1

Question Paper
Mutual and other Funds (CFA650) : October 2008
Section A : Basic Concepts (30 Marks)
- This section consists of questions with serial number 1 - 30.
- Answer all questions.
- Each question carries one mark.
- Maximum time for answering Section A is 30 Minutes.
1. An investor under a Mutual Fund scheme is entitled to receive information about the ‘Net Asset Value’ at
intervals not exceeding
(a) One week
(b) Two weeks
(c) One month
(d) Two months
(e) Three months.
<Answer
>
2. A pension fund has certain liabilities, the duration of which is 12 years. It has the following assets in its
asset portfolio:
Assets Remaining maturity
(Years)
Weight
(%)
ICICI 2016 Deep Discount Bond 8 40
IDBI 2018 Zero Coupon Bond 10 60
Pension fund is facing
(a) Reinvestment risk
(b) Tenure risk
(c) Inflation risk
(d) Political risk
(e) Insurance risk.
<Answer
>
3. Which of the following strategies of hedge funds is ‘Hard-to-value’ strategy?
(a) Equity market neutral
(b) Equity hedge
(c) Relative value arbitrage
(d) Merger arbitrage
(e) Distressed securities.
<Answer
>
4. Global Finance Co., an FII, is planning to invest in real estate in USA. While analyzing the financial
conditions in USA, it observes that the percentage of outstanding international debts in terms of country
GDP is very high. The type of risk being faced by USA is
(a) Political risk
(b) Economic risk
(c) Credit risk
(d) Country risk
(e) Market risk.
<Answer
>
5. Mr. Rohan is 25 years old investor. ‘100 minus your age’ method of asset allocation suggests that he can
invest
(a) 100% of his investible funds in stocks
(b) 25% of his investible funds in bonds and 75% of his investible funds in stocks
(c) 50% of his investible funds in bonds and 50% of his investible funds in stocks
(d) 75% of his investible funds in bonds and 25% of his investible funds in stocks
(e) 100% of his investible funds in bonds.
<Answer
>
i. e x e
2
6. The finance provided to a company which plans to go public with in a short period of time is usually known
as
(a) Bridge financing
(b) Mezzanine financing
(c) Acquisition financing
(d) Turnaround financing
(e) Private placement financing.
<Answer
>
7. Mr. Kumar opts for an investment plan being offered by Kotak Mutual Fund, where he invests Rs.5,000
every month for the period of 24 months in the units of equity diversified scheme. Accordingly, he
purchases more units when scheme’s NAV is low and fewer units when NAV is high. The investment plan
opted by Mr. Kumar is
(a) Automatic Reinvestment Plan
(b) Systematic Encashment Plan
(c) Systematic Transfer Plan
(d) Automatic Investment Plan
(e) Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan.
<Answer
>
8. A 9.5% GOI bond is currently trading in the market at a price of Rs.971. If the face value of the bond is
Rs.1,000 and the remaining maturity of the bond is 5 years, the yield to maturity will be approximately
(a) 11.25%
(b) 10.98%
(c) 10.64%
(d) 10.45%
(e) 10.28%.
<Answer
>
9.
Which of the following is not an advantage of investment in mutual funds?
(a) Diversification benefits
(b) Low transaction costs
(c) Availability of various schemes to suit different needs
(d) Professional management
(e) Selection of stocks as per the liking of the investors.
<Answer
>
10
.
Tauras mutual fund offers a Fund of Fund scheme. The offer document of the scheme specifies about two
risk factors: standard risk factors and specific risk factors. Which of the following can be considered as
standard risk factors?
I. Owing to increase in inflation, RBI hikes the CRR rate, which in turn puts pressure on liquidity in
market and adversely affects the Net Asset Value (NAV) of mutual fund.
II. The scheme invests in close-ended schemes, which invest in the units of overseas mutual fund
schemes in globally emerging market and due to recession in that economy NAV of mutual fund
decreases.
III. NAV of mutual fund decreases because government changes some of its major policy.
IV. Changes in tax laws affect the return on investment in units.
(a) (I), (II) and (III) above
(b) (I), (II) and (IV) above
(c) (I), (III) and (IV) above
(d) (II), (III) and (IV) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
<Answer
>
11.Which of the following statements is/are true with respect to ExMark?
I. Fund with an ExMark of 95% or above may be called an index fund.
II. The usual name for the concept of ExMark is R-squared.
III. For a typical mainstream equity fund, the ExMark usually runs from 30% to 40%.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (III) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
<Answer
>
3
12
.
In accordance with the regulations, SEBI acts as a watchdog to control any unethical or unfair business
practices. Which of the following practices is/are considered unethical by the SEBI?
I. Mr. Nathani, controlling shareholder of the Jargon Ltd., decides to sell his shares almost double the
market price. He describes his decision to his sister, who tells her friend, Piyush, who is fund manager.
Piyush immediately buys Jargon Ltd. stock for himself with the expectation that he can sell when the
share price double due to the action of Mr. Nathani.
II. Mr. Kaushik, MD of mutual fund scheme, is a close friend of Mr. Ahmed. He allows Mr. Ahmed to
exit the scheme without paying any exit load.
III. Mr. Jain, a fund manager, is managing a portfolio, which has a significant share in Jack Ltd. Mr. Jain
is a good friend of Mr. Kamal, president of Jack Ltd. Owing to superior stock selection skills, during a
period, the return on the portfolio managed by Mr. Jain is 125%.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (III) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
<Answer
>
13
.
The Sharpe ratio and Treynor ratio of Reliance Equity Fund are 0.57 and 7.46 respectively. Standard
deviation of the fund’s return is 15.20%. The beta of the fund is approximately
(a) 0.80
(b) 1.16
(c) 1.35
(d) 1.50
(e) 1.76.
