Chapter 5 Lead Acid batteries

5-1. Introduction 5-2. Composition 5-3. Chemistry 5-4. Manufacture 5-5. Performance/characteristics 5-6. Applications, advantages and disadvantages 5-7. Failure analysis 5-8. Self discharge 5-9. Improvement of the grid material 5-10. Other improvement of Lead acid batteries 5-11. Types of starting, lighting, and ignition (S.L.I.) batteries 5-12. Maintenance

5-1. Introduction

1. Lead acid battery is the first secondary battery developed in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Plante. 2. After more than 150 years, lead acid battery is still most widely know and used. 3. Despite having the second lowest energy density (next to the nickel-iron battery), their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors. 4. Nickel-iron alkaline battery was the second rechargeable battery introduced by Edison in 1908 as a power source for the early EV. But it was shorted-lived. 5. The pocket-plate Ni-Cd battery was developed in 1909 and was used mainly for heavy industrial applications. However, the sintered-plate process did not invent until 1950s. NiMH(nickel metal hydride batteries were developed in 1980s and Li-ions batteries are in 1990s). 6. Lead-acid batteries are completely recyclable, relatively inexpensive, and can be made to provide reliable power to almost any application. 7. In lead-acid battery, lead dioxide is the active material in positive electrode and metal lead is the active material in negative electrode. Typically, a charged lead oxide has two structures, α (orthorhombic) and β (tetragonal) forms. The α - PbO2 has a higher equilibrium potential than β - PbO2 by 0.01V. In actual composition, both forms are non-stoichiometric expressed as PbOx with x = 1.85 – 2.05. Physical and chemical properties of lead and lead oxides _____________________________________________________ Property Lead α - PbO2 β - PbO2 _____________________________________________________ Molecular weight M.p (oC) Structure Density (g/cc) Heat capacity (cal/deg.mol) Elec. Resistivity (μΩ/cm at 20oC) 207.2 327.4 fcc 11.34 6.80 rhombic 9.1-9.4 14.87 ~ 10 5 tetragonal 9.1-9.4 14.87 239.19 239.19


Eo(V), 31.8oC 0.356 ~1.709 ~1.692 (in 4.4 M H2SO4) ________________________________________________________

slow the creation of lead crystal.36V Eo = 1.2 to 3mm thickness) Notes: A separator is not just an insulator between positive and negative electrodes. etc. and (9) reduce the loss of electrolyte in charge & loss maintenance.69V Eo = 2. (8) prevent the active materials from falling off. (4)high volume porosity. Battery separator is supplied in rolls or pieces.2. (0. PVC . Discharge mode (-) Anode : Pb + SO42.0.36V Eo = . (3)absorb enough electrolyte.05V B.69V Eo = .5-2. nylon. (7) supply the channels for hydrogen and oxygen free passing to react.05V . PbSO4 + 2H2O • Over all : PbO2 + Pb + 4H+ + 2SO42. PbSO4 + 2e(+) Cathode: PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42. Recharge mode: (+) Anode : PbSO4 + 2H2O  PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42.. It is important to have another properties: (1)good acid resistance. Chemistry A. (6)good compression ability to ensure the high plate group pressure.+ 2e(-) Cathode : PbSO4 + 2e. PP. (5)enough tensile strengthen both in machine direction and cross direction. Cell Composition Positive electrode : PbO2 (PbOx . α + β form) Negative electrode : Pb (PbO2 pasted grid plates in the beginning) Electrolyte : 5M H2SO4 aqueous solution. (2) uniform thickness. 5-3. Pb + SO42Over all : 2PbSO4 + 2H2O  Pb + PbO2 + 4H+ + 2SO42Eo = -1. Current collector : Lead alloy grids (perforated sheet or mesh cloth) Separator: porous fiberglass mat. PE. 2PbSO4 + 2H2O Eo = 0.+ 2e.

