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Beyond OER

Shifting Focus to
Open Educational Practices
OPAL Report 2011

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
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The "Open Educational Quality Initiative" is an international network to promote innovation and
better quality in education and training through the use of open educational resources. It is partly
funed by the European Commission. OPAL is initiated through international organisations like
UNESCO, ICDE and EFQUEL and a number of Universities like the Open University UK, the Aalto
University in Finland, University Duisburg-Essen and the Catolic University in Lissabon, Portugal. It’s
aiming at establishing a forum which works to build greater trust in using and promoting open
educational resources. The Open Educational Quality Initiative will focus on provision of innovative
open educational practices and promote quality, innovation and transparency in higher and adult
education. The OPAL Initiative focusses beyond the access to open educational resources (OER) on
innovation and quality through open educational practices (OEP).

The OPAL Initiating Organisations

The project runs through a time span of around two years (2010-2011) and includes the following
partners:

University Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

Coordination

The Open University (UK)
Aalto University (Finland)

Universidade Católica Portuguesa
European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning
(Portugal)
(Belgium)

UNESCO (France)
ICDE & ICDE member institution (Norway)

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
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List of Authors:
António Andrade, Catolic University in Lissabon, Portugal
Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, University Duisburg-Essen
Abel Caine, UNESCO, Paris
Roberto Carneiro, Catolic University in Lissabon, Portugal
Grainne Conole, Open University UK
Anna-Kaarina Kairamo, Aalto University Finland
Tapio Koskinen, Aalto University Finland
Thomas Kretschmer, European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning, Belgium
Nick Moe-Pryce, International Council of Distance Education
Paul Mundin, Open University UK
Judite Nozes, Catolic University in Lissabon, Portugal
Rolf Reinhardt, European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning, Belgium
Thomas Richter, University Duisburg-Essen
Gonçalo Silva, Catolic University in Lissabon, Portugal
Carl Holmberg, International Council of Distance Education

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
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.. 30 2........... 8 CHAPTER I – BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ................. 27 I.......................................................................................................... Contexts................................................................ DIMENSIONS AND METRICS OF KEY VRIABLES .......................................................................................................................57 A................................................................................... 18 F..................... PURPOSE ............ 19 A. PRIMARY AREA OF INTEREST.......................................... 96 C......................................................................................................................................................... Infrastructures for Creation and Use of OER ........................................ STATUS OF THE INSTITUTION ....... 44 B...................................... 57 B..............94 A................. 30 1....... 100 3.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 A............... FINAL MODEL: EXPLAINING THE USE OF OER .................................................................... PERCEPTIONS AND USAGE OF OER................................................ MICRO LEVEL ANALYSIS ..................... 11 CHAPTER II – METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN OF THE SURVEY ........................................................................................................................................................................... Cultures of Innovation ..................................................................................... 28 J.................................................................................................................................................... 6 LIST OF TABLES ............. 156 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 4 ............................................ 89 2.......... Table of contents LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................ 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....... LANGUAGE .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 143 CHAPTER V – IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF KEY ISSUES: ATTITUDES........................................................... OBJECTIVE OF THE SURVEY ................................................................................... Attitudes towards the Use of OER.................................................................................. METHODOLOGIES ......... 18 CHAPTER III – PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS .................... RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND MODELS ............................................. Perceived Usefulness of OER ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15 D.......................................................................................................... 13 B............................................. MODELS FOR IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF KEY ISSUES................................................................................................................................... 153 A.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... DEPENDENT VARIABLE: FREQUENCY OF OER USE ............................................................... Perceived Quality of OER........................... OER PROGRAMMES OR INITIATIVES IN THE INSTITUTION ............... 57 1.......................... 26 H............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 D........... Institutional Policies................. Public Policies ............ 25 G................................................. MACRO LEVEL ANALYSIS.... COUNTRY OF WORK OR STUDY ......................................... 30 A....................... 20 C..................................................................................................................................................................................... SIZE OF THE INSTITUTION .................................... OER Availability ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 153 B........... PRACTICES ...... 134 C.......................... 94 B..................... 17 E..... 19 B.................................................... LOCATION OF THE INSTITUTION ...................................................................................... EDUCATIONAL ROLES...................................................................................................... KIND OF EDUCATION OFFERED BY THE INSTITUTION ....................43 3..................................................................................................................... 78 C......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Perceptions and Opinions towards OER ............ 98 D.................................................................................... 25 F........................................................................................ INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: REPRESENTATIONS AND ATTITUDES VIS-A-VIS OER-OEP ................................................................................... 154 C......................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER IV – SURVEY DATA ANALYSIS ......................................................... Barriers to Use OER ............... 23 E............................................................................................................................................................ Attitudes .............................................................................................................................. AGE AND GENDER ...................................................... 14 C.............................................................. Networks of Innovation ....

......................................................... ON THE PART OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONALS ....................................................................................... INDEX OF TABLES.................... Representations of OER: obstacles or barriers to use ................ Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 5 ................ 174 ANNEX 3 – DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF THE INDICATORS OF THE ATTITUDES VIS-A-VIS OER...... 161 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 170 REFERENCES: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... FEHLER! TEXTMARKE NICHT DEFINIERT..................................... 170 OER PRACTICES ............................................................................................................................................................... Attitudes of educational professionals vis-a-vis OER .............................................................................................................. 173 ANNEX 2 – DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARIABLES PERTAINING TO REPRESENTATIONS OF BARRIERS TO THE USE OF OER ..... FEHLER! TEXTMARKE NICHT DEFINIERT..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................EXPLAINING OPEN EDUCATIONAL PACTICES .................................................. 164 CHAPTER VI .................................................... 173 ANNEX 1 – DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARIABLES PERTAINING TO THE USE OF OER IN THE FOUR TARGET GROUPS ........................ 176 INDEX OF DIAGRAMS ..... 170 Explanatory variables ............................................... 1............................. Relation between Representations of Barriers to OEP and Attitudes of Educational Professionals vis-à-vis OEP ............................................. 156 2.................................................................................................. 175 ANNEX 4 – SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (EN) ....172 ANNEXES................

List of Figures Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 6 .

List of Tables

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
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Executive Summary

This study presents the findings of a quantitative study on the use of Open Educational Resources
(OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP) in Higher Education and Adult Learning Institutions. The
study is based on the results of an online survey targeted at four educational roles: educational
policy makers; institutional policy makers/managers; educational professionals; and learners. The
report encompasses five chapters and four annexes. Chapter I presents the survey and Chapter II
discloses the main research questions and models. Chapter III characterises the universe of
respondents. Chapter IV advances with a detailed survey analysis including an overview of key
statistical data. Finally, Chapter V provides an exploratory in-depth analysis of some key issues:
representations, attitudes and uses of OEP. The table of contents and the complete list of diagrams
and tables can be found at the end of the report.

The OPAL 2011 “Report Beyond OER” advocates for building trust in OER in order to increase the
actual usage of OER in combination with open learning architectures in order to transform learning.
OER is reported to have an effect on institutional innovation culture, in higher education as well as in
adult education institutions. It may thus be concluded that, regardless of educational professionals
considering OER to be important for themselves or for others (e.g., students), the lesser the fear,
insecurity or discomfort vis-a-vis OER, the higher the frequency of OER use. As regards the existence
of open resources’ programmes or initiatives in the institution, individuals from institutions where
such programmes/initiatives already exist did show a higher frequency of OER use.

When considering the various strands of institutional policies around OER, it becomes obvious that
they are still quite far from impacting on the educational institutions as a whole. The perception by
respondents that using OER can lead to institutional innovations does not seem to translate, to the
same extent, into the existence of organisation-wide implementations, which points to the need for
considerable efforts to be made in this regard. This is further compounded, on the one hand, by the
modest levels of types of support to factors that induce or enable open educational practices to be
firmly established in educational institutions, and on the other hand by the level of importance
attached by respondents to institutional policy barriers to the use of OER.

An exploratory principal components analysis enabled the identification of five relevant dimensions
in representations of barriers with which individuals are faced when they want to use OER. The
following table shows the result of this analysis and respective identified dimensions, which we
sought to name according to the content of their main indicators: 1) Lack of institutional support; 2)
Lack of technological tools; 3) Lack of skills and time of users; 4) Lack of quality or fitness of OER; 5)
Personal issues (lack of trust and time).

The report is structured into several clear sections to elicit macro and micro factors to explain the
slow uptake of OER within organisations.

A. A policy environment for supporting the usage of OER is important:

1. The analysis of the survey data according to the macro level conditions of OER supply elicited
views from the respondents that point to several areas of public policy and institutional
policy intervention. These policies would favour OER and open educational practices (OEP) in

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
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breaking away from individualistic or closed group settings to become mainstream in higher
education and adult learning institutions.
2. The report also points to a great awareness amongst educational professionals for the
importance of public policies to further OER developments. This awareness is a notorious
fact not only among educational policy makers but equally across the four educational roles
targeted by the OPAL survey. Whenever rating the relevance of specific areas for policy
intervention, a clear majority of respondents provided positive or very positive scores.

B. Institutional support strategies are fostering open educational practices:

1. Institutional support/recognition concerning OER projects/ initiatives is demanded by
educational professionals and by higher education policy makers.
2. The support for localisation/ adaptation/translation of existing OER and a support in
implementing appropriate licensing schemes regarding copyright are viewed as very
important to facilitate the usage of OER, whereas infrastructure, access and availability are
seen as necessary conditions but not as critical success factors any longer in institutions.
3. The promotion of quality assurance for OER is views as necessary and receive a very high
rating. Respondents mark this requirement as very important particularly in the perspective
of the higher education policy sector.

C. Networks of Innovation play an important role for shaping OER developments and open
educational practices

1. As a supporting factor to the use of OER, 54.0% of all respondents stated that a partnership
with other organisations existed in the three varying degrees presented in the question. The
prevalence of such partnerships augments from the lowest values registered for
organisation-wide implementation to the highest values recorded for the existence of
individual efforts (with the exception of adult learning, where the implementation category
in some departments/units supersedes the individual efforts).
2. As a pointer for future work, it seems a timely suggestion that in future OER related support
initiatives focus their attention more on partnerships with other institutions to various other
forms of networks of innovation, and also including perceptions regarding their potential
value in moving forward both effective OEP and enabling communities of practice shaped
around collaborative OEP.

D. Specific quality assurance processes for OER are viewed necessary

1. For higher education and adult learning, there is a prevalent notion that there are no specific
quality assurance processes in place for OER, totalling 31.8% of all responses, followed by the
item indicating individual efforts. The least represented item regards the implementation of
OER quality assurance processes across the organisation, with only 8.1% of all responses.
This pattern is fairly identical in both sectors, with the exception of adult learning, where
individual efforts rank higher and the non-existence of quality assurance processes ranks
lower.

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24.1% Implemented in some Indiv idual departments/ efforts ex ist. and institutional leaders seem to be quite aware of this. The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices 3. leads to pedagogical changes and increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios. 105. By way of conclusion. both within organisations and regarding individual’s practices. units. Open educational practices are supported through cultures of innovation and in turn provide innovation in organisations 1. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 10 . Diagram 1 – Specific quality assurance processes for OER No reply . 130. 33. the use of OER stimulates improves the quality of education. It should be stressed also that there is a recognition that such innovation poses challenges to organisations. 2. 25.7% 10. 31.2% Not ex isting. is of particular interest for OPAL. there is a clear positive opinion in all education roles and across the two sectors surveyed that the use of OER and the implementation of OEP lead to innovations in pedagogical terms.8% Implemented organisation- w ide. 42. in that OER and OEP are closely associated with pursuing new forms of facilitating learning for individuals and customising learning resources to the particular needs of the individual learner. 8. The evidence of the existence of cultures of innovation. In the view of the respondents.3% E. in learning strategies and at institutional level. 99.

The OER movement has been successful in promoting the idea that knowledge is a public good. Barcelona: UOC. One of the five higher-level recommendations in the conclusion to the report is to „adopt programs and policies to promote Open Educational Resources. (2010). [Accessed: dd/mm/yy].1 In this situation. P. Many well-known OER initiatives such as MIT‟s Open Course Ware (OCW). In Open ED 2010 Proceedings. 2008). sharing and reuse of OER for individuals.< http://hdl.handle. In an analysis of publicly funded and foundation funded OER initiatives worldwide Stacey (2010) shows that focus of current well known OER initiatives is on creation and publication of OERs. the content is openly available (it can readily be found or discovered). Funding in many cases cannot be cannot be relied on for ongoing development and operations. Until now OER have been in development and use.‟ The main properties of OER are: free access „enabled by information and communication technologies‟ and a „non-commercial purpose‟ (UNESCO 2002. incentive strategies for creation use and reuse are not broadly touched upon. promote quality and innovation in teaching and learning. However. Such a model has to suggest the shift from a phase in which the preliminary focus was on opening access to resources to a phase in which the primary aim is to embed OER into learning and teaching practice.24). since 2002. Tax Payer Funded OER . Use and reuse are still somewhat underrepresented. their use in higher education (HE) and adult education (AE) has not yet reached the critical threshold which is posing an obstacle to a seamless provision of high quality learning resources and practices for citizens‟ lifelong learning efforts. This has to do with the fact that the current focus in OER is mainly put on building more access to digital content. organisations and policy is indispensible. (Keller and Mossink. extending the focus beyond 'access' to 'innovative open educational practices' (OEP). strategic aspects like business models. often pioneering. Foundation Funded OER vs. and aspire to cross into early majority (Rogers. is openly accessible (it is in a form which others can take it away) and openly re-usable (the user can easily 1 Stacey. 1983). 2006) open educational resources are largely digital assets (music. OU. expanding the aspirations of organisations and individuals to publish OER. To provide educational opportunities for all citizens we suggest therefore. There is a need for innovative forms of support for the creation and evaluation of OER. are striving for adoption. animations) put together into a logical structure by a course developer who has attached an open license to it. as well as an evolving empirical evidence-base about the effectiveness of OER. Roger‟s technology adoption lifecycle would suggest that OER have come through the innovation phase. Chapter I – Background of the Study Although open educational resources (OER) are high on the agenda of social and inclusion policies and supported by many stakeholders of the educational sphere. 2008). There is little consideration of whether this will support educational practices. McAndrew and Santos (2009) argue that despite some terminological differences (Hylén. images. words.A Tale of Two Mandates. In other words. a model of factors which outlines the surrounding and influencing factors for the creation. commissioned by the National Science Foundation (NSF. BYU.net/10609/5241>] Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 11 . Stanford‟s iTunes or Rice University‟s Connexions have been funded and are now coming into their sustainability phase. recognition of the importance of investment and effort into promotion of the use and uptake of OER is evident is the prominence given to OER developments in a recent major report on Cyberlearning. p. However as yet the potential of OER to transform practice has not being realised. use. OER is intended to make “high-quality educational material freely available worldwide in many languages”.

managers/ administrators of organisations. The study is investigating the current use and the perceived quality of OERs. which focuses on creation and open access. It is furthermore making the next step and is investigating the second phase: How do educators use OER in practice? What are their attitudes? Do organisational leaders understand the importance to shift from a resource focus to a practice focus? Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 12 . It shows that trust has to be built and that it is necessary to find ways how to build quality learning experiences and innovation. tools and repositories. Phase two is about using OER in a way that learning experiences improve and educational scenarios are innovated. modify it and is allowed under the license to do certain things with it without having to ask the creator‟s permission first). Phase 2 is characterized by the following aspects: • Bilds on OER • Goes beyond access into open learning architectures • Focus: learning as construction + sharing • Quality improvement through external validation • Change of educational cultures • OER as value proposition for Institutions OEP are defined as practices which support the (re)use and production of OER through institutional policies. On policy level this can be viewed through public funding schemes (analysed by Stacey 2010) and on private level through private foundation funding (ibid. It is about quality and innovation. From the current research into the field of OER we can deduce that up to now a main focus has been on building access to OER. and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path. The presented study is starting from this point. It is the next phase in OER development which will see a shift from a focus on resources to a focus on open educational practices. adult learners and citizens are provided with opportunities to shape their lifelong learning pathways in an autonomous and self-guided way. promote innovative pedagogical models. educational professionals and learners. It is called “Beyond OER” because it shows that stakeholders of OER are concerned about OER beyond access and are striving to find solutions how to mainstream OER. These comprise a combination of open resources use and open learning architectures to transform learning into 21 st century learning environments in which universities‟. OEP address the whole OER governance community: policy makers. building infrastructure.) We conclude that OER is currently in an intermediate phase which we would like to call phase 1.

Chapter II – Methodological Design of the Survey A. 2007. Repositories of learning objects.  Open Educational Resources are digital materials for educators and learners to be used and/or reused for teaching. 3 Based on the definitions provided in OECD-CERI.. learning management systems). Objective of the Survey The survey research is intended to carry out a quantitative study on the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP) in Higher Education and Adult Learning Institutions. ES. Furthermore. p. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 13 . the survey researches the impact of OER and OEP on changing learning scenarios and educational institutions and looks at the strategies of policy makers and institutional leaders to support OEP in their regions and institutions. Thus. J. Open software tools (e. Within these Educational sectors the survey addresses the stakeholders which are listed in table 1. implementation and processing are:  Open Educational Practices (OEP) are a set of activities around instructional design and implementation of events and processes intended to support learning. Giving Knowledge for Free. Free educational courses. learning and research that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re- purposing by others. Hammond. 8).1.. D. FR and PT) covering more than 8 EU countries2. 2 The questionnaires are available in Annex 4. the Open Educational Quality Initiative which has been designed to map the use of OER and to find out the extent to which they contribute to improve the quality of educational practices. p. Seely Brown. Open material used for the e-learning capacity building of educational professionals. the survey elicits quantitative information from four educational stakeholder groups:  Educational Policy Makers  Managers/Administrators (also institutional policy makers)  Educational Professionals  Learners The main conceptual definitions inspiring the survey design. use and repurposing of Open Educational Resources (OER) and their adaptation to the contextual setting. 5. 3.g. A review of the Open Educational Resources movement: Achievements. 2007. and in Atkins. challenges and new opportunities. 4. Open courseware and content. 30. A.. It is part of the OPAL initiative. 2.3 The definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) includes: 1. They also include the creation. The activity was carried out as an online survey available in four languages (EN. The survey targets adult education institutions as well as higher education institutions. below. They are documented in a portable format and made openly available.

quality assurance professionals. intellectual property experts technical departments within ALCs. to 30 September 2010. Macro level conditions a) Public policies b) Networks of innovation c) OER supply 2. level institutional policy makers. Teachers. staff related to educational processes. when the first invitations were sent out. teacher trainers. etc. lifelong Students in formal learning contexts. validators/ (teachers.1 . material Educational level validators of learning. facilitators (also learners can learning material designers. B. technical editors curriculum technical editors converting materials into converting materials into online format. regional. the main respondents came from the following countries: Germany. The field phase of the survey has been from mid-July 2010. The survey is also directed at portraying actual practices and modalities of OEP within the multitude of higher education institutions and adult learning organisations that were selected as its focus of attention. pedagogical advisors and consultants. Finland. heads of administration. Portugal. lifelong learning level learners. informal learners learners. informal learners Although the survey has been open and answered by the international community of OER actors. local (communal) Rectors/ Vice-chancellors of higher education Directors of Adult Learning Centres (ALCs) or institutions. Ireland. Under these broad presuppositions the analysis of the data generated by the survey will take in account the following three analytical categories and respective sub-categories: 1. national. assessors and become teachers in adult learning). advisors.) online format. designers. etc. support staff. Furthermore. intellectual property experts Teachers.1 – Survey stakeholders Level Higher education Adult learning Policy maker level European. and concurrently to leverage the mainstreaming of generative OEP.Cultures of innovation Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 14 . Furthermore respondents came from the EU countries at large and others regions. UK. professors. support assessors. pedagogical professors. regional. as well (open to any respondents from all regions and countries). Table 2. institutional policy within adult learning centres. Spain. for this strategic change to become effective and sustainable. curriculum designers. national. our survey research addresses three macro conditions and three micro attributes. leaders initiatives. quality assurance professionals. etc. The Netherlands. local (communal) European. teacher trainers. and curriculum designers. Teaching and Students in formal learning contexts. Research Questions and Models Our point of departure rests on the assumption that Open Educational Resources (OER) are generating innovative practices – Open Educational Practices (OEP) – both in higher education and adult learning. leaders of administrative units Management and of technical departments. leaders of administration makers. Micro level attributes a) Contexts a. France.

the online survey aimed at gaining insights into the above- mentioned conditions and attributes that enact or obstaculise OEP uptake in concrete learning and teaching environments. is largely dependent upon the adequate selection of core variables (DV and IV) that embody the main intuitions/queries of the entire OPAL researcher team. Diagram 2. Practices The survey research was conducted in order to ascertain that these premises find support in quantitative field evidence. Thus. a. Moreover.2 . Models for in-depth analysis of key issues The concrete design of an analytical model geared at cross-tabulations and in-depth interpretations. A second layer will search for insights on actual practices undertaken in the higher education and adult learning institutions.3 .Institutional policies a. C. In this tentative exercise we research possible correlations – distinguishing between co- directionality and causality in regression analysis – involving three variables that were extensively Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 15 .1 – Analytical model: use of OER In order to allow a better insight on possibilities and paths conducive to an in-depth analysis the model that follows plays an exploratory role to exemplify the complexities involved in such and endeavour. stemming from the survey data.Infrastructures b) Representations c) Attitudes 3. a first layer of data interpretation will address each of the macro conditions and micro attributes listed above.

useful. in each target group. Five work hypotheses would be probed under this plan: H1: Representations of OER (Open Educational Resources) influence their use. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 16 .1. save all analyses in syntax and repeat them: • in each of the surveys (HE and AE). H2: Attitudes vis-a-vis OER influence their use. A first order – more complex – model is depicted in the above diagram. The more the users represent OER as pertinent. the higher the tendency to use them.2 – Intermediate model (second order) The simplified plan consists in applying the same model of analysis by aggregating both survey targets: AE and HE. the higher the use of OER. of quality and having a relevant pedagogical function. The more open and confident the attitudes. Notwithstanding its ambition this intermediate version follows a selective. In other words. direct and intuitive approach in processing the wealth of empirical data made available by the survey. attitudes and representations. – H1. A second order model – simplified version of the first – that can undergo an immediate feasibility test is represented in the following diagram (2.2). Diagram 2. • within each survey. when the filter does not select automatically. This second methodological concept is what we consider an intermediate model insofar as its implementation is likely to enlighten the robustness of the main model to explain OER uses and practices (OEP).1. – H2. inquired via the survey: practices (use of OER).

. H4: The country of origin of the respondent influences his/her position vis-a-vis OER. dimension and characteristics of the educational institution in terms of OER influence the position vis-à-vis OER. educational professionals e learners (has filter) – Barriers to use (Q4.)  only p policy makers. in the diagrams.3.g. index on the basis of the sum of the mean of the responses Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 17 . Dimensions and Metrics of Key Vriables Let us now take each of the three key variables retained to characterize both the dimensions elicited and the related metrics. on the basis of the mean of responses (if validated). (i) Representations: identification of possible dimensions. (ii) Attitudes: identification of possible dimensions. in the diagrams.1) – Pertinence (Q4. – These new variables become IVs of uses and DVs of the variables in green. H3: Representations and attitudes vis-a-vis OER are very much correlated: more open attitudes correlate positively with representations of OER as pertinent. v. on the basis of the mean of responses (if validated).2) Methods: – ACP to identify dimensions.1) only p managers. as regards: – Representations – Attitudes – Practices H5: The type. useful. quality and necessary resources. – Validating and building indexes.3. – Vis-a-vis the use of OER (Q. varimax rotation to accentuate the differences between dimensions.4.) Methods: – ACP to identify the dimensions. varimax rotation to emphasise the differences between dimensions. managers e learners (has filter) – Impact (Q3. – These new variables become IVs of uses and DVs of the variables in green.1)  for all • Correlations • If validated. (iii) Uses or Practices: identification of possible dimensions. – Use (Q4.2) – Utility (Q4. – Validating and building indexes. – Frequency (Q2. as regards: – Representations – Attitudes – Practices D.3) – Quality (Q3.

in the event of sufficient cases.9) H3: The new variables pertaining to attitudes and representations may relate through: . by reason of the nature of the DV. through: . Methodologies In order to allow an in-depth probe of each of the five work hypothesis listed under point C diverse statistical methodologies will undergo testing. Q1.9) E. 6 – Items focused on the student: 4 e 5 – Cumulative indexes? (iv) Structural variables: – Country of origin of the respondent • Aggregate in a dichotomy. 2.5. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 18 .5.8 and Q1.)  only p learners and educational professionals (has filter) • It is multiple. these new reduced variables may relate to uses. better to treat it as dichotomic (in VD)? – Objectives (Q. Aggregate the items according to a substantive criterion: – Items focused on the teacher: 1.6) – Characteristics of the type of OER supply (Q1. F.6) .3)  only p educational professionals (has filter) • It is multiple.Tests on means (T and ANOVA). these new reduced variables may relate to uses through: . • Multistage MLR. for two (T) and more samples (ANOVA) (Q1. remain at exploratory level – ACPs. – Type (Q2. H1: After identifying and validating the possible dimensions of representations.Correlations . for two (T) and more samples (ANOVA) (Q1.5) – Dimension of the institution (Q1.1 (the only item that is responded by all). 4.6) . with the following IVs coming in order: • Structural variables (country) • Institutional variables • Representations • Attitudes • VD: Index of Uses or Practices with Q2.Tests on means. Q1. enter method (regular).9) H2: After identifying and validating the possible dimensions of attitudes.Tests on means. in the event of very low numbers. Final Model: Explaining the Use of OER • Multiple Linear Regression (MLR).Correlations H4 and H5: .Correlations (with Q1. correlations.Correlations (with Q1.Crossing .2. opposing EU countries and Others (v) Institutional variables: – Type of institution (Q1.8 and Q1.2.8 and Q1.

Diagram 3.1. Chapter III – Profile of the Respondents Section I of both survey questionnaires – targeting higher education and adult learning. Language Respondents had the choice of completing the survey in one of four language versions.5%).3%) and Spanish (5.5% of all respondents). Their choice favoured English (61.3% Spanish.5% 61. A.7%). while maintaining their full anonymity.b – Survey language used by the respondents Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 Portuguese 32 84 French 16 23 Spanish 6 20 English 57 232 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 19 . English. 5. 116. 39. French (8. 24. 289.a – Survey language used by the respondents Portuguese.5% Diagram 3.7% French. respectively – focused on gathering information to characterize the respondents.1. 26. followed by Portuguese (24. 8.

3% are from outside the EU.2. 78.a – Country where respondents work or study Breakdown per EU Member State Frequency Country Higher education Adult learning Portugal 118 32 United Kingdom 67 4 Finland 39 7 France 21 9 Germany 20 5 Italy 19 Spain 18 3 Romania 14 Bulgaria 12 Netherlands 11 1 Belgium 6 Greece 5 Ireland 5 Austria 4 Hungary 3 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 20 .1.3% European Union. 370. 21. Country of work or study Question 1. 78.7% Diagram 3.7% of the respondents stated the country where they work or study is a member of the European Union. Table 3. B.a – Country where respondents work or study European Union versus other countries Others. Diagram 3.b – Country where respondents work or study – European Union versus other countries Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 Others 50 121 European Union 61 238 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education The breakdown of respondents per EU Member State is shown in the following table.2.1 inquired about the country of work or study of the respondents. while 21. 100.