<Answer
>
14
.
Which of the following strategies of asset allocation assumes that the risk tolerance of the investor is highly
sensitive to his net worth?
(a) Systematic asset allocation
(b) Flexible asset allocation
(c) Strategic asset allocation
(d) Tactical asset allocation
(e) Insured asset allocation.
<Answer
>
15
.
The rupee cost averaging gives maximum return, when
I. It is undertaken for a fairly long period.
II. Underlying stock prices first decline and then rise.
III. Underlying stock price remains unchanged.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) Both (I) and (III) above.
<Answer
>
16
.
If the NAV of the mutual fund scheme is Rs.12.1678 per unit and unamortized initial issue expenses is
Re.0.3768 per unit, the redemption price of unit of mutual fund scheme is
(a) Rs.12.5446
(b) Rs.12.1678
(c) Rs.11.7910
(d) Rs.10.3459
(e) Rs. 9.1458.
<Answer
>
4
17
.
The NAV of each unit of a closed-end fund at the beginning of the year was Rs.14. By the year end, its NAV
equals Rs.14.40. At the beginning of the year, each unit was selling at a 3% premium to NAV. By the end of
the year, each unit is selling at a 5% discount to NAV. The fund paid year-end distributions of income and
capital gains of Rs.2.40 on each unit. The rate of return to the investor in the fund during the year is
approximately
(a) 10.125%
(b) 10.826%
(c) 11.512%
(d) 11.962%
(e) 12.124%.
<Answer
>
18
.
Mr. Roshan buys a 8-year, 11% annuity deposit certificate for Rs.34,897.50. The annuity he is entitled to
receive over the 8-year period will be approximately
(a) Rs.10,659.75
(b) Rs. 9,362.19
(c) Rs. 8,650.25
(d) Rs . 7,987.98
(e) Rs. 6,781.35.
<Answer
>
19
.
Consider the following data of Omega Mutual Fund (Income plan):
(Rs.in million)
Value of investments 2,874.20
Receivables 180.80
Accrued income 163.45
Accrued expenses 84.86
Other liabilities 390.86
Other current assets 481.52
Number of outstanding units is 200 million. Entry load and exit load applicable to this scheme are 1.5% and
2.5% respectively. If the investor sells his units, the per unit price he will get is approximately
(a) Rs.19.76
(b) Rs.17.36
(c) Rs.16.12
(d) Rs.15.72
(e) Rs.15.54.
<Answer
>
20
.
Which of the following statements is true with respect to Venture capital?
(a) Venture capital is a capital investment which can be in the form of equity only
(b) Venture capital is a long term investment and usually carries low risk
(c) Venture capital is passive investment strategy
(d) Venture capital shares the characteristics of private equity fund investment
(e) Venture capital and traditional lending and borrowing are almost similar.
<Answer
>
21
.
Which of the following is not an exit strategy available to a Venture capital fund?
(a) Initial public offerings
(b) Strategic buy
(c) Buy back by promoters
(d) Merger and Acquisition
(e) Liquidation of the company.
<Answer
>
22
.
Which of the following can be considered as ‘bootstrap transaction’?
(a) Pension funds
(b) Hedge funds
(c) Venture capital
(d) Private equity investment
(e) Leveraged buyout.
<Answer
>
5
23
.
Which of the following statements is not true with respect to features of general insurance fund?
(a) Catastrophic risk can be very significant
(b) Significant provisions for unearned premiums and outstanding claims are made
(c) Claims are less frequent than in life policies
(d) The increasing significance of investment income in fixing premiums lead to a tendency to
distinguish an underwriting profit or loss from an insurance profit or loss in the accounts
(e) Investments are mostly made for either short-term or medium-term contracts.
<Answer
>
24
.
ABC Ltd. offered right shares to its shareholders in the ratio of 4:1 at the rate of Rs.150 per share. The ex-
rights price of the share is Rs.175. The value of right will be
(a) Rs.6.25
(b) Rs.6.75
(c) Rs.6.95
(d) Rs.7.05
(e) Rs.7.25.
<Answer
>
25
.
Which of the following statements is not true with respect to different types of mutual funds?
(a) Balanced funds are suitable for those investors, who are willing to take moderate risk
(b) Income fund generally invest a major portion of their funds in equities
(c) Exchange traded funds provide investors a fund that closely tracks the performance of an index with
the ability to buy/sell on an intra-day basis
(d) Leveraged fund engages in speculative and risky investments, like short sales to take advantage of
declining market
(e) Growth fund schemes are suitable to those investors who can bear short-term decline in value.
<Answer
>
26
.
Which of the following statements is/are not true with respect to yield curve?
I. The maturity periods are taken on Y-axis and market determined interest rates on the X-axis to draw
the yield curve.
II. Normally, a yield curve starts on the left with the short maturity and ends on the right with the longest
maturity.
III. When the yields on the bonds are expected to go along at the normal economy growth rates, the yield
curve tends to be gently upward rising.
IV. Inverted curve is situation where long term investors look for higher yield.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (III) above
(c) Both (I) and (IV) above
(d) Both (III) and (IV) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
<Answer
>
27
.
Contra fund has a beta of 1.1 with residual risk of 8%. If the risk of the market returns is 32%, the tracking
error is approximately
(a) 9.78%
(b) 8.62%
(c) 7.67%
(d) 6.65%
(e) 5.98%.
<Answer
>
28
.
A fund manager is managing certain portfolio. Which of the following managed portfolios may contain the
element of tracking error risk?
I. The benchmark index comprises only investment grade bonds, but the managed portfolio consists of
both investment grade as well as non investment grade bonds.