Over-discharge (positive limit case): (-) Anode: Pb + SO42. Full charge and Overcharge (positive limit case) (+) Anode: 2H2O  4H+ + O2 ↑ + 4e- Eo = 1.+ 2e.C. H2 ↑ D. Over-discharge (negative limit case) (-) Anode: 2H2O  4H+ + O2 ↑ + 4e(+) Cathode: PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42.69V . PbSO4 + 2eEo = 0.36V Eo = 0 (+) Cathode: 2H+ + 2e. PbSO4 + 2H2O E.

lid.7% Container. The more the acid is used. Pb + SO424H+ + 4e. Manufacture 1.3% b) Flat-plate tractor battery . Under positive pressure in seal cell.(-) Cathode PbSO4 + 2e. (3) As mixing proceeds. the lower the plate density will be.e. the paste viscosity will increases first and then decreases due to the reaction between PbO2 and H2SO4 . additional agent such as inert fiber may also be added to improve mechanic property. then sulfuric acid solution. it leads to the loss of water.: 2H2O  O2 ↑ + 2H2 ↑ - in a non-sealed cell. Therefore. oxygen recombination could occurs in the negative electrode O2 + 2H2  2H2O 5-4. (2) PbO2 mix dry powder is placed into a mixer. F. then add water. the batteries). a method to have the recombination to prevent the hydrogen evolution is necessary . the PbO 2 : H2SO4 ratio is generally low. while for the deep cycling plates. Note A: The weight distribution of Lead acid batteries (1) In a lead-acid battery. the formation of O2 and H2 is not good for safety. 2H2 ↑ over all rx. vent plugs = 10. the PbO 2 : H2SO4 ratio is high. In the seal cells.separator. The temperature will increases as well and should be controlled by cooling jackets and/or by the evaporation of water. (2) The weight distribution of typical lead-acid batteries a) SLI battery Active materials = 36% Electrolyte = 27.5% Top lead = 4. The viscosity and therefore the density of the paste depend on the type of applications (i. For SLI plates. the weight of active components < ½ of the total weight. (4) The final paste mixture is controlled by the specification of density or the viscosity. Paste (slurry) preparation (1) Pb + PbO2 + additives (red lead Pb3O4 which is more conductive than PbO2 may be added to PbO2 mix.5% Grids = 21.

Assembly . (a) low temperature (25 – 40oC) and low humidity for 1 – 3 days. The expanders are to prevent the formation of larger Pb crystal grains and maintain the porosity and high surface area of negative electrode in operation. Pasting process The process is placing the paste onto the holes of grid structure (perforate / expanded /mesh) via a pasting machine. So that the battery gets a much longer life-time. negative 11. 3.1% (positive 20. (b) high temperature (65 – 90oC) and high humidity. Shedding reduces the capacity and cause shorting. lid. The long crystals have more surface area and are easily converted back to the original state on charging. separator. etc. If the paste is not cured enough. 2. Note B: In lead acid batteries. It is designed to ensure a low internal resistance. Note D. vent plugs = 8. The specifications of width and the thickness of paste depend on the type of batteries to be made.. The difference is that for negative plate. Lignosulfonate used in lead batteries (in some tenth of a percent) acts on crystallisation of the lead sulphate. 4. high cost.Active materials = 40. heavy.3%) Electrolyte = 18. Positive electrodes also are made in other two forms: Plante’ plates and tubular plates. a certain length of the grid roll is used. it is pale in color. dry paste additives such as expanders are added and premixed into Pb + PbO2 before water and sulfuric acid addition to make paste. This process also includes quick drying and/or cutting for stacking and/or racking.8%. During pasting. Note C.3% (positive 15.8% Container. It enables the formation of long needle like crystals.. negative 19. is “soft”. . At the end of curing. minimize the shedding of active material on cycling. the free lead in the paste plate should be less than 4%.4%) Top lead = 5. In aqueous solutions the hydrophobic parts of the molecules bind to the dispersed particle. Two types if curing were used. and prevents the negative plate from forming a solid mass of lead sulfate during the discharge cycle. The lignosulfonate (water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers. contains the hydroxyl and sulfonic acid groups. Various proprietary additives are either to ease processing or to improve the battery performance. both the positive electrode and negative electrodes (plates) are using paste process. Both are not popular due to low capacity. Blanc fixe (barium sulfate) and lignosulfonate are useful additives. mechanically (bending strength) weak and easily broken. Cured plates are stored until use. Dispersed barium sulfate in the paste acts as a seed crystal for the formation of the porous non-passivating PbSO4 layer.9%.6%% Grids = 17. Grid is very important to the performance of cells.2%. while the hydrophilic part bind towards water and thus the particle is kept in solution. The paste process for both electrodes are essentially the same. Curing It is to make the past into porous plates and to have strong mechanical bond between paste and grid.

