Busbar Fault Detection Systems

The busbar protection shall have two, independent, fault detection systems. The measuring arrangements within the fault detection system shall be effectively duplicated at 400 kV and arranged in a twoout- of-two tripping logic. The overall tripping logic shall be such that both fault detection systems must operate before correct tripping of circuit-breakers can occur (refer to Figures 1, 2 & 3). Each fault detection system shall provide fully discriminative current differential protection for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth faults occurring within the busbar zone associated with any busbar section. The measuring relays shall comply with the requirements of IEC 255-6. If a biased ifferential principle is used, the protection shall also comply with the requirements of IEC 255-13. At least one fault detection system shall discriminate between the busbar sections of a protected busbar station and both fault detection systems shall discriminate between faults on the protected busbar station and faults elsewhere on the primary system. The fault detection system discriminating between sections of busbar, shall be known as the discriminating system and the protected sections of busbar shall be known as iscriminating zones. The other fault detection system shall be known as the check system and, for the case of single check zone substations, shall discriminate between faults within and external to the protected busbars of the complete substation. Where necessary, multiple check zones may be specified on the contract. For high impedance circulating current schemes, voltage limiting devices shall be provided if the peak voltage developed across the high impedance relay circuit during a busbar fault condition is greater than 3 kV. The characteristic provided shall be declared by the manufacturer.

Current Transformer Supervision
Open-circuited busbar protection current transformer windings or connections shall be detected by supervision of the current transformer secondary wiring circuits. CT supervision is required in both the check and discriminating zones. The CT supervision relay shall be capable of detecting `spill' current in all three separate phases. The CT supervision shall be arranged to give an alarm only and not to short-circuit the buswires. The fault detection and supervision system shall be capable of withstanding this condition continuously for the secondary current which corresponds to the maximum primary load condition. In this situation, security against maloperation of the protection is provided by the non-operation of the other fault detecting system. Initiation of the alarm shall be time delayed such that it is not annunciated for genuine busbar faults nor for external faults. A time delayed output covering the range 1.0 - 10.0 s shall be provided. Where this is not the case a suitable external timer shall be provided.

When disconnector auxiliary switches or repeat relays are used for switching current transformer circuits. For low impedance schemes alternative CT cores may be suitable and shall be specified by the manufacturer. Typical tripping logic diagrams for the first and second tripping systems are shown in Figures 2 and 3 respectively. and may be applied to operate the trip relay(s). When a busbar fault occurs. depicting signals to the busbar protection system is shown in Figure 1. it shall be taken from the tripping system supply to which the fault detecting system is connected. self reset trip repeat relay(s) with hand reset operation indicator. Separate current transformers shall be utilized for each of the check and discriminating systems. and shall be provided with automatic resetting facilities Where due to burden limitations of the fault detection relay output contact. and operate the appropriate circuit breakers via a per circuit trip relay(s).C. Provision shall be made within the first tripping system for the circuit breaker fail protection to initiate backtripping of all contiguous circuit breakers. Discriminative tripping (and backtripping from circuit breaker fail protection) shall be achieved utilizing disconnector auxiliary switches or repeat relay contacts . connections and fuses/MCBs shall be suitable for meeting this requirement. high burden trip relays cannot be driven directly. all circuit-breakers connected to the faulted busbar shall be tripped simultaneously. For high impedance circulating current protection. These trip relays shall be of the high burden electrically reset latching type. double pole switched. bus wiring when the primary circuit is isolated. Current Transformers:A typical current transformer arrangement. Each tripping system shall be initiated for both check and discriminating zone fault detection systems in a twoout. Inputs Power Supply:The tripping systems shall be designed to operate from a 110 V (nominal) D. There shall be no disconnector auxiliary switches or repeat relay contacts in the current transformer circuits of the check system. then a high speed. whether they can feed fault current or not. they shall also be used to short to earth and disconnect the current transformer secondary wiring from any common A. If an auxiliary energising supply is required by a fault detecting system. class `X' Type `B' CTs shall be provided for both discriminating and check zones. see Figure 2.C. .Protection System:The overall protection system shall comprise two separately energised independent tripping systems. battery Each tripping system shall be provided with a separately fused supply fed from different batteries. Check zone current transformers shall be provided on outgoing or incoming circuits.The operation of any single trip relay shall not result in the tripping of more than one circuit. The rating of all busbar tripping contacts.of-two tripping logic.