II. The benchmark index consists of mortgage-backed securities and the managed portfolio does not
include them.
III. The duration for the benchmark index is 5 years and that of a managed portfolio is also 5 years.
(a) Only (III) above
(b) Both (I) and (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (III) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
<Answer
>
6
29
.
Mr. Rakshak opines that construction industry has a bright future and hence he wants to invest in a common
stock fund that invests only in the stocks of companies operating in construction industry. Which of the
following funds is more suitable to Mr. Rakshak for investment?
(a) Growth funds
(b) Value funds
(c) Broad-based specialty funds
(d) Concentrated specialty funds
(e) Tax saving funds.
<Answer
>
30
.
Which of the following statements are true with respect to bond laddering strategy?
I. Bond laddering means buying bonds scheduled to mature at several different dates in the future, rather
than all at the same time.
II. A bond laddering is an effective tool for some one who needs to ride the yield curve.
III. In bond laddering, each group of bonds represents a rung on the investment maturity ladder.
IV. Bond laddering is an active bond management strategy.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (III) and (IV) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (I), (III) and (IV) above.
<Answer
>
END OF SECTION A
Section B : Problems/Caselets (50 Marks)
- This section consists of questions with serial number 1 – 5 .
- Answer all questions.
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Detailed workings/explanations should form part of your answer.
- Do not spend more than 110 - 120 minutes on Section B.
Mr. Shah is handling different schemes of a large mutual fund for the last three
years. The information pertaining to the schemes are given below:
Scheme Alpha/Residual risk Beta Alpha (%)
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme 1.0 1.4 1.5
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme 0.5 0.7 0.9
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme 0.6 2.5 2.5
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme 1.5 1.6 2.0
Treynor ratio and Sharpe ratio for market portfolio are 6.5 and 0.5 respectively.
T-Bills are trading in the market at 7.5% p.a.
You are required to
<Answer>
a. Compute the return from all the schemes. ( 4 marks)
b. Compute Treynors ratio for all the schemes. ( 4 marks)
1.
c. Compute Sharpe ratio for all the schemes. ( 8 marks)
Caselet 1
Read the caselet carefully and answer the following questions:
2. As per the caselet, there are two categories of multi manager funds; Fund of Funds
(FoF) and Manage The Manager (MTM) funds. How do you differentiate these two
categories of multi manager funds? (10 marks)
<Answer>
3. According to the caselet, depending on just one fund manager or a fund house to
produce astounding returns is not advisable, because, different fund houses have
different investment styles, and perform differently under different market
( 6 marks)
<Answer>
7
conditions. This idea has resulted in the emergence of multi manager funds. In this
context, explain the advantages of multi manager funds.
For the retail investor, investment options are getting complicated day by day. It is
not different from mutual funds. The enormous categories, various asset classes,
many product innovations and hundreds of schemes, make the investment process
difficult and confusing. The need of the hour is simplification. Multi-manager
mutual funds, is one such step and it has already made its way into the Indian
market. Currently, multi-manager funds manage nearly $1,400bn worldwide. In
India, a few investment houses such as Birla Sun Life, Franklin Templeton,
Standard Chartered, and Pru ICICI have introduced multi-manger funds in the form
of Funds of Funds (FoFs). However, the fund is distributed among their own
schemes. Investment houses such as Kotak, Fidelity and ABN Amro have
introduced FoFs that partly invest outside their ‘in-house’ schemes. On the other
hand, OptiMix has products with zero brand bias, the first in India. Different fund
houses have different investment styles, and perform differently under different
market conditions. So, how can you rely on just one fund manger or a fund house to
produce astounding returns? After all, just as the very best batsmen can play a bad
shot and get out for a duck, the greatest investment manger can go through bouts of
poor performance. Here’s where multi- manager funds score a ton.
So, what are multi-manager funds? Multi-manager funds employ the skills of
investment managers to manage the assets. A lazy way of looking at such funds
would be to describe them as something that bundles the best performing managers
into a single fund. Multi-manager funds aim to achieve better long-term returns than
a single-manager fund, with less volatility. It’s like saying the sum-of-the-parts is
greater than the whole.
Investors around the world want the best investment managers manage their money
for them and they want to diversify their investments across more than one manager.
Multi-manager funds address these needs directly.
They offer exposure to the investment expertise of some of the leading investment
management firms selected and monitored by a specialist in the field and make them
available in a convenient package to easy to buy and monitor. Multi-manager funds
come in different forms - from aggressive to defensive - depending on the exposure to
equities and Gsecs.
Multi-manager funds tend to give investors exposure to different fund management
styles with inputs from the multi-manager fund itself. There are two categories of
multi manager funds – Funds of Funds (FoF) and Manage The Manager (MTM).
The difference being the former invests in different funds and the latter invests in
equities directly under the guidance and advice of appointed fund managers. So, the
latter is most likely to have a lower-cost factor. In MTM, every manager has a
specific mandate based on its expertise in a certain investment style. Therefore, it’s
easier to manage and is less expensive. In India, OptiMix offers MTM mutual
funds, while other investment houses that have multi-manger products, offer only
FoFs.
Next, let’s look at costs. All funds carry an entry load and an annual charge. How
much that adds up to is a grey area and fund houses are not comfortable in revealing
it. However, the industry has maximum permissible charge of 2.5%, though FoFs
can charge 0.75% extra. This extra charge is not applicable to MTM funds.
A good way to find out whether the fund is expensive is to look at the expense ratio.
Internationally multi-manager funds have an expense ratio between 2.5% and 3.5%,
which is typically higher than single manager funds that charge anything between
1.5% and 2%. The expense ratio is the figure investors must consider because it
takes into account not just the annual management fees but also all other costs.