Heavy duty batteries use small pore size separators and are wrapped with several layerdof gass mat to help retain the active material during cycles to have a longer life. wilding. separators can be in individual pieces (“leaf”) or in “envelop” pieces. and cover sealing. . Practical cells contain at least 3 plates with separators in between. putting in battery case. The typical pore sizes of separators are 5 – 30 micrometers. adding electrolyte. short testing. In use. one negative and one separator in between.The simplest cell consists of one positive. Plates and separators are stacked either manually or by an assembly machine which will do stacking.

e. Such a cell is ready to be used. The advantage of dry-charged batteries is long. This will enhance the formation of fine and porous. with one more positive plate than negative. Formation (1) Tank formation : Plate formation before assembly. (2) Alternatively. there are one or two chargedischarge cycles in the formation process. After tank formation and before assembly. However.1. it is 1. i. electrolyte and charge for several hours. After the acid has been added to the cell.20 1. some additives such as fine BaSO4 are added to the PbO2 paste. Dry-charged batteries must be filled with electrolyte or "activated" and then boosted before being placed in service.28 None 1. The grid plate is forming a high porous sponge network consisting of a mass of tiny lead crystals.29 (up to 1. An odd number of plates is usually used.32 for golf EV cart). while the PbSO4 in negative electrode is reduced to pure metal lead.. once dry. Formation Condition of Electrolyte ________________________________________________________________________ Typical application H2SO4 concentration Initial (sp. 1. _________________________________________________________________________ Note: After formation.% aqueous solution (see Table below). the positive and negative electrodes are “charged” first in a controlled condition. The procedures are to convert the positive and negative electrodes into fully charged condition using controlled currents/voltages.255 for golf cart.26 – 1.005 . That gives a high surface area and good contact with the electrolyte. Plates or assembled groups can be charged and discharged cycles in a slotted plastic formation tank before being placed into the case. so that it is only necessary to add the sulfuric acid and the battery is ready for use. and the negative turn the slate gray of 'spongy' lead. In tropical climate. Typically.28 to 1. non passivation layer of PbSO 4. the cell is given its first forming charge.275 for aircraft. Each alternate plate is connected together. .33 the formed electrodes have to be protected in a container under inert gas atmosphere. the electrodes can also be stored in “dry charge”. the cells generally are stored in “dry charge” state to avoid self discharge during storage.23 Dump and refill with Final (sp. The PbSO4 in positive electrode is oxidized to form PbO2 . or (2) Case formation: Cell formation after assembly but before final assembly in the battery case.5. the plates are then stacked together with suitable separators and inserted in the battery container. The battery's plates are pre-charged so they become activated after the electrolyte is added. During this formation process. the specific gravity of cell is 1. In order to reduce and or prevent the formation of large crystals from small grains of lead crystals (and therefore maintain the high surface area as well as reduce the passivation due to PbSO 4 formation).21 -1.15 1.24 for SLI batteries and 1. indefinite shelf life before electrolyte is added. Modern manufacturing methods invariably produce the positive and negative plates ready formed. The positive plates gradually turn the chocolate brown color of lead Subsequent processing SLI (one shot) All others (two shot) 1. the electrolyte is removed and inert gas is filled. time and temperatures in proper H2SO4 wt. At the end of fully charged.15 .