It shall be possible to determine whether the relay is simulating an open or closed disconnector. Discriminating zone current transformers shall be provided on all outgoing and incoming circuits.1. In order to prevent incorrect operation of the busbar protection under certain fault conditions within the overlapping zone. Suitable interlocking arrangements shall be provided for the busbar coupler and busbar section circuit breakers and their respective disconnectors to ensure no section of busbar is unprotected during switching operations. (b) After the pre-arcing distance has been exceeded on opening the disconnector. except where multiple check zones are specified. auxiliary switches shall be provided in the CT circuits associated with busbar coupler and busbar section disconnectors. The operating sequence of disconnector auxiliary switches or disconnector repeat relay contacts used in current transformer circuits and in 110 V D.Bus Section and Bus:Coupler circuit-breakers shall not have check zone current transformers. tripping circuits shall be such that the auxiliary switches or repeat relay contacts operate: (a) Before reaching the pre-arcing distance on closing the disconnector. The position of the primary plant contacts with respect to the repeat relay contacts shall be monitored such that any discrepancy from the normal relative positions will cause an alarm to be annunciated. Combinations of normally open and normally closed auxiliary switches or repeat relay contacts from the same disconnector shall `break' before `make' both for opening and closing the disconnector. Where repeat relay contacts are used in lieu of disconnector auxiliary switches. The position of the star point. (ii) An input shall be provided from the circuit breaker fail protection of each circuit breaker to initiate back-tripping of all other circuit breakers associated with the same busbar zone(s) via the busbar protection first tripping system.2 and shown in Figures 1. Loss of this supply shall initiate an alarm. The relay energising supply shall be supervised. (see Figure 1). the repeat relays shall be of the latched type. by observation of a suitable indicating device on the relay. The secondary windings of each three phase set of current transformers shall be starred at the current transformer terminal block normally located at the switchgear. Overlapping discriminating zone current transformers shall also be provided on Bus Section or Bus Coupler bays. .C. Contact Initiations:(i) Primary disconnector auxiliary switches or repeat relay contacts shall be provided to satisfy the busbar protection system requirements stated in Section 3. with respect to the protected busbar.2 and 3.3 and 3.2.

Where direct tripping is deselected. unblocking.D.C. then tripping of the remote circuit breaker(s) shall be initiated via the Circuit Breaker Fail Protection Additional Outputs:The protection system shall be capable of providing outputs for initiation of the following:(i) Disconnector sequential isolation. (iii) Intertripping to the associated remote circuit-breaker(s). Initiations:The protection system shall be provided with inputs to receive D. signals for the following:Trip relay reset (110 V D. . (iii) Protection supply supervision alarm for each fused supply (iv) CT Supervision. acceleration or unstabilising. or unstabilizing direct from the busbar protection trip relays shall be as specified by NGC on particular contracts. (Two channels each being double pole switched for feeder circuits). (iv) Unblocking/accelerating or unstabilizing of feeder protection. (ii) Trip relay operated indication (where required).C. as part of the busbar protection tripping scheme. (ii) Circuit-breaker fail protection. Selection of intertripping. (iii) Lockout of auto reclosure. Outputs Trip Outputs:The trip relays of each tripping system shall be provided with output contacts for initiation of the following:(i) Tripping the associated local circuit-breaker(s).). The following protection alarm outputs shall be provided:(i) Busbar protection zone operation (refer to Figure 4). Alarm Outputs:Protection operation or failure shall be annunciated through the substation alarm and event logging system.C. Facilities shall be provided to select or deselect direct tripping of remote circuit breakers from intertripping. (ii) Trip relay reset. Unblocking/acceleration.

Operator Interface:The following facilities shall be provided for the protection system. and be recorded on. or. The three phase set of links. auxiliary energising supply and internal relay failures. Trip circuits in the busbar protection panel or rack shall be fully insulated or shrouded on the trip relay and trip coil(s) sides of fuses or links. (i) Setting Facilities. a fault recorder. In one position the link shall give normal connection and in the other position it shall short out the current transformer and it shall isolate the current transformer from its associated phase buswire. common bus-wire or busbar selector auxiliary switch. Each of the three phase connections from every set of current transformers shall pass through an isolating link or equivalent before being connected to any relay. panel or primary marshalling cubicle. shall have suitable test terminals. Fault Recorder:Operation of the busbar protection trip relays shall trigger. the test links associated with the current transformers installed at the reserve busbar sectioning point shall be physically located in a marshalling kiosk or box which shall be provided adjacent to the sectioning point. in the case of 400 kV busbar stations where circuitbreaker marshalling kiosks may not be provided. where appropriate. (ii) Indications. . sufficient isolation facilities shall be provided to enable complete per circuit trip testing on an individual circuit-breaker fail system without the risk of backtripping to other circuits. If the protection equipment is of an electronic type. at the individual relay room busbar protection rack. (iii) Isolation and Testing Facilities.(v) Disconnector Auxiliary Switch repeat relay discrepancy alarm (where required). an alarm output of equipment inoperative shall be provided for the loss of D. Facilities shall be provided to enable each relay element current to be measured where applicable.C. Where two or more check zones are specified. The test links shall normally be physically located at the associated circuitbreaker marshalling kiosk. Where the circuit-breaker fail protection utilises the busbar protection trip system for back tripping.

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