.3-G CDMA CDMA2000 is 3G is the term used to describe next generation mobile services which provide better quality voice and high-speed Internet and multimedia services. Based on these requirements. the only definition accepted universally is the one published by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). It is also known by its ITU name IMT-CDMA Multi Carrier. The ITU requires that IMT-2000 (3G) networks. 6 . Learn more about the ITU and IMT-2000. While there are many interpretations of what 3G represents. CDMA2000 is one of the five standards.1457 Recommendation. deliver improved system capacity and spectrum efficiency over the 2G systems and support data services at minimum transmission rates of 144 kbps in mobile (outdoor) and 2 Mbps in fixed (indoor) environments. CDMA2000: Delivering on 3G CDMA2000 represents a family of technologies that includes CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV. working with industry bodies from around the world. among other capabilities.
AdvantagesofCDMA2000 CDMA2000 benefited from the extensive experience acquired through several years of operation of cdmaOne systems. and IP networks Full backward compatibility Improved service multiplexing and QoS management Flexible channel structure in support of multiple services with various QoS and variable transmission rates companies looking to take advantage of mobile high-speed data services. The commercial success of CDMA2000 has made the IMT-2000 vision a reality. the standard was devised and tested in various spectrum bands. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Increased Voice Capacity Higher Data Throughput Frequency Band Flexibility Increased Battery Life Synchronization Power Control Soft Hand-off Transmit Diversity Voice and Data Channels Traffic Channel Supplemental Channels Turbo Coding Connectivity to ANSI-41. and the subscriber base is growing at 700.000 subscribers per day. Supporting both voice and data. North and South America and Europe. including the new IMT-2000 allocations. 7 . GSM-MAP. CDMA2000 1xEV includes: The world's first 3G (CDMA2000 1X) commercial system was launched by SK Telecom (Korea) in October 2000. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO was launched in 2002 by SK Telecom and KT Freetel. Since then. CDMA2000 is a very efficient and robust technology. CDMA2000 1X has been deployed in Asia.• • CDMA2000 1X can double the voice capacity of cdmaOne networks and delivers peak packet data speeds of 307 kbps in mobile environments. As a result.
such as traffic information. With these services. healthcare and pharmaceutical. field services and mobile office workers who can benefit from anytime. MultimediaMessagingServices(MMS) MMS enable graphics. operators have introduced a variety of applications which enable their consumers and enterprise customers to access information. Capitalizing on the high-speed data capabilities and flexibility of CDMA2000 technologies. find their friends and manage their fleets. video or music to be attached to text messages and sent to mobile devices or computers. download music 8 . These services are widely deployed by CDMA2000 operators in Korea and Japan and are gaining momentum elsewhere around the world. Push-to-talk Push-to-Talk IPRS (IP Radio Service) always-on instantaneous communication technology enables one-to-one and one-to-many. navigation and tracking. CDMAOperatorServices CDMA2000 operators are leading the industry in the range of services they offer. Carriers are seeing good uptake of MMS and enjoying the resulting revenue. CDMA2000 operators have introduced a wide variety of innovative services. anywhere access to mobile data. which encompass a broad range of applications specific to a user's position represent an important source of differentiation and revenue for operators. Some specific industries already making use of wireless data are public safety. their consumer and enterprise users can obtain updates on traffic flow and directions to the nearest bank or restaurant. two-way voice and data sessions that do not require dial-up – subscribers push a button and begin speaking. pictures. Games/Entertainment Location-based services (LBS). Many CDMA2000 operators offer a wide range of services for the enterprise sector.S. insurance. surf the web. Horizontal segments include field sales.Wireless data services offer opportunities across both horizontal and vertical markets. including the U.