8wt%) 1. = .0835 Ah/g = 83.21 at the end of discharge.265 1. Pb = 207g/mole. reducing the conductivity and polarization.0.8 Ah x 2.080_________ State of charge 100% 75 50 25 0 .28 in full charge.05 V/642g = .8Ah x 2 / 642 = 0. Theoretical capacity of lead acid cell is: PbO = 239g/mole. The nominal voltage of the cells is 2 V.5-5.185 1.225 1.190 1.150 1.225 1.171 wh/g = -171 wh/kg 2. specific gravity of electrolyte SLI battery a stationary battery 1.115 1. 3.75V.120 (43. The decrease in the electrolyte density is due to the loss of H2SO4 to form more water.2 x 26.155 1. Performance/characteristics 1. The cut off potential is ~1.5 mAh/g Energy density = -nFEo/wt. H2SO4 = 98g/mole Total weight = 642gm Capacity = 26. The specific gravity of electrolyte is 1. and 1. the cell potential is decreasing due to the formation of PbSO4. During discharge.

059 log {a (H2SO4)/a (H2O)} 4.05 + 0.E = 2.2 50 12.8 5. State of charge for a 12V lead-acid battery State of charge SLI battery a 6V battery (at 25oC) 100% 12.3 75 12.4 6.2 6.6 V 6.0 6.05 + (RT/F) ln {a (H2SO4)/a (H2O)} E = 2.1 25 12.9 _______________________________________________ 5.0 0 11. Temperature effect on discharge . Rate capability 6.

7. Cycle life Over time. and . battery capacity degrades due to sulfation of the battery and shedding of active material. The degradation of battery capacity depends most strongly on:    the charging/discharging regime (current. undercharge etc). its exposure to prolonged periods of low discharge. the DOD of the battery over its life.Lead acid batteries are able to operate from -76°F to 140°F (-60°C to 60°C). temperature. overcharge.

2.PbO2 may occur resulting in the improvement of performance of the battery.PbO2 is easier to be covered an d isolated by PbSO4 due to the same crystalline structure (isomorphic). ~40MWh) power source. standby power source.discharge cycles. During the charge-discharge cycles. 9. Disadvantages • 1. Hydrogen evolution safety during full to overcharge. Electrical power system. • 3. Small electronics (small portable sizes.Telecommunication equipment. .PbO2 to β . Fire control and alarming system. Low cost. Good cycle life in shallow charge. Environmental problem. High OCV. • 5.valve-regulated. ~2Wh). Charging efficiency Lead acid batteries typically have coulombic efficiencies of 85% and energy efficiencies of ~ 70%. Popular.PbO2 . SLI (start. (1) α . Emergency lighting. 4. golf cars.PbO2 . etc. 5. 3. and • 8. the transformation of α . lawn and garden. • 4. Heavy. • 2. wind power. Low power and energy densities. 2. Poor charge retention. Poor cycle life in deep cycles. Industrial (traction and stationary. and ignition. light trucks.Generator starting. 3. So their utilization is less than β . Applications 1. advantages and disadvantages A. 8. up to 100Wh) for cars. 4. (2) β PbO2 is more stable than α . 5-6. Applications. marine. Advantages • • • • 1. the average temperature of the battery over its lifetime. no easy to make small size. • 6. Railway signal . B. lighting. Sulfation problem for long term storage in a discharge state. UPS. • 7. electrical car and motor-cycle.