Charges are one of the important parameters in determining long term growth for
your money. In MTM funds, a moot point is that the underlying manager fees are
not charged to the fund separately. From a taxation point of view, MTM funds are
treated similar to any other mutual fund. So, they don’t come under the FoFs
umbrella where there are tax issues. So, as an investor in MTM funds, you have
access to the best of managers without any extra cost and the same tax benefit.
So, are multi-manager funds worth it? Since, all these funds are recently launched in
India, it would be foolhardy to make a comparison of such funds with diversified
mutual funds in India. An analysis among international funds however shows that
8
since their inception, most multi-manager funds have performed more consistently
than the single-manager funds. But, like a diversified portfolio is better than an
individual stock, multi-manager funds may be a better idea than single manager
funds.
END OF
CASELET 1
Caselet 2
Read the caselet carefully and answer the following questions:
4. As mentioned in the caselet, venture capital funds have the ability to invest in
unlisted and longer tenure projects, but have high minimum contribution
requirements, thus leaving out the retail investors. Analyze why it is difficult to
make retail investors participate in infrastructure development through Venture
Capital Funds (VCFs).
( 8 marks)
<Answer>
5. As mentioned in the caselet, the proposed Dedicated Infrastructure Funds (DIFs)
will largely invest in unlisted infrastructure projects and/or companies. The level of
expertise, resources and commitment required to manage these investments will be
significantly higher than as well as different from that used for existing Mutual
Funds. Analyse the factors which will increase the cost of managing and operating
proposed DIFs compared to current Mutual Funds.
(10 marks)
<Answer>
The basic infrastructure a country develops is the backbone for its long-term
economic growth and employment generation. It is not possible to achieve inclusive
and sustainable growth without the creation of enabling infrastructure in an economy.
To sustain its current economic growth trajectory, India will need to develop and
augment infrastructure in all the key sectors like Power, Roads, Urban-Infrastructure,
Rail, Ports, Airports etc. A sustainable and long-term shift to 9-10% GDP growth rate
is only possible, if the country is able to channelize large investments in infrastructure
creation. Various government bodies & Committees, international agencies and
research houses point to the investment requirement for the infrastructure sector,
during the next five years, to be in the range of US$280bn-US$475bn. Considering
the magnitude of investments required during the next five years, it is imperative to
tap all available sources of the capital and a significant role needs to be played by the
private sector. In the 2007 Budget speech for the Financial Year 2007-08, the Hon'ble
Finance Minister mentioned the need to promote the flow of investment to the
Infrastructure sector by permitting domestic mutual funds to launch and operate
Dedicated Infrastructure Funds (DIFs). With a view to suggesting a detailed
action/plan for 'operationalising' this, the Securities & Exchange Board of India
(SEBI) had set up the Committee to suggest the broad guidelines for launch and
operations of DIFs. India is a country of savers. The household savings rate to GDP
hovers around the 30% mark. Household savings have traditionally been channelised
into Bank Deposits, Small Savings Schemes of the Government, Insurance etc. With
the advent of mutual funds, it has been observed that these have increasingly become
a significant channel for focused investment into the listed equity and debt markets.
Similarly, DIFs, can potentially become an important source of capital for various
infrastructure projects that are important for the country's economic development.
Such funds can act as channeling agents of capital from Indian retail investors,
pension funds, insurance companies as well as overseas institutional investors. DIFs,
if they are successful in attracting large retail-investor participation, can also reduce
dependence upon foreign capital for investments in infrastructure assets. From an
investor perspective, DIFs can also provide an alternative investment opportunity to
retail investors and ensure broader public participation in the infrastructure creation in
the country.
The proposed DIF's will need to be structured differently from the current Mutual
Fund Schemes, as these will largely invest in unlisted companies, with longer
gestation periods. Venture Capital Funds have the ability to invest in such unlisted
and longer tenure projects, but have high minimum contribution requirements, thus
leaving out the retail investors. They can not get listed on the stock exchanges till
the expiry of three years from the date of issue and can not reach public domain
through advertisements. DIFs can be structured to fill this gap and can be uniquely
9
positioned to benefit both the ongoing infrastructure initiatives as well as the
potential retail investors. The Committee believes that DIFs should operate as
close-ended schemes with a maturity period of seven years and a possibility of one
or two extensions, subject to adequate disclosures in the offer documents and
approval of trustees. The proposed DIF's should get listed within 24 months of the
launch of the scheme and be allowed to buy-back the units, from the market within
certain limits to safeguard the interests of investors. In terms of Investments, it is
suggested that the DIF's may be allowed to invest up to 100% of its funds into
unlisted securities including both equity and debt instruments. Exposure to listed
companies, however, should be limited to 10% of the NAV at the time of making
the investments. Further, the DIF's may be allowed to take control of the asset, if
they so desire, and own up to 100% of the paid up capital of a company. In light of
the unique nature of DIFs like dedicated teams for the management of such
schemes, requirement of in-depth research because of companies being unlisted and
information not being available, higher level of monitoring of investments, the fee
structure of such funds will have to be different from the existing Mutual Fund
schemes, in line with global practices. The Committee therefore suggests that
maximum overall permissible expense ratio for DIFs including investment
management fees be additional 1% over and above that specified in the Mutual
Fund Regulations. Additionally, the DIFs should also be allowed to charge a
performance fee after providing a certain minimum return to the unit holders, as per
global practice. As the proposed Dedicated Infrastructure Funds will largely invest
in unlisted infrastructure projects and/or companies, the level of expertise, resources
and commitment required to manage these investments will be significantly higher
than as well as different from that used for existing Mutual Funds.