Republic of 1 New Zealand 1 Nicaragua 1 Qatar 1 Russian Federation 1 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 21 . Islamic Republic of 1 Jamaica 1 Kuwait 1 Mauritius 1 Moldova.b – Breakdown per country outside the European Union Country Frequency India 10 Canada 8 Norway 8 United States 8 Nigeria 5 Australia 3 Brazil 3 Chile 3 Macedonia.1. Frequency Country Higher education Adult learning Sweden 2 Denmark 1 Lithuania 1 Malta 1 Poland 1 Slovakia 1 Slovenia 1 Countries outside the European Union 100 50 Total 470 111 Table 3. the former Yugoslav Republic of 3 Malaysia 3 Albania 2 Argentina 2 Bangladesh 2 Botswana 2 Colombia 2 Côte d'Ivoire 2 Indonesia 2 Morocco 2 Philippines 2 South Africa 2 Thailand 2 Afghanistan 1 Benin 1 Costa Rica 1 Croatia 1 Djibouti 1 Egypt 1 Ethiopia 1 Guyana 1 Haiti 1 Hong Kong 1 Iran.

12. 145.9% Africa. 39. Age and gender Question 1.7% 16. 23. 60-69. 122. 13.4% 50-59. the majority of respondents is concentrated in the age groups 40-49. 19.a – Age of the respondents European Union versus other countries Ov er 69.9% 8. 111. Overall. 30-39 and 50-59.4.8% 4. Country Frequency Saudi Arabia 1 Switzerland 1 Tunisia 1 Turkey 1 Venezuela. Diagram 3.8% Asia. 20. 28.0% North America. 49.2 asked about the age and gender of the respondents.9% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 22 . 4. as well as per sector. 30.0% 40-49.3 – Country where respondents work or study Breakdown of non-EU countries per continent South America. 26.8% C. 17. 27. 19. 4. Bolivarian Republic of 1 Zimbabwe 1 Total 101 Diagram 3. Oceania. 18. 10.6% 30-39. 0. Europe.3% Below 29.

both when considering all respondents and when analysing their distribution by sector.7% Diagram 3. Male. 227. there is a balance.b – Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 Female 52 175 Male 59 184 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education D.4.3 asked the respondents to select one of the following educational roles: Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 23 .5. Diagram 3.b – Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 Ov er 69 0 4 60-69 14 25 50-59 25 86 40-49 37 108 30-39 25 97 Below 29 10 39 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education As to the gender of the respondents.a – Gender of the respondents Female. Educational Roles Question 1. 243.3% 51. 48. Diagram 3.5.

 Learner. dictated the questionnaire that would be subsequently presented to the respondents. A similar pattern emerges in the sector breakdown of the replies.  Institutional policy maker. European Parliament.5% Diagram 3.a – Educational role of the respondents Learner. national government. last.b –Breakdown per sector All roles 111 359 Learner 4 40 Educational professional 70 252 Institutional policy 31 56 maker/Manager Educational policy 6 11 maker 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 24 . local government). at a regional or local level (e.  Educational policy maker at a European/international level (e.4% policy maker.  Educational professional in an educational organisation (professor. administrator). at a national level (e.g. in combination with the reply to question 1. The reply to this question.6. curriculum designer. Diagram 3. 322. etc. 68. learning technology specialist. or ministry). Educational 9. trainer.g.5% Educational professional. followed by the institutional policy maker/manager role (19%). A clear majority of respondents belong to the educational professional role (68%). municipality. 17. 18. the educational policy role (4%).6. the learner role (9%) and. teacher.g. 3.6% Institutional policy maker.).4. 87. European Commission). or involved in the management or administration of an educational organisation (manager. 44.

4% F. 359. The not-for-profit institutions provide about twice as much respondents as those coming from the profitable private sector. 90. 19. 334. etc. or worked for.6% Higher Education. 9. 71. Diagram 3. meaning whether respondents were enrolled in. private not-for-profit or private- for-profit – the majority of respondents (71%) stated their institution was public.7 – Primary area of interest (sector) of the respondents Adult Learning. Status of the institution Questions 1. Diagram 3.a – Status of the respondents' institution Priv ate for- profit. Primary area of interest Question 1. Higher education respondents account for over ¾ of the sample while adult learning provided the remaining of those surveyed.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 25 . E. 23.4 asked respondents to choose between higher education and adult learning as their primary area of interest.).5 to 1. or still if they were engaged in policy making in one of the sectors provided. a higher education establishment (university. 111.10 were directed at the characterization of the institution where respondents work or study.8% Priv ate not-for- profit. or an adult learning institution. 46. technical college.8. 76.1% Public. When queried about the status of their institution – whether public.

Less than Do not know . Size of the institution The characterization of the size of the institution (in terms of learners) was the object of question 1. 8. 6. 21.0% 10.8.000 learners. of learners) No reply . These figures mean that the heavy majority of respondents come from large and very large institutions: in total. over 70% of the sample.3% More than 5000. 50. 49. 39.6% 1001 to 5000. addressed to all but the educational policy makers (mandatory response for those). 233.6% 501 to 1000.9.a – Size of the respondents' institution (no.9% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 26 .6% 500. Diagram 3.b –Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 Priv ate for-profit 23 23 Priv ate not-for-profit 30 60 Public 58 276 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education G.000 learners.001 and 5. 17. 3. 49% of respondents work or study in educational institutions with over 5. 103.6. followed by 22% in institutions with between 1. Diagram 3. 28.

In the remaining list of origins. Italy and Spain account for the next cohort of leading countries of respondents’ institution.b –Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 6 11 Do not know 6 22 25 208 1001 to 5000 21 82 19 20 Less than 500 34 16 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education H. Germany. Finally. broken down by sector.2 – Country of the respondents' institution Higher education Adult learning Portugal 117 30 United Kingdom 66 4 Finland 39 7 France 19 8 Germany 19 4 Italy 19 Spain 16 3 Romania 14 Bulgaria 11 Netherlands 10 1 Belgium 5 Greece 5 Ireland 4 Austria 3 Hungary 3 Sweden 2 Denmark 1 Lithuania 1 Malta 1 Poland 1 Slovakia 1 Slovenia 1 Countries outside the European Union 95 48 No replies 17 6 Sub-total 470 111 Total 581 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 27 . Diagram 3. UK and Finland cater for about one half of the total sample. Portugal.7). France. The next table offers a detailed picture of the countries where the institution is located. Table 3. Location of the institution Concerning the location of the respondents’ mother institution (Q1.9. the non-EU countries account for 21% of the total institutions sampled.

6% Distance Education). 44.b –Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 No reply 6 11 Mix ed 61 173 Traditional (Campus-based) 31 144 Online (also Distance Education) 13 31 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education J.4% Traditional Mix ed. face-to-face.10. 37. the frequency of negative replies is higher in adult learning. (Campus- 49. 234. Half of the respondents stated their institution offered mixed provision. respondents were asked in question 1.2% of respondents claimed not to be aware of such programmes or did not reply. 175. OER programmes or initiatives in the institution Question 1. 9. conventional (e.. Diagram 3. When taking the two sectors into consideration.10. Kind of education offered by the institution With regard to the kind of education offered by the institution. It should be noted that a total of 33. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 28 . Online (also 3. campus-based) or mixed education/training provision.g. with 37% of the responses. 36.a – Kind of education offered by the respondents' institution No reply .4% negatively.4% of respondents replied affirmatively.8 (mandatory for all but educational policy makers) to indicate whether it delivers online and/or distance education/training.2% Diagram 3.8% based). I. followed by traditional provision. 17. and 30.9 (mandatory for all but educational policy makers) inquired about the existence of OER programmes or initiatives in the respondents’ institutions.

4% Diagram 3.b –Breakdown per sector Total 111 359 No reply 6 11 Do not know 22 117 No 45 98 Yes 38 133 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Adult learning Higher education For the respondents who replied positively to this question. 139.11.4% Do not know . Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 29 .6% No.a – Existence of OER programme or initiative in the respondents’ institution No reply . 36.2% from adult learning (18 replies). question 1. 30.4% of respondents from higher education (77 replies) and 16. 143.4% of respondents provided that information (95 replies).10 (not mandatory) invited respondents to provide information about the websites of their OER programme(s)/initiative(s). Overall. 17. 16. Diagram 3. 3.6% Yes.11. 29. evenly distributed in proportion by sector: 16. 171.

disagree. agree. There is a need for specific public policies to support and regulate the use of OER in higher education institutions/adult learning organisations. 3. The public policies only need to support the access to and availability of OER in higher education institutions/adult learning organisations. 1. 99. Public policies are necessary to support skill development for open educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders. 122. 28. Chapter IV – Survey Data Analysis This chapter addresses the analytical categories elicited in the framework of the research questions set out for interpretation in Chapter 2 of the present report.1. Please rate the following statements: 1. 50. 52% of respondents strongly agree and agree with the statement (corresponding to 41% of all respondents of the three target groups presented with this question).6% 6. MACRO LEVEL ANALYSIS 1. 23. Public policies only need to support the access to and availability of OER Taking into consideration valid responses for the two questionnaires.1. 2. A. One question encompassing a set of three sub-questions addresses the level of public policies that respondents feel are necessary with regard to OER. 129. institutional policy makers. In the following paragraphs we analyse the sub- questions.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 30 . individually taken. educational professionals: This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER. Public Policies The first macro level condition of our research model deals with the opinion of respondents regarding the role of public policies in the domains of OER and OEP. 26.a – Public policies only need to support the access to and availability of OER Strongly No reply .2% 11.1% Disagree. one at a time. In particular it will process the sample data for each of the three macro level conditions as well as for four the micro level attributes. 30.7% Strongly Agree. 1. Educational policy makers. Diagram 4.

1. 27.3% 29. data from adult learning alone respondents show a different picture: combined strongly agree and agree responses provide a total of 47. disagree.2% 10. Diagram 4. However. No reply .2% 17.8% Strongly disagree. 72.5% of the three target groups).0% of the three target groups presented with this question).4% Disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 39. agree.5% of valid responses (corresponding to 39.2. 95. whilst combined disagree and strongly disagree responses barely reach 45.1% 33.3% of the three target groups). 22. 8.a – Public policies only need to support the access to and availability of OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 29 76 78 14 55 Institutional policy 9 14 16 3 14 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 1 5 2 0 3 All roles 39 95 96 17 247 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 31 .3% Strongly Agree.6% 12. Combined strongly agree and agree responses add up to 54. Disagree.8% There is a similar trend of agree and disagree responses given by higher education alone respondents about the scope of intervention of public policies. 11.4% of the three target groups).1. 5. 25. Diagram 4. 30. circa 52. agree.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply . 25.3% of valid responses (corresponding to 42. 9. whilst combined disagree and strongly disagree responses hit a higher figure.2% 27. Agree. 30. 96.5% valid responses (35.7% of valid responses (corresponding to 35.

97.5% Disagree.2. 20. 87.0% Agree. 15.4% Strongly disagree.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 32 . These results support the results from the previous sub-question. while overall data suggest that respondents do not see a need for public policies to support access to and availability of OER. Strongly 22. Need for specific public policies to support and regulate the use of OER Valid responses for both questionnaires show that 75% of respondents strongly agree or agree with the statement proposed (58% of all respondents of the three educational groups surveyed). insofar that reactions to sub-question 2 call for wider public policy interventions.2. respondents from the adult learning sector seem to favour a larger role of public policies in support of OER.a – Need for specific public policies to support and regulate the use of OER No reply .b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 7 21 20 5 17 Institutional policy 4 5 12 3 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 1 1 3 All roles 11 27 33 9 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Therefore. Diagram 4. 19.8% agree. 37. 64.3. 4. 159. Diagram 4. 1.

71. 3.3% Strongly 26. 19.3.1% Strongly Strongly 24.3% Strongly agree. 9.c –Adult learning No reply . when data is shown separately by cluster.3.7% Disagree. Agree. No reply .3% disagree.a – Need for specific public policies to support and regulate the use of OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 48 92 44 12 56 Institutional policy 9 21 11 3 12 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 4 4 3 All roles 61 117 55 15 71 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4.4% 55. 26. 22. 36.4.7% 4.7% 39. 17.3% The same trend favouring specific policies to support and regulate the use of OER is consistently detected in the analysis of each sector.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 21 21 7 4 17 Institutional policy 5 18 2 0 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 0 3 All roles 26 42 9 4 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 33 . 61. 15.4. 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. disagree. 42. Disagree. Diagram 4. 8. 24. Diagram 4. agree.2% Agree. 117.

Strongly disagree. 28. 133.3% Strongly disagree. 95. As with sub-question 2.a – Need for public policies to support skill development No reply . Disagree.7% Agree. 69.3% Strongly 1. 40. Agree.3. 1. totalling 69. 21. 5.5. 4.2% 5. When inquired about the need for public policies aimed at supporting skill development.2% 23.9% of all responses from the three educational groups surveyed. Strongly 1. 24. 165.7% The same trend can be observed when analysing responses sector by sector.6% No reply . 29.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Diagram 4.2% disagree.5. 22. 38. 133. 43. 6.2% agree.7% Diagram 4. as results from the breakdown of data provided in the two following diagrams. data here would seem to contradict the results of sub-question 1.2% Disagree. Disagree. 28. 31. Public policies are necessary to support skill development for open educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders. 4. 0. 90.c –Adult learning No reply . 1.9% 41. Thus. 32. the vast majority of respondents strongly agrees and agrees with this statement. 26. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 34 .5.6% Agree. 7.3% Strongly Strongly agree.9% agree. a similar comment is possible concerning the specific wording adopted for sub-question 1.

how relevant are the following aspects in support of the effective use of OER in higher education/adult learning? 1. and from a policy perspective. 2. Institutional support/recognition concerning OER projects/ initiatives. 8. 6. Support for OER promotion/awareness building. Educational policy makers alone were queried about the relevance of eight supporting factors for OER. 4.a – Need for public policies to support skill development Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 66 109 20 3 54 Institutional policy 19 21 3 1 12 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 5 3 3 All roles 90 133 23 4 69 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. Support in implementing appropriate licensing schemes regarding copyright. 2. Promotion of quality assurance for OER.6. Promotion of guidelines/standards for OER creation and use.1.6. Access to appropriate technology/infrastructure. Provision of financial/sustainability support. Support for localisation/ adaptation/translation of existing OER. Educational policy makers: In your opinion. 7. 5. The fact that 100% of the valid universe of respondents concurs that OER promotion/ awareness building is very Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 35 . Support for OER promotion/awareness building This item was positively rated by the two sectors in a robust and consistent way. Diagram 4. 3.b – Adult learning– Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 7 21 20 5 17 Institutional policy 4 5 12 3 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 1 1 3 All roles 11 27 33 9 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 2.

2. The important rating especially from higher education policy makers expresses a very significant demand.8 – Institutional support/recognition concerning OER projects/ initiatives Total 6 11 No reply 0 3 Very important 0 6 Important 2 2 Unimportant 1 0 Very unimportant 3 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2. Diagram 4.7 – Support for OER promotion/awareness building Total 6 11 No reply 2 3 Very important 2 4 Important 2 4 Unimportant 0 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2. Institutional support/recognition concerning OER projects/ initiatives This item of the questionnaire was on the whole positively rated. Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 36 . being regarded as very important by higher education policy makers.3. The responses given to this question are totally coherent with the results of the previous item. Support for localisation/ adaptation/translation of existing OER It is interesting to observe that educational policy makers align in favour of some form of local adjustment of OER to enable uptake and use. important or important is an unequivocal signal given both to policy makers and to institutional decision makers.

Promotion of quality assurance for OER Quality concerns regarding easily available and readily accessible OER receive a very high rating.5.10 – Support in implementing appropriate licensing schemes regarding copyright Total 6 11 No reply 2 3 Very important 1 2 Important 1 3 Unimportant 2 3 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 37 .9 – Support for localisation/ adaptation/translation of existing OER Total 6 11 No reply 2 3 Very important 0 4 Important 4 3 Unimportant 0 1 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2. Diagram 4. Diagram 4. Respondents mark this requirement as very important particularly in the perspective of the higher education policy sector.4. covering the entire range from unimportant to very important. and including an absence of opinion. Support in implementing appropriate licensing schemes regarding copyright The scores register a fairly even rating.

higher education reveals a greater awareness than adult education on the generic enablers that foster a rapid uptake of OER.7. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 38 . and consistently. Diagram 4. By the same token. Promotion of guidelines/standards for OER creation and use Once more. being the latter rating emphasised by higher education officials. Diagram 4. Guidelines and standardisation are deemed important and very important by respondents. Access to appropriate technology/infrastructure Again this item that raises infrastructural pre-conditions is considered by most respondents as important or very important.6. responses show the same pattern.12 – Access to appropriate technology/infrastructure No reply 2 3 Very important 1 3 Important 3 4 Unimportant 0 Very unimportant 0 1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2.11 – Promotion of quality assurance for OER Total 6 11 No reply 2 3 Very important 4 4 Important 0 4 Unimportant 0 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2.

with a consistent predominance of respondents coming from the realm of higher education.14 – Provision of financial/sustainability support No reply 2 3 Very important 0 3 Important 4 5 Unimportant 0 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education When appraising the whole set of policy areas addressed by the eight statements that made up this question. although the number of respondents was relatively narrow.13 – Promotion of guidelines/standards for OER creation and use No reply 2 4 Very important 1 3 Important 3 3 Unimportant 0 1 Very unimportant 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Adult learning Higher education 2. Diagram 4. the relative weight of very positive responses is skewed toward the higher education sector. Again. it can be concluded that. there is a clear positive trend in favour of educational policies that address the particular areas targeted by each statement. This trend is very coherently upheld when breaking down the responses given by the two sectors covered in the survey.8. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 39 . Diagram 4. Provision of financial/sustainability support In accordance with the high scores granted to the necessity of enacting appropriate incentives to the dissemination and uptake of OER. financial support is deemed important and very important by the majority of policy makers surveyed.

b –Higher education Diagram 4. 2. 25. 22. 44. 1.6% Agree.4% Disagree. with a similar distribution when breaking down responses by sector. 5. Strongly No reply . 3. Strongly 57. 1. The majority of respondents (60%) leaned toward the idea that a lack of national/regional policies is Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 40 . 65.2% 1. Agree and strongly agree were the majority opinions retained by educational professionals.7% Diagram 4. 25.15.7% Strongly Strongly disagree. 144. disagree.2% Disagree. 16.7% agree. Diagram 4.9% Agree. 73.15. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER.1% 4. 18. Disagree. 33. In order to stimulate the use of OER. 1. 44.a – Need for specific skill support No reply . 22. specific skill support is needed.c –Adult learning No reply .6% agree.15. 16.8% 25.9% agree. 6. Agree. 4. namely: All respondents: Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 13.0% 47. 111. Educational professionals were asked for their opinion on another statement that can be linked to public policies. 83. Strongly 22. Educational professionals: How would you rate the following statements? 8. 3. One other sub-question regarding barriers to the use of OER can also be analysed from a public policies perspective.3% 2.8% Strongly disagree. 18.

at 27. 26. Very 168.0% 28.3% Diagram 4.5% 35.16. Diagram 4.16.a – Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER Very unimportant.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 103.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 129.4% overall.7% 10. 23. tant. an important and very important barrier.4% 48.6% Important. Unimpor- No reply .7% tant. 114. 10. 35.5% 79. 2. No reply .4% 9. Important. important. The level of no replies is fairly high.16. 33. 2. 3.3% Unimportant. with higher distributions in the adult learning sector. 24.3% Very 131. 10. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 41 .0% The defined trend holds across most categories elicited in the survey within each sector.2% 2. tant. 38. 31. 22. 27. important. 11. Very 37. 36. unimpor- tant. No reply .2% Important. 8. Unimpor. This consistency reveals a high degree of consensus reached in the entire educational segment surveyed regardless of the levels of responsibility or activity.7% important.

Moreover. Whenever rating the relevance of specific areas for policy intervention.a – Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 5 11 9 15 Educational professional 8 20 100 57 67 Institutional policy 0 12 17 11 16 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5 All roles 8 38 131 79 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.17. the cross-analysis of data regarding questions and sub-questions that were categorised in chapter I as a macro level condition: public policies. Diagram 4. a clear majority of respondents provided positive or very positive scores. This could denote the existence of a sizable segment of respondents that are either unaware of OER and OEP or simply do not consider these new digital- driven tools as sufficiently relevant to their core concerns to warrant clear-cut opinions. it is noteworthy that the overall percentage of no replies to sub-questions (all of which were not mandatory) is not negligible. This awareness is a notorious fact not only among educational policy makers but equally across the four educational roles targeted by the OPAL survey.17. points to a rather advanced awareness of the importance of public policies to further OER developments.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 3 4 25 23 15 Institutional policy 0 5 10 10 6 maker/Manager 0 1 2 1 2 All roles 3 10 37 35 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply In conclusion. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 42 .

where the implementation category in some departments/units supersedes the individual efforts). dep. how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of OER? 2.3% Diagram 4. As a supporting factor to the use of OER. 77. 20. 24. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 43 . 79.0% 24. No reply . Not ex isting./units. 14. 19.a – A partnership with other organisations No reply . One sub-question falls under this analytical category: Institutional policy makers. 23. 54.- w ide. Diagram 4.8% 61.0% of all respondents stated that a partnership with other organisations existed in the three varying degrees presented in the question. 9. 100. The prevalence of such partnerships augments from the lowest values registered for organisation-wide implementation to the highest values recorded for the existence of individual efforts (with the exception of adult learning. educational professionals: In your higher education institution/adult learning organisation.8% Implement 68. 15. 22.18.8% The overall trend described above is closely followed in the breakdown by educational roles for higher education and adult learning.18. dep.5% w ide.9% Implement Implement Indiv idual ed in Indiv idual ed in efforts some efforts some ex ist. Not ex isting. 2.c – Adult learning Not No reply . 19.18.6% 22. 20.3% Implemented Indiv idual in some efforts ex ist.8% ex isting. Networks of Innovation The second macro level condition of our research model deals with the opinion of respondents regarding the role of networks of innovation in shaping OER developments and open educational practices. 38. 18. ex ist.4% 83.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 101.- 7. 23.-w ide.8% 25.1% Implement ed org. dep. ed org. 21.3% Implemented org. A partnership with other organisations.7% 87. 25. 21./units. 21. 24./units.

Lack of quality of the OER Overall. Lack of quality of the OER. 1. Likewise. expanding from the existence of partnerships with other institutions to various other forms of networks of innovation.1. Lack of OER in the user’s native language. and also including perceptions regarding their potential value in moving forward both effective OEP and enabling communities of practice shaped around collaborative OEP.2% who stated it was unimportant or very unimportant). We have elicited the following sub-questions: All educational roles: Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 6.4%. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 44 . Lack of interest in creating or using OER. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user.19. 1. Diagram 4. it seems a timely suggestion that in future OPAL work greater attention is dedicated to this relevant macro level condition. 15. the breakdown per sector follows the same pattern. 7.a – A partnership with other organisations Higher education – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 57 68 48 14 65 Institutional policy 11 11 13 9 12 maker/Manager All roles 68 79 61 23 77 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply Diagram 4. the majority of respondents stated that this barrier is important or very important (47. One question dealing with the experiences of respondents on barriers to the use of OER tackles several issues pertaining to the supply of OER.19. OER Availability This macro level condition of our research model deals with the opinion of respondents regarding the role of OER supply in shaping OER developments and open educational practices overall.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 14 21 11 7 17 Institutional policy 3 8 6 6 8 maker/Manager All roles 19 21 22 15 24 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply As a pointer for future work. against 24. 3. 8.

In the adult learning sector.9% 17. important.20.2% 5. No reply . tant. 18. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 45 .2% Unimpor. against 16. Unimpor- tant. against 32.1% Important. with 45. 12. 18. tant. Important. Diagram 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 158.3% The general pattern observed is also followed in higher education by the institutional policy makers/managers and the educational professionals. 9.20. 87.a – Lack of quality of the OER Very unimportant.9% 34. 18. 62. while opinions are more balanced in the educational professionals of this sector.1% who rate it negatively. 65. tant.0% 8. Very Very important.6% 13.7% positive replies.1% 29.20.3% of institutional policy makers/managers rate this factor positively.5% Very Important. important. 25. 28. 30.5% 34. 68.8% Diagram 4. 19. 105. 28. 18. 27.7% 133. 33. 21.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 124.9% of negative ones.3% Unimportant. 5. No reply . unimpor- No reply .6% 44.

a – Lack of quality of the OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 2 5 13 7 13 Educational professional 13 50 87 30 72 Institutional policy 3 12 20 6 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 4 1 5 All roles 18 68 124 44 105 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4. with a higher contribution from the adult learning sector. in relative terms. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 46 . Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Half of all respondents felt that this barrier is very important or important.21. and similarly so in both sectors under scrutiny.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 8 15 19 13 15 Institutional policy 1 4 12 7 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 All roles 9 19 34 21 28 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 1. The rating of very unimportant was notably low.21. Diagram 4.2.

1% Very important. Diagram 4. 5. 19.c – Adult learning questionnaire Very Very No reply . 43.6% Very Very important.4% 4. unimpor. both institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals share a pattern of circa half of the responses with a preference for positive attributes and circa a quarter for the negative ones. 37.8% 12. tant.8% 24. 23.3% Important.5% Unimpor. important. tant. 14.6% 35.b – Higher education Diagram 4.7% Diagram 4. Diagram 4. Important.2% Unimportant. No reply . 21. 17. 71. 18. 22.4% 26. tant.7% 128. 28.23. 67. 85. 168.1% Considering the breakdown by educational role in the two sectors surveyed. No reply . 12.a – Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Very unimportant. 42.22.0% 126. 35.22. 27.a –Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 3 11 9 4 13 11 45 100 28 68 Institutional policy 3 13 15 9 16 maker/Manager 0 2 2 2 5 All roles 17 71 126 43 102 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 47 . Unimpor- tant. 4. Important. unimpor- 102.22.7% 4. 14.

23.a – Lack of OER in the user’s native language Very unimportant. 29.5% Unimpor. Very Important. 17.3% Important.4% 15. 23. 7. 101.2% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 48 . 30. 16. unimpor.4% 28. unimpor- No reply . 17. Lack of OER in the user’s native language Near half of all respondents rated this barrier as very important or important. Very 104.0% 58. 29.1% 8.7% important. tant. 35.4% 4. tant.24.b –Higher education Diagram 4. tant.1% Diagram 4. Diagram 4. 18. 33.3.24. Important. 127.4% No reply .7%. Diagram 4.24. 29. 18. 66.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply . important. 83.0% 30.7% Very important. Unimpor- tant. 88. 5.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 4 8 25 18 15 Institutional policy 1 4 15 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 1 1 2 All roles 5 14 42 24 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 1.0% Unimportant. 27. 27. the corresponding score for adult learning respondents was 56.7% 137. 26.

a – Lack of OER in the user’s native language Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 3 8 11 5 13 20 47 72 45 68 Institutional policy 7 9 18 7 15 maker/Manager 0 2 3 1 5 All roles 30 66 104 58 101 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4. the breakdown into sectors provides a similar pattern. Lack of interest in creating or using OER A clear majority of respondents (58.25.b –Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 3 9 19 24 15 Institutional policy 2 6 12 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 2 0 2 All roles 5 17 33 30 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 1. The above trend can also be observed in both institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals of the two sectors surveyed.25.4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 49 . Likewise. Diagram 4.5%) feels that this barrier is very important and important.