local cell reactions between Sb and Pb occur in corroding areas. 6. . The second is hard lead sulfate that only decomposes during an equalization charge (controlled over-charge done in industrial battery maintenance). Un-equal cell voltage/ state of charge 7. in real life. antimony in lead-antimony alloy grid dissolves and migrates to the negative plates where it redeposits and reduces the performance of the cells. The last is a very hard lead sulfate that fails to decompose even equalization charging.5-7. poor charging efficiency. resulting in the evolution of hydrogen gas leading to shedding of active material. the negative plate (lead) and sulfuric acid. . It also reduces the batteries' active materials needed to maintain a high capacity. Sulfate formation (sulfation) Sulfation is a crystallized lead sulfate (PbSO4) which coats the electrode plates and eventually causes premature battery failure. 2. 100% of the lead sulfate transforms to the positive plate (lead dioxide). This phenomenon is called sulfation. Others. 4. Because hard lead sulfate is a non-conductive material. The dendrite and accumulation peeling off active material often result in the shorting between positive and negative electrodes. Failure analysis 1. when PbSO4 (lead sulfate) is left in the battery for a period of time (2~3 days is said to be enough. One is soft lead sulfate that decomposes with a regular charge. it crystallizes and becomes a hard sulfate that coats the surface of the electrode plates. power and cycle life. it causes a reduction in the surface area needed for the electro-chemical reactions. However. And the decrease of capacity. 3. Shorting Portion of grid in the electrolyte were not corroded but have a dendritic microstructure. Corrosion During the operation.. when it coats the electrode plates. Water loss: The Sb migration process and gassing during overcharge or discharge increases water consumption especially the battery is aging. during the charging period.). Self discharge Self discharge leads to sulfation which in turn results in overdischarge. There are three types of lead sulfate.etc. 5. In principle. with metallic antimony dispersed throughout the lead phase. (portion just above the electrolyte and tiny spaces inside were corrode). Lead sulfate (PbSO4) is created at both the positive and negative electrode plates during a discharge.

The rate depends on the concentration of sulfuric acid solution. broken strap. 1) lead and lead oxide are thermodynamically unstable in sulfuric acid solutions. sediment). especially if the electrolyte contains impurities such as antimony (Sb) ions. plate to strap.Summary of Failure Modes of Lead-Acid SLI Batteries 1. cell to terminal. undercharge. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5-8. They react with the electrolyte H2SO4 when the cell is on open circuit. When the batteries with lead-antimony positive grids. dendrite. paste sulfation. . the self discharge rate is about 1% per day. vibration. paste adhesion. . Fundamental failure Poor plates: Grid corrosion. The solubility rate of PbO2 in the electrolyte H2SO4 solution is slow (0. Temperatures higher than 30oC promote the self discharge rate. terminal corrosion 2. overpotential and temperature. the self discharge rate accelerates. 4. low electrolyte.5% per day) at ambient temperature. 3. cell to cell. 2. The self discharge rate of lead-acid is fairly rapid. Worn: water loss. If a battery with high Sb is aging. but the self discharge rate in negative electrode Pb is fast. pasted underformed Short: plates to plate (plate or separator fault. Self discharge 1. Mechanical failure open circuit: terminal. 2) The reactions are: (+) PbO2 + H2SO4  PbSO4 + H2O + ½ O2 (-) Pb + H2SO4  PbSO4 + H2 Oxygen evolves at the positive electrode and hydrogen evolution occurs at the negative electrode.

6) Addition of tin (Sn). Sb is improving castability and hardness. self-discharge. Se.5% to 3% to further improve the cells. less gassing and the water loss .10wt. There are elements that have been added to lead to improve the grid as well as positive electrode. additional elements are added aiming to: a) reduce the lead grain size (grain refiner). Cu.%) lead alloys. silver (Ag) or cobolt (Co) into the calcium-lead alloy.% to do the job.03 – 0. This new ternary alloys improve corrosion resistance to lengthen battery life. it can be used in” jelly roll” type cylindrical batteries. 3) To reduce the content of Sb in the range of 1. higher hardness. it is not good to use as a grid material for batteries like SLI type of the most common causes of cell failure. 7) Selenium lead alloy By utilizing a proportion of selenium in the grid alloy. 8) Harmful elements: Fe. 5)Calcium (0. c) improve corrosion resistance. reducing grid fabrication defects. the greater the concentration of antimony in the grid alloy. Add antimony (Sb) in 5 to 12 wt. improve castability and superior corrosion resistance. therefore. and in the thick pasted-plate batteries. However. preventing grid brittleness. combines the advantages of both lead calcium and lead antimony cells while exhibiting none of the disadvantages. As. However. selenium). d) improve cell performance 4) Elements such as S. In lead-acid batteries.5-9. the greater the rate of water loss and self-discharge. including multi-element calciumstrontium-tin-lead grid alloy exhibit a finer grain structure. also helping to form fine lead oxide particles and increasing the conductivity of the oxides. This alloy is extremely corrosion-resistant and virtually eliminates intergranular corrosion . also improve the shelf life and rate capability. Te (tellurium) are the grain refiners. Improvement of the grid material 1) Lead is soft. a dense fine grain structure is produced. A lead selenium cell. b) improve the castability. Manganese (attack separator). 2) The pure lead can be hardened by adding other element(s) to form alloys. .