END OF
CASELET 2
E
N
D
O
F
S
E
C
T
I
O
N
B
Section C : Applied Theory (20 Marks)
- This section consists of questions with serial number 6 - 7 .
- Answer all questions.
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Do not spend more than 25 -30 minutes on Section C.
6. Today, mutual funds provide different schemes to suit the risk and return
profile of various investors. In this process, they provide the investors with
the convenience of periodic purchase plans. In this context, discuss the
different investment plans offered by mutual funds in India.
( 10 marks)
<Answer>
7. Write short notes on:
<Answer>
a. Leveraged Buyout (LBO).
( 5 marks)
b. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs).
( 5 marks)
10
END OF SECTION C
END OF QUESTION PAPER
11
Suggested Answers
Mutual and other Funds (CFA650) : October 2008
Section A : Basic Concepts
ANSWER REASON
1. A An investor under a Mutual Fund scheme is entitled to receive information about the
‘Net Asset Value’ at intervals not exceeding one week.
< TOP >
2. A Duration of assets = (8 X 0.4) + (10X 0.6) = 9.2 Years
Duration of liabilities = 12 Years
Duration of liabilities > Duration of assets
Reinvestment risk arises due to mismatch between duration of assets and duration of
liabilities. Therefore pension fund is facing reinvestment risk.
< TOP >
3. E A distressed security is ‘Hard-to-value’ securities. < TOP >
4. C - Political risk indicates the probability of economic losses arising due to
government actions.
Economic risk arises due to change in macro economic conditions of the country.
Credit risk factor measures the percentage of outstanding international debts in terms
of country GDP.
< TOP >
5. B According to 100 minus your age method, investment in stocks should be equal to
100 minus your age and rest of the money should go to bonds. Hence 75% of the
funds should be invested in stocks and 25% in bonds.
< TOP >
6. A When a company plans to go public with in a short period of time and funds are
required for the maintenance of day-to-day operations, then this type of financing is
known as bridge financing.
< TOP >
7. D Automatic Investment Plan (AIP), also called Systematic Investment Plan, is a
method of investing a fixed sum, on a regular basis, in a mutual fund scheme. The
investor is given the option of investing at a specified frequency of months in a
specified scheme of the mutual fund for a constant sum of investment. AIP allows
investors to plan their savings through a structured regular monthly savings program.
AIP makes the volatility in the market work in investor’s favor. Since a fixed amount
is invested, more units are purchased when a scheme’s NAV is low and fewer units
when the NAV is high. As a result, over a period of time, these market fluctuations
are generally averaged. Thus, the average cost of the investment is often reduced.
< TOP >
8. E Let the YTM of the bond be r.
2 3 4 5
95 95 95 95 1095
971 = + + + +
1 (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) + + + + + r r r r r
At r = 10%
RHS = 981.05
At r = 11%
RHS = 944.56
Therefore, r =
981.05 - 971.00
10 +
981.05 - 944.56
= 10.28%
< TOP >
9. E All the alternatives a, b, c and d are the advantages of a mutual fund. Alternative (e)
is not an advantage as the fund managers though try to have holdings in the flavors
of the season however stock selection as per the living of all the investors is not
possible.
< TOP >
12
10. C Standard risk factors arises due to absence of liquidity in the market, changes in the
government policy, pressure on the exchange rate of rupee, volatility in market,
changes in interest rates, changes in tax laws, etc. Whereas investing in a close ended
scheme is a specific risk factor.
Therefore, correct answer is C.
< TOP >
11. C Funds with an ExMark of 95% or above may be called an index fund. The usual
name for the concept of ExMark is R-squared. For a typical mainstream equity fund,
the ExMark usually runs from 80% to 90%.
< TOP >
12. C The practices that are considered unethical by the SEBI are:
- Insider trading.
- Preferential treatment to selected investors.
- Personal trading by fund managers and employees.
‘Insider Trading’ means buying or selling securities on the basis of privileged
information available to the funds by persons regarded as insiders to the company. In
normal cases, the fund managers are not insiders; these people collude with other
inside people to access private information, which they use to trade on their personal
account. Insider trading is likely to impact investors in a very bad way.
Mutual funds are vehicles of collective investments under which investors in a
scheme are treated equally. Thus, the concept of preferential treatment is avoided
here.
Personal trading, which is done by fund employees, can create conflicting and at
times interesting situations. Fund managers buy and sell securities in the market for
the mutual fund portfolios; they have access to information that is unavailable to
others.
Statement I is an example of Insider trading, statement II illustrates preferential
treatment to selected investors. Statement III is ethical as the returns are due to
superior stock selection skills.
Therefore, correct answer is option c.
< TOP >
13. B
Treynor ratio
Sharpe ratio
÷
=
i F
i F
i
R R
R R
÷
|
÷
o
=
i
o
|
=
7.46
0.57
=
i
o
|
= 13.09%
i
o
= 15.20%
|
= 1.16.
< TOP >
14. E The Insured asset allocation strategy assumes that the risk tolerance of the investor is
highly sensitive to his net worth. The more the value of this, the larger is his risk
tolerance, resulting in a more aggressive asset mix.
< TOP >
15. D The rupee cost averaging gives the best result when it is undertaken for a fairly long
period. It gives higher return when stock prices first decline and then rise. This
ensures the effective cost of purchasing is lower but value of the portfolio is higher.
Hence (III) is wrong but (I) and (II) are correct.
< TOP >
16. C Redemption price = NAV – Unamortized initial issue expenses per unit
Redemption price = 12.1678 – 0.3768 = Rs.11.7910 per unit
< TOP >
17. C The price of unit at the beginning of the year = Rs.14 × 1.03 = Rs.14.42
The price of unit at the end of the year = Rs.14.4 × 0.95 = 13.68
The price of the fund fell by – 0.74 (13.68–14.42)
Rate of return = (2.4 – 0.74)/14.42 = 11.512%.