4%. 1.a – Lack of interest in creating or using OER Very unimportant. Unimpor- No reply . 136.8% 37.26.9% No reply . 9. 94. 28.0% Diagram 4.9% 55. 27.7% 28. Unimpor- 1.5% of educational professionals do so.9% 23. 25.7% 11. 38.9% Unimportant.26. 11.26.5% Very important. 42. one observes that in higher education 50.27. 20. Very Important.7% In analysing the breakdown per educational role in each sector. 19.5% 71.2% 11. 20. Diagram 4.8% tant.7% Very Important. 2. 1. important.0% of institutional policy makers/managers rate this sub-question positively. important. 45. at 61. 181. 40. unimpor- tant. the lead is taken by institutional policy makers/managers. tant.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor.7% Important. and the educational professionals follow suit. tant. 13. 7. Diagram 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. in adult learning.a – Lack of interest in creating or using OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 4 11 10 15 5 25 108 47 67 Institutional policy 2 10 16 12 16 maker/Manager 0 3 1 2 5 All roles 7 42 136 71 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 50 . at 67. 103. while as much as 61. 131. No reply .7% of positive replies.

1% Implemented in some Indiv idual departments/ efforts ex ist. The least represented item regards the implementation of OER quality assurance processes across the organisation. with the exception of adult learning.a – Specific quality assurance processes for OER No reply . an OER repository). Diagram 4. This pattern is fairly identical in both sectors.28. 24.1. where individual efforts rank higher and the non- existence of quality assurance processes ranks lower. how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of OER? 3.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 51 . Specific quality assurance processes for OER. 105. there is a prevalent notion that there are no specific quality assurance processes in place for OER. totalling 31. followed by the item indicating individual efforts. 2. we analysed the responses regarding one of the sub-questions of a question put to two educational roles: Institutional policy maker/manager. 99. 25.8% Implemented organisation- w ide.2% Not ex isting. educational professionals: In your higher education institution/adult learning organisation.8% of all responses.7% 10.1% of all responses.. Specific quality assurance processes for OER For higher education and adult learning. 130. Specific technological infrastructure for OER (e. 31.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 1 10 27 16 16 Institutional policy 1 3 16 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 1 3 All roles 2 13 45 23 28 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 2. When probing into a further understanding of the role of OER supply in shaping OER developments. 4. Diagram 4.27. 8. 42. with only 8. 33.g. units.

27.8% 102.28. notably as to the percentages regarding the existence of individual efforts and the organisation-wide implementation.29.7% Diagram 4. 24. 25.7% dep.7% ed 33. 32. 10. 7./units.1% ed organisa- organisa- tion-w ide.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 21 18 7 7 17 Institutional policy 7 14 3 1 6 maker/Manager All roles 28 32 10 8 23 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply When considering the breakdown for the two educational roles concerned with this question. Implement 76. tion-w ide. some efforts dep.9% 31. 22.b – Higher education Diagram 4. ex isting.a – Specific quality assurance processes for OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 82 64 26 16 64 Institutional policy 20 9 6 9 12 maker/Manager All roles 102 73 32 25 76 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 52 . 23.9% Implement Indiv idual Implement ed in efforts ed in Indiv idual some ex ist. Not ex isting.28. Implement 28. ex ist.1% 8. Not No reply .c – Adult learning No reply . 8. 73. particularly among the institutional policy makers/ managers./units. 32.4% 10. Diagram 4. 9.7% 23.29. some divergences are apparent.

Again.6% 30. organisation.7% 32. 76. It’s worth noting that in the adult learning sector respondents reported a much lower percentage of organisation-wide implementation of technological infrastructures for OER than those coming from higher education.5% 22.2% 75. Not ex isting. Specific technological infrastructure for OER The responses are spread across the possible replies in a fairly balanced way overall.30.0% 100.4% 25.7% 10. 23.3% 9.3% Total 100.0% The analysis of the data for sub-question 3 points to the need for institutional measures/policies to be adopted in this domain.2% 10.1 – Specific quality assurance processes for OER Higher education Adult learning Institutional policy Educational Institutional policy Educational maker/Manager professional maker/Manager professional Not existing 35. 18.1% 6.3% 3.7% Implemented in some departments/units 10. 23. and would suggest the need for public policies to support vibrant quality assurance processes for OER.6% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 53 . 96.4% 24.2% 25. 16.0% 100. 95.0% Individual efforts exist 16.0% No reply 21. 18.0% 100. Table 4.3% Indiv idual Implemented efforts ex ist.1% 25.5% w ide.2.4% 19.4% Implemented in some departments/ units.4% 45.7% 10. so that the existing individual efforts may permeate through the whole organisation. Diagram 4. 2.0% Implemented organisation-wide 16. 67. with the reply on individual efforts leading overall and for higher education. we can see a pattern emerging where the sum of replies on non-existence of technological infrastructures and the existence of individual efforts outweighs the two replies geared towards institutionalised practices.a – Specific technological infrastructure for OER No reply . adult education responses also report the highest percentage of such infrastructures implemented in some departments/units.

31. data analysis would suggest that there is room for active policies encouraging the implementation of technological infrastructures for OER where they lack. 24.c – Adult learning Not Implement Not No reply .5% dep. 21.8% Diagram 4.0% 53. 17. 74.30.8% organisa./units.6% 25. The same could be asserted about opportunities for widening the scope of practices and supporting structures scaling up individual and unit-based efforts to the entire organisation.8% Indiv idual tion-w ide.7% Implement Implement Indiv idual organisa./units. 9. 57. Appropriate institutional Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 54 . ed in ed in efforts tion-w ide.2% 21. ed ex isting. 24. 22. 73. 23. ed 23. 18. 22.8% 51. ex isting. Diagram 4.31.a – Specific technological infrastructure for OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 44 62 41 43 62 Institutional policy 9 11 10 14 12 maker/Manager All roles 53 73 51 57 74 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply Diagram 4. dep. No reply . 20.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Educational professional 16 13 19 7 15 Institutional policy 6 10 6 3 6 maker/Manager All roles 22 23 25 10 21 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply As with the previous sub-question.30. 16. some some ex ist. efforts 10.9% Implement ex ist.b – Higher education Diagram 4.

10. 3. The survey queried learners about issues related to OER supply. 4. As a learner.32. The quality of open educational resources is too diverse for OER to be really useful. 4.0% No reply . No reply . No reply . 4. 10. 3.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 2.0% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 55 . thus making it difficult to extract a clear trend.0% Disagree. I am encouraged to develop learning materials myself and share those with others on the Internet.0% Strongly Disagree. 50. 25. policies to address these issues could be helpful in this regard as a complement effort to compound public policies. 10. 15. 1.1% 22. 0.0% 0.1% Agree. 9. 0.a – Learners are encouraged to develop and share learning materials Strongly agree. 32. 4. Disagree.5% Agree. 10.5% 0. Agree.7% Diagram 4.0% 25. 9. 25. 22. 25. similar prevalence on agreement and disagreement.32.32.1. Learners are encouraged to develop and share learning materials Learners from the two sectors spread their opinions across the four attributes. Diagram 4. agree.0% Strongly disagree. disagree. 11. Strongly disagree. 1. with a higher.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly agree.0% 13. 4.1% 34. notably in the following two sub- questions: Learners: How would you rate the following statements? 3.0% 9.

13.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 32. 2.5% Diagram 4.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly agree.a – The quality of open educational resources is too diverse for OER to be really useful Strongly agree.0% 0.5% 22. 2. 11.2. 0.0% Strongly Disagree.33. 1.0% 0. 13. where a clear majority of learners identified the lack of quality of OER as a barrier.5% disagree.3% Agree. a clearer trend can be observed denying the implication that variation in quality levels would necessarily impact on how useful OER can be.33. 0.0% 50.0% 4. Diverse quality of OER As to the levels of quality of OER and its impact on their usefulness. 9. 0. 3.4 above. Disagree.0% Agree. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 56 . 4.33. 34. Diagram 4. These policies would favour OER and open educational practices (OEP) in breaking away from individualistic or closed group settings to become mainstream in higher education and adult learning institutions. 0. Disagree. 15.5% No reply . It should be noted. 4.0% Strongly disagree.1% 25. Strongly disagree. that this can be seen as a complementary result to when comparing the results with those for the learner group addressed in point 1. 13. 9. 1. Agree. 50. agree. No reply . 2. 32.1% 29. The analysis of the survey data according to the macro level conditions of OER supply elicited views from the respondents that point to several areas of public policy and institutional policy intervention.5% No reply . 2. 10.

4% overall.1. is of particular interest for OPAL. 6. 4.3% disagree. 3. 45.c – Adult learning Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 57 . …shifts the role from teachers/tutors/trainers to facilitators. 65. 205. 159. …leads to pedagogical changes. 2. pedagogy. totalling 80.1. both within organisations and regarding individual’s practices.3% Diagram 4. 8. assessment. …shifts the role of learners from passive receivers to active producers. …shifts education/training provision from content to activity-based learning.1% Disagree.34.1.34. informal). educational professionals. learners: Q3. …improves the quality of education (formal. Strongly 14.1. in that OER and OEP are closely associated with pursuing new forms of facilitating learning for individuals and customising learning resources to the particular needs of the individual learner. 20.9% agree.4% Agree. 35. The use of OER improves the quality of education The overwhelming majority of respondents rated this statement positively. …demands for completely new models of education/training (incl. Contexts A. 1. how would you rate the following statements? The use of open educational resources… 1. Strongly 0. The relative weight of strong agreement and agreement is the reverse when comparing the two sectors surveyed. 4. …increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios. B. Cultures of Innovation The evidence of the existence of cultures of innovation. 4. The experience of respondents on the use of OER The experience of respondents on the use of OER was the focus of the following question: Institutional policy makers/managers. 7. 5. MICRO LEVEL ANALYSIS 1. Diagram 4.a – The use of OER improves the quality of education No reply . …does not affect the teaching process at all. non formal. 1. Based on your experiences. In this regard. organisation of educational institutions). a number of questions from the OPAL OER/OEP survey enable us to elicit information that sheds light on this important attribute.34.b – Higher education Diagram 4.

35. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 58 .1% 47. a trend closely followed in each sector.7% When analysing the distribution of responses by educational role. 39. agree. agree.2.0% 44.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 1 1 0 2 Educational professionals 32 24 5 2 7 Institutional policy 14 14 10 2 makers/managers All roles 47 39 6 2 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. The use of OER leads to pedagogical changes A clear majority of respondents expressed a combined positive view. 47. No reply . Disagree.6% overall. it is evident that institutional policy makers/managers in both sectors seize the largest share of combined positive ratings.35. 1.5% disagree. 37. 15. 6.2% Strongly Disagree. 10. 2. 4.6% 112. No reply .5% 11. at 68.8% Agree. 2. disagree. Strongly Strongly Strongly 54. 166. 0. Diagram 4.1.9% 32.a – The use of OER improves the quality of education Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 9 19 2 1 9 Educational professionals 79 123 9 1 40 Institutional policy 24 24 3 0 5 makers/managers All roles 112 166 14 2 54 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. followed by educational professionals and then learners.7% 14. 5. Agree.

Disagree. 23.36.2% Agree. 6. 15.3% agree.3% Disagree. 83. 1.36. 203. 13.8% Strongly disagree. 4.1% agree. 45.a – The use of OER leads to pedagogical changes Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 10 18 10 11 Educational professionals 53 121 36 1 41 Institutional policy 20 20 10 0 6 makers/managers All roles 83 159 47 1 58 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 59 . 0.8% Strongly disagree.9% The distribution of opinions by educational role reveals a fairly even pattern in higher education. 44.7% agree. Agree. 73.37.8% Disagree. 16.36. adult learners evidence a diverging pattern in their sector. 25.8% Diagram 4.9% 23. 15.a – The use of OER leads to pedagogical changes No reply . Strongly No reply . 13. Strongly 16. 63. 44. Diagram 4. 47.9% Agree.c – Adult learning No reply .7% 41. disagree. 108. 159.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Strongly 58.3% 5. Strongly 23.5% 16. 14. Diagram 4. 1.

38.4% Agree.7% Disagree. 158. except for adult learners. 45.5% Disagree.1%. 47.c – Adult learning No reply . Diagram 4.2% Agree.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 1 1 0 2 Educational professionals 17 28 12 2 11 Institutional policy 8 15 3 3 2 makers/managers All roles 25 44 16 5 15 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. disagree. Strongly 21. 74.3.0% agree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. the corresponding figure in adult learning reached 78. 15. 11. 2.3% 1. 18.a – The use of OER increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios No reply .7% Agree.37.3% agree. 208. 11. 16. Strongly Strongly No reply . 0. 63.1% agree. Diagram 4. 1. 67. 0. 58. Strongly 16. 50. The use of OER increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios 67.5% Strongly Strongly 19. 32.6% 30.5% Disagree. 10.8% of the respondents targeted by this sub-question gave a combined positive reply. 69. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 60 .1. 45. 3.9% Diagram 4. 10. disagree.38. 99.9% disagree.38.6% The distribution of opinions by educational role reveals a fairly even pattern in both sectors.

2% Agree.2% 11.a – The use of OER does not affect the teaching process at all Strongly agree.1%) consider that OER does affect the teaching process. a trend closely followed by each sector.39. 19. 52.0% Disagree. 23. 69. 4. Diagram 4. 104. The use of OER does not affect the teaching process at all The vast majority of respondents (69.39.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 1 1 0 2 Educational professionals 22 33 8 1 6 Institutional policy 10 16 2 0 3 makers/managers All roles 32 50 11 1 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1.4.40. 15.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 61 . Diagram 4.5% Strongly disagree. 209.a – The use of OER increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 8 16 5 1 10 Educational professionals 44 115 45 1 47 Institutional policy 15 27 8 0 6 makers/managers All roles 67 158 58 2 63 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. No reply .1. 46.

20. 16.2% Agree. with the exception of adult learners. 3.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 2 0 2 Educational professionals 6 15 25 17 7 Institutional policy 2 5 14 8 2 makers/managers All roles 8 20 41 25 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. Strongly 19. 48.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly agree. The use of OER shifts education/training provision from content to activity-based learning Combined agreement with the statement proposed reached 61. Diagram 4. 23. 41.6% 58. Diagram 4. 79.4% of all responses. 11. 8. 22. the prevailing trend is maintained. Disagree.40.7% 9. this positive result is higher in adult learning.1.0% disagree.3% Disagree.41.5% 7. 25.5. No reply . No reply .8% Strongly disagree.7% 168.41.a – The use of OER does not affect the teaching process at all Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 1 3 12 14 10 Educational professionals 8 21 125 57 41 Institutional policy 2 8 31 8 7 makers/managers All roles 11 32 168 79 58 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 62 . agree. 39. 10.2% Agree. 11.b – Higher education Diagram 4.0% When considering each educational role within their respective sectors.40. 32.

19. 2. 17.1% Strongly 3.0% Disagree.0% Agree. Strongly agree.1% Agree.42.b – Higher education Diagram 4. No reply . 7. 10.0% 11. 95. 72. 77. 18. 21.9% disagree. Agree.a – The use of OER shifts education/training provision from content to activity-based learning Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 8 17 4 1 10 Educational professionals 35 105 64 5 43 Institutional policy 10 30 9 1 6 makers/managers All roles 53 152 77 7 59 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 63 . 15. 43. 152.42.5% agree. 53. 70. the positive trend of institutional policy makers/managers in adult learning is quite striking.9% disagree. followed by their counterparts in higher educations.5% Strongly agree.4% In terms of the repartition of replies by educational role.5% Diagram 4. 15. 17. Strongly Strongly 59. 54. 2. 206. educational professionals of both sectors are more restrained in their positive assessments. In relative terms. Strongly 15.2% disagree. 22.2% Disagree. 18. 2. Diagram 4. Diagram 4.42. 10.a – The use of OER shifts education/training provision from content to activity-based learning No reply .7% 51.c – Adult learning No reply .43. 45.1% Disagree.

The use of OER shifts the role from teachers/tutors/trainers to facilitators The majority of respondents rated positively this statement.2% Disagree.5% disagree. 2. 11.1. followed closely by educational professionals.1% Agree. Diagram 4. 73.9% 7. disagree. 69. 2. 17. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 64 . 10.a – The use of OER shifts the role from teachers/tutors/trainers to facilitators No reply .43. 9. 3. Strongly No reply . Diagram 4.6. 61.9% Diagram 4. Agree.0% 31.4 overall. 33.4% Disagree.2% agree. 16. 2. 19.0% agree. 17. Strongly Strongly 59.7% 44.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 1 0 1 0 2 Educational professionals 12 32 16 3 7 Institutional policy 6 22 10 2 makers/managers All roles 19 54 18 3 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. Strongly 22.8% agree. 10.b – Higher education Diagram 4. adult learning provided the highest share of positive ratings in relative terms.44.8% Institutional policy makers/managers from both sectors lead the positive ratings. 199. 102. 47. Strongly 15. at 66.44.4% Disagree.44. 43.5% Strongly disagree.c – Adult learning No reply . 152. 69. 12.5% Agree. 43.

Diagram 4.45. 42. a clear majority of all respondents favour the combined positive assessments.a – The use of OER shifts the role of learners from passive receivers to active producers No reply .4% 2. 192. 83.a – The use of OER shifts the role from teachers/tutors/trainers to facilitators Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 13 11 6 1 9 Educational professionals 44 114 46 4 44 Institutional policy 12 27 9 2 6 makers/managers All roles 69 152 61 7 59 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4.8%. 72. 97. 9. Strongly Strongly 15.3% Agree.7. The use of OER shifts the role of learners from passive receivers to active producers Again.9% agree. Diagram 4.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 2 0 2 Educational professionals 25 28 8 3 6 Institutional policy 8 17 4 0 2 makers/managers All roles 33 47 12 3 10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1.0% Disagree. at 63. Adult learning shows the largest share of such assessments.46.1. 21. disagree.4% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 65 . 18.45.

13.8% The distribution of ratings by educational role follows a fairly similar pattern. 47. 60. 14.0% 29.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 2 0 2 Educational professionals 20 31 11 1 7 Institutional policy 9 16 3 0 3 makers/managers All roles 31 47 14 1 12 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. with the adult learning responses going up to 77. Diagram 4.47.4% Strongly Strongly 19. at 68% overall. disagree.8. Diagram 4. Strongly 12. 69. 66.46.5% 8. 1. agree.3% Disagree.c – Adult learning No reply . 41. Strongly No reply .47. Agree. 19. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 66 . 1.7% Agree. The use of OER demands for completely new models of education/training The combined positive responses registered very highly.0% disagree.3% Disagree.8% 145. 31.a – The use of OER shifts the role of learners from passive receivers to active producers Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 10 14 5 2 9 Educational professionals 45 104 56 3 44 Institutional policy 11 27 8 3 7 makers/managers All roles 66 145 69 8 60 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. 11.1.46. 44.b – Higher education Diagram 4.2%. with the exception of adult learners. 17. 2.2% agree.

4% Agree. Strongly 61. Strongly 10. 183. 2. 40. Strongly agree. 11. 125. 14.5% disagree.9% disagree.4% Diagram 4.9% agree.a – The use of OER demands for completely new models of education/training No reply .7% Disagree.5% 30. 3. 13.5% Agree. 27. 134.7% Institutional policy makers/managers are again at the lead of the combined positive assessments in both sectors. 50.5% 46.6% Disagree.49.a – The use of OER demands for completely new models of education/training Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 13 11 2 3 11 Educational professionals 59 98 46 6 43 Institutional policy 21 25 2 1 7 makers/managers All roles 93 134 50 10 61 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 67 .7% Strongly disagree. 49. 93.48. Agree. 15. 13. 26. 32.b – Higher education Diagram 4. followed by educational professionals. 17. 9. 10. 2. No reply .48. Strongly 2. Diagram 4.5% Disagree.c – Adult learning No reply .48. Diagram 4. 38. 61.9% agree. 71.5% Strongly 10.

Adopting open practices is challenging for higher education institutions/adult learning organisations. at 73.) The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices. paired with the consistency of the results obtained when queried on the impact of OER in learning and the changes its use entails in relation to traditional forms of education/training. 1. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 68 .6% of all replies. Adopting open practices leads to institutional innovation. Educational professionals: 6. Diagram 4. 1. Institutional policy makers/managers (and educational professionals): 2.) Using OER leads to institutional innovations.1. Institutional policy makers/managers (and educational professionals): 4. Institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals where queried the following: 4.4. Institutional policy makers/managers: 3. we should underline strongly the degree of understanding and awareness of respondents. a pattern followed by the two sectors surveyed.49. Using OER also leads to opening pedagogical scenarios The overwhelming majority of institutional policy makers/managers gave a positive feed-back. How would you rate the following statements? Institutional policy makers/managers: 1.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 2 0 2 Educational professionals 20 34 8 2 6 Institutional policy 10 15 3 1 2 makers/managers All roles 32 49 11 3 10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply In summary.2.2. (5. Using OER also leads to opening pedagogical scenarios. (7.

18.7% Disagree. Strongly 12. 11. 5.7% 43.51. Strongly 29.4% 6.4% agree.9% disagree. Disagree.5% 20. agree.2. 0. 21. overall and per sector (with the highest values in adult learning. 22. 35.c – Adult education No reply .2%). 5. Agree. 14. Strongly 25.5% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 69 .7% Strongly agree. 43.a – Using OER leads to institutional innovations Strongly No reply . No reply .a – Using OER also leads to opening pedagogical scenarios No reply . 5. 3. Agree. 0. Using OER leads to institutional innovations The majority of both targets – institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals – gave a positive and very positive rating to this assertion.50. 0.b – Higher education Diagram 4.0% Disagree. 1. 12. 19. 82.0% agree. Diagram 4. 12. 38.2% Disagree.0% Strongly disagree. 0. 0. Diagram 4.4% 2.5% Agree.0% Strongly disagree.7% Agree. at 71.50. Strongly disagree. 0.2. 27.50. 5. 92.0% 38. 178.2% 1.7% Diagram 4. 20. 52. 6.5% 48. 26.

23.9% 42.51. Adopting open practices is challenging for educational institutions A very expressive majority of the replies by institutional policy makers/managers agreed and strongly agreed (78% overall.52. disagree.a – Using OER leads to institutional innovations Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 41 110 40 2 59 Institutional policy 15 22 6 1 12 maker/Manager All roles 56 132 46 3 71 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 70 .2. 18. Disagree. 56. 14.2% 25. 46.7% Strongly Strongly disagree.51. 2. 20. 46. 5.1% agree.c – Adult education No reply . Diagram 4.9% Agree.3.0% Agree. Strongly No reply .b – Higher education Diagram 4.0% 3. 26. institutional policy makers/managers seize the largest share of positive and very positive replies. Disagree. 1. Strongly 71.52. Diagram 4.b – Using OER leads to institutional innovations Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 14 35 4 2 15 Institutional policy 12 11 2 0 6 maker/Manager All roles 26 46 6 2 21 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. 6.9% 132.8% agree. 21. with a similar pattern per sector).5% When analysing the breakdown of these opinions per educational role. 45. 2.

The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices 66. 22. 10.1% Diagram 4. 21.0% 37. Diagram 4.0% 0. Agree. 92.4. 1.53. 1. 0.4% Strongly Strongly Strongly Strongly disagree.7% Strongly Strongly disagree. 22. Diagram 4. agree.a – The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices No reply . 18.5% Strongly disagree. 41.0% 37. 21. agree. the higher quota belonging to adult education. 0. disagree. 12. 0.53. Strongly 22.b – Higher education Diagram 4.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 71 . 44.4% 6.8% of all respondents agreed with the assertion. 19. at 73.2%.0% Agree. 39.a – Adopting open practices is challenging for institutions No reply . 91. No reply . 2.2. 12. 181. 1. 34.7% Disagree.7% 39. 3.3% 1. 0.3% Agree. 2.5% 38. Disagree.53.8% Agree. 20. 12.2% 1.2% agree.0% Disagree. 0.c – Adult education No reply . 4.9% Disagree. agree. 38.54. 33.

21. 12. a pattern closely followed by the two sectors surveyed. 47. with 68. 37.7% agree. 21. disagree. 2.a – The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices Higher education – Breakdown per educational role All roles 66 133 37 2 70 Educational professional 51 109 32 2 58 Institutional policy 15 24 5 0 12 maker/Manager 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. 48.0% Agree.5% 43.7% Strongly disagree. The adoption of open practices leads to institutional innovation Educational professionals responded positively.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role All roles 26 48 4 2 21 Educational professional 14 35 4 2 15 Institutional policy 12 13 0 6 maker/Manager 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 1. Disagree. 133.5.c – Adult education No reply . 0.54.54. 4. 2. Diagram 4. Strongly No reply .55.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 20.55.4% Strongly 25. Strongly 70. Agree.6% Disagree. Diagram 4.2% A breakdown per educational role reveals that institutional policy makers/managers show the highest rate of positive feed-back.0% 4.8% agree. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 72 .2. 26. 66. 22.0% 2.3% agreements and strong agreements.

8% of important and very important ratings).0% Strongly disagree. Agree.1. agree.6% Disagree.7% 121. The negative assessments are fairly balanced between the two sectors. 2. No reply .2% 16. 8.4% Agree. Agree.56. 51. 15. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 73 .6% Strongly disagree. 48. with slightly higher results from the adult learning sector.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 23. 28.a – Adopting open practices leads to institutional innovation No reply . 71. 22.56. 22. 4. Strongly 0.6% 20.1% Disagree. 73. OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios More than half of all respondents rate this sub-question positively (52. 5. 22. 46.0% disagree. 28. 27. OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios 11. 1.56.9% agree. Diagram 4. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER.7% agree.3. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals. 2.9% Disagree.3. 9. Strongly 22. 0. Strongly 57. 0. 20. Three sub-questions regarding the barriers to OER use can be analysed as innovation issues: All educational roles: Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 9.0% 40.0% 1.c – Adult education Strongly No reply .3% Diagram 4. 2. 149.

Diagram 4.57.a – OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios
Very
unimportant;

No reply ; 15; 3.2%

129; 27.4% Unimportant;
78; 16.6%

Very
important; 68; Important;

14.5% 180; 38.3%

Diagram 4.57.b – Higher education Diagram 4.57.c – Adult learning
Very Very
unimpor- unimport-
No reply ; tant; 11; ant; 4;
No reply ;
101; 3.1% 3.6%
Unimpor- 28; 25.2%
28.1% Unimpor-
tant; 60; tant; 18;
16.7% 16.2%

Very
Important; Very
important;
140; important;
47; 13.1% Important;
39.0% 21; 18.9%
40; 36.0%

When comparing the results of institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals,
we see that the former provided the higher positive assessments (64.5% in higher education and
61.3% in adult learning, against the latter, at 50% in higher education and 54.3% in adult learning).
Not surprisingly, educational policy makers and learners are the educational roles that provided
higher results of no replies to this sub-question.
Diagram 4.58.a – OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios
Higher education – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 2 4 14 6 14

Educational professional 9 50 93 33 67

Institutional policy
0 5 30 6 15
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5

All roles 11 60 140 47 101

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
74

Diagram 4.58.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 0 1 0 3

Educational professional 2 14 22 16 16

Institutional policy
2 4 14 5 6
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 3 0 3

All roles 4 18 40 21 28

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

1.3.2. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals
More than half of all respondents felt that lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among
educational professionals was an important and very important barrier to OER use, and over one
quarter did not register a reply. The pattern is similar in each sector surveyed.
Diagram 4.59.a – Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals
Very
unimportant;
11; 2,3% Unimportant;
No reply ;
55; 11,7%
130; 27,7%

Important;
Very
166; 35,3%
important;
108; 23,0%

Diagram 4.59.b – Higher education Diagram 4.59.c – Adult learning
Very Very
unimpor- unimpor-
tant; 6; No reply ; tant; 5;
No reply ; Unimpor-
1.7% 27; 24.3% 4.5% Unimpor-
103; tant; 42;
28.7% tant; 13;
11.7%
11.7%

Important;
Very 125; Very Important;
important; 34.8% important; 41; 36.9%
83; 23.1% 25; 22.5%

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
75

The breakdown analysis per educational role does not show remarkable deviations from the pattern
described above.