L. heavy duty/commercial and farm. scrubber/sweepers.I. provides superior cranking performance.) batteries In general. Maintenance-Free Batteries Maintenance-free batteries are designed to reduce water loss for longer service life. which causes the battery to gas. Starter Batteries are meant to get combustion engines going. they do not tolerate being discharged deeply. Advances in the oxide. Lead-acid batteries have also advanced in the way they utilize electrolyte. as the thin lead plates degrade quickly under deep discharge and re-charging cycles. (2) pressurized venting system to help oxygen recombination.requiring repeated recharges. (3) using highly non-woven absorbent separator to absorb and hold the acid like a sponge. making them completely spillproof to reduce water loss.I. They have many thin lead plates which allow them to discharge a lot of energy very quickly for a short amount of time. antimony transfers from the positive to the negative plate. batteries. However. and. as the name implies. Most starter batteries will only tolerate being completely discharged a few times before being irreversibly damaged. Hybrid Batteries Hybrid batteries have one calcium and one low-antimony plate. acid filling.: (1) using gelled electrolyte. loose water and lose cranking capacity. greater overcharge resistance and reduced terminal corrosion and the elimination of overfilling or adding harmful impurities. assembly. Other advantages of calcium/calcium construction include prolonged shelf life. that require frequent discharge and recharge cycles.L. There are 7 main categories of S. Hybrid batteries are maintenance accessible. . only calcium/calcium batteries are truly maintenance free. 5-11. Types of starting. and ignition (S. cast-on-strap. Low antimony batteries are maintenance accessible. Maintenance accessible batteries may be found in applications such as marine. and formation process have all contribute to the improved battery. Maintenance Accessible Batteries Removable vent caps allow periodic addition of water to the electrolyte. lighting. The calcium/calcium construction reduces gassing and water loss. however. Low-Antimony Batteries Both positive and negative plates/grids are built with approximately 2. They have a significantly higher water loss rate than genuine calcium/calcium maintenance-free batteries. This antimony buildup actually decreases the voltage. 3. low-antimony batteries are frequently used in deep cycle applications such as marine. Most Original Equipment batteries for cars and light trucks today. 2.5-10. 4. Other improvement of Lead acid batteries Improvements in the manufactured have significantly contributed to longer life with more power-per-pound. As a hybrid battery cycles. Hybrid batteries may be referred to as maintenance free. heavy duty/commercial and farm applications. These batteries still have significant water loss and have a short shelf life . (called absorbed Glass Mat Batteries or AGM which also operate on the principle of oxygen recombination. However. pasting. wheelchair.5% antimony content. as follows. 1. Hybrid batteries are best suited to marine.). utilize calcium/calcium construction.