< TOP >
13
18. E
Annuity =
(11%,8)
34, 897.50
PVIFA
=
34, 897.50
5.1461
= Rs.6,781.35.
< TOP >
19. D NAV = (Value of investments + Receivables + Accrued income + Other current
assets – Liabilities – Accrued Expenses) / Number of units outstanding
= (2874.20 + 180.80 + 163.45 + 481.52 -390.86 – 84.86) / 200 = Rs.16.12
Now the selling price of the investor will be
Rs.16.12 X (1-0.025) = Rs.15.72.
Hence (d) is the answer.
< TOP >
20. D a. Venture capital is a capital investment made in a new firm which can be in the
form of equity capital, long term debt or convertible securities.
b. Venture capital is a long term investment and usually carries high risk with the
potential for delivering above average returns.
c. Unlike other forms of financing Venture capital is active investment strategy
and venture capitalist take keen interest in the business performance of the
firm.
d. Venture capital shares the characteristics of private equity fund investment and
is treated as one of its branches
e. Venture capital is very different from traditional lending and borrowing.
< TOP >
21. B The following exit alternatives are available for a VC fund depending upon the exit
timings, stage of development of the companies or geographical location.
- Initial Public Offerings
- Buy back by promoters or company
- Strategic sale
- Merger and Acquisition, and
- Liquidation of the company.
< TOP >
22. E A leveraged buyout may also be referred to as a hostile takeover, a highly leveraged
transaction, or a bootstrap transaction.
< TOP >
23. C The main features of general funds are:
- Significant provisions for unearned premiums and outstanding claims that are
made.
- Contracts are short-term, usually annual even if there is an expectation of
renewal; premium income is not consistent and reliable, particularly in times of
economic stringency.
- Investment income in recent years has become increasingly significant in fixing
premiums. This increasing significance has been followed by a tendency to
distinguish an underwriting profit or loss from an insurance profit or loss in the
accounts.
- Claims are more frequent than in life policies, and as such, investments cannot
be made for very long-term contracts.
- Catastrophic risk can be very significant.
- Investments are mostly made for either short-term or medium-term contracts.
- Unless there is an adverse occurrence, there is no payment of bonus or return of
paid premiums. So, non-occurrence of an adversity assures a profit for the
insurance company.
- These funds are based on the insurance principle of funds collection from many
and compensation to a few affected ones.
< TOP >
14
24. A
ex of
= x (P P ) ÷
r
n
V
m
Where,
r
V
= Value of rights
n = No. of rights offered = 200/4 = 50
m = No. of original shares held = 200
P
ex
= Ex-rights price = Rs.175
P
of
= Rights offer price = Rs.150
1
= x (175 150)
4
r
V ÷
= Rs.6.25
< TOP >
25. B Balanced fund invest in both units and fixed income securities in the proportion
indicated in their offer document. Such funds are suitable for those investors, who
are willing to take some risk and seek both income and capital appreciation. The aim
of income fund is to provide regular and steady income to investors. These funds or
schemes generally invest in fixed incomes such as bonds and corporate debentures.
The structure of ETFs is such that it protects long-term investors from inflows and
outflows of short-term investors. This is because the fund does not bear extra
transaction cost when buying/selling due to frequent subscriptions and redemptions.
Leveraged fund engage in speculative and risky investments, like short sales to take
advantage of declining market. Growth fund schemes normally invest a major
portion of their funds in equities and are willing to bear short-term decline in value
for possible future appreciation in the NAV of the scheme. Therefore, statement b is
not true and all other options are correct.
< TOP >
26. C I. The maturity periods are taken on X-axis and market determined interest rates
on the Y-axis to draw the yield curve.
II. Normally, a yield curve starts on the left with the short maturity and ends on the
right with the longest maturity.
III. When the yields on the bonds are expected to go along at the normal economy
growth rates, the yield curve tends to be gently upward rising.
IV. Inverted curve is a situation where long term investors look for lower yield.
< TOP >
27. B Tracking error of the fund relative to the market is,
Tracking error =
1/ 2
2 2 2
(1.1 - 1.0) (0.32) + (0.08)

= 8.62%
< TOP >
28. B I. The benchmark index comprises only investment grade bonds, but the managed
portfolio consists of both investment grade as well as non investment grade
bonds, then the latter has a greater credit risk than the benchmark index.
II. The benchmark index consists of mortgage-backed securities and the managed
portfolio does not include them, then the latter is not exposed to prepayment
risk.
III. The duration of both benchmark index and managed portfolio is same therefore
there will be on tracking error.
< TOP >
29. D - The objective of growth fund scheme is to provide capital appreciation for the
medium to long term investors.
- The aim of value fund is to provide regular and steady income to investors as
well as growth.
- Concentrated specialty Funds invest in the stocks of single industry, such as
pharmaceuticals, IT, etc.
- Broad based specialty funds focus on major market sub-sectors such as new
economy and old economy stocks.
- Tax saving funds provides tax savings to investors, along with capital
appreciation.
< TOP >
15
30. B Bond laddering is a passive bond management strategy where the purpose is to
match the assets with liability in the terms of maturity. Here the effort is not made to
take advantage of change in yield curve.