Diagram 4.60.a – Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals
Higher education – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 0 2 12 11 15

Educational professional 6 30 96 55 66

Institutional policy
1 8 15 15 17
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 2 2 2 5

All roles 6 42 125 83 103

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

Diagram 4.60.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 0 1 0 3

Educational professional 4 8 23 20 15

Institutional policy
1 5 15 4 6
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3

All roles 5 13 41 25 27

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

1.3.3. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER

The data on sub-question 15, dealing with the lack of interest in the creation or use of OER was
presented earlier in this report in the analysis of OER supply (chapter IV.I, section C, 1.7). As it was
stated, a clear majority of respondents (58.5%) feels that this barrier is very important and
important. Likewise, the breakdown into sectors provides a similar pattern.

1.4. Two of the questions addressed to learners shed some insights on cultures of innovation:
Learners: Q4.1 How would you rate the following statements?
3. As a learner, I am encouraged to develop learning materials myself and share those with others on
the Internet.

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
76

1% Strongly Disagree. There we argued that learners from the two sectors spread their opinions across the four attributes. 0.0% 2. Diagram 4. 3.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 77 . Disagree. 7. similar prevalence on agreement and disagreement. in learning strategies and at institutional level.5% No reply . Notwithstanding this good will there are still very serious barriers to overcome to enable a scenario of generalised uptake of OER and related practices. 3. 15.4.0% By way of conclusion.0% 37. It should be stressed also that there is a recognition that such innovation poses challenges to organisations. No reply .61. 32. Learners need a different form of learning environment 40. No reply .1. disagree. when discussing the macro level condition of OER supply. The pattern varies between sectors. Agree.0% agree. Disagree.9% of the overall replies concur with this statement. with a higher.5% 0. there is a clear positive opinion in all education roles and across the two sectors surveyed that the use of OER and the implementation of OEP lead to innovations in pedagogical terms. but that is not significant given the low number of respondents from adult education in this educational role. 12. 1. To be noted the significant percentage of no replies (34. 4. Strongly agree.a – Need for a different form of learning environment Strongly agree.c – Adult learning Strongly Agree. 15.0% 13. 6. 2. 50. and institutional leaders seem to be quite aware of this. 8. 0. 15. 10. disagree. 0.0% 5. In order to use OER I would need a different form of learning environment in my higher education institution/adult learning organisation.5% Strongly Strongly disagree.1% Agree. 0. 50.9% 9. 34. 4.4. 7.1% Diagram 4. 1.61. Learners are encouraged to develop and share learning materials This sub-question was dealt with previously.2.1% overall).5% 0.8% 34. 15.61.

b – Higher education Diagram 4.0% 19. 18. 27.6% dep.7%. 5.2) and observed that the replies indicate an overall positive rating.c – Adult learning No reply .7% 13.3./units.8% ed ed organisa.7% Implemented organisation- w ide. The views of educational policy makers were sought regarding the value of institutional support to OER. 26. 24. Not ex isting.I. No reply .7% 23. 15.62. the existence of individual efforts in the institutions received the highest score.62. 14. 2. 2.7% dep. 12.9% Implement Indiv idual Indiv idual Implement efforts ed in efforts ed in ex ist. 52./units. In your higher education institution. A similar pattern was registered at sector level.4% Diagram 4. 12.7% Implemented in some Indiv idual departments/ efforts ex ist.1. 59. Specific quality assurance processes for OER. B. We analysed this sub-question earlier (chapter IV. some ex ist.8% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 78 .62.1. units. Diagram 4. 22. 3. organisa- tion-w ide. 30.0% 16. as was the fairly high level of no replies recorded.2. 2. tion-w ide. some 29. A partnership with other organisations. at 12. section A. 112. Respondents were queried on the existence of a number of supporting factors to using OER in their educational institutions: Institutional policy makers/managers.2. Institutional Policies 2.8% ex isting. An explicit institutional policy.a – An explicit institutional policy No reply . how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of OER? 1. 2.4%.7% 93. 39. Not Not 70. The lowest figure was recorded for institutional policies implemented through the whole organisation. Existence of an explicit institutional policy Overall. 22. Implement 74. Specific pedagogical scenarios and models for open educational practices. 12. at 27. 22. at 22.7%. 22. followed closely by the inexistence of any explicit institutional policy. Implement ex isting. 43. educational professionals: Q4.4% 14. 82. 93.

Diagram 4.1).I.2. section B).2.3. where we noted response patterns where the prevalence of partnerships augments from the lowest values registered for organisation-wide implementation to the highest values recorded for the existence of individual efforts (with the exception of adult learning. where the implementation category in some departments/units supersedes the individual efforts).a – An explicit institutional policy Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 62 66 39 27 58 Institutional policy 12 16 4 12 12 maker/Manager All roles 74 82 43 39 70 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply Diagram 4.63.2. Specific quality assurance processes for OER This sub-question was analysed earlier from the perspective of OER supply (chapter IV. 2. 2. there is a prevalent notion that there are no specific quality assurance processes in place for OER. 2. who register higher figures for policies implemented organisation-wide than their counterparts. followed by the item indicating individual efforts.I. The analysis by educational sector shows a similar trend in the responses of institutional policy makers/managers. a clear indication as to the need for vigorous action to be taken by institutional decision makers. A partnership with other organisations This sub-question was analysed earlier from the perspective of networks of innovation (chapter IV.63.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 14 21 11 7 17 Institutional policy 5 9 5 6 6 maker/Manager All roles 19 30 16 13 23 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply The clear picture that emerges here is that organisation-wide explicit policies in support of the use of OER are the least prevalent. section C. The Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 79 . For higher education and adult learning.

The status of pedagogical scenarios and models that are specific to open educational practices in organisations follows an identical trend to other aspects of institutional policies. 96./units.2% Diagram 4. In this case.3% w ide.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 28. Specific pedagogical scenarios and models for open educational practices.0% ex ist. Diagram 4.c – Adult learning Not Implement No reply . 32. 18.8% 31. ed ex isting. at 33. 2. 20.2% Implement Implement ed in ed in Indiv idual some Indiv idual some efforts dep. we note that organisation-wide implementation gathers the least opinions overall.8% organisa- tion-w ide. 9.8%.8% Implemented in some Indiv idual departments efforts ex ist. ex ist.3%. 19.8% The breakdown by educational role shows that institutional policy makers register higher than their counterparts regarding the existence of organisation-wide implementations in the two sectors surveyed and lower regarding the inexistence of any specific pedagogical scenarios and models for OEP.a – Specific pedagogical scenarios and models for open educational practices No reply . 104. 20. followed by inexistence. 6. 43. ed 67. least represented item regards the implementation of OER quality assurance processes across the organisation. 33.4% ex isting.8% 75. 21. 23. 14. tion-w ide.4.2./units.64. efforts dep. 24.5% Implemented Not ex isting.3%.64. organisation- 87. at 21. 6. Not Implement 21. the existence of individual efforts takes the lead overall.3% 15.64. 19. 21. 8. Again.7% 33.8% organisa. 136. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 80 . 62. /units. at 6.9% 19. No reply .

Using OER leads to institutional innovations This sub-question was analysed earlier from the perspective of cultures of innovation (chapter IV. at 71. 5. where we saw that the majority of both targets – institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals – gave a positive and very positive rating to this assertion.II.2.) Using OER leads to institutional innovations.3. Specific skill support at institutional level is needed to stimulate OER use The combination of positive responses from the institutional policy makers/managers to this sub- question reaches 73.2. section A1.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 17 20 13 5 15 Institutional policy 3 12 6 4 6 maker/Manager All roles 20 32 19 9 21 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply 2. In order to stimulate the use of OER. 2.65. How would you rate the following statements? (and educational professionals): 2. (5.4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 81 . specific skill support at institutional level is needed.3. with a similar pattern in each sector. 2. 1.65. Diagram 4.a – Specific pedagogical scenarios and models for open educational practices Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 59 84 33 13 63 Institutional policy 8 20 10 6 12 maker/Manager All roles 67 104 43 19 75 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Not ex isting Indiv idual efforts ex ist Implemented in some departments/units Implemented organisation-w ide No reply Diagram 4. overall and per sector (with the highest values in adult learning.2). OER leading to institutional innovations and the need for skill support were targeted in two sub- questions: Institutional policy makers/managers: Q4.2%).3.6% overall.1.

20.7% Disagree. agree.66. No reply . Agree.7%) is quite far from the sum for the negative ratings (46. 30.3% 35. 3. 0.0% 35.1. 0. 20.66. a pattern closely matched by the higher education sector. 1.1% Disagree.66. 5. agree. How would you rate the following statements? 2.4% Agree. Diagram 4. which shows that the majority of educational professionals are of the opinion that in order to stimulate the use of OER.0% 39. 3. Strongly Strongly Strongly 0. 2.7% The analysis of this sub-question should be complemented with that of a related sub-question dealt with elsewhere in this report (chapter IV. 3.0% agree.4. 23.I section A.5% Diagram 4.4.a – Specific skill support at institutional level is needed to stimulate OER use No reply . specific skill support is needed.6% Agree. 13. 34.6%). 4. 34. 4. 0.c – Adult learning No reply . the sum of the overall responses to the two positive types of rating (31. 32. 2. Teaching strategies promoting the use of OER are explicitly supported in my higher education institution/adult learning organisation.2% Disagree. 45. 0. 10. disagree. 3).b – Higher education Diagram 4. Explicit support in the institution for teaching strategies promoting the use of OER In this respect.4.2% 0. 14. Open educational practices from an institutional policy perspective were the focus of two sub- questions: Educational professionals: Q4.4% Strongly disagree. Adoption of open educational practices is specifically supported in my higher education institution/adult learning organisation. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 82 . 19. 21.8% Strongly Strongly disagree.2% 6. 19.

17.2% Agree. 35. disagree. 82. 21. No reply .5% Disagree. Diagram 4. 20. 28. 62. 113.9% Strongly disagree.a – Specific support for the adoption of open educational practices Strongly No reply .1% Diagram 4.a – Explicit support for teaching strategies promoting the use of OER Strongly No reply .9% 20.67. 11.4% 8.67. 35. 20. 11. 37. Diagram 4.7% 6. 14. 93.67. Disagree.6% disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. agree. 12. 25.3% Agree. agree. 23.5% Strongly disagree. 6.4. 12. 24. 36.2. 115.6% 2. Existence of specific support in the institution for the adoption of open educational practices The negative ratings account for almost half of the overall responses (48.6% Agree. 22. 41.6% 15. 70. a trend closely followed by the higher education sector.68. 55.7% Disagree. 72.4% 5.6% Agree.4%). 21. agree. 21. agree.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply .7% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 83 .8% 5. Strongly Strongly 28. 28.1% 9. 77.9% Disagree.

97. 9.1% Strongly disagree.4% No reply . Insufficient reward system for educational professionals The majority of respondents concur unequivocally with this statement. Disagree. Insufficient support from the management level of higher education institutions/adult learning organisations.3% Strongly disagree.8% Very important. with overall positive responses reaching 61.6% Disagree. 22. 127. 60.69. 164. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER. 11. 6.5. 2. 24. 14.9% 8.b – Higher education Diagram 4.4 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 10.0% Important. No reply . 56.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply . agree. 25. agree. Diagram 4.a – Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development Very unimportant. Diagram 4. 23. Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development. 27.7%.5% 18. 28. 22.9% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 84 .6% Agree.7% 2. 9. 38. Unimportant.68.8% Agree.5. The survey queried all respondents on their views regarding institutional polices that may constitute a barrier to the use of OER: All respondents: Q4.68. 26.9% 44. 11. 126. 34. 12. 17.1. 13.2% 4.4% 16. 1. 18.

6% tant. 35.1% 28.9% important. in particular as regards the learners’ views. 37. 24. 5.4% 9.7% 8.5% The breakdown per educational role shows dissimilarity in the adult learning sector.4% No reply . unimpor- tant. No reply .a – Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 1 7 7 10 15 Educational professional 3 18 66 99 66 Institutional policy 1 8 15 17 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 5 All roles 5 35 89 129 101 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 85 . Very Important. 4.69. 89. Unimpor- 1. Important.1% Very important.3% 35. 26.70. 129. 101. 9.8% 35. 31. Diagram 4. tant. tant. 33.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. Unimpor.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 3. 23.69. Diagram 4.

Insufficient support from the management level Overall. 8.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Very 172. respondents place a great deal of importance to the need for more support from the management level. No reply . Unimpor. Diagram 4.2% 8.1% Important. with positive responses totalling 61. 88.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 7. 27. 37.5% 30.71. 131.a – Insufficient support from the management level Very unimportant.4% 8. 1. 2. 36. No reply .0% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 86 .1% tant. 9. 27.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 2 6 22 25 15 Institutional policy 2 3 12 8 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 1 2 All roles 4 9 37 35 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 2. No reply . 118. 24. tant.71.8% important.70.2.1% Important.7%. Important.3% Unimportant. 29. 3.6% Unimpor- 105. It should be noted that this sub-question received a high percentage of no replies (27. 11. 23.5.1% Diagram 4.9% tant.71. 29. Very 36. 25.6% important.9% 38. 130. Diagram 4.2% Very 42. important. 4. unimpor- tant.9% overall). 26.

Diagram 4.1% in adult learning. the latter at 50% in higher education and 64.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 3 4 26 22 15 Institutional policy 1 4 13 7 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 2 1 2 All roles 4 9 42 30 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 2. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 87 .72.3.5.72.5% in higher education and 67. totalling 63.4%. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER The majority of the respondents rated this barrier as an important or very important one. with similar values by sector. Both educational professionals and institutional policy makers/managers offer positive assessments to this sub-question: the former at 65.a – Insufficient support from the management level Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 4 12 9 15 6 14 101 64 67 Institutional policy 1 9 14 14 18 maker/Manager 0 2 3 1 5 All roles 7 29 130 88 105 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.5% in adult learning.

2.6% No reply . tant.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor.1% 7. No reply .2% 3. 24. Unimportant.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 27.a – Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 3 12 10 15 Educational professional 6 10 102 67 67 Institutional policy 2 8 19 11 16 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5 All roles 8 22 136 90 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 88 . Unimpor. 130.6% The distribution of responses per educational role is more consistent with the general trend within the educational roles of the higher education sector. 174. Unimpor- 2. 6. 22.3% tant. 30. 4. tant. 26.9% important. 28. 8.0% Very important. Important. 34.74. 12.2% Important.73. Very Very 38. 25.1% 34.73. Diagram 4. 8.7% 6.6% 103.a – Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER Very unimportant. 90.4% Diagram 4. No reply . 136.4% Important. important. 27.2% 37. unimpor- tant. 37.7% 30.73. Diagram 4. 124.

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 89 .7). it becomes obvious that they are still quite far from impacting on the educational institutions as a whole. Respondents were queried on a series of potential barriers to the use of OER. than that for adult learning. by the modest levels of types of support to factors that induce or enable open educational practices to be firmly established in educational institutions.6% rate it as very important or important. Lack of Internet connectivity 42. as well as for the implementation of OEP.5% of all respondents feel this barrier is very unimportant or unimportant while 30. This factor may be viewed from a policy perspective.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 2 3 26 24 15 Institutional policy 2 5 9 8 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 1 2 All roles 4 8 38 34 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply When considering the various strands of institutional policies around OER. Lack of Internet connectivity.1%.6 and 2. at 34. Diagram 4. three of which are directly connected to the availability of infrastructures: All educational roles: Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 3. section A. at 45. This is further compounded.2%.1. to the same extent. points 2.1. 3. 3.2.2. on the one hand. Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes. The perception by respondents that using OER can lead to institutional innovations does not seem to translate. which points to the need for considerable efforts to be made in this regard. into the existence of organisation-wide implementations. 4. C. this analysis was made earlier in this report (chapter IV. Lack of access to computers. and on the other hand by the level of importance attached by respondents to institutional policy barriers to the use of OER.74. The breakdown per sector leads to a larger figure of unimportance for higher education. Infrastructures for Creation and Use of OER Infrastructures are a micro level category of analysis corresponding to an enabling factor for the creation and use of OER. 5. 3.

15. 88. No reply .8% of higher education professionals think Internet connectivity is very unimportant and unimportant for OER use (against 41. 27. higher education professionals show an uneven distribution of responses across the options provided.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply . 24. 17.3% tant.6% Unimpor- 54. 17. 71. unimpor. 64.75. 73. while 46. unimportant.76. 15.6% 27.8% 27.3% As regards the breakdown per educational role within each sector.75. 24. adult learning professionals. Very 21. 98. Diagram 4. 12. 15.1% Diagram 4. only 31. Diagram 4.6% Unimpor- Very tant. tant.a – Lack of Internet connectivity Very No reply . important.5% Unimportant.6% who think the opposite). Also.7% who think it is important or very important).7% Important. Important.3% 12. 19. 126.4% of adult learning professionals share that view (against 45. 14.b – Higher education Diagram 4.8% 112.a – Lack of Internet connectivity Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 6 6 7 8 13 Educational professional 78 40 29 38 67 Institutional policy 13 15 6 7 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 1 3 2 1 4 All roles 98 64 44 54 99 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 90 . unimpor- 99. present a very even distribution of opinion. 23. 27.1% Important. 26.8% Very important.0% important. 18.3% 44. 24. to the contrary.75. tant.

Diagram 4.9% Diagram 4. Diagram 4. 3. Important.5% Very important.4% No reply . 24. 36. tant. 25.2. 115. 14. 131.a – Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Very unimportant. 27. 21. 12. 27. Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Overall. Unimpor. 7. 7.b – Higher education Diagram 4.4% 91. 26. 30.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 18.3% Unimpor- 27. 40.76.5% important.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 8 14 16 16 16 Institutional policy 6 9 8 2 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 0 2 All roles 14 24 27 19 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The above responses show that there is still a relevant barrier posed by the insufficient coverage of Internet access for OER users. No reply .2% Very important. 61. 6. 26. the majority of respondents considers this barrier very important or important. 24.77. 37. 45.3% tant.9% 126.9% tant.0% 16. Very Important. 94.0% Important.2.77. 13. but the adult learning respondents more so than their counterparts.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 91 . unimpor- No reply . 99. tant.8% Unimportant.77.6% 8.

against 24.3% who rate negatively.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 5 12 24 13 16 Institutional policy 2 8 12 3 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 0 2 All roles 7 21 40 16 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply These results indicate that actions are needed to make available appropriate software.78. Given the sector breakdown per educational role. Lack of access to computers Almost half of all respondents (45.3. in the breakdown by sector while higher education respondents strongly favour the negative options. adult learning respondents provide more balanced views as seen from the values given for positive and negative options. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 92 .9% of whom rate positively.5%) felt this was very unimportant or unimportant. A dissimilar pattern can be observed in the adult learning professional. 3. with only 28% considering it to be important or very important. one observes that higher education professionals rate in a fairly similar way the positive assessments (at 37. 52.9%) and the negative ones (at 35. Diagram 4.2%).a – Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 5 5 11 6 13 Educational professional 18 71 65 31 67 Institutional policy 7 14 13 7 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 4 2 1 4 All roles 30 94 91 45 99 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.2. However.78. in particular when considering the repurposing of existing OER to better suit the users’ educational needs.

The opposite is observed in the replies from the adult learning professionals. 22.b – Higher education Diagram 4.3% Diagram 4. important.5% Very Unimpor. 19. 14. Diagram 4. 25.5% Important.0% 22.8% for the negative ones. unimpor- No reply . 16.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply .3% for the positive attributes against 34. 14. 119.4% unimportant.2% 15. important. with 44. 103. 98. tant. 27.3% for the negative ones.a – Lack of access to computers Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 7 5 7 8 13 Educational professional 79 49 24 34 66 Institutional policy 15 13 4 9 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 2 3 1 1 4 All roles 103 70 36 52 98 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 93 .5% Important. unimpor- 26. 36. 25.79.4% tant.7% Unimpor- tant. 95.7% Important.79. against 50. the replies from higher education professionals for the positive attributes total 23. Very 22. 23. 20. 70.79. 19.8% When analysing the breakdown per educational role in the two sectors.4% 28. 10. 58.80. important. Diagram 4. Very 124.3% tant.8% 52. 26. 12.a – Lack of access to computers No reply .0%.3% Very Unimportant. 74. 19.

where we saw a pattern emerging namely that the sum of replies on non existence of technological infrastructures and the existence of individual efforts outweighs the two replies geared towards institutionalised practices. such infrastructures stem predominantly from the initiative of individuals or units within organisations. point 2. they are sufficiently developed? .I. What is your view on open educational practices in higher education institutions/adult learning organisations today? Do you think that… . which can be explained by their pervasiveness and wide availability..2). access to computers). On the whole. where they exist.. Attitudes towards the Use of OER The survey was addressing different realities of using OER. The responses to this sub- question were already analysed from an OER supply perspective (chapter IV.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 8 16 14 17 15 Institutional policy 8 7 5 5 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 2 0 2 All roles 16 25 22 22 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The survey sought the opinion of the respondents regarding several factors in support of the use of OER. educational professional: Q4. section A. appropriate institutional policies in this regard are both timely and required. Perceptions and Opinions towards OER A few attributes can be used to characterise the representations of respondents regarding OER. and we concluded that data analysis would suggest that there is room for active policies encouraging the implementation of technological infrastructures for OER where they lack.80.. Educational policy maker. where data suggest there is much room for improvement. 2. among which the existence of specific technological infrastructures. Diagram 4. A. In fact. institutional policy maker/manager. This is counterbalanced by a lower degree of perceived relevance regarding technological infrastructures that are specific to supporting OER. the opinions of respondents on infrastructure-related questions point to a lower level of perceived importance as regards generic-purpose infrastructures (Internet connectivity. as presented in the following sub-sections. This points to the strategic aim of getting the entire educational organisation behind OER and OEP and backing that support through earmarked resources. they are moderately developed? Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 94 .1. As we already remarked..

8.6% not sufficiently dev eloped .they are ly dev el.1% 50.they are all...1%).2% The breakdown of responses per educational role shows the same trend described above and also that institutional policy makers/managers in higher education and educational professionals in adult learning score the highest (both at 57.81.they are . 87. 8...8% 8. 73.they are 65...9%) consider that open educational practices are currently undeveloped in educational institutions.they are moderate. and only a small minority is satisfied with the state of development of OEP (3..they are . 13. 58. Both sectors follow this trend closely.. dev eloped..a – Views on state of development of OEP in education/training institutions No reply .they are No reply .they are .5% sufficiently dev eloped.3% 15.. they are not developed at all? Overall.. 217. Diagram 4.. . 14. 3.9% Diagram 4.. 57.. 18.. . 17.0% 50.5% dev eloped..they are . 9. 20. . oped..1% .. sufficiently at all. underde..4% not 22. 27.7% . v eloped.. underde- moderately oped. 3.2% 160.they are moderately underdev el- dev eloped. . . 20.c – Adult learning No reply ..81...b – Higher education Diagram 4. roughly half of the respondents (50..81.they are not 20. v eloped..1%) in considering that OEP are underdeveloped in educational institutions. 53.. they are underdeveloped? .4% dev eloped at . .they are dev eloped dev eloped at all. 9. 36.. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 95 ..4% 4. 2.

3 Please tell us what in your experience is the value of OER for education/training (formal. by rating the following statements: 1..b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 6 40 7 2 15 Institutional policy 3 14 6 2 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 2 0 1 All roles 9 57 15 4 22 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ... B.1. this suggests the need for further efforts to be made within educational institutions in promoting open educational practices and adopting a supporting internal framework and appropriate measures to favour both the emergence...they are not dev eloped at all .e. OER raise efficiency because materials can be re-used The vast majority of respondents concur with one important characteristics of OER.a – Views on state of development of OEP in education/training institutions Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Educational professional 24 124 47 6 51 Institutional policy 2 32 9 2 11 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 1 4 2 1 3 All roles 27 160 58 9 65 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% .82.. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 96 ... Diagram 4. its ability to be re-used...they are sufficiently dev eloped No reply The unequivocal nature of the opinions expressed seems to confirm that for respondents the use of OER does not equal the prevalence of open educational practices in institutions. i. informal)... institutional policy makers /managers..82.8%). Perceived Usefulness of OER Educational policy makers..they are not dev eloped at all .. OER raise efficiency because materials can be re-used.they are moderately dev eloped .they are underdev eloped .. and acknowledge the consequent link with efficiency (81. 1. the sustainability and the recognition of OEP.. non formal. learners: Q3.they are underdev eloped .they are sufficiently dev eloped No reply Diagram 4.they are moderately dev eloped .

83.83. 1.9% The positive pattern is particularly consistent across educational roles in the higher education sector. 2. 19. 24. Diagram 4. 58. 1.0% Agree. 39.9% Disagree. Strongly 16. 24.4% agree.a – OER raise efficiency because materials can be re-used No reply . 18. 17. 2. 16. 12. 1. agree. 0. 43. 42.a – OER raise efficiency because materials can be re-used Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 8 22 01 9 Institutional policy 12 35 0 9 makers/managers Educational policy makers 4 6 0 1 All roles 24 63 01 19 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 97 . 0. 53.9% 0.8% 5. Diagram 4.4% disagree.0% Agree.4% 22. 63.7% Agree. disagree. No reply .2% Strongly 1. 2.4% Disagree. agree.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply . Strongly 1.2% Strongly disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 0.84.4% 28. 79. Disagree.83.4% Diagram 4.

83.2% Agree. Strongly Strongly 15.5% agree. 14. learners: Q3. The quality of OER can be a problem. by rating the following statements: 2.3 Please tell us what in your experience is the value of OER for education/training (formal.4% Disagree. 21. respondents from the adult learning sector feel even stronger about this issue. Based on their experiences.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 98 . at 78% of their responses. 56. informal).a – The quality of OER can be a problem. 23. disagree. Diagram 4.8% 1. 12. non formal.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 1 0 2 Institutional policy 14 13 10 3 makers/managers Educational policy makers 3 2 0 1 0 All roles 18 15 1 1 5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply C. Perceived Quality of OER Respondents were asked about their opinion on the value and quality of OER. No reply .84. the majority of respondents (68. institutional policy makers /managers. Educational policy makers. Diagram 4.9% overall) agree that the quality of OER can be a problem. 2.85. 19.

15.0% 7. 3. 17.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 2 0 2 Institutional policy 3 22 3 0 3 makers/managers Educational policy makers 0 5 1 0 All roles 3 29 4 0 5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply The very clear opinions shown in this sub-question point to the need for actions to promote the quality of OER. 15.8% agree.9% Disagree.2% agree. 4. 16. 12. Strongly Strongly Strongly 18.5% 70.7% The comparison of the opinions expressed by educational role shows that the educational policy makers in both sectors are the ones who evidence a higher agreement with the statement. 50. Diagram 4.85. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 99 .85.9% Agree.86.8% Disagree. Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 5 20 3 2 10 Institutional policy 10 25 13 0 8 makers/managers Educational policy makers 1 9 1 0 All roles 16 54 17 2 18 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4. disagree. 54. which should lead to a boost in usage and support also open educational practices.0% 2. Agree.c – Adult learning No reply . Diagram 4.a – The quality of OER can be a problem. 1.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Strongly No reply . disagree.86. 5.3% 0. 0. 16. 9. 29.