Overcharging is especially harmful to gel cells because of their sealed design. . the cell would be irreparably damaged. and it can take more than an hour to solidify again after charging ceases. Therefore. giving more protection to the plate. the gel batteries are known as Sealed Valve Regulated (SVR) batteries. and during cycles of charge and discharge. Performance and life are reduced. and grid designs are also undergoing change and improvement using copper calcium lead alloys. . and the cell will dry out and not perform. preferably between 8% and 12% of silicic acid obtained by pyrogenic process and of which the particles have a size comprised between 0. A gel battery is a lead-acid electric storage battery that: (1) is sealed valve-regulated (SVR) and the valve must never be opened. pure water. (3) uses thixotropic gelled electrolyte.02 micron. voids and cracks can develop in the gel. and this results in higher charge acceptance rates than flooded cells. The plates are relatively thin. between 6% and 15%. and returning to a gel state when allowed to stand.01 and 0. therefore. Gel cell battery electrolytes have a high viscosity. The oxygen generated from the positive plate is retained in the cell by sealing vents and will recombine with the hydrogen produced by the negative plate to form water. phosphoric acid and fumed silica which is a gel-forming agent. (4) uses a recombination reaction to form water at negative electrode to reduce the loss of water (particularly in deep cycle applications) . it is better suited for super-deep discharge applications. it reduces the self-discharge rates (~ 1% per month). Liquefaction of the gel occurs (thixotropic action) during charging due to this gas shearing effect. The gel electrolyte has the appearance of petroleum jelly and essentially comprised of sulphuric acid. The newer battery types use phosphoric acid to assist in retarding the plate sulfation hardening rates.also called valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA). and so a more rapid charge rate is achievable.5. preferably between 0. the thixotropic gel is locked into each group of plates when the gel is solidified. If the plates of a gel battery are reinforced with calcium.1 micron. They are usually less expensive than Gel or AGM batteries. less viscous fluid (flow) when shaken. Overcharging dries out the electrolyte by driving the oxygen and hydrogen out of the battery through the safety valves. 6." Wet/Flooded batteries are the most widely used in automotive applications. (5) has a very low self-discharge rate. They contain a high thixotropic gel electrolyte and are acid-starved cells. Some wet/flooded batteries require maintenance . The gel batteries are a recombinant battery. subsequently no water loss and no electrolyte replenishment is required. Wet/Flooded Batteries Batteries that are filled at the factory and shipped "ready to install. One feature of thixotropic gels is that they possess a stable (normal) high viscous form at rest (normal condition) but becoming thin. Otherwise.unless the battery is overcharged. the recombination of the gasses will not take place. the valve must safely release any excess pressure that may be produced during overcharging. Sealed Valve-Regulated (SVR) Gel batteries Unlike normal lead acid flooded cells with liquid acid electrolytes. the gel battery is more starved. If the seal is broken. (2) is completely maintenance-free. In addition.01 and 0. but do not provide the same cycle life and convenience. The effect is a resistance to charging and a loss in capacity. agitated or otherwise stressed. In lead-acid batteries. which is to facilitate the gel diffusion into them.

increasing efficiency by lowering internal resistance and boosting capacity.30) at 16 – 35oC. This is especially true of antimony and hybrid types. 3. AGM batteries excel for high current.8 85 150 195 370 _____________________________________________________________ ." and are recombinant batteries. Charging time___ 50A 30 20 10_______ 100% 12. However.2 45 75 95 180 25 12. due to active material shedding. in contrast to SVR Gel batteries. boost (charge) 12V battery at 15 amp up to the specific gravity of H2SO4 solution is 1. An AGM battery is a lead-acid electric storage battery that: (1) is sealed using special pressure valves and must never be opened (2) is completely maintenance-free (3) has all of the electrolyte absorbed in the sponge-like matted glass fiber separators (4) uses a recombination reaction to prevent the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gases normally lost in a flooded lead-acid battery (particularly in deep cycle applications) .-75 12. high power applications. gel battery power declines faster than an AGM battery's as the temperature drops below 32ºF.265 or higher (but not >1.. SVR Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries SVR AGM batteries are also called valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) AGM batteries .-.. high power applications and in extremely cold environments. The shelf life of a SVR battery is seven times higher than the shelf life of a deep cycle antimony battery. Wet batteries lose capacity and become permanently damaged if: (1) left in a discharged condition for any length of time (due to sulfation). The batteries use special fine. AGM batteries are "acid-starved. (2) continually over-discharged. Also.. Maintenance Basic rule of maintenance 1. the SVR AGM excels in high current.0 65 115 145 280 0 11. and better charging efficiency.265g/cc at fully charge 2.4 20 35 48 90 Min. T = 16 – 35oC.. The batteries can be recharged faster than conventional batteries. vibration resistant. 50 12. sponge-like matted micro-fiber glass separators absorb the electrolyte. Recharge process. State of charge SLI battery appro.unless the battery is overcharged (5) is non-spillable. H2SO4 density = 1.6 V . Compare to gel batteries. This is especially true of automotive starting types. Like gel batteries. highly porous. and therefore can be operated in virtually any position (upside-down installation is not recommended) 5-10.7. as well as auxiliary power for dual-purpose applications.