through all these years. And as the CDMA2000 family of standards evolves." Iain Gillott. application and device level. Inc. ANALYST QUOTES "The CDMA2000 community has done an admirable job turning challenge into opportunity. CDMA has consistently lead innovation and integration in the baseband world driving chipset efficiency. CDMA-based operators have enjoyed a near-seamless migration to 3G networks and services." Roger Entner. Jetsons and Star Trek devices and services the media world has fantasized about – this is the direction the industry is headed. CDMA2000 allows wireless carriers to bring state-of-the-art technologies to consumers that really have delivered on the promise of 3G mobile services. CDMA2000 dominates the 3G market today and analysts forecast that it will continue to lead in the future. CDMA has given carriers a great return on their infrastructure investment. these operators are well positioned to deploy further advanced services. iGillottResearch. Yankee Group "We remain encouraged by the strong global momentum behind the transition to CDMA 2000 networks that is enabling multiple new services and applications. the result being a real success story. Global Wireless Practice. Wireless Equipment/Data Networking/Semiconductors. President. Strategy Analytics "Since the deployment of the initial CDMA IS-95 networks nearly a decade ago. "What really stands out about CDMA is how. Wireless Mobility Services. Director. To the benefit of over 100 million users. Vice President.CDMA2000Deployments The first 3G networks to be commercially deployed were launched in Korea in October 2000 using CDMA2000 technology. which is very important for carriers to remain 9 ." David Kerr. Just think of all those James Bond. Equity Research. Lehman Brothers "Strategy Analytics applauds the entire CDMA development community on this outstanding achievement. The CDMA camp has fuelled dramatic innovation in the mobile market at the chipset." Tim Luke Managing Director. extending voice capacity. adding GPS capabilities and supporting robust application environments. operator. CDMA network operators have continually raised the performance bar in terms of effective data rates for enterprises and consumers alike and were the first to embrace and commercialize the wildly popular clamshell form factor in preference to the traditional candy bar.
m-commerce. streaming video. surf the Web. MMS (multimedia messaging services). CDMA provides carriers with the smoothest migration path from 2G to 3G and beyond.faster than fixed-line broadband solutions and it supports multiple application platforms. CDMA2000 users are experiencing a host of advanced services. enterprise solutions and email. including BREW and Java. number of users they serve and revenue they generate from data. To meet future demand for data services. Demand for wireless data services and applications is taking off around the world and CDMA2000 operators are leading the industry in the range of services they offer." Applications Overview CDMA … offering a world of opportunities for multimedia services and applications CDMA2000 was designed with the Internet in mind.1 Mbps .competitive. making it the ultimate platform on which to build innovative applications. creating valuable opportunities for applications developers and content providers. download music and video. As a result. send pictures and play games. with great success and minimal impact on their customers. The CDMA Development Group … leading technology innovation The CDG is at the forefront of converging wireless technology and Internet services. 10 . There is a wide range of devices with advanced data functionality for consumers and enterprise to choose from. operators have seen a phenomenal uptake in data services and significant increase in data revenue. Capitalizing on the high-speed data capabilities and flexibility of CDMA2000 technologies. We invite all content providers and application developers to join our membership and actively participate in building the future of mobile wireless. CDMA2000 is an ideal platform for building advanced applications. allowing them to upgrade from one generation of technology to the next. including web browsing. It delivers high data speeds of up to 3. operators have introduced a variety of applications which enable their consumer and enterprise customers to access information. games. resulting in increased loyalty and lower churn. CDMA2000 operators are building their portfolios at a rapid pace.
as explained above. Gaining access to email. RCS synchronizes to the FSU and confirms sync over Control Channel. 2. call setup proceeds as follows: 1. RCS assigns channel group to FSU. Once either of these events occur. • RCS designates assigned code on Control Channel .EnterpriseSolutions The inherent high-speed data capabilities and security aspects of CDMA2000 make it an ideal technology for workers to stay connected while mobile. The FSU locks on to the Global Pilot. RCS measures received power and starts transmitting APC signal on APC Control Channel. RCS and FSU exchange messages on Access and Control Channels. Flags Call Setup Channel as busy. the Internet and corporate Intranets via handsets or laptops equipped with modem cards are key drivers fo Call Setup Two events can initiate a call: • • The FSU receives a page from the RCS. Type of service and types of traffic channels are specified. FSU requests access. RCS detects transmission and acknowledges. The FSU generates an off-hook signal in response to subscriber equipment. • • • • • • FSU transmits Short Access Pilot Code. This is called an originating call. FSU transmits Long Access Pilot Code. This is called a terminating call.
so we will cover both the Forward link (RCS to FSU) and Reverse link (FSU to RCS). Multiplies the Complex Information data and the Complex PN code together. and converts the data to two-bit symbols. Call Processing Call processing puts together everything we’ve covered so far. Generates CDMA data signal for each traffic channel: • • • • • FEC codes the Information data. The RCS flags the Call Setup Channel as available. and assigns it to the next available modem. Both FSU and RCS synchronously switch to the assigned channel groups. Converts the symbols to I and Q data.• • • • FSU generates complex PN codes for all channels in its assigned group. the RCS: 1. the FSU continues to track the Global Pilot. Note that the system uses Frequency Division Duplexing for the Forward and Reverse links: they transmit over different frequencies. and pads each data stream to 64 kbits/sec. In the forward direction. Adds all signals together: • Traffic channels . The call is connected. 2. digitally scales channels accordingly. Reads APC data from FSU. Generates other signal channels: • • • Calculates APC signal Converts it to I data only Multiplies it with its own Complex PN code 3. 11 Note that the RCS now tracks the Assigned Pilot. There are slight differences in the way the RCS and FSU process calls. Generates the Complex PN code for each channel.