0% Unimportant. 12. 3. All respondents: Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: 1. 9. Learners lack the time to create or use OER. No reply . 23.6% of whom felt this was a “very important” barrier. with emphasis on respondents from the higher education. Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes. 5.2% of “important” and “very important” replies). Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER. 7.87. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 19. OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. Barriers to Use OER A list of 19 potential barriers to use were proposed to all respondents as the last question in chapter IV of the survey. 16. Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development. Lack of access to computers. 35. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER.a – No trust in others’ resources Very unimportant. 17. 11.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 100 . D. 27. 15. Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals.4% Very important. 4. Trust in the OER available from others is a barrier perceived by almost half of all respondents (44. but we review them all here to provide a complete picture of respondents views on these barriers. 1. Lack of Internet connectivity. Lack of quality of the OER. 9. 10. 5. 14. 18. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER. Lack of time to find suitable materials. Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. 110. Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. 25. Lack of interest in creating or using OER. 43. 10. Diagram 4. Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 2. 165.1% Important.3% 127. 6. 8. 13. Some of the sub-questions were already dealt with under previous categories of our analysis. Insufficient support from the management level of higher education institutions.

38.6% 27.5% 41.88. 5.87.4% important.9% In the breakdown per educational role. Important. 36. tant. Diagram 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 5. No reply .a – No trust in others’ resources Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 4 6 11 6 13 Educational professional 13 56 91 24 68 Institutional policy 3 12 18 8 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 4 0 4 All roles 20 77 124 38 100 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 101 . 4.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. educational policy makers from both sectors and learners in adult learning were the only ones who did not to rate this barrier as “very important”.5% 27. 10. Very tant. tant.7% Very 5.9% Unimpor- Unimpor- tant. 34. 100.5% important. 21.6% Important.3% 4. 77. 124. 29. Diagram 4.87. 20. unimpor- No reply . 33. 24.

Unimpor.89.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Lack of time to find suitable materials Devoting time to search for suitable materials is regarded as a relevant barrier by 56. 47.88. 52.5% 1.8% Diagram 4. 48. Diagram 4. No reply . 97. tant. 2.7% 53. 23. 9. 27.6% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 102 . No reply . Very Important.2% 69. 11. tant. 13. 43. 123. 13. 13.a – Lack of time to find suitable materials Very unimportant.89.4% important. 153. 2.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 4 23 24 3 16 Institutional policy 1 7 15 2 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 2 0 2 All roles 5 33 41 5 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply These results might direct the attention of policy makers and managers towards addressing issues of trust in OER through actions in the fields of quality and promotion. 17. 61.5% 14.4% Very important.0% Important. 2. 11.7% 42.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor.3% Unimportant. Diagram 4. 206.8% 15. tant.0% 26. 2.8% of all respondents. Important. 14. unimpor- Unimpor- tant.89.3% No reply . 26.7% Very important.

5% of all respondents feel this barrier is very unimportant or unimportant while 30. This barrier is felt in a fairly consistent way across educational roles in higher education. than that for adult learning. The breakdown per sector leads to a larger figure of unimportance for higher education. 3. with some divergence in pattern as regards the responses by educational policy makers and learners in the adult learning sector.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 0 13 34 8 15 Institutional policy 2 4 14 5 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 4 0 2 All roles 2 17 53 13 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply These results seem to indicate that respondents could benefit from the availability of information tools on OER that might curtail the time spent on locating the OER they need.90.2%. Lack of Internet connectivity 42. at 34.6% rate it as very important or important. Diagram 4. at 45.1%.90. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 103 .a – Lack of time to find suitable materials Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 2 6 14 5 13 Educational professional 6 36 110 35 65 Institutional policy 1 8 25 7 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 4 1 4 All roles 9 52 153 48 97 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.

tant.b – Higher education Diagram 4. tant. to the contrary.6% Unimpor- Very tant. adult learning professionals. Diagram 4. higher education professionals show an uneven distribution of responses across the options provided.91.6% 27.3% As regards the breakdown per educational role within each sector. 24.0% important.8% Very important.4% of adult learning professionals share that view (against 45.3% tant. 23.8% of higher education professionals think Internet connectivity is very unimportant and unimportant for OER use (against 41.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply .8% 112.6% Unimpor- 54. 15. while 46. important. Important.8% 27. 126. 17.6% who think the opposite).7% who think it is important or very important). Also. 17. 27.91. 14. 88. 27. present a very even distribution of opinion.5% Unimportant.1% Important. 98. No reply .92. 18. 15. 12.3% 44. 71.91. 73. unimportant.3% 12. 24.7% Important. only 31. Diagram 4. 26. unimpor. 19.1% Diagram 4.a – Lack of Internet connectivity Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 6 6 7 8 13 Educational professional 78 40 29 38 67 Institutional policy 13 15 6 7 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 1 3 2 1 4 All roles 98 64 44 54 99 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 104 . 24. 64. Very 21.a – Lack of Internet connectivity Very No reply . 15. unimpor- 99.

a – Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Very unimportant. 37.93. 26.8% Unimportant. 4. 24. 27.0% Important. Diagram 4.5% Very important. 7. 13.92.9% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 105 . Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Overall. 61. No reply . 115. 131. Diagram 4. but the adult learning respondents more so than their counterparts.9% 126. the majority of respondents considers this barrier very important or important.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 8 14 16 16 16 Institutional policy 6 9 8 2 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 0 2 All roles 14 24 27 19 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The above responses show that there is still a relevant barrier posed by the insufficient coverage of Internet access for OER users.

30. Very Important. 25. 12.a – Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s purposes Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 5 5 11 6 13 Educational professional 18 71 65 31 67 Institutional policy 7 14 13 7 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 4 2 1 4 All roles 30 94 91 45 99 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 106 . 14. 7. Diagram 4.9%) and the negative ones (at 35.5% important. 94.94. tant. 27.9% of whom rate positively.93. 36. 6.4% No reply . 40.4% 91. A dissimilar pattern can be observed in the adult learning professional.0% 16. Important. 21. Diagram 4.3% who rate negatively. 45.6% 8. 52.3% tant. tant.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 18.9% tant.93. one observes that higher education professionals rate in a fairly similar way the positive assessments (at 37. 24. unimpor- No reply . against 24.2% Very important. 99.2%).3% Unimpor- 27.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. Unimpor. 26.3% Given the sector breakdown per educational role.

Diagram 4.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 107 .95. in particular when considering the repurposing of existing OER to better suit the users’ educational needs.4% unimportant. adult learning respondents provide more balanced views as seen from the values given for positive and negative options. Lack of access to computers Almost half of all respondents (45. 5.5%) felt this was very unimportant or unimportant. 20. 12. with only 28% considering it to be important or very important. important. 95. 26.2% 15. 58.94. Very 124. in the breakdown by sector while higher education respondents strongly favour the negative options. However. 25.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 5 12 24 13 16 Institutional policy 2 8 12 3 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 0 2 All roles 7 21 40 16 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply These results indicate that actions are needed to make available appropriate software.7% Important.a – Lack of access to computers No reply . 119. 74. Diagram 4.3% Very Unimportant.

a – Lack of access to computers Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 7 5 7 8 13 Educational professional 79 49 24 34 66 Institutional policy 15 13 4 9 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 2 3 1 1 4 All roles 103 70 36 52 98 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.95. 98.96. 25. Very 22. 19. with 44.5% Important. against 50.0%.4% 28. unimpor- 26.7% Unimpor- tant. 22.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 8 16 14 17 15 Institutional policy 8 7 5 5 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 2 0 2 All roles 16 25 22 22 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply 6. Diagram 4.3% for the negative ones. important. 27.96. 70.5% Very Unimpor. unimpor- No reply .8% When analysing the breakdown per educational role in the two sectors. 14.3% tant. 16. 23.8% 52. 36. Lack of quality of the OER Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 108 .b – Higher education Diagram 4.3% for the positive attributes against 34.8% for the negative ones. 19. 10.0% 22. Diagram 4. 19.95.5% Important. the replies from higher education professionals for the positive attributes total 23. 103. important.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply . The opposite is observed in the replies from the adult learning professionals.4% tant. 14. tant.

68. section B.97.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. Very Very important. The distribution of responses shows an uneven pattern in educational policy makers and adult learners. The issue of quality as a barrier to OER use (see also the related chapter IV. 28. important. 62. 158.II.6% 44.7% positive replies.1) is positively assessed by nearly half of all respondents (47. 87. 28.4. 18. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 109 .5% 34.5% Very Important. 33. 18. affected by the rate of no replies.97. 12.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 27.8% Diagram 4. with 45. In the adult learning sector.0% 8. 124. against 24. 5.1% who rate it negatively.I. No reply .9% of negative ones. 21.2% who stated it was unimportant or very unimportant).9% 17.3% of institutional policy makers/managers rate this factor positively. Important.7% 133. similarly distributed by sector. 19.97. 1.9% 34. against 16. 9. unimpor- No reply . tant.3% Unimportant. while opinions are more balanced in the educational professionals of this sector. No reply . 105. tant. section C. important. 65.1% 29.2% 5. tant.1% Important.4%.6% 13. 25.2% Unimpor. against 32. Unimpor- tant. 30.a – Lack of quality of the OER Very unimportant. 18. 18.3% The general pattern observed is also followed in higher education by the institutional policy makers/managers and the educational professionals. Representations of Quality and chapter IV. Diagram 4.

98.a – Lack of quality of the OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 2 5 13 7 13 Educational professional 13 50 87 30 72 Institutional policy 3 12 20 6 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 4 1 5 All roles 18 68 124 44 105 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4. at public and institutional policy level alike. in relative terms.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 8 15 19 13 15 Institutional policy 1 4 12 7 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 All roles 9 19 34 21 28 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply As suggested before. with a higher contribution from the adult learning sector. Diagram 4.98. 7. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Half of all respondents felt that this barrier is very important or important. it seems clear that quality is an issue that concerns the respondents and therefore would deserve specific attention. and similarly so in both sectors under scrutiny. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 110 . The rating of very unimportant was notably low.

2% Unimportant.5% Unimpor.6% 35.99. 5. 71. 42. 67. 37.c – Adult learning questionnaire Very Very No reply .4% 4. 21.8% 24. unimpor. Important. 17.a – Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Very unimportant. 19. 168. 18.99. Important. tant.1% Considering the breakdown by educational role in the two sectors surveyed. 14. 14. Diagram 4.4% 26.8% 12. tant. Unimpor- tant. important.b – Higher education Diagram 4.0% 126.99.7% Diagram 4.3% Important.100. 27. both institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals share a pattern of circa half of the responses with a preference for positive attributes and circa a quarter for the negative ones. tant. 35. 23. 12. No reply . 4.7% 128. 85.a –Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 3 11 9 4 13 11 45 100 28 68 Institutional policy 3 13 15 9 16 maker/Manager 0 2 2 2 5 All roles 17 71 126 43 102 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 111 .1% Very important. 43.6% Very Very important. No reply . 28. 22. Diagram 4. unimpor- 102.7% 4.

35. 8. 83. Diagram 4. the corresponding score for adult learning respondents was 56. 17. Diagram 4.7% 137. 27. 18.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 112 .7% Very important. 88. Important. 7. Lack of OER in the user’s native language Near half of all respondents rated this barrier as very important or important.101.4% No reply . the appropriateness of OER to the cultural contexts of use is an issue that would deserve specific measures at various levels.a – Lack of OER in the user’s native language Very unimportant. 127. 29.0% Unimportant.100. so that the impact of this barrier may be softened in time.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 4 8 25 18 15 Institutional policy 1 4 15 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 1 1 2 All roles 5 14 42 24 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply In light of these results.7%.

26. important. unimpor- No reply .101. 18. Diagram 4. 29.4% 28.102. Diagram 4. 66.7% important. tant. Very 104.101.5% Unimpor. 16. 33.3% Important. tant.b –Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 3 9 19 24 15 Institutional policy 2 6 12 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 2 0 2 All roles 5 17 33 30 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 113 .1% 8. 30. Very Important.a – Lack of OER in the user’s native language Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 3 8 11 5 13 20 47 72 45 68 Institutional policy 7 9 18 7 15 maker/Manager 0 2 3 1 5 All roles 30 66 104 58 101 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.102. 5.2% The above trend can also be observed in both institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals of the two sectors surveyed.c – Adult learning Very Very No reply .4% 4.0% 30. 27. Unimpor- tant.b –Higher education Diagram 4. unimpor. 23.0% 58. 101. tant. 29.4% 15. 17.

18. 16. against the latter. according to the results of the survey. at 50% in higher education and 54. 101. 14. a barrier which would point to public policy and institutional policy intervention to support OER supply from a multi-linguistic perspective.3% Diagram 4. 16.b – Higher education Diagram 4. ant.3% in adult learning.0% When comparing the results of institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals.1% Important. 15.103. 3. 13. 25.5% 180. Important. tant. tant.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios More than half of all respondents rate this sub-question positively (52. unimport- No reply . 11. we see that the former provided the higher positive assessments (64. educational policy makers and learners are the educational roles that provided higher results of no replies to this sub-question. 27.4% Unimportant. 28. 39.2% 28. No reply . 68. 3. No reply . 47.3% in adult learning). 38.2% Very Important. The negative assessments are fairly balanced between the two sectors.8% of important and very important ratings).6% Unimpor. with slightly higher results from the adult learning sector.103. 78.a – OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios Very unimportant. important.7% 16.0% 21.2% 129. Not surprisingly.1% 3.103. 4.6% Very important. Very important.1% Unimpor- tant.5% in higher education and 61. Diagram 4. 60.9% 40. The availability of OER in the user’s language constitutes. 9. 36. 140. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 114 . 18.

b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 2 14 22 16 16 Institutional policy 2 4 14 5 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 0 3 All roles 4 18 40 21 28 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply This barrier – which can also be considered as a factor of innovation in educational institutions – is perceived by respondents as an important one. Diagram 4.104. with overall positive responses reaching 61. Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development The majority of respondents concur unequivocally with this statement. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 115 .7%. 10. and the results show an awareness across sectors and most educational roles regarding issues of pedagogical innovation and practice surrounding OER.104.a – OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 2 4 14 6 14 Educational professional 9 50 93 33 67 Institutional policy 0 5 30 6 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5 All roles 11 60 140 47 101 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.

1.105. 23.1% Very important.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 129.1% 28. 35. 89. tant. 24. 127.105. 5.8% Very important. 26.105. 3. 9. Important.9% important. 164. 26. 4.7% 8. Unimportant. 31. 9.8% 35. in particular as regards the learners’ views.9% Diagram 4. Unimpor- 1.0% Important. 37. 101. Unimpor. tant. 34. 126.4% No reply .a – Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development Very unimportant. Diagram 4.3% 35.6% tant. 33.5% The breakdown per educational role shows dissimilarity in the adult learning sector. 9. Very Important.4% No reply . 27.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor.a – Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 1 7 7 10 15 Educational professional 3 18 66 99 66 Institutional policy 1 8 15 17 15 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 5 All roles 5 35 89 129 101 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 116 .106. No reply .4% 9.9% 44. Diagram 4. unimpor- tant.

a – Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals Very unimportant. The pattern is similar in each sector surveyed. 108.3% important.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 2 6 22 25 15 Institutional policy 2 3 12 8 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 1 2 All roles 4 9 37 35 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The respondents’ opinions point to the need for appropriate reward systems to be established at institutional level.106.3% Unimportant. 11.107. Diagram 4. 55. No reply .0% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 117 .7% Important. Very 166. Diagram 4. and over one quarter did not register a reply.7% 130. 11. 11. 27. 35. which would not only help expand OER use but also ensure the sustainability of existing initiatives and programmes. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals More than half of all respondents felt that lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals was an important and very important barrier to OER use. 2. 23.

Diagram 4. 36. 24.108. 42. 5.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 4 8 23 20 15 Institutional policy 1 5 15 4 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 All roles 5 13 41 25 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 118 .b – Higher education Diagram 4.108. Unimpor- 1. important.3% 4.7% 27.7% Important.1% 25.5% Unimpor- 103. No reply .5% The breakdown analysis per educational role does not show remarkable deviations from the pattern described above. 34. 28.107. tant. 22.8% important. 11. Very Important. tant. Diagram 4. 23. Very 125.9% 83. No reply .a – Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 2 12 11 15 Educational professional 6 30 96 55 66 Institutional policy 1 8 15 15 17 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 2 2 5 All roles 6 42 125 83 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.107.7% 11. 41. 13. 6.7% tant.c – Adult education Very Very unimpor. unimpor- tant.

9% overall). unimpor- tant. No reply . 37. 12. 118. 24.9% tant. 29. 25. 3.109.1% Diagram 4. 9.2% 8. 8.6% important. Very 172. 130. 27.109. Insufficient support from the management level of higher education institutions/adult learning organisations Overall.5% in higher education and 67. 23.3% Unimportant. It should be noted that this sub-question received a high percentage of no replies (27. 29. Diagram 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4.1.II.2% Very 42. Important.1% in adult learning. Very 36.8% important. 36. the latter at 50% in higher education and 64. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 119 .109.A.6% Unimpor- 105. No reply .0% Both educational professionals and institutional policy makers/managers offer positive assessments to this sub-question: the former at 65.5% 30. The results support the close link between OER and pedagogical innovation and would seem to endorse the views we expressed earlier (chapter IV. respondents place a great deal of importance on this barrier. No reply . tant.1% Important.9% 38.1% tant.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 2.4% 8. 131. 27.1% Important. 4. with positive responses totalling 61. 7.5% in adult learning. 26. important. 88.a – Insufficient support from the management level Very unimportant. Unimpor. 11. 1.7%.5) and the need for measures to promote cultures of innovation in educational institutions.

Diagram 4. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER The majority of respondents (60%) leaned toward the idea that a lack of national/regional policies is an important and very important barrier.110.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 3 4 26 22 15 Institutional policy 1 4 13 7 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 2 1 2 All roles 4 9 42 30 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Thus. with higher distributions in the adult learning sector.4% overall. 13. at 27.a – Insufficient support from the management level Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 4 12 9 15 6 14 101 64 67 Institutional policy 1 9 14 14 18 maker/Manager 0 2 3 1 5 All roles 7 29 130 88 105 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 120 .110. The level of no replies is fairly high. the results clearly point to the perception that there is ample ground for improvement as regards the concrete support that the management of educational institutions should be providing to OER developments.

5% 79. Very 37. Unimpor. 31. 103. This consistency reveals a high degree of consensus reached in the entire educational segment surveyed regardless of the levels of responsibility or activity.7% tant.112. No reply . important. 38. Diagram 4. 2.111. 8. 129.0% 28.3% Diagram 4. 2. 11.4% 48. 114.2% 2. Very 168.3% Very 131. 23. 26.7% important. No reply . unimpor- tant.6% Important.0% The defined trend holds across most categories elicited in the survey within each sector.2% Important.5% 35.4% 9. 3. Diagram 4. important.111. 33. 35. 10. 27.a – Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER Very unimportant. 10.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 22. tant. Important.7% 10.111. tant.3% Unimportant.a – Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 5 11 9 15 Educational professional 8 20 100 57 67 Institutional policy 0 12 17 11 16 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5 All roles 8 38 131 79 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 121 . Unimpor- No reply .c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. 24. 36.

12. 27. 130.4% Important.112.113. 14.b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 3 4 25 23 15 Institutional policy 0 5 10 10 6 maker/Manager 0 1 2 1 2 All roles 3 10 37 35 26 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The results evidence a rather advanced awareness of the importance of public policies to further OER developments. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER The majority of the respondents rated this barrier as an important or very important one.7% 30.a – Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER Very unimportant. Diagram 4.0% Very important. 26. with similar values by sector. 174. This awareness is a notorious fact not only among educational policy makers but equally across the four educational roles targeted by the OPAL survey. totalling 63.4%. 124. Unimportant. 6.4% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 122 . Diagram 4. 2.6% No reply . 37.

3% tant. 136.a – Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 3 12 10 15 Educational professional 6 10 102 67 67 Institutional policy 2 8 19 11 16 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 3 2 5 All roles 8 22 136 90 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4. Diagram 4. tant.114.9% important.7% 6. 24. Important.6% The distribution of responses per educational role in more consistent with the general trend within the educational roles of the higher education sector. 8. 4.2% 3.2% Important. 22. Very Very 38. Unimpor. 25. important.2% 37. 34.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. Diagram 4.1% 34.113. No reply .1% 7. 28.114. unimpor- tant.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 90. 8. No reply . Unimpor- 2.6% 103. tant.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 2 3 26 24 15 Institutional policy 2 5 9 8 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 1 2 All roles 4 8 38 34 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 123 . 27. 30.113.

1. 181.9% 55.7% 11. 25. Likewise. 45. 20. 136.0% Diagram 4. Unimpor- No reply . there is evidence of a high degree of awareness of the importance of institutional policies for the uptake of OER.115.5% Very important. 9.7% Very Important.7% 28. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 124 . tant. 2.9% 23.7% Important. tant. 7. Very Important. 38.115.2% 11.7% In analysing the breakdown per educational role in each sector.8% 37. No reply .7% of positive replies. 11.9% No reply . unimpor- tant.9% Unimportant. 40. 1. Diagram 4. 19.115.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor. Unimpor- 1. 15.5% of educational professionals do so. 13.5%) feels that this barrier is very important and important. as with the previous sub-question. one observes that in higher education 50. 20.a – Lack of interest in creating or using OER Very unimportant. Again here.5% 71. 28. important.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 27. Lack of interest in creating or using OER A clear majority of respondents (58. at 61. the breakdown into sectors provides a similar pattern. at 67.0% of institutional policy makers/managers rate this sub-question positively. in adult learning.4%. the lead is taken by institutional policy makers/managers. 131. and the educational professionals follow suit.8% tant. 94. 42. important. 103. while as much as 61.

Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 125 .b – Adult learning – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 1 10 27 16 16 Institutional policy 1 3 16 5 6 maker/Manager 0 2 1 3 All roles 2 13 45 23 28 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The opinions expressed by the respondents seem to point.116. to the relevance of the existence of cultures of innovation in educational institutions for OER to succeed. with especial relevance in the adult learning sector (65.8%).a – Lack of interest in creating or using OER Higher education – breakdown per educational role Learner 0 4 11 10 15 5 25 108 47 67 Institutional policy 2 10 16 12 16 maker/Manager 0 3 1 2 5 All roles 7 42 136 71 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Diagram 4.116.9%). Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER More than half of all respondents express agreement with this statement as a barrier to OER use (56. 16. as we mentioned earlier.

Diagram 4.9% 29. 27. 14.8% important. 3. 68. 18.6% Diagram 4.117. 3. important.1% tant.0% Unimportant. 128.7% Considering the distribution by educational role. 10. Diagram 4. No reply .7% 9. 49. 12.c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor.117.3% 28. 42. No reply . 26. 130. the higher positive values are shown by institutional policy makers/managers and educational professionals in both sectors. 37.2% 20.a – Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 5 13 8 14 Educational professional 10 31 94 49 68 Institutional policy 1 10 19 10 16 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 2 1 5 All roles 11 49 128 68 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 126 . No reply . tant. 2.6% Very Important. Unimpor.7% 59. 36. 11. 170.a – Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER Very unimportant. unimpor- tant.1% 35. 97. tant.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 13. 24.0% Important.6% 27. Unimpor- 3. Very Very Important.117.7% 103.118. important.

1% of all respondents assessed this barrier positively.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 3 Educational professional 3 6 31 15 15 Institutional policy 0 3 10 11 7 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 1 1 2 2 All roles 3 10 42 29 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply These results suggest that measures should be implemented to support skills development by educational professionals in areas of relevance to OER.0% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 127 . 23. 28. 6. 30. Diagram 4. No reply . 29. It should be noted that the breakdown of the positive ratings per sector offers differing results: only 39. 111. 141.1% Important.2% 132.118. Diagram 4. 57.1% Unimportant.0% in higher education against 52. 12.a – Students/Learners lack the skills to create or use OER Very unimportant.2% in adult learning. 17.119. only 42.6% Very important. Students/Learners lack the skills to create or use OER In contrast with the previous barrier.

Diagram 4.119.b – Higher education Diagram 4.119.c – Adult learning
Very Very
unimpor- unimpor-
No reply ;
tant; 21; No reply ; tant; 8;
104;
5.8% 28; 25.2% 7.2%
29.0% Unimpor-
Unimpor- tant; 17;
tant; 94; 15.3%
26.2%

Very
important; Important; Very
36; 10.0% 104; important; Important;
29.0% 21; 18.9% 37; 33.3%

The distribution of ratings by educational role follows a fairly similar pattern within the two sectors
surveyed, with the exception of the adult learners.
Diagram 4.120.a – Students/Learners lack the skills to create or use OER
Higher education – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 2 4 19 1 14

Educational professional 16 71 67 30 68

Institutional policy
3 17 15 4 17
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 2 3 1 5

All roles 21 94 104 36 104

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

Diagram 4.120.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 0 1 3

Educational professional 7 10 24 13 16

Institutional policy
1 6 10 7 7
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 1 6 10 7 7

All roles 8 17 37 21 28

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
128

The results would seem to unveil to two different situations, with a potential for intervention in skills
development for adult learners.

18. Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER
The requirements of time to devote to the creation or use of OER are considered as a relevant barrier
by more than half of all respondents (58.1%), a trend mirrored by each sector.
Diagram 4.121.a – Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER

Very
unimportant;
11; 2.3%
No reply ; Unimportant;
129; 27.4% 57; 12.1%

Very
Important;
important;
166; 35.3%
107; 22.8%

Diagram 4.121.b – Higher education Diagram 4.121.c – Adult learning
Very Very
unimpor- unimpor-
tant; 7; Unimpor- tant; 4;
No reply ;
1.9% No reply ; Unimpor-
102; tant; 42; 3.6%
27; 24.3% tant; 15;
28.4% 11.7%
13.5%

Important;
Very Very
124;
important; important;
34.5% Important;
84; 23.4% 23; 20.7%
42; 37.8%

The distribution by educational role shows that higher educational learners and educational
professional share similar levels of positive ratings; in adult learning, institutional policy
makers/managers, followed by educational professionals, share the concern for this barrier.

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
129

Diagram 4.122.a – Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER
Higher education – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 1 3 15 7 14

Educational professional 6 31 87 61 67

Institutional policy
6 18 16 16 56
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 2 4 0 5

All roles 7 42 124 84 102

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

Diagram 4.122.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role

Learner 0 1 0 3

Educational professional 4 11 24 16 15

Institutional policy
0 3 15 7 6
maker/Manager

Educational policy maker 0 3 3

All roles 4 15 42 23 27

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply

These results are an indication that institutional measures may need to be put into place to address
this difficulty.

19. Students/Learners lack the time to create or use OER
The trend observed with the previous barrier is not followed when considering this factor for
students/learners, since less than half of all respondents rated it positively (41.0%). Adult learning
respondents, however, replied more positively (47.7%, against 39.0% in higher education). It should
also be noted that there is a high level of no replies in both sectors.

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
130

14. 124. tant. with the exception of adult learners.4% Diagram 4. 9. 30. 17. 23.9% 130.3% 8. 9. 27. 22.124. No reply . 36. Diagram 4. Important. 107.123. 15. tant.8% The distribution of replies by education role within each sector is fairly similar.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 10.a – Students/Learners lack the time to create or use OER Very unimportant.4% 19.123. 26.7% Unimpor. 50.4% 29. No reply . Unimpor- tant. Diagram 4. 3.123.4% Very important. important.6% Important. 102. 143.8% Very Very important. 28.a – Students/Learners lack the time to create or use OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 2 5 15 4 14 Educational professional 11 77 74 23 67 Institutional policy 1 16 16 6 17 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 4 2 0 5 All roles 14 102 107 33 103 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 131 . 4.3% 33. 24.1% 28. No reply .c – Adult learning Very Very unimpor- unimpor- tant.9% 103. 27. 32.7% Unimportant.2% Important.