< TOP >
Section B : Problems
1. a. Treynor’s ratio for market portfolio = (R
M
–R
F
)/β
M
As β
M
of market portfolio is 1
Market Risk Premium (R
M
–R
F
) = 6.5%
Total Return = Alpha + R
f
+ Beta (R
m
–R
f
)
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.5 + 7.5 +1.4 × 6.5 = 18.10%
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.9 + 7.5 + 0.7 × 6.5

= 12.95%
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.5 + 7.5 + 2.5 × 6.5 = 26.25%
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 2 + 7.5 + 1.6 × 6.5

= 19.90%
b. Treynor Ratio = (R
P
–R
F
)/β
P
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = (18.10–7.5)/1.4 = 7.57
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = (12.95–7.5)/0.7 = 7.79
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = (26.25–7.5)/2.5 = 7.50
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = (19.90–7.5)/1.6 = 7.75
c. Appraisal ratio = Alpha/Residual Risk
Residual risk = Alpha/Appraisal ratio
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.5/1 =1.5%
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.9/0.5 =1.8%
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.5/0.6 =4.17%
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 2/1.5 = 1.33%
Residual risk
2
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.25(%)
2
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 3.24(%)
2
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 17.3889(%)2
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.7689(%)
2
Sharpe’s ratio of market portfolio = (R
M
–R
F
)/σ
M
= 0.5
σ
M
= 6.5/0.5 = 13%
Systematic risk = Beta
2
× σ
M
2
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.4
2
× 13
2
= 331.24(%)
2
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.7
2
× 13
2
= 82.81(%)
2
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.5
2
× 13
2
= 1056.25(%)
2
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.6
2
× 13
2
= 432.64(%)
2
Total risk = Residual Risk + Systematic risk
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.25 + 331.24 = 333.49 (%)2 S.D =
18.26(%)
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 3.24 + 82.81 = 86.05 (%)
2
S.D
= 9.28(%)
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 17.3889 + 1056.25 = 1073.6389 (%)
2
S.D
= 32.77(%)
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.7689 + 432.64 = 434.4089 (%)
2
S.D =
20.84(%)
Sharpe Ratio = (R
P
–R
F
)/σ
P
Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = (18.10–7.5)/18.26 = 0.5805%
< TOP >
16
Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = (12.95–7.5)/9.28 = 0.5873%
Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = (26.25–7.5)/32.77 = 0.5722%
M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = (19.90–7.5)/20.84 = 0.5950%
2.
S. No Manage the manager funds Fund of funds
1.
Portfolios are populated with
segregated managers
Portfolios are populated with
(retail) funds
2.
Can assign customized restrictions
to selected managers
Portfolios are diversified across
market sectors and asset classes
3.
Require substantial assets; have
access to managers that fund of
funds cannot access
Little or no seed capital required
4.
Focused on managers skills for
future returns
Mostly focused on historic returns
of funds
5.
Closer Monitoring, better risk
control on overall portfolio and
access to portfolio holdings
Has no influence on the underlying
Fund Managers. Not possible to
monitor some essential risk factors
6.
Complete control over managers
• high flexibility by easy
exchange of managers
• greater level of transparency
No control over manager (or
investment team), custodian and
administrator.
Very easy exchange of funds
7.
Most likely lower costs, if asset
base is big
Higher costs, due to additional
layers of fees
< TOP >
3. By investing in a multi-manager fund, we will benefit from a comprehensive manager research
and selection process. They establish a dedicated team of specialists to bring the best
investment management capabilities available. There is a chance for a broad level of
diversification that helps reduce investment risk and improves the likelihood of achieving
consistent returns by having exposure to a number of investment managers, and not relying on
the performance of any one investment manager or style.
< TOP >
4. The various factors which keep the retail investors away from participating in venture capital
funds are:
Liquidity: No venture capital fund can get its units listed on a recognized stock exchange until
the expiry of three years from the date of the issuance of units by the venture capital fund.
Promotion and Reach: No Venture Capital Fund can advertise in any public domain for the
subscription or purchase of any of its units.
Investment Size: Minimum investment size for an investor is very high. Therefore retail
investors are not in a position to invest through this route.
Therefore it would not be possible under the existing regulatory (SEBI VCF Regulations) to
allow wider retail investor participation in the Infrastructure Sector by directly owning
infrastructure assets through the venture capital route. Retail investments would require a
lower minimum investment size as well as an ability to reach out to investors through public
channels.
< TOP >
5. Some of the factors, which will increase the cost of managing and operating proposed DIFs
compared to current Mutual Funds are:
Higher Investment Costs- Listed instruments are fairly liquid and provide managers an option
of easy entry and exit. However, in the unlisted space, the process of both entry and exit can be
quite lengthy and complex. For every single investment a DIF makes, it will have to evaluate
multiple investment. The costs associated with the evaluation of the projects, in which the
DIFs do invest, will therefore be significantly higher compared to other mutual funds. These
will include expenses related to legal fees, due-diligence costs, travel costs, advisory fees etc,
apart from higher managerial time and effort spent on each investment idea.
Expenses related to periodic valuations- The NAV calculation for current Mutual Fund
schemes is based upon the market prices of the securities. However for investments in Unlisted
< TOP >
17
space, DIF's will have to engage external parties to periodically value the investments, thereby
increasing the costs. Listed securities are well researched by in-house research teams as well as
several sell-side brokers, making the cost of researching companies lower. Most of the
companies have a fairly long history and a lot of information is publicly available. However,
in the unlisted space, information flow is restricted and there is practically no third-party
research available. DIF's will need to do all the basic research to be able to meaningfully
evaluate investment proposals.
Investment monitoring Costs- The DIFs will have to continuously monitor the performance
of investee projects. The level of involvement of a DIF, with each investment, will be
extremely deep. As per prevailing international practices, DIFs may need to invest time to
provide inputs to strategic decision making, board level decisions (probably with a seat on the
board of the investee companies) and even day-to-day functioning of the investee companies.