reduce the current. Also. it is more likely that the battery will sulfate. add distill water. when hard lead sulfate crystals form. Batteries used in float service should be charged at 13. automobile batteries still sulfate. 2. (2) A separate high voltage charging to save the weakest cells. There are many conditions for car batteries to become sulfated. charging via the alternator would not be sufficient to decompose the hard sulfation crystals completely.Do not overcharge. If need. Sulfation layers form barrier coats on the lead plates in batteries that inhibit their ability to store and dispense energy. Floating charging. stop charge. (unless the specific gravity is too low. By performing this charge it is possible to damage the battery plates by excessive gassing and heat. 5. Constant current.9>OCV > 12. Don’t over fill. the battery sulfates. not acid. 7. Then. multiple decreasing -current rate. 3. Pulse charging. If a car is equipped with many electrical devices. • • (1) check the electrolyte level to the mark. Trickle charging 8. Taper charging 7. Constant potential 4. 6. During this charge. 5. 4. so it should be with the proper precautions. After charge. one-current rate.8 volts. but in reality. the number: 12. If gassing occurs. (2) check OCV. An automobile starter battery is constantly charged while the automobile is running. Stirring is necessary to avoid high acid concentrations that can corrode the lower portion of the plate faster than the upper portion where the acid density is lower. If the battery is too hot to touch. Modified constant potential with a constant initial current and/or finish current. The benefit of an equalization charge is removal of some sulfation layer buildup and correction the stratification of the acid density by stirring the electrolyte using the rising gas bubbles. the battery sulfates.4V for the SLI battery. in regular starter usage. Charging methods 1. the battery gases out hydrogen and oxygen and creates heat.8 volts at 68°F. Voltage or state of charge equalization (1) Over charge all the cells.1 volts should be used. 6. It is critical that a charge be used that limits voltage to no more than 14. Equalization charge is a controlled over-charge to equalize the specific gravity among all of the cells. If a car is taken on many short trips requiring the engine to be started many times without getting fully recharged. It is a controlled high-voltage charge lasting for a duration of 5 to 7 hours. The starter battery begins to loose capacity. it takes about 4% of the battery capacity to start a car. Don’t leave batteries in rest and/or discharge over 80% The worst sulfated battery can be created by just leaving a battery unattended for a long period of time. For deep cycle service. Sulfation created in this period is quite possibly the worst kind. a maximum voltage of 14. Constant current. If a car is not in use and the battery is naturally discharged.1 volts and no less than 13. .

10. 8. . 11. such batteries should not be cycled deeply and should be avoided for deep-cycle applications unless space/weight constraints dictate otherwise. However. SLI batteries are not designed to be discharged deeply (no more than 20% DOD). the thin plates required for starting purposes inherently compromise deep-cycle performance. One would simply need a bigger deep-cycle battery than if one had used a dedicated starter type battery instead. Equalization charge should take care of the hard sulfation. Also. Nanopulser will help ensure the batteries last their maximum possible lifespan. temperature-compensated. a quantity of lead sulfate will be created more than desired. To avoid sulfation buildup. voltage-regulated charger. For deep cycle batteries. Constant current chargers should never be used on SVR batteries. Important Charging Instructions for SVR batteries Use a good constant potential. the battery must be charged back to 100% right after discharge. Do not discharging SLI batteries more than 50% before recharging them. Avoid discharging batteries no more than 80% of their capacity and then charging them to 100% immediately after the discharge. hard lead sulfate will start forming within 2 days if batteries are left discharged. Engine starts are very energy-intensive but the duration is very short. Some "Marine" batteries are sold as dual-purpose batteries for starter and deep cycle applications. They cannot dispense charge as quickly as a starter battery but can also be used to start combustion engines. If drained lower than 80%. Deep Cycle batteries have thicker lead plates that make them tolerate deep discharges better. Thus. 9.Nanopulser will help decompose the hard sulfation crystals so the battery will last for its maximum life with a constant high capacity. but there will be some sulfation left over that the equalization charging misses. it is recommended to perform equalization charges* every 4 to 6 cycles.


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