Also. and would seem to consider them relevant. Diagram 4. given the positive ratings shown. particularly when comparing with the previous barrier.125 – Barriers to the use of OER Breakdown per barrier 19 23 124 143 50 130 11 57 166 107 129 17 29 111 141 57 132 14 59 170 97 130 15 9 55 181 94 131 12 30 174 124 130 13 11 48 168 114 129 11 38 172 118 131 11 11 55 166 108 130 9 44 126 164 127 9 15 78 180 68 129 35 83 137 88 127 7 22 85 168 67 128 27 87 158 65 133 5 119 95 58 74 124 37 115 131 61 126 3 112 88 71 73 126 11 69 206 61 123 1 25 110 165 43 127 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply A more in-depth view of the eight top barriers according to each possible rating is offered in the following tables.124. we can say that respondents would appear to be in broad agreement with the list proposed. there appears a striking even distribution of the no replies. 20. Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 132 . in general.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 1 0 3 Educational professional 8 12 24 11 15 Institutional policy 1 7 11 6 6 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 2 1 3 All roles 9 22 36 17 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Very unimportant Unimportant Important Very important No reply The results for this barrier seem to indicate a lower need for intervention. When considering the overall replies to the list of barriers proposed to the respondents in the survey.

Insufficient reward system for educational professionals devoting time and energy to OER development 164 470 34.5% 9. Lack of access to computers 95 470 20. OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios 180 470 38.4% 4. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER 124 470 26.7% Table 4.3% 14.3% 11. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user 85 470 18.1% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 133 . Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER 97 470 20. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER 114 470 24. Lack of time to find suitable materials 206 470 43. Lack of interest in creating or using OER 181 470 38.8% 15.2.9% 14.0% 18.2% 3. Learners lack the time to create or use OER 124 470 26. Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER 107 470 22.a – Barriers to the use of OER 8 highest scoring barriers rated “Very important” “Very important” Total Barrier % ratings responses 10. Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user's purposes 115 470 24.7% 13.8% 16.7% 6. Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others' resources 110 470 23.5% 7.2. Lack of Internet connectivity 88 470 18. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER 111 470 23.c – Barriers to the use of OER 8 highest scoring barriers rated “Unimportant” “Unimportant” Total Barrier % ratings responses 19.4% 5. Insufficient support from the management level of higher education institutions 172 470 36. Lack of interest in creating or using OER 94 470 20.1% 13.0% 12.2% 7.6% 16.5% 17. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among educational professionals 108 470 23.b – Barriers to the use of OER 8 highest scoring barriers rated “Important” “Important” Total Barrier % ratings responses 2.6% 1.2. Table 4. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user 168 470 35. Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use OER 170 470 36. Insufficient support from the management level of higher education institutions 118 470 25. Lack of quality of the OER 87 470 18. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the creation or use of OER 168 470 35.4% 12. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation or use of OER 174 470 37.0% Table 4.6% 15.

Lack of OER in the user's native language 35 470 7. because I do not know what learners might think of me. Lack of Internet connectivity 112 470 23. if I use another person’s educational resources instead of creating my own.3% 3. Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others' resources 25 470 5. because I do not know how to assess the quality of the OER. 2. 3. because as an educational professional.2% 6. Learners lack the time to create or use OER 23 470 4. Experience The first one inquired about the experiences of respondents in using OER and was aimed at educational professionals: Educational professionals: Q3. at 48. Lack of access to computers 119 470 25.d – Barriers to the use of OER 8 highest scoring barriers rated “Very unimportant” “Very unimportant” Total Barrier % ratings responses 5. a pattern replicated in a similar fashion by the educational professionals of the two sectors surveyed.2 How do you feel about using OER in your educational practice? 1.7% 1. because I do not need to create my own materials. Lack of quality of the OER 27 470 5.3% 19. I feel uncomfortable. I am relieved. Attitudes The attitudes of respondents vis-a-vis the use of OER were addressed in two questions of the survey. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 134 .4% in aggregate. I feel uncertain.9% 3. 6. 1. because it is not so easy to understand how exactly they fit into my course programmes. 1. 5. I feel uneasy about openly sharing the learning resources that took me a lot of time and effort to produce. I feel challenged. Attitudes of educational professionals towards creating their own materials Disagreement and strong disagreement with a sense of relief for not having to produce one’s teaching/training materials ranked highest in the overall replies to this sub-question.8% 4. I have no interest in using OER. 4. I am uneasy. Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user's purposes 37 470 7.1. Table 4. 7.9% 8.5% 17. I feel that I am obliged to create the learning materials. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER 29 470 6.2.

c – Adult learning No reply . 38.a – Attitudes towards assessing the quality of the OER Strongly No reply .b – Higher education Diagram 4.2. 4. 18.3% agree. 11. 91. Diagram 4. 14.127. 10. Strongly 46.4% Agree. Disagree. 11.a – Attitudes towards creating one’s own materials No reply . agree. 61.3% Agree.6% Diagram 4. 18. 147.9% Disagree. 8.8% Disagree.126.1% 22. 20. 18. in that 64. 14.4% agree.126. 61. 36. 11. Attitudes of educational professionals towards assessing the quality of the OER Concerns over using OER whose quality one has difficulty in assessing rank low in the opinions of the educational professionals overall. 45. 15. 5.6% Disagree. 28. 3. Strongly No reply .6% were in disagreement and strong disagreement.2% Strongly disagree. 10. this attitude is replicated at sector level. 11.127. 50.7% Diagram 4.5% Strongly disagree. 31.126.9% 0. 19.1% 28. 96. 118.9% Agree.4% Strongly 28.9% Agree. Strongly 28.3% agree. Diagram 4.4% 1.c – Adult learning Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 135 . 38. disagree. Strongly 17.3% disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 56.127. Again. 71.

19. 3.1 overall.8%.4% Agree. 6. 17. Attitudes of educational professionals towards feeling obliged to create learning materials The third statement also gathered a very high percentage of the combined negative replies. 12. 114. 11. 12.2% 8.7% 122. 15. No reply . 1.1% 32.9% Strongly Strongly disagree. Strongly Strongly No reply .8% 17. 18. agree. 45. Diagram 4128. 17. disagree. No reply .6% 2.3% Disagree. 47. 47.2% 33. The strongest negative responses came from the adult learning sector.a – Attitudes towards feeling obliged to create learning materials Strongly No reply . agree. 47.0% disagree.128.2% Strongly disagree.4% 51. 20.4. 19. 0.7% Disagree.1% Strongly disagree. 0.0% 50. at 72. 154.1% Disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Disagree. 6.2% Agree.7% Agree. Agree. 1. Disagree. 63. 43. No reply . agree. 38. 20. 11. 45.8% Diagram 4. Strongly 14. 30.6% 11. agree. totalling 67.3. 36. 19.4% 1. 48.1% 1. 2. 19. 27. 62. 7.2% Agree.1% 15. Attitudes of educational professionals towards learners’ opinion of them using another person’s educational resources Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 136 .c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly agree.128.1% 1.

3. 60. a pattern that is shared by higher education and adult learning. to produce learning materials themselves. agree.4% 0. as educational professional. 117. 49. 86. disagree.8% 46.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply . agree.3% replies were in agreement and strong agreement. No reply . Agree. Agree.9% 7.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 137 .8% Strongly Disagree.4% 1. Diagram 4. 19. 15. In adult learning. The combined negative responses total 72. 30.6% Strongly Strongly Disagree.129. 19.5. Attitudes of educational professionals towards understanding how OER fit into their course programmes Deciding the most appropriate way to fit OER into one’s course programmes is felt as a challenge by almost half of all educational professionals (47. 31.6% 0. 25. 25.129. 18.7% 1.129. 44. 1. Agree. 2.0% 26.4% 7.7% Diagram 4.0% 65. The majority of respondents do not comply with a sense that it is expected from them.a – Attitudes towards learners’ opinion of them using another person’s educational resources Strongly No reply . disagree.8% 11. as much as 54. 46. Disagree.2%). 148. agree.7%.5% 8.3% 21. disagree. 6.

at 62.5% Diagram 4. 50. 9.7% Strongly disagree.8% 3. 25.0% 107. Disagree. 8.131.6. 18.6% agree. 21. 19. 137.130. 42.4% Strongly disagree. agree.4% Disagree.3% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 138 . 48.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply .0% Disagree.3% 2.6% 42.3% of all respondents. agree. 19. 79. 42.5% 24.9%.8% 10. 4.9% 15. 47.5% Disagree. agree. 24. Agree. 30. this figure is even higher in adult education. 10. No reply . 39. 18. Agree. 15.5% Agree. 64. 8. 50. 99. 9. 31.130.2% Agree. disagree.8% 11.130. Strongly 60.4% 1. 14. 19.a – Attitudes towards sharing OER Strongly No reply . 7. Strongly 7.7% Strongly disagree.a – Attitudes towards understanding how OER fit into their course programmes No reply . Diagram 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Diagram 4. Attitudes of educational professionals towards sharing OER Investing time and effort in creating learning resources that others may use openly is an attitude denied by 58.

39. Agree. whilst higher education respondents barely scored 1.7% Strongly Strongly disagree. 14. agree. 15.2% Disagree.131. Agree. No reply . 21.1% No reply . 18. 50.6% 51.4% 11. Disagree. 179.a – Attitude of disinterest in using OER Strongly Agree. 140. 19. 24.7% 1.8% 12. Disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 99. 57. Adult education respondents scored slightly higher in the sum of positive responses. 17.2% Strongly disagree.6% Diagram 4. 20.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly Agree.1% 2. 20. Diagram 4. 39. 8.1% 65. 1. 55. 3.5%.6% 1. Disagree. disagree.0% 17. agree.9% 3. 1.132.2% 0.6% No reply .7% 55. Diagram 4.1% Agree.3% 27. No reply . disagree.7. agree.6% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 139 . 1. agree.3% Disagree. agree.0% Strongly Strongly disagree.132. 38.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 5.2% 17.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply .5% 0.6%. 2. 55. 22. 12. 19. 20. 2. 48.131. 8.1% of all respondents claimed to have no interest in using OER (agreement and strong agreement combined).4% 7. 2. 47. at 8.132. Attitude of disinterest in using OER A meagre 3. 68.

6% Strongly disagree.9% Disagree.6% 4. Using OER often is not accepted. OER are not so relevant for me. 20.3 Please tell us what in your experience is the value of OER for education/training (formal. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 140 . 2.6% 21.3% Diagram 4.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply .133.1% Agree. to the mark of 64. agree. 2. 6. namely: Educational policy makers. agree. 52.133.5% Disagree. 2. 26. 13.9% 20. non formal. 18. 13.7% Agree. agree.8% overall. Disagree.1. informal). 51. Another question can be analysed as conveying information about attitudes vis-a-vis OER. 15.b – Higher education Diagram 4. the attitude of respondents is one of refusal of the statement proposed. because educational institutions usually have fixed curricula in which OER often do not fit. 6.7% 3.a – Lack of relevance of OER because they do not fit into fixed curricula Strongly No reply . because they are considered as not being one’s own achievement.6% 4. 15. 14. 23. in relative terms.1% 14. 6. 14. 14.5% Strongly disagree. 49. 17. 48. and very similar figures per sector. No reply . learners: Q3. educational policy makers from higher education stand out. by rating the following statements: 3.2% When analysing the breakdown of responses by education role. Agree. 73. 17. 4.6% disagree. 4. Lack of relevance of OER because they do not fit into fixed curricula Overall. Diagram 4. Strongly 6.133. institutional policy makers/managers.

the focus was seeking the opinion of other than educational professionals roles).134.2.a – Lack of relevance of OER because they do not fit into fixed curricula Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 3 4 17 6 10 Institutional policy 0 7 29 11 9 makers/Managers Educational policy 1 3 6 0 1 makers All roles 4 14 52 17 20 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Diagram 4.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 2 0 2 Institutional policy 1 6 17 4 3 makers/Managers Educational policy 1 0 2 2 1 makers All roles 2 6 21 6 6 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 2. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 141 . Non-Acceptance of OER. Diagram 4.4% of all respondents (for this question.134. with a stronger emphasis on respondents from the adult learning sector. because they are considered as not being one’s own achievement The perception of the professional unworthiness of using the result of other people’s achievements was denied by 49.

a – Non-Acceptance of OER. agree.9% 3. 16. 4.135. 36. 25.135.8% In higher education. 20. Diagram 4. disagree.2% Disagree.135.4% Agree. it also diverges strikingly when comparing with their counterparts in adult learning. 48. 33.4% 20. Strongly 30. 39. Diagram 4. the educational policy makers present a response pattern that diverges from the other two educational roles.7% 5. 9. 59. 39.9% Strongly 29. agree.9% Diagram 4. 45. in agreement with the proposed statement. because they are considered as not being one’s own achievement Strongly No reply .2% 2. 5.3% disagree. 11.8% 2.4% disagree.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 3.c – Adult learning Strongly Strongly No reply . 14. 12. 30.5% Disagree. because they are considered as not being one’s own achievement Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learners 2 7 15 6 10 Institutional policy 1 18 22 5 10 makers/Managers Educational policy 0 8 2 1 0 makers All roles 3 33 39 12 20 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 142 . who follow the trend of disagreement with the statement. 12. Agree. agree. No reply . 2. 12.9% Agree.a – Non-Acceptance of OER. Disagree.136.8% Strongly 4. 18.

followed by a frequent use and no use at all. Please tell us if you have ever used or produced/provided such materials for teaching or learning. 1. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 143 . Findings under this heading are very robust as the overall trends rate extremely and consistently high. Diagram 4. section II.1 intended to gather information on whether the respondents used OER and in which of three broad categories: All educational roles: Q2.1. shared or adapted. Attitudes reported by respondents toward OER follow a very similar pattern to that already captured in previous sections of the survey analysis. suggesting an area of broad consensus that is not easily found in other questionnaires probing attitudes and perceptions. They evidence a clear understanding of the purpose of OER and suggest easiness about using. creating and integrating OER into their educational practices. Creating OER myself and publishing them. the percentage of frequent use is higher than in the higher education sector and the percentage of no use is half of that reported by higher education respondents.1 Open educational resources are resources which are freely available and can be used. a specific section was devoted to this issue. Adapting existing OER to fit my needs for teaching/ training/learning.136. “Your experiences with the use of open educational resources” to ascertain to what extent and in what form are OER being used. Use of existing OER for teaching/training/learning Almost half of all respondents report an occasional use. 2. PRACTICES Evidence of the actual use practices or experiences of OER. 1. 3. Question 2. In the adult education sector. Therefore.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learners 0 1 1 0 2 Institutional policy 2 10 15 1 3 makers/Managers Educational policy 0 1 4 1 0 makers All roles 2 12 20 2 5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree No reply 3. Using existing OER for teaching/training/learning. C. as reported by respondents is a key objective OPAL survey. 1.

36. Diagram 4. however. 66.138.7% 49. 48. 22.4% Often.137. notably for learners and educational policy makers. 16. 6. No reply . 55. 26. Some- 175. Nev er. be considered with caution.7% Often. since these are precisely the educational roles with the lower number of respondents to the survey. This should.9% Diagram 4. as shown in the two following diagrams. 28. 31.5% The analysis of the distribution of responses according to the educational roles evidences distinct patterns for the sectors surveyed.137. 132.1% Sometimes.1% Nev er. 230. 9.137. 8.c – Adult education No reply . 48.a – Use of existing OER for teaching/training/learning No reply . Diagram 4.1% 9. 6. 11.a – Use of existing OER for teaching/training/learning Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 9 25 4 2 Educational professional 39 127 75 11 Institutional policy 13 19 16 8 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 5 4 1 1 All roles 66 175 96 22 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 144 .4% Some- times.9% 18.6% Nev er.b – Higher education Diagram 4.4% Often. 96. times. 32. 77.

Diagram 4. 164. Nev er.0% 34. 81.139. Often. No reply . Diagram 4.5% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 145 . 36.3% 22.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 0 3 0 1 Educational professional 7 33 25 5 Institutional policy 4 16 8 3 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 0 3 3 0 All roles 11 55 36 9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply 1.a – Creation and publishing of OER No reply . .7% 22. 25.2% 13. 11. Creation and publication of OER Overall. 34. again in both sectors. 161.5% Some- Sometimes times. 128.c – Adult education No reply .138. This occurs to a greater extension in the higher education sector. Often. 26. here too the prevalence goes to the sporadic practice.6% Sometimes. 7. more so if we consider only the valid responses. 33. 29. 106. there is a significant proportion of respondents who replied “never”. 39.139.139.7% Often. Mirroring the situation portrayed by the previous sub-question.7% Nev er. when analysing both sectors.3% Nev er.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 124.6% 35. 8. 40.9% Diagram 4. 22.2. 34.

shows a divergent pattern in the learner and the institutional policy maker groups. Diagram 4.a – Creation and publishing of OER Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 31 6 2 1 Educational professional 71 98 64 19 Institutional policy 21 16 14 5 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 5 4 1 1 All roles 128 124 81 26 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply Diagram 4.140. To be noted also the fairly substantial percentages of inexistence of this type of OER practice.3. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 146 . as shown below. which surpass the frequent use overall and in the higher education sector. although the small numbers f respondents must be taken into account in this regard.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 2 1 0 1 Educational professional 19 26 17 8 Institutional policy 10 11 6 4 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 2 2 2 0 All roles 33 40 25 13 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply 1. The distribution across educational roles.140. comparing sectors. with almost half of the responses. overall and per sector. favouring the occasional use. Adaptation of existing OER to fit tone’s needs for teaching/training/learning The same trend observed in the two previous sub-questions is evident here.

19. Diagram 4. Often.5% times.1% Nev er. 47. Some- 46.8% Diagram 4. 38.9% Often. 96.141. 116. Diagram 4.141. 24. 28. 7. 17. Nev er. 27. as can be seen in the two diagrams below.7% In analysing the distribution per educational role and comparing the two sectors surveyed. 25.7% 20.9% Nev er. Institutional policy makers in adult learning claim a far greater frequent use in this category than their counterparts in higher education.141. 9. 220.2% Some- times.0% 18.142. No reply . 68.a – Adaptation of existing OER to fit one’s needs for teaching/ training/learning Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Learner 22 15 3 0 Educational professional 53 128 55 16 Institutional policy 17 20 9 10 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 5 4 1 1 All roles 97 167 68 27 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 147 . 8.b – Higher education Diagram 4. 167. the higher education sector shows higher percentages of no use across educational roles.c – Adult education No reply .a – Adaptation of existing OER to fit one’s needs for teaching/ training/learning No reply .5% 11.1% Often. 46. 27. 97.4% Sometimes. 53.

v ideos. indiv idual w ebsites.. videos.143. 53.).2 How would you describe the kind of OER that you use for teaching/ learning? 1. etc. rather than more structured programmes or courses.2 asked respondents to categorize the OER used for teaching or learning: Educational professionals.) Other Valid cases: 336 Missing cases: 134 Diagram 4.favours clearly what could be called an “atomised” use of OER. individual websites. Complete courses/programmes. Question 2. Other.g.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Learner 1 1 1 1 Educational professional 10 36 19 5 Institutional policy 6 15 5 5 maker/Manager Educational policy maker 2 1 3 0 All roles 19 53 28 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Nev er Sometimes Often No reply 2.9% 287. 4.b – Higher education Diagram 4. Other materials for learning (e.1% 161. there appears a clear preference for using individual resources for teaching and learning.g. 12. 29. 4. Parts of courses/programmes. documents. The emerging trend – overall and per sector . etc.c – Adult education Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 148 .143. Please specify. 2. Diagram 4.143. Diagram 4. documents. 3.3% Complete courses/programmes Parts of courses/programmes Other materials for learning (e.6% 65. learners: Q2.a – Kind of OER used for teaching/learning 25.142.. that is to say.

g. ranging from technological infrastructures (repositories of videos. 17 responses were received. 52% program- mes. images. videos. 52 125 229 22 v ideos.g. 13. open platforms) to individual resources (simulations.144. Diagram 4. mes. open source code. online books. mes. 3.144. documents. 52. courses/ 53. articles and other resources. indiv idual All roles 13 36 58 3 w ebsites. Parts of for Parts of 229. 29. 22. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 149 . v ideos.5% program. 58. presentations..1% program- program- mes. courses/ learning. Overall.2% 33% Valid cases: 269 Missing cases: 90 Valid cases: 67 Missing cases: 44 The distribution of respondent’s opinions per educational role is very similar. 36.) Other 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Sub-question 4 gave respondents the opportunity to indicate any other categories of kinds of OER used. 125. educational software).a – Kind of OER used for teaching/learning Higher education – Breakdown per educational role Complete courses/programmes Learner 7 15 32 1 Parts of courses/programmes Educational professional 45 110 197 21 Other materials for learning (e. indiv idual All roles w ebsites. as shown in the following diagram. Complete Other. documents.1% 12% materials Other for materials learning. databases.. Complete Other. etc.) Other 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Diagram 4. courses/ 3% courses/ 5. dissertations.b – Adult learning – Breakdown per educational role Complete courses/programmes Learner 1 1 1 0 Parts of courses/programmes Educational professional 12 35 57 3 Other materials for learning (e. Other 12. etc. exercises.

. The three categories that received the highest number of responses overall were “1.2% To offer online and/or distance education/training.6% To prov ide e- learning materials to learners. 5. inspiration. I am not using OER..1% To teach in the classroom. 10. To prepare for my teaching/training or get new ideas and inspiration. 192.. 9. To giv e to learners 97. 9. To give to learners as self-study materials. To provide e-learning materials to learners..3 For what purpose do you use OER? (You may choose all the options that fit your personal case) I am using OER: 1. 18. 162. 7.145.a – Purpose of OER use To compare them I am not w ith my ow n using OER teaching/training Other. 6. 15. 37. 4.. To substitute my teaching/training in the classroom. 114. Diagram 4. To teach in the classroom. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 150 . To compare them with my own teaching/training materials in order to assess the quality of my materials..5% This trend is followed in a fairly similar way by each sector surveyed. the classroom. 20. Please 2% To prepare for my materials in order to specify . 0..3 aimed at the purpose of OER use: Educational professionals: Q2.1% To substitute my as self-study teaching/training in materials.0% 3. To prepare for my teaching/training or get new ideas and inspiration” (21%). 3. Question 2. 213. To offer online and/or distance education/training. 3. 10.. 219. Other. 8.7% 20. “3. 2.9% teaching/training or assess the quality get new ideas and of my materials. Please specify. To provide e-learning materials to learners”. To give to learners as self-study materials” (20%) and “6.

b – Higher education To compare them w ith my ow n I am not teaching/training Other.8% teaching/training 174. Again. 0. 21. 153. teaching/training 39. 8.4% teaching/training I am not materials in order using OER to assess the 4% To prepare for my quality of my teaching/training materials. 9.8% in the classroom. Diagram 4.. 95.. 74. referring: research. class-room 18. 1. 4.9% To offer online and/or distance education/training.. 1. 17. 49. 39... 19. 3.145. 9 responses were received. 10..3% 170.. 48 missing cases).3% To prov ide e- learning materials To teach in the to learners. learners as self- To substitute my study materials.0% 225 responses (63 valid cases. 9.3% 15% To offer online and/or distance To giv e to education/training.145.4% and inspiration.1% 1% To prepare for my to assess the teaching/training quality of my or get new ideas materials.2% learners as self- To substitute my study materials.3% in the classroom. 20. Please w ith my ow n specify . Please using OER materials in order specify . To teach in the 17. and inspiration. 20... Diagram 4. 23.c – Adult learning To compare them Other. 16...3% classroom.8% To prov ide e- learning materials to learners. 11. respondents were given the opportunity to indicate other types of use of OER. 130 missing cases).3% 838 responses (229 valid cases. student assessment. 38. co-development of OER for staff Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 151 . or get new ideas 8.. 28. To giv e to . ..

The adaptation of OER for one’s needs and. This would suggest that there is ample ground for action at the macro level conditions explored earlier in this report to entice the different stakeholders to feel that they can – should – take a significant stake in the current processes of OEP. 4. albeit for a wide range of purposes. seem not to be prevalent. understood as knowledge co-creation and re- validation. The information provided by respondents on their actual use of OER shows that there is a substantial share of infrequent. digital inclusion initiatives for persons with disabilities and learning impaired children. atomistic use of OER. development. encouraging students to develop their creativity and research by developing OER. the creation of OER. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 152 . personal learning. even more so.

useful.1 – Model of Analysis: Use of Open Educational Resources H2 Use practices Structural Variables H4 (or experience) of OER (OEP) . As proposed in Chapter 2 a first model of analysis. Purpose In this part of the report our purpose is to explore possible relations between uses of OER (OEP) and representations and attitudes towards them.1. namely of a structural nature (such as country of origin of the respondent’s institution of work or study) and of an institutional nature (such as the type of institution. exploratory and setting the ground for discussion. o H1.1. the higher the tendency to use them (the present analysis deals mainly with the perception of barriers). in which representations and attitudes appear as principal variables for explaining the use of OER (OEP).Country (EU vs other) -Frequency (all respondents) Attitudes --vis-a-vis the use of OER (OEP) Institutional Variables (only educational professionals) -Type of institution -. Diagram 5. o H2. Chapter V – In-Depth Analysis of Key Issues: Attitudes. of quality and having a relevant pedagogical function. The more open and confident the attitudes. The more the users represent OER as pertinent. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 153 . There are also a set of potentially explanatory variables.  H2: Attitudes vis-a-vis OER influence their use. Perceptions and Usage of OER A. type of supply of OER).Dimension (number of H5 H1 students) -Type of OER supply Representations of OER: H3 Perception of: -Barriers Our main work hypotheses are thus the following:  H1: Representations of OER (Open Educational Resources) influence their use. the higher the use of OER. This model of analysis is represented as follows. its dimension in terms of learners.

as regards: o Representations o Attitudes o Practices  H5: The type.3% Creating OER myself and Never 161 34.  H4: The country of origin of the respondent influences his/her position vis-a-vis OER. In addition to relating to the exploratory nature of these first analyses.7% Sometimes 220 46.4% Sometimes 230 48. to the extent that this question incorporates an interrogation which is fundamental to the research: what are the actual practices based on (OEP)? The teleological or finalistic relevance of this question. size and characteristics of the education institution in terms of OER influence the positioning vis-a-vis OER.0% Don’t know/Refuse 38 8.g.3% Sometimes 164 34. regardless of their sector (higher education.8% needs for teaching/ learning Often 96 20. which is common to the entire research. We have assumed the total number of respondents.1% Total 470 100. The use of OER (OEP) presents the following distribution. as regards: o Representations o Attitudes o Practices B.0% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 154 .4% Total 470 100. we will only work with one dependent variable which is common to all respondents: the frequency of OER use (in the survey.1. Dependent Variable: Frequency of OER use At an initial stage. this choice has to do with the reduced number of answers obtained among some of these target-populations.9% publishing them on the web Often 106 22.1% Changing existing OER to fit my Never 116 24. educational professionals or learners). all analyses will consider the total number of respondents regardless of their status (educational policy makers. Q2. justifies it being cumulatively and transversely considered in relation to the total universe of respondents. This way.. institutional policy makers/managers. v.). adult learning).  H3: Representations and attitudes vis-a-vis OER are very much correlated: more open attitudes correlate positively with representations of OER as a perception of barriers (the present analysis deals mainly with the perception of barriers).6% Total 470 100.0% Don’t know/Refuse 39 8.9% web for teaching/ learning Often 132 28. Table 5.1 – Use of OER (total of respondents) Count Column N % Don’t know/Refuse 31 6.6% Using existing OER from the Never 77 16.

only 10% of the total sample does not make any use of OER (point 1 of the index). at this initial stage.0 1.6 10.4 10. reflecting the summation of the mean of the responses to these variables.0 Total 418 88.5 2.2 78.00 45 9. i.1 Total 470 100.2 2.33 47 10.7 2.2 3.0 Missing System 52 11. As shown.e.0 11.8 100. The statistical exploration of these variables’ distribution (excluding those who did not answer.1 12. The distribution of the respective index is represented in the below table and chart.00 42 8.7 17.4 22.0 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 155 .3 67. whereas circa 11% frequently uses OER (point 3 of the scale).0 10.67 44 9.33 52 11.3 27.5 1. Table 5. see Annex 1 for the variables’ distribution) allows us to consider their aggregation through an utilisation index. working only with the valid answers.7 40.67 74 15.2 – Index of Frequency of OER Use Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 1.9 100.5 89. The majority of respondents make an average use (sometimes irregular) of OER.9 10. This new variable can thus be considered as the principal dependent variable of our model..00 114 24.

institutional policy makers/managers.8% Very important 61 13. it is necessary to explore the structure of representations and social attitudes vis-a-vis OER and to identify possible dimensions therein. Representations of OER: Obstacles or Barriers to Use We will start by highlighting dimensions of barriers to use.0% Lack of Internet connectivity Don’t know/Refuse 126 26.7% Important 206 43.3 – Barriers to the use of OER (educational policy makers. with the necessary adjustments in language and context (Annex 2). as this question has been posed to all respondents (regardless of their sector and educational role). Independent variables: representations and attitudes vis-a-vis OER-OEP Before exploring possible explanatory relations or correlations between uses of OER and respective variables which are regarded as independent in this model.3% Unimportant 69 14.1% Very important 43 9.0% Lack of time to find suitable Don’t know/Refuse 123 26.8% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 156 .4% Important 165 35.2 – Histogram: Index of frequency of OER use Despite the slight left skewing.1% Total 470 100.0% Total 470 100. educational professionals and learners) Count Column N % Not invented here syndrome: Don’t know/Refuse 127 27. 1. at this stage of data exploration. Very unimportant 25 5. Diagram 5. we may consider that this new variable is qualifiedly as possible dependent variable. C. The distribution of the original variables is as follows.0% no trust in others’ resources.2% materials Very unimportant 11 2. Table 5.3% Unimportant 110 23.