5. Modulates and transmits carriers • • I and Q data modulate Cosine and Sine carriers. In the reverse direction. Removes multi-path interference from I and Q data using the Adaptive Matched Filter. Carriers are combined. amplified.• • • APC channel Order Wire channel 12 Global Pilot 4. Converts the I and Q data to symbols. the FSU: . Demodulates the signal and extracts the I and Q data. Extracts the I and Q data: • • Receives and amplifies the modulated carriers. Decodes the symbols for error correction. Performs Automatic Gain Control on received signal 3. Filters the I and Q data: • • • Extracts multi-path information from the Pilot Rake filter and supplies it to the Adaptive Matched Filter. Extracts the signal data. The FSU: 1. Extracts the CDMA data signal for each traffic channel: • • • • • Generates the Complex PN code for each channel. and broadcast. Adds together the signals for all currently active FSUs. 2. Multiplies the Complex signal and the Complex PN code together.
digitally scales channels accordingly. Modulates and transmits carriers • • I and Q data modulate Cosine and Sine carriers. Multiplies the Complex signal and the Complex PN code together. Reads APC data from FSU. . amplified. Generates other signal channels: • • • Calculates APC signal Converts it to I data only Multiplies it with its own Complex PN code 3. 13 2. Generates the Complex PN code for each channel. Extracts the I and Q data: • • Receives and amplifies the modulated carriers. Adds all signals together: • • • • Traffic channels APC channel Order Wire channel Global Pilot 4. and pads each data stream to 64 kbits/sec. Carriers are combined. and converts the data to two-bit symbols. Demodulates the signal and extracts the I and Q data. Passes the signal through a pulse shaping digital filter. and broadcast.1. 5. Generates CDMA data signal for each traffic channel: • • • • • FEC codes the Information data. The RCS: 1. Converts the symbols to I and Q data.
Extracts the Information data.2. Decodes the symbols for error correction. Filters the I and Q data: • • • Extracts multi-path information from the Pilot Rake filter and supplies it to the Adaptive Matched Filter. Multiplies the Complex signal and the Complex PN code together. 15 . 3. Performs Automatic Gain Control on the received signal 14 Removes multi-path interference from I and Q data using the Adaptive Matched Filter. Converts the I and Q data to symbols. Extracts the CDMA data signal for each traffic channel. for each subscriber connection: • • • • • Generates the Complex PN code for each channel.
International dialing. • • • • Inter-system handoff. Short Message Service. that the phone is not stolen. and to ensure that the type of call being made is not restricted. This allows a mobile call to continue uninterrupted when the mobile crosses the boundary between two cellular systems. 16 . Calling Name/Number Presentation. While this sounds simple. this fundamental service requires a wireless system to verify that the customer's subscription is valid.CONCLUSION: • The ability to make a call (‘Mobile Origination’). This is technically much more complex. and requires the roamer's phone to first register in the system in which it wishes to receive calls. and can route a call to it. This is done automatically. that it is not illegally emulating another phone. and causes an exchange of information over the SS7/ANSI-41 network to the home system. • The ability to receive a call (‘Mobile Termination’ or ‘Call Delivery’). When a call comes in to the home system it already knows where the mobile is. Some phones provide a “+” key or equivalent menu option that makes it easy to place an international call without knowing the local access number. the number of the caller or even their name will be displayed on their handset. When an SMS message comes in to the home system it will be forwarded to the mobile. wherever it is. When receiving a call.
com 17 .org www.cdg.REFERENCE: Web site: Web site: www.altavista.
CONTENTS Introduction 2-G (C D M A) 3-G(C D M A) APPLICATION CALL SETUP CALLPROCESS CONCLUSION REFERENCE Page No. 1 2 6 10 11 12 16 17 18 .
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