0% language Very unimportant 35 7.3% Very important 74 15.8% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 157 .3% Very important 68 14.5% Important 131 27.4% Unimportant 83 17.7% Unimportant 87 18.0% Lack of quality of the OER Don’t know/Refuse 133 28.6% Important 180 38.3% Total 470 100.5% Total 470 100.5% Total 470 100.0% Insufficient reward system for Don’t know/Refuse 127 27.9% purposes Unimportant 115 24.6% Very important 65 13.4% Important 126 26.7% Unimportant 85 18.0% Lack of software to adapt the Don’t know/Refuse 126 26.0% Count Column N % Lack of OER in the user’s native Don’t know/Refuse 127 27.3% Very unimportant 27 5.7% Important 71 15.8% Total 470 100.7% Important 137 29.0% Total 470 100.2% Unimportant 78 16.4% learning scenarios Very unimportant 15 3.8% Unimportant 88 18.4% Very unimportant 119 25.7% Total 470 100.5% Important 158 33.9% devoting time and energy to OER development Unimportant 44 9.0% Lack of access to computers Don’t know/Refuse 124 26.1% Very important 73 15.2% relevant to the user Very unimportant 22 4.8% resources to the user’s Very unimportant 37 7.1% Important 168 35.1% Very important 88 18.7% Very important 67 14.7% Total 470 100.3% Unimportant 95 20.2% Important 58 12.9% Very important 61 13. Very unimportant 112 23.0% Lack of OER that are culturally Don’t know/Refuse 128 27.0% educational professionals Very unimportant 9 1.0% OER are not embedded into the Don’t know/Refuse 129 27.

0% Unimportant 59 12.6% Important 170 36.6% Total 470 100.1% Important 172 36.3% Very important 108 23.1% Total 470 100.9% management level of higher Very unimportant 11 2.6% Important 141 30.4% Important 174 37.1% Total 470 100.3% Total 470 100.7% Very important 114 24. Very unimportant 29 6.7% the skills to create or use OER.9% or use of OER.2% Unimportant 111 23.0% Very important 57 12.0% Educational professionals lack Don’t know/Refuse 129 27.0% Educational professionals lack Don’t know/Refuse 130 27.0% Very important 124 26.7% Important 181 38.0% Lack of policies at institutional Don’t know/Refuse 130 27.0% Total 470 100.4% Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 158 . Unimportant 38 8.0% Lack of interest in pedagogical Don’t know/Refuse 130 27.0% Total 470 100.6% Very important 118 25.7% level to support the creation or Very unimportant 12 2.7% Important 166 35.4% national/regional level to Very unimportant 11 2.9% Total 470 100.3% professionals Unimportant 55 11.4% Total 470 100. Very unimportant 14 3. Very important 164 34.3% support the creation or use of OER Unimportant 48 10.6% use of OER Unimportant 30 6.0% Learners lack the skills to create Don’t know/Refuse 132 28. Very unimportant 9 1.0% Lack of policies at Don’t know/Refuse 129 27.1% or use OER.9% Unimportant 55 11.5% Very important 94 20.2% Very important 97 20.3% education institutions/adult learning organisations.0% Count Column N % Lack of interest in the creation Don’t know/Refuse 131 27.2% Important 168 35.0% Insufficient support from the Don’t know/Refuse 131 27.7% innovation among educational Very unimportant 11 2.

074 .721 .035 .729 .021 .102 OER.428 .266 create or use OER. Very unimportant 23 4. . Table 5.052 .133 professionals devoting time and energy to OER development Lack of access to computers .065 .062 level of higher education institutions/adult learning organisations.874 .064 .179 .166 -.115 -.028 .21. which we sought to name according to the content of their main indicators: 1) Lack of institutional support.4 – Dimensions of representations by educational role of barriers to the use of OER Matrix of principal components Components 1 2 3 4 5 Lack of Lack of Lack of skills Lack of Personal issues institutional technological and time of quality or (lack of trust and support tools users fitness of OER time) Insufficient support from the management . Very unimportant 11 2. 2) Lack of technological tools.8% Total 470 100.066 .173 . 5) Personal issues (lack of trust and time).150 .050 Lack of Internet connectivity .894 .093 .795 .060 .307 .116 . Lack of policies at institutional level to .159 .098 .522 -.0% Learners lack the time to create Don’t know/Refuse 130 27.102 .1% Important 166 35.246 .157 . The following table shows the result of this analysis and respective identified dimensions. .139 .060 OER.814 . Insufficient reward system for educational .141 .085 to support the creation or use of OER Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation .127 -.101 .726 .089 .205 -.4% Important 143 30.9% Unimportant 124 26. 4) Lack of quality or fitness of OER.057 support the creation or use of OER Lack of policies at national/regional level .0% The exploratory principal components analysis enabled the identification of five relevant dimensions in representations of barriers with which individuals are faced when they want to use OER.4% Very important 50 10.092 .082 .210 -.123 -.3% Unimportant 57 12.140 . Educational professionals lack the time to -060 -.071 OER. Learners lack the skills to create or use . the time to create or use OER.123 .361 Learners lack the time to create or use .237 .227 the user’s purposes Lack of quality of the OER -.084 Lack of software to adapt the resources to .6% Total 470 100. 3) Lack of skills and time of users.716 .7% or use OER.666 .681 .812 .132 .063 among educational professionals Lack of interest in the creation or use of . Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 159 .3% Very important 107 22.

704 -.572% KMO Test: 0.001 . the greater the frequency of use.017 . Lack of institutional support.627 N=302 Total of Variance Explained: 61. it is now possible to use these variables to establish relations with other variables of the model. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to . but with a very low positive correlation: the higher the perception of lack of institutional support.002 Personal issues (lack of trust Sig.000 -. listwise. Lack of time to find suitable materials . Educational professionals lack the skills to .057 Lack of quality or fitness of Sig.126 Lack of institutional support Sig. a.090 . The first.090 -. (2-tailed) . Table 5. the lesser the use of OER (OEP).5 – Dimensions of the perceived barriers to the use of OER and frequency of use (OEP) Correlations Index of Frequency of OER Use * REGR factor score 1 Pearson Correlation .080 Lack of technological tools Sig. which at first sight seems counter-intuitive.304 .163 .034 N 281 REGR factor score 2 Pearson Correlation .533 .035 -.157 Lack of skills and time of users Sig. namely with that which we are taking as the principal variable: the use of OER (OEP).078 -.750 others resources. Chi-Square: 2236.339 OER N 281 REGR factor score 5 Pearson Correlation -.183 N 281 ** REGR factor score 3 Pearson Correlation -. (2-tailed) .207 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. is the second dimension which reveals some significance.008 N 281 REGR factor score 4 Pearson Correlation -. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 160 .255 scenarios Not invented here syndrome: no trust in .033 create or use OER. (2-tailed) .264 . However.372 -. reveals the strongest correlation with the frequency of use: the more this is perceived as a barrier. a first analysis of correlations reveals that only two of the identified dimensions seem to be significantly correlated with the use of OER (OEP).129 . and even so only slightly correlated.022 .006 . Recording the factors produced by the analysis in new variables (standardized).759 .382 -276 . (2-tailed) . Lack of skills and time of users. This relation. (2-tailed) .333 (171).968 and time) N 281 The third dimension.001 Rotated Component Matrix Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.579 -.161 OER are not embedded into the learning .124 the user Lack of OER in the user’s native language . can be justified by the fact that those who use open educational resources are those who feel the most a lack of institutionalized support to develop that use.129 -198 .810 | Bartlett's Test of Sphericity: Approx. p<0.199 .

in their percentage distribution.738). if I use another person’s educational resources instead of creating my own.6% 15 4.8% 148 46. 2.6% 322 it is not so easy to understand how exactly they fit into my course programmes.6% 8 2. they also possess an orientation to action component.8% 62 19.5% 65 20. mediator concepts between representations and uses.2% 322 openly sharing the learning resources that took me a lot of time and effort to produce. the majority of respondents reveal an interest in this type of resources. Table 5. clearly gathers the respondents’ disagreement: that is to say. I feel uncertain. hence their importance in understanding the phenomenon of OER use (OEP). but inferred.1% 59 18. One can observe that the last indicator.3% 126 39.3% 10 3.5% 147 45.6 – Attitudes of educational professionals vis-a-vis the use of OER (OEP) Percentage distribution of the indicators Don’t Strongly Strongly agree Agree Disagree Total know/Refuse disagree Row N Row N Row N Count Count Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Count % % % I am relieved. The present survey only measured attitudes of the educational professionals (Q3.8% 322 do not need to create my own materials. Considering their cognitive dimension (the way individuals perceive the world surrounding them).4% 19 5.2% 179 55.0% 86 26. revealed in the value of skeweness (-1. Attitudes of Educational Professionals vis-a-vis OER «Attitudes correspond to a mediator concept between the way of acting and the way of thinking of individuals» (Lima. Attitudes are.3% 118 36. because I do 61 18. therefore. 1993: 168).9% 3 .2% 154 47. I am uneasy.7% 322 do not know what learners might think of me. I feel that I am obliged to create the learning materials.6% 7 2.2% 36 11.7% 137 42.2) on the basis of the indicators below.5% 31 9.6% 322 OER.9% 50 15. which raises a question on how it develops and how it relates to the actual use of OER4. they are not directly observed. because I 60 18.5% 79 24. See Annex 3.1% 65 20. I feel uneasy about 62 19. I have no interest in using 68 21. assuming their link to behaviours.3% 322 because as an educational professional.6% 3 . I feel uncomfortable. because 60 18. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 161 . pertaining to the level of lack of interest in OER.9% 322 not know how to assess the quality of the OER.6% 38 11. 63 19.7% 61 18. 4 This can also be concluded from the strong negative bias of the variable (to the right). because I 56 17.9% 91 28.9% 25 7.1% 2 . I feel challenged.

because I do not know what my students might think of me. because I do not know how to assess the quality of the OER. For the scale with 4 items identified in the ACP.948.620 I feel uneasy about openly sharing the learning resources that took me a lot of time .595 -. Table 5. it reaches 0. Explained Variance (%) 30. this is understandable when we consider its (positive) tendency. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.448 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Are these elements more external-oriented or.177 I feel uncomfortable. . if I use . I feel that I am obliged .7 – Dimensions of the attitudes of educational professionals vis-a-vis OER Matrix of principal components Component 1 2 Other-Oriented Self-Oriented attitudes attitudes I am uneasy. on the opposite. a fact which was also validated by the correlations between the original variables (these items of answer) and the variable taken as dependent.717 I have no interest in using OER.675. in which all indicators revealed some significant correlation.8 – Attitudes of educational professionals vis-a-vis OER (Other-Oriented Attitudes) Synthetic index Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Strongly 1. We thus built an index which aims at measuring the attitudes of these individuals vis-a-vis the use of OER: fear. Table 5.695.670 . elements which are more oriented to personal interests and fears? What comes between the way individuals represent OER and the use they make of them? The distribution of this new synthetic variable is as follows.739 .277 . because it is not so easy to understand how exactly they fit into . p ≤ 0. we used the indicators showing the highest correlation with component 1 (Other-Oriented) so as to build an attitudinal index which reflects this external orientation. However.227 .001 As such. a principal components analysis allows us to identify two dimensions which are latent in these answers: one which may be described as eminently oriented to the other (such as learners or resources themselves). From a conceptual viewpoint. as opposed to the remaining items5. because as an educational professional. it rises to 0. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 162 . I feel uncertain.4 . the index of OER use.460 another person’s educational resources instead of creating my own. because it is not so easy to understand how exactly they fit into my course programmes» is removed.745 . Cronbach’s Alpha is of 0. -.987 21. However. in relation to OER. the aggregation of the remaining items seems justified.4 5 For the scale with 7 items. because it is not so easy to understand how exactly they fit into my course programmes» is removed.2 . to the extent that they are all measuring attitudes. a. and another which may be described as oriented to the individual – his/her personal benefits. tests revealed that scale reliability improves substantially when the item «I feel challenged. insecurity. we chose to exclude this item from the newly built synthetic variable. interests or fears.368 . .545 and effort to produce. As such.742 if the item «I feel challenged.211 to create the learning materials. with the exception of the first and the fifth.436% KMO: 0. Total Variance explained: 52. discomfort and unfamiliarity with context and language.00 1 .136 my course programmes. because I do not need to create my own materials. I feel challenged.751 | Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity: Approx. I am relieved. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. Chi-Square: 310. However. df 21.

2 1.1 25. which reflects the aggregation of attitudes vis-a-vis OER. The interaction between the two variables is represented as follows.3 2.01).4 – Correlation between the frequency of use of OER and attitudes of professionals vis- a-vis OER Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 163 . Agree 1.7 4.6 62. and the utilisation index.241.3 – Histogram: Attitudes of professionals vis-a-vis OER How do these attitudes relate to the use of OER (OEP)? If the correlations with the original variables were already anticipating some significant relation.67 25 5.33 37 7.9 100.0 10.2 3. The two variables – attitudinal and practices – correlate positively.0 Diagram 5. Diagram 5. p≤0.9 14.8 Strongly 4.00 34 7.5 2.8 3. this is corroborated by the correlation between the newly built variable.1 2.3 77.5 10.6 37.7 86.3 9.00 7 1.00 97 20.0 disagree Total 258 54.6 2.1 3.6 1.2 13.0 Missing System 212 45.2 100.67 3 .1 Total 470 100.33 28 6.9 15.67 26 5. even if in quite a moderate way (r=0.

below is the obtained distribution of frequencies. Relation between Representations of Barriers to OEP and Attitudes of Educational Professionals vis- à-vis OEP The only significant relation identified.9 – Country of origin of the respondent (aggregated) In which country do you work or study? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 EU countries 370 78. Relation between structural variables and uses of OER (OEP) In this point the focus is to explain the relation between the frequency of OER use (the dependent variable that has been used) and structural variables which. 3. the higher the tendency for attitudes of discomfort and uncertainty vis-a-vis the use of OER.7 78.3 21. «Lack of technological tools» (-0. p ≤0.7 78. was the relation with the second component of representations of barriers to OEP. The technological component thus assumes an important role. This variable has been re-codified into two categories – EU countries and other countries. The correlation indicates that the more the individuals tend to identify the lack of technological tools as a barrier to the use of OER.0 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 164 .7 2 Other countries 100 21. in this case. in that it is perceived by the individuals as a handicap which renders their use of OER more difficult. generating (or being generated by) attitudes of reluctance in relation to OER.3 100.1 of the questionnaire). although moderate.254. will amount to only one: the respondent’s country of origin (Q1.01). Table 5.

06031 Relation between institutional variables and uses of OER (OEP) It is assumed that the respondents’ OER frequency of use may be related with institutional variables.9838 . Error work or study? N Mean Deviation Mean Index of OER Use Frequency 1 EU countries 329 1.3 100.0 Total 470 100. A One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) run was carried out for this Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 165 .1 71. Cross linking this variable (Status of the Institution) with the frequency of OER use.0 As is clear.1 71.8 9.11 – Frequency of OER and Status of the Institution What is the status of the institution? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 Public 334 71.7 78. the great majority of respondents works or studies in EU countries. which did not reveal any statistical significance between these two questions (t=0. the type of education offered by the institution (Q1. no relation was established between the two. sig>0.8 100. That is to say. the dimension of the institution in terms of learners/students (Q1. Notwithstanding the significant difference in the two categories of this variable.58989 . For this end.05) (Annex 1).0 100.7 2 Other countries 100 21.8) and the existence (or inexistence) of an OER programme or initiative at the respondent’s institution (Q1.03252 2 Other countries 89 1.1 2 Private not-for-profit 90 19.2 3 Private for-profit 46 9. In this regard.732.5) Table 5. Frequency of OER use and Status of the Institution (Q1. foreseeable in view of the similar means of OER use frequency.7 78.1 90. in fact. i. the frequency of OER use is identical for European respondents and non European respondents (which was.. Table 5.0 Total 470 100.0 Circa 70% of the respondents integrate public institutions. obtained for the two groups).5).3 21. it should be verified whether the respondents’ country of origin links to the frequency of OER use.1 19. In which country do you work or study? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 EU countries 370 78.10 – OER Use Frequency: means of the two types of countries Group Statistics In which country do you Std. with variables that characterise the institutions to which the respondents belong. some exploratory exercises will be carried out on the basis of the variables concerning the status of the institution (Q1.0 100.9326 .9).e.6).56893 . Std. a T-test was applied to assess the difference in means.

05 which indicates the inexistence of a relation between these two questions.9 3 1001 to 5000 103 21. purpose.157 2 . Between Groups . Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 166 . For this purpose.2 4 More than 5000 233 49. A T-test was used to assess the difference in means. by Status of Institution: ANOVA test ANOVA Index of OER Use Frequency Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.229 .9 24. Table 5.2 20.0 Total 425 90. The results may be found in the table below. it was proven that the frequency of OER use is not determined by the type of status of the respondent’s institution (sig>0.3 9.344 Total 142.12 – OER Use Frequency.6 54.6 Total 45 9. How far the dimension of the institution determines the frequency of OER use will be established next.6) Table 5.647 415 . the significance associated with the test value is higher than 0. Frequency of OER use and Dimension of the Institution in terms of learners/students (Q1.796 Within Groups 142.0 It is clear that respondents are part of large-sized institutions with respect to the number of learners (around 79% integrate institutions with more than 1000 learners). As demonstrated below.6 11.8 100. the frequency of OER use was correlated with the size of the institution.0 Missing 5 Don’t know 28 6. where.079 .2 45.8 2 501 to 1000 39 8.8 11. the variable concerning the Status of the Institution was re- codified into two categories.6 Total 470 100.4 100.0 System 17 3.804 417 Further complementing the analysis.05) (Annex 2). once again.13 – Dimension of the Institution in terms of learners/students What is the size of the institution in terms of learners/ students? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 Less than 500 50 10. the second category including the options Private not-for-profit and Private for-profit.

This seems to be the case.087 . by Type of Education the Institution offers: ANOVA test ANOVA Index of OER Use Frequency Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.16 – OER Use Frequency. N 377 418 As it is easily established.092 institution in terms of Sig.6 48.0 Missing System 17 3. (2-tailed) .3 3 Mixed 234 49.7 100.092 1.4 100.8 51. Table 5.8) Education offered by the institution is divided into three different types: online.076 learners/ students? N 425 377 Index of OER Use Frequency Correlation Coefficient -. Table 5. By applying a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) it may be concluded that there is a relation between these two questions (sig<0.05). traditional and mixed.14 – Correlation between Frequency of OER Use and Dimension of the Institution What is the size of the institution in terms of Index of OER Use learners/ students? Frequency Spearman's rho What is the size of the Correlation Coefficient 1.076 . as depicted in the table below.0 Total 453 96.01).2 38.330 Total 136.577 402 But what is the meaning of this relationship? Which groups differ in terms of frequency of OER use? Table 5.001 Within Groups 131.0 It is expected that the frequency of OER use is related with the type of education of each institution.000 -.7 9.903 400 . . Frequency of OER use and the Type of education offered by the institution (Q1. the latter is the most frequent among the respondents’ institutions.17 – Multiple Comparisons Multiple Comparisons Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 167 . (2-tailed) .000 Sig.15 – Type of education the institution offers Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 Online (also Distance 44 9.7 Education) 2 Traditional (Campus-based) 175 37.674 2 2.6 Total 470 100. Between Groups 4.337 7. Table 5.4 9. the correlation between these two questions is not significant (sig>0.

0793 .1415 (Campus-based) Distance Education) * 3 Mixed -.3778 -. Lower Bound Upper Bound Scheffe 1 Online (also 2 Traditional .11187 . Error Sig. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 168 .540 -.3633 .10507 .06075 .10235 .1396 .11187 .9) Among the respondents having knowledge of the existence of an open resources’ programme or initiative at their institution. The mean of the values of the OER use frequency index is lower in traditional education.1396 2 Traditional 1 Online (also -. The mean difference is significant at the 0.3748 . are those which differ the most as regards the frequency of OER use (sig<0.551 -. Groups 2 and 3.3748 Distance Education) (Campus-based) 3 Mixed -. i.22852 .05 level.10235 .5 – OER Use Frequency.001 -.001 .551 -.06075 .0793 3 Mixed 1 Online (also .11665 . Diagram 5. by Type of Education the Institution offers Mean of the Index of OER Use Frequency Frequency of OER use and Existence of an open resources’ programme or initiative in the institution (Q1..3633 Distance Education) * 2 Traditional .540 -. Dependent Variable: Index of OER Use Frequency Mean 95% Confidence Interval (I) Type of education (J) Type of education Difference the institution offers the institution offers (I-J) Std.01). groups of traditional education and mixed education.e.22852 .3778 (Campus-based) *.11665 .10507 .1415 . responses were quite balanced: around 55% of respondents said such a programme already exists.

000).24484 . t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper Index of OER Equal .377 3. that the index of OER use frequency is higher in institutions where such programme or initiative already exists.589 274 .11053 .6 System 17 3.000 .56065 .8 100.19 – OER Use Frequency.9328 .592 263. by already existent programme or initiative in the institution: Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-Test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Sig. Error F Sig. Table 5.1776 . Error already exists in the institution N Mean Deviation Mean Index of OER Use 1 Yes 152 2.4 54.11064 . the conclusion is indeed that the frequency of OER use is higher in institutions where an open resources’ programme or initiative already exists (mean = 2.0 It is legitimate to conclude.784 .18 – Does an OER programme or initiative already exist in the institution? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1 Yes 171 36.05035 Table 5.04593 Frequency 2 No 124 1.24484 . by already existent programme or initiative in the institution: mean differences Group Statistics An OER programme or initiative Std. and the result is presented below. Table 5. this test indicates that there is a relation between these two questions (sig<0.20 – OER Use Frequency. As expected.2 Total 470 100. Mean Std.000 .56631 .37914 Use variances Frequency assumed Equal 3.6 Total 156 33. Thus. Std.0 Total 314 66.06822 .5 54.5 100. a T-test was used to assess the difference in means.0 Missing 88 I do not know 139 29.5 2 No 143 30. (2.1776). on the basis of the responses obtained.992 .37903 variances not assumed Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 169 . Looking at the descriptive statistics (first table).06815 .4 45.

After it. including the variables which were more significant for explaining the variability. while the second block concerns the dimensions of attitudes of professionals vis-a-vis OER. the three variables explain 12. This analysis in blocks allowed us to understand that both clusters contribute in almost the same way to the increase in the explained variance. the integration of the second block. This variable alone explains about 5% of the total variability of the frequency of OER use. 7 The regression model presented herein is statistically significant. The first block concerns the institutional variable pertaining to the type of education offered by the institution and to the existence of OER programmes or initiatives in the institution.184* Self-Oriented Attitudes 0. the dimensions of educational agents’ representations of barriers to OER use.2% Other-oriented Attitudes 0. and the attitudes of educational professional vis-a-vis OER.2% of the variability of the dependent variable: frequency of OER use7. The purpose of this analysis is to understand which block of questions contributes most to the increase in the explained variance. which selects variables with significant explanatory capacity. two blocks coming from the previous analysis were integrated. followed by the attitudes of professionals which are more self-oriented.21 – Main Factors Explaining OER Practices: Multi Linear Regression Model (multistage) Explanatory variables OER PRACTICES OER Programmes/Initiatives 0.7% increase and the first block. The assumptions underlying this analysis were verified and are in annex (annex 3). restricting the model to the use of those variables which demonstrated a relation with that frequency in the bivariate analysis previously presented. concerning the institutional variable pertaining to the existence of OER programmes/initiatives. the variables that better explain the OER frequency are precisely the dimensions of the professionals’ attitudes: the attitudes of professionals which are more other-oriented coming in first place. using the enter method. namely the dimensions of Lack of institutional support and Lack of skills and time of users. Subsequently. with F=7. p<0.470.Explaining Open Educational Practices The Multiple Linear Regression model aims at identifying the variables that better explain the frequency of OER use. originated a 5. In this case. we undertook a multiple linear regression analysis in blocks. the stepwise statistical method was used. other-oriented attitudes and self-oriented attitudes. excluding the remaining.151* 2 ΔR =5. No=0) 2 ΔR =5. There is no multicollinearity between the independent variables used. For that purpose it takes into account the relations found between this frequency and the independent variables6. In this first regression model a greater explanatory capacity was found in the independent variable concerning the existence of OER programmes or initiatives in the institution. concerning the dimensions of attitudes of professionals vis-a-vis OER.065 2 Stepwise Method Adjusted R = 12.7% Constant 2. We may therefore conclude that overall. according to the model found. Table 5. originated a 5. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 170 . Firstly.2% increase when explaining the variance in frequency of OER use.2% 6 The independent variables considered which did show a relation with OER practices are the institutional variables pertaining to the type of education offered by the institution and to the existence of OER programmes or initiatives in the institution.165* (Yes=1. Chapter VI .001.

MCA) and. students). individuals from institutions where such programmes/initiatives already exist did show a higher frequency of OER use. mostly. as expected. One should consider in-depth analysis of qualitative variables with few responses and proceed to exploratory analyses that enable the identification of a topology of OEP (e. As regards the existence of open resources’ programmes or initiatives in the institution.. insecurity or discomfort vis-a-vis OER. a typology of users (cluster analysis). considering the reduced number of variables introduced and. Although the small amount of explained variance of the model. regardless of educational professionals considering OER to be important for themselves or for others (e. the higher the frequency of OER use. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 171 . the lesser the fear. finally. its exploratory nature. we find it an interesting result. as well as exploring further dimensions of use of OER as dependent variables (purposes and types of use). It may thus be concluded that.g. Future analysis should focus on the importance of variables related to social representations vis-a-vis OER and OEP (other than representations of barriers).g.

In J. Psicologia Social (pp. P. Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. References: 1. Creative Commons: 2007. Paris: 2007. L.). M. Lima. 3. J. A. (1993). OECD.. 2. challenges and new opportunities. Hammond. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 172 . D. Vala. B. Monteiro (Eds. M. Seely Brown.. A review of the Open Educational Resources movement: Achievements. Atkins. Atitudes. 167- 199)..

117 needs for teaching/ learning Valid N (listwise) 418 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 173 .226 .117 web for teaching/ learning Creating OER myself and 431 1 3 1.13 . Error Using existing OER from the 439 1 3 2.95 .778 .679 -.160 .87 . ANNEXES Annex 1 – Distribution of the variables pertaining to the use of OER in the four target groups Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.700 .064 .118 publishing them on the web Changing existing OER to fit my 432 1 3 1. Deviation Skewness Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std.

135 .00 3.704 -.00 3 .132 2.00 3.898 -.00 3 .559 . Error of Valid Missing Mean Median Mode Deviation Skewness Skewness 25 50 75 Not invented here 343 127 2.00 time to create or use OER.00 institutional level supporting the creation or use of OER Lack of interest in the 339 131 3.00 3 .00 3.132 3.08 3.63 3.00 3.00 4 .131 1.00 3.81 3.00 3. Std.776 -.00 management level of higher education institutions.77 3.750 -.381 .00 3.00 syndrome: no trust in others resources.00 suitable materials Lack of Internet 344 126 2.656 .768 -.00 2.856 -.903 .82 3.812 -.132 3.132 3. Educational professionals 341 129 3.132 2.211 .00 3. Annex 2 – Distribution of the variables pertaining to representations of barriers to the use of OER N Percentiles Std.578 .00 pedagogical innovation among staff members No support from 339 131 3.00 lack the time to create or use OER.67 3.778 -.133 2.133 2.00 4.00 4. Lack of policies at 341 129 3.00 native language OER are not embedded 341 129 2.557 .00 4. Lack of time to find 347 123 2.131 2.935 -.132 3.00 3.371 .00 lack the skills to create or use OER.769 -.00 computers Lack of quality of the OER 337 133 2.00 3.737 -.789 -.744 -.00 connectivity Lack of software to adapt 344 126 2.361 .91 3.819 -.00 3 .144 .00 3 . Educational professionals 340 130 3.132 3.00 3 .132 2. Students/learners lack the 340 130 2.132 2. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 174 .340 .00 3 .00 3 .00 skills to create or use OER.00 the resources to the user’s purposes Lack of access to 346 124 2.790 -.00 4.00 members devoting time and energy to OER development Lack of interest in 340 130 3.03 3.096 .00 1 1.00 4.06 3.131 3.132 3.499 .00 4.255 .00 3.00 1 1.871 .00 3.00 3 .00 4.00 3.850 -.00 3 .00 3.132 3.00 3.132 2.00 4.00 3 .790 -.00 3.00 creation or use of OER.00 3.00 3 .00 3.00 3.132 3.25 2.00 3.757 .00 culturally relevant to the user Lack of OER in the user’s 343 127 2.00 3.30 3.00 3.00 into the learning scenarios No reward system for staff 343 127 3.00 2.00 3.66 3.31 2.21 3.13 3.00 3.00 Lack of OER that are 342 128 2.00 national/regional level to support OER development Lack of a policy at 340 130 3.00 3. Students/learners lack the 338 132 2.00 4.035 .131 1.363 .09 3.00 3 .00 3.00 3 .428 .17 3.136 .00 3 .00 3.65 3.88 3.00 3 .

00 3.794 .66 3. because I uncomfortable. OER.00 3.00 3.580 Skewness -.00 3.00 4.151 .00 3.00 Mode 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 Std.493 .00 50 3.00 3.21 2.810 .00 2. Deviation .05 3. if I I feel about openly relieved.547 -. learning materials.02 3. own.239 -. because I do not know what my I am students might I feel uneasy I am uneasy. Error of .460 -.00 3.00 2.653 . I feel think of me.00 3.00 4.149 . programmes.66 Median 3.75 4.151 .370 -1.00 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 175 .00 3.00 75 3.738 Std.153 Skewness Percentiles 25 2. produce.00 3.114 -.150 .00 3.00 2. I feel resources understand how that took me no create my the that I am obliged instead of exactly they fit a lot of time interest own quality of to create the creating my into my course and effort to in using materials. sharing the because I do not because as an person’s because it is not learning do not know how educational educational so easy to resources I have need to to assess professional. N Valid 266 261 259 262 262 260 254 Missing 204 209 211 208 208 210 216 Mean 2.95 3.150 . the OER.48 2.00 4.697 . use another challenged.00 3.00 3.00 3. on the part of the educational professionals I feel uncertain.00 3.00 3. Annex 3 – Descriptive statistics of the indicators of the attitudes vis-a-vis OER.151 .688 .777 .00 2.

g. learning management systems). D. Your responses will be kept confidential. The survey elicits quantitative information from four educational roles:  Policy Makers  Managers/Administrators (also institutional policy makers)  Educational Professionals  Learners The survey findings will be openly shared amongst participants and then on a broader scale within the educational community. challenges and new opportunities. 3.8). learning and research that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others.. 2. A review of the Open Educational Resources movement: Achievements. It will take you between 10-15 minutes to complete the survey. J. Definitions In this survey.  Open Educational Resources are digital materials for educators and learners to be used and/or reused for teaching. Open material used for the e-learning capacity building of educational professionals. A. p. Hammond. 2007. Annex 4 – Survey questionnaire (EN) OPEN EDUCATIONAL QUALITY INITIATIVE A survey on the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP) in Higher Education and Adult Learning Institutions Introduction Thank you for participating in this OPAL study (http://oer-quality.. 2007. and in Atkins. 5. p.  Open Educational Practices (OEP) are a set of activities around instructional design and implementation of events and processes intended to support learning. Open software tools (e. we use the following definitions. They are documented in a portable format and made openly available. Seely Brown. Open courseware and content. The survey is part of an important study mapping the use of OER and finding out if they improve the quality of educational practices. Repositories of learning objects. 4. (Based on the definitions provided in OECD-CERI. 30. In this survey we are interested in the practice of using open educational resources (OER) in higher education and adult learning institutions. They also include the creation.org) on the use of OER and OEP.. Free educational courses. use and repurposing of Open Educational Resources (OERs) and their adaptation to the contextual setting. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 176 . In addition we will look at the strategies of policy makers and institutional leaders to support OEP in their regions and institutions. This definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) includes: 1. We are also interested in how they change learning scenarios and educational institutions. Giving Knowledge for Free.

French or Portuguese) SECTION 1: GENERAL INFORMATION * Response required. the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and the Catholic University of Portugal. or work for. or still if you are engaged in policy making in (Please choose only one option): * Higher Education 1 Adult Learning 2 Q1.e. trainer. Aalto University (Finland). or ministry). With the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union Please select the language to respond to this survey! (English. OPAL is an initiative of UNESCO. Spanish. 1. In which country do you work or study? * (Country list for Dropdown) Q. 3 learning technology specialist. municipality.2. 4 Q1.g. etc. local government) I am an institutional policy maker.3 Please tell us which educational role you belong to primarily: * I am an educational policy maker at a European/international level (e.5 What is the status of the institution? (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION) * Public 1 Private not-for-profit 2 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 177 . with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. Please tell us your age and your gender: * Age You are below 30 1 30-39 2 40-49 3 50-59 4 60-69 5 You are over 69 6 Gender Male 1 Female 2 Q1. etc. European Parliament. technical college.g. or an adult learning institution. national government. curriculum designer.4 Please indicate your primary area of interest.).. 1. European 1 Commission).g. at a regional or local level (e. the European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning (EFQUEL) and a consortium of universities: The Open University (UK). or involved in the management or administration of an educational 2 organisation (manager.1. the International Council for Distance Education (ICDE). at a national level (e. if you are currently enrolled in. Q. i. a higher education establishment (university.) I am a learner. teacher. administrator) I am an educational professional in an educational organisation (professor.

2 How would you describe the kind of OER that you use for teaching/ learning? (YOU MAY CHOOSE ALL THE OPTIONS THAT FIT YOUR PERSONAL CASE) Complete courses/programmes. etc.9 Please tell us if an OER programme or initiative already exists in the institution (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION): * Yes 1 No 2 Filter: Please go to Section 2 I do not know 88 Filter: Please go to Section 2 Q1. Please specify: _________________________________ 4 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 178 . face-to-face.g. 3 Other.7 In which country is the institution located? * ___________________________________________ (Country list) Q1. please type the URL in the space below: SECTION 2: YOUR EXPERIENCES WITH THE USE OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES Q2.6 What is the size of the institution in terms of learners? * Less than 500 1 501 to 1000 2 1001 to 5000 3 More than 5000 4 I do not know 5 Q1. (YOU MAY CHOOSE ALL THE OPTIONS THAT FIT YOUR PERSONAL CASE) Never Sometimes Often (occasionally) (regularly) Using existing OER for teaching/training/learning.10 If it does and you would like to provide the website of such programme(s)/initiative(s). 1 2 3 Filter: The following question is only for learners and educational professionals Q2.).10 for all except policy-makers] Q 1. 2 Other materials for learning (e. individual websites. campus-based). documents. 2 Mixed 3 Q1. 1 2 3 Creating OER myself and publishing them. 1 2 3 Adapting existing OER to fit my needs for teaching/ training/learning. Private-for-profit 3 [Questions 1. 1 Parts of courses/programmes.8 Please tell us the kind of education the institution offers (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION): * Online and/or distance education/training. shared or adapted. videos.g..6 to 1. Please tell us if you have ever used or produced/provided such materials for teaching or learning.1 Open educational resources are resources which are freely available and can be used.. 1 Conventional (e.

assessment. 1 2 3 4 …shifts the role of learners from passive receivers to active 1 2 3 4 producers. non formal. Other. 1 2 3 4 …increases the participation of learners in educational scenarios. 1 2 3 4 I am uneasy. 3 To substitute my teaching/training in the classroom. Please specify. 5 To provide e-learning materials to learners. I feel uncomfortable. 4 To offer online and/or distance education/training. 9 SECTION 3: YOUR EXPERIENCES WITH OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES AND PRACTICES Filter: The following question is only for managers. I feel challenged. because I do not need to create my own materials. 1 To teach in the classroom. because I do not know how to assess the quality of the 1 2 3 4 OER. …demands for completely new models of education/training (incl. 1 2 3 4 pedagogy. Filter: The following question is only for educational professionals Q3. how would you rate the following statements? The use of open educational resources… Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree …improves the quality of education (formal. if I use another person’s educational resources instead of creating my own.1 Based on your experiences. 1 2 3 4 …leads to pedagogical changes. informal). educational professionals and learners Q3. I have no interest in using OER. 1 2 3 4 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 179 .3 For what purpose do you use OER? (YOU MAY CHOOSE ALL THE OPTIONS THAT FIT YOUR PERSONAL CASE) I am using OER: To prepare for my teaching/training or get new ideas and inspiration. because I do not know what learners might think of 1 2 3 4 me. 1 2 3 4 …shifts education/training provision from content to activity-based 1 2 3 4 learning. …shifts the role from teachers/tutors/trainers to facilitators. I feel 1 2 3 4 that I am obliged to create the learning materials. 2 To give to learners as self-study materials. organisation of educational institutions). because it is not so easy to understand how exactly 1 2 3 4 they fit into my course programmes. ________________________________________ 8 I am not using OER. Filter: The following question is only for educational professionals Q2. 6 To compare them with my own teaching/training materials in order to assess the quality of my 7 materials. I feel uneasy about openly sharing the learning resources that took 1 2 3 4 me a lot of time and effort to produce.2 How do you feel about using OER in your educational practice? Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree I am relieved. I feel uncertain. because as an educational professional. 1 2 3 4 …does not affect the teaching process at all.

.3 Please tell us what in your experience is the value of OER for education/training (formal. Please rate the following statements: Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The public policies only need to support the access to and 1 2 3 4 availability of OER in higher education institutions. because they are considered as not 1 2 3 4 being one’s own achievement.4 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 180 . managers and learners Q3. 4 3 2 1 Access to appropriate technology/ infrastructure. Q4.1 What is your view on open educational practices in higher education institutions today? (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE ANSWER) Do you think that… . they are moderately developed? 3 . 4 3 2 1 Provision of financial/sustainability support. they are sufficiently developed? 4 . 4 3 2 1 Promotion of guidelines/standards for OER creation and use. by rating the following statements: Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree OER raise efficiency because materials can be re-used. Promotion of quality assurance for OER. 4 3 2 1 Q4. they are underdeveloped? 2 . There is a need for specific public policies to support and 1 2 3 4 regulate the use of OER in higher education institutions. informal).. 1 2 3 4 OER are not so relevant for me.3 In your opinion. they are not developed at all? 1 Q4. Support in implementing appropriate licensing schemes 4 3 2 1 regarding copyright.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER.. how relevant are the following aspects in support of the effective use of OER in higher education? Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Support for OER promotion/ awareness building.. 4 3 2 1 Institutional support/recognition concerning OER 4 3 2 1 projects/initiatives. Using OER often is not accepted. Public policies are necessary to support skill development 1 2 3 4 for open educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders. because educational institutions 1 2 3 4 usually have fixed curricula in which OER often do not fit. and from a policy perspective.. [Higher education questionnaire] SECTION 4: OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES Filter: only for policy makers Q4.. 1 2 3 4 The quality of OER can be a problem. Filter: The following question is only for policy makers. Support for localisation/ adaptation/ translation of existing 4 3 2 1 OER. non formal.

Very Important Unimportant Very
important unimportant
Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. 4 3 2 1
Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1
Lack of Internet connectivity. 4 3 2 1
Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1
purposes.
Lack of access to computers. 4 3 2 1
Lack of quality of the OER. 4 3 2 1
Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 4 3 2 1
Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1
OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 4 3 2 1
Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1
devoting time and energy to OER development.
Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1
educational professionals.
Insufficient support from the management level of higher 4 3 2 1
education institutions.
Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1
creation or use of OER.
Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1
creation or use of OER.
Lack of interest in creating or using OER. 4 3 2 1
Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1
OER.
Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1
Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1
OER.
Learners lack the time to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1

Filter: only for managers/administrators

Q4.1 Consider open educational practices in higher education institutions today.
(PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION)
Do you think that…
... they are sufficiently developed? 4
... they are moderately developed? 3
... they are underdeveloped? 2
... they are not developed at all? 1

Q4.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER. Please rate the following
statements:
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
agree disagree
The public policies only need to support the access to and 1 2 3 4
availability of OER in higher education institutions.
There is a need for specific public policies to support and 1 2 3 4
regulate the use of OER in higher education institutions.
Public policies are necessary to support skill development 1 2 3 4
for open educational practices of educational professionals
and institutional leaders.

Q4.3 In your higher education institution, how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of
OER?
Implemented Implemented in some Individual Not
organisation-wide departments/units efforts existing

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
181

exist
An explicit institutional policy. 4 3 2 1
A partnership with other organisations. 4 3 2 1
Specific quality assurance processes for OER. 4 3 2 1
Specific technological infrastructure for OER 4 3 2 1
(e.g., an OER repository).
Specific pedagogical scenarios and models for 4 3 2 1
open educational practices.

Q4.4 How would you rate the following statements?
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
agree disagree
Using OER also leads to opening pedagogical scenarios. 1 2 3 4
Using OER leads to institutional innovations. 1 2 3 4
Adopting open practices is challenging for higher education 1 2 3 4
institutions.
The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices. 1 2 3 4
In order to stimulate the use of OER', specific skill support at 1 2 3 4
institutional level is needed.

Q4.5 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal
experience:
Very Important Unimportant Very
important unimportant
Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. 4 3 2 1
Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1
Lack of Internet connectivity. 4 3 2 1
Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1
purposes.
Lack of access to computers. 4 3 2 1
Lack of quality of the OER. 4 3 2 1
Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 4 3 2 1
Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1
OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 4 3 2 1
Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1
devoting time and energy to OER development.
Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1
educational professionals.
Insufficient support from the management level of higher 4 3 2 1
education institutions.
Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1
creation or use of OER.
Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1
creation or use of OER.
Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. 4 3 2 1
Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1
OER.
Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1
Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1
OER.
Learners lack the time to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1

Filter: only for educational professionals

Q4.1 Consider open educational practices in higher education institutions today.
(PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION)
Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
182

Do you think that …
...they are sufficiently developed? 4
...they are moderately developed? 3
...they are underdeveloped? 2
...they are not developed at all? 1

Q4.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER. Please rate the following
statements:
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
agree disagree
The public policies only need to support the access to and 1 2 3 4
availability of OER in higher education institutions.
There is a need for specific public policies to support and 1 2 3 4
regulate the use of OER in higher education institutions.
Public policies are necessary to support skill development 1 2 3 4
for open educational practices of educational professionals
and institutional leaders.

Q4.3 In your higher education institution, how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of
OER?
Implemented Implemented in some Individual Not
organisation-wide departments efforts exist existing
An explicit institutional policy. 4 3 2 1
A partnership with other organisations. 4 3 2 1
Specific quality assurance processes for 4 3 2 1
OER.
Specific technological infrastructures for 4 3 2 1
OER (e.g. an OER repository).
Specific pedagogical scenarios and models 4 3 2 1
for open educational practices.

Q4.4 How would you rate the following statements?
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
agree disagree
Some colleagues are using OER on a regular basis. 1 2 3 4
Teaching strategies promoting the use of OER are 1 2 3 4
explicitly supported in my higher education institution.
Adoption of open educational practices is specifically 1 2 3 4
supported in my higher education institution.
Using OER leads to improvement in educational practices. 1 2 3 4
Using OER leads to institutional innovation. 1 2 3 4
Adopting open practices leads to institutional innovation. 1 2 3 4
Using OER leads to new pedagogical practices. 1 2 3 4
In order to stimulate the use of OER, specific skill support 1 2 3 4
is needed.

Q4.5 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal
experience:
Very Important Unimportant Very
important unimportant
Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. 4 3 2 1
Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1
Lack of Internet connectivity. 4 3 2 1
Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1
purposes.
Lack of access to computers. 4 3 2 1
Lack of quality of the OER. 4 3 2 1

Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices
The OPAL Report 2011
183

Teachers/tutors explicitly support the use of open and 1 2 3 4 freely available learning materials. 4 3 2 1 Filter: only for learners/students Q4. OER allow me to study and learn without support from 1 2 3 4 teachers/tutors. Lack of access to computers. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 4 3 2 1 Lack of Internet connectivity. In my experience open educational resources are not 1 2 3 4 relevant for my studies. Insufficient support from management level of higher 4 3 2 1 education institutions. As a learner. I am encouraged to develop learning 1 2 3 4 materials myself and share those with others on the Internet. 4 3 2 1 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 184 . In order to use OER I would need a different form of 1 2 3 4 learning environment in my higher education institution.2 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others resources. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 4 3 2 1 Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1 purposes. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. The use of open educational resources allows me to 1 2 3 4 become independent from my higher education institution. The quality of open educational resources is too diverse 1 2 3 4 for OER to be really useful. 4 3 2 1 Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development.1 How would you rate the following statements? Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The use of OER is sufficiently developed in the courses 1 2 3 4 and programmes I am enrolled in. Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of time to find suitable materials. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. Q4. Learners lack the time to create or use OER. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of quality of the OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language.

4 3 2 1 Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language.org Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 185 . Learners lack the time to create or use OER. Insufficient support from the management level of higher 4 3 2 1 education institutions. 4 3 2 1 Thank you for your support! If you wish to receive the final report of this survey please enter your e-mail address here: ______________________________ To learn more about the Open Educational Quality Initiative go to: http://oer-quality. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER.

4 3 2 1 Promotion of guidelines/standards for OER creation and 4 3 2 1 use.they are sufficiently developed? 4 . There is a need for specific public policies to support and regulate the 1 2 3 4 use of OER in adult learning organisations. 4 3 2 1 Institutional support/recognition concerning OER 4 3 2 1 projects/initiatives. [Adult learning questionnaire] SECTION 4: OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES Filter: only for policy makers Q4. Q4. 4 3 2 1 Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1 purposes. Promotion of quality assurance for OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 186 . 4 3 2 1 Access to appropriate technology/ infrastructure..3 In your opinion.. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 4 3 2 1 Q4. 4 3 2 1 Lack of quality of the OER....4 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources.1 What is your view on open educational practices in adult learning organisations today? (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE ANSWER) Do you think that… . how relevant are the following aspects in support of the effective use of OER in adult learning? Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Support for OER promotion/ awareness building.. Support for localisation/ adaptation/ translation of 4 3 2 1 existing OER. Public policies are necessary to support skill development for open 1 2 3 4 educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER. Please rate the following statements: Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The public policies only need to support the access to and availability 1 2 3 4 of OER in adult learning organisations. and from a policy perspective. Provision of financial/sustainability support.they are moderately developed? 3 . Lack of access to computers... 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 4 3 2 1 Lack of Internet connectivity. Support in implementing appropriate licensing schemes 4 3 2 1 regarding copyright.they are underdeveloped? 2 .they are not developed at all? 1 Q4.

4 3 2 1 A partnership with other organisations..g. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER.3 In your adult learning organisation. how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of OER? Implemented Implemented in some Individual Not organisation-wide departments/ units efforts exist existing An explicit institutional policy. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER.they are not developed at all? 1 Q4. an OER repository).they are sufficiently developed? 4 .. 4 3 2 1 Specific quality assurance processes for 4 3 2 1 OER.they are underdeveloped? 2 . Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. Learners lack the time to create or use OER...1 Consider open educational practices in adult learning organisations today. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. Insufficient support from the management level of adult 4 3 2 1 learning organisations. 4 3 2 1 Filter: only for managers/administrators Q4.. Specific pedagogical scenarios and 4 3 2 1 models for open educational practices. Please rate the following statements: Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The public policies only need to support the access to and availability 1 2 3 4 of OER in adult learning organisations. (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION) Do you think that… .. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. There is a need for specific public policies to support and regulate the 1 2 3 4 use of OER in adult learning organisations. Q4. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER.. Specific technological infrastructure for 4 3 2 1 OER (e. Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development..4 How would you rate the following statements? Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 187 .they are moderately developed? 3 .. Public policies are necessary to support skill development for open 1 2 3 4 educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders. Q4.

4 3 2 1 Lack of quality of the OER.. Using OER also leads to opening pedagogical scenarios. 4 3 2 1 Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1 purposes. Q4.2 This question is about the level of public policies that are needed around OER.. specific skill support 1 2 3 4 at institutional level is needed. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. Lack of access to computers.. 4 3 2 1 Lack of Internet connectivity. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. Insufficient support from management level of adult 4 3 2 1 learning organisations.. The use of OER leads to new pedagogical practices. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER.they are not developed at all? 1 Q4. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. 4 3 2 1 Filter: only for educational professionals Q4. 4 3 2 1 Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1 Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. (PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE OPTION) Do you think that… .1 Consider open educational practices in adult learning organisations today... Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 188 . 1 2 3 4 In order to stimulate the use of OER.they are moderately developed? 3 . Learners lack the time to create or use OER..they are underdeveloped? 2 . Please rate the following statements: Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The public policies only need to support the access to and availability 1 2 3 4 of OER in adult learning organisations.5 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER.they are sufficiently developed? 4 . Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER.. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. 1 2 3 4 Using OER leads to institutional innovations. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. 1 2 3 4 Adopting open practices is challenging for adult learning 1 2 3 4 institutions.

4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1 A partnership with other organisations. There is a need for specific public policies to support and regulate the 1 2 3 4 use of OER in adult learning organisations. 4 3 2 1 Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1 purposes. Adoption of open educational practices is specifically supported in 1 2 3 4 my adult learning organisation. 4 3 2 1 Lack of Internet connectivity.5 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. specific skill support is 1 2 3 4 needed. Q4. Specific pedagogical scenarios and models 4 3 2 1 for open educational practices. Public policies are necessary to support skill development for open 1 2 3 4 educational practices of educational professionals and institutional leaders. Specific technological infrastructures for 4 3 2 1 OER (e. 4 3 2 1 Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. Q4. an OER repository).g. Lack of access to computers. 4 3 2 1 Specific quality assurance processes for 4 3 2 1 OER.4 How would you rate the following statements? Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree Some colleagues are using OER on a regular basis. 4 3 2 1 Lack of time to find suitable materials. 4 3 2 1 Lack of quality of the OER. Insufficient support from the management level of adult 4 3 2 1 learning organisations. 1 2 3 4 Adopting open practices leads to institutional innovation. how would you rate the following factors in support of the use of OER? Implemented Implemented in some Individual Not organisation-wide departments efforts exist existing An explicit institutional policy. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. 1 2 3 4 Teaching strategies promoting the use of OER are explicitly 1 2 3 4 supported in my adult learning organisation. 1 2 3 4 In order to stimulate the use of OER.3 In your adult learning organisation. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. 1 2 3 4 Using OER leads to institutional innovation. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the creation 4 3 2 1 Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 189 . 1 2 3 4 Using OER leads to new pedagogical practices. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. Using OER leads to improvement in educational practices. Q4.

4 3 2 1 Filter: only for learners/students Q4. Insufficient support from the management level of adult 4 3 2 1 learning organisations. Teachers/tutors/trainers explicitly support the use of open and 1 2 3 4 freely available learning materials. 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER that are culturally relevant to the user. The use of open educational resources allows me to become 1 2 3 4 independent from my adult learning organisation. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. 4 3 2 1 OER are not embedded into the learning scenarios. As a learner. 4 3 2 1 Lack of Internet connectivity. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the skills to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER. Lack of policies at national/regional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation among 4 3 2 1 educational professionals. 1 2 3 4 OER allow me to study and learn without support from 1 2 3 4 teachers/tutors/trainers. I am encouraged to develop learning materials myself 1 2 3 4 and share those with others on the Internet. 1 2 3 4 In order to use OER I would need a different form of learning 1 2 3 4 environment in my adult learning organisation.2 Please evaluate the relevance of the following barriers to the use of OER from your personal experience: Very Important Unimportant Very important unimportant Not invented here syndrome: no trust in others’ resources. Lack of policies at institutional level to support the 4 3 2 1 creation or use of OER. The quality of OER is too diverse for OER to be really useful. or use of OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of software to adapt the resources to the user’s 4 3 2 1 purposes. 4 3 2 1 Lack of quality of the OER. 4 3 2 1 Insufficient reward system for educational professionals 4 3 2 1 devoting time and energy to OER development.1 How would you rate the following statements? Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree The use of OER is sufficiently developed in the courses and 1 2 3 4 programmes I am enrolled in. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use OER. Lack of access to computers. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 190 . 4 3 2 1 Lack of OER in the user’s native language. 4 3 2 1 Learners lack the time to create or use OER. Lack of interest in the creation or use of OER. Q4. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1 Lack of time to find suitable materials. In my experience OER are not relevant for my studies.

4 3 2 1 Thank you for your support! If you wish to receive the final report of this survey please enter your e-mail address here: ______________________________ To learn more about the Open Educational Quality Initiative go to: http://oer-quality. Learners lack the skills to create or use OER.org Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices The OPAL Report 2011 191 . Learners lack the time to create or use OER. 4 3 2 1 Educational professionals lack the time to create or use 4 3 2 1 OER.