All this will result in higher commitment and efforts on the part of senior team members of the
Mutual Funds.
Requirement of a dedicated Team: Unlike existing Mutual Funds where the same team may
manage multiple schemes, the proposed DIF's will need to be managed by dedicated teams. As
per international best practices, a fully dedicated team manages such funds. Both the
investment evaluation and monitoring processes will be time-consuming. Additionally,
the team managing the funds shall ideally stay with the investments through the full cycle (7-
9 years) and internationally is thus compensated for their longer commitment.
Section C: Applied Theory
6. Different investment plans Mutual Funds offer in India are:
Automatic Reinvestment Plans (ARP)
Under this, dividends or capital gains are re-invested in purchasing additional units instead of
paying the investors in the form of cash. Automatic re-investment plans come under two
options:
i. Growth Option
ii. Dividend Reinvestment Plan Option.
Under growth option, returns from investments are reinvested. The investor, thus, realizes only
capital appreciation on the investment. This plan appeals to investors in the high-income
bracket.
In dividend reinvestment plan option, the dividend accrued on Mutual Funds is automatically
re-invested in purchasing additional units in open-ended Funds, thus, increasing the number
of units investors hold. In most cases, Mutual Funds offer the investor an option of collecting
dividends or re-investing the same.
Automatic Investment Plan (AIP)
Automatic Investment Plan, also called Systematic Investment Plan, is a method of investing
a fixed sum, on a regular basis, in a Mutual Fund scheme. The investor is given the option of
investing at a specified frequency of months in a specified scheme of the Mutual Fund for a
constant sum of investment; AIP allows investors to plan their savings through a structured
regular monthly savings program. SIP makes the volatility in the market work in investor's
favor. Since a fixed amount is invested, more units are purchased when a scheme's NAV is
low and fewer units when the NAV is high. As a result, over a period of time, these market
fluctuations are generally averaged. Thus, the average cost of the investment is often reduced.
AIPs or SIPs work better as opposed to one-time investing. This is because of rupee-cost
averaging. Under rupee-cost averaging, an investor typically buys more of Mutual Fund units
when prices are low. On the other hand, he would buy fewer Mutual Fund units when prices are
high. This is a good discipline since it forces the investor to commit cash at market lows,
when other investors around him are wary and exiting the market. Investors may even be
pleased when prices fall because the fixed rupee investment would now fetch more units.
The SIP reduces the average purchase cost, even in volatile markets with relative ease. When
you invest a fixed amount every month, the number of Mutual Fund units you actually buy
depends on their market price. By investing in each, the investor can buy fewer units when
the market moves up and more units when the market moves down.
Automatic Withdrawal Plan (AWP)
Automatic Withdrawal Plan or Systematic Withdrawal Plan or Systematic Encashment Plan
allows the investor the facility to withdraw a pre-determined amount/units from his Fund at a
pre-determined interval. The withdrawal can be monthly, quarterly or half-yearly. The
< TOP >
18
investor's units will be redeemed at the applicable NAV as on that day. When an investor
withdraws at an interval periodically, he is independent of market movement and the average
withdrawal value is higher than the average cost price. The amount withdrawn is treated as
redemption of units at the applicable NAV as specified in the Offer Document. The investor
is usually required to maintain a minimum balance in his account under this plan.
Automatic Withdrawal Plans are different from Monthly Income Plans as the former allows
investors to get back the principal amount invested while the latter only pays the income part
on regular basis.
Systematic Transfer Plan (STP)
Investing in a Debt Fund normally assures fairly consistent returns to the investor whereas
equities have the potential to create wealth. But the unpredictability in Equity Funds can be
quite a deterrent for the investor to make a choice. Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) allows the
investor to transfer on a periodic basis a specified amount from one scheme to another within
the same Fund family, which means two schemes managed by the same Asset Management
Company and belonging to the same Mutual Fund. A transfer will be treated as redemption of
units from the scheme from which the transfer is made and as investment in units of scheme
into which the transfer is made.
STPs offer comes in two plans for unit-holders:
i. Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan (FSTP)
ii. Capital Appreciation Systematic Transfer Plan (CASTP).
Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan (FSTP)
Under this facility, the unit holders can opt to redeem/switch (transfer) fixed amount of
money from their accounts at periodic intervals. FSTP offers transfer facility at weekly,
monthly and quarterly intervals. Unit holders will be eligible to transfer a fixed amount (for
example, a minimum Rs. 1,000 and in multiples of Rs.100, thereafter, for schemes). Unit-
holders should be aware that if they decide to take up this facility, there is possibility of
erosion of capital. If an investor opts for FSTP and in case, there is no minimum amount (as
specified above) available in the unit-holder's account, the residual amount will be
transferred to the transferee scheme and the account of the unit holder will be closed.
Under this facility, the unit holders can opt to redeem amounts equivalent to the appreciation
in their investment value at periodic intervals. Thus, the appreciation, if any, earned by the
scheme during the specified period shall be automatically redeemed and paid to the investors
at the applicable NAV.
Under the Capital Appreciation Systematic Transfer Plan (CASTP), unit holders will be
eligible to transfer the entire capital appreciation amount (minimum Rs. 1,000) by way
of capital appreciation. Under this, no transfers will take place, if there is no minimum capital
appreciation amount (except for last transfer leading to closure of account). The capital
appreciation, if any, will be calculated from the enrolment date of the CASTP under the folio,
till the first transfer date. Subsequent capital appreciation, if any, will be the capital
appreciation between the previous CASTP date (where redemption has been processed and
paid) and the next CASTP date; for example, if the appreciation is Rs.3500 in the first quarter
and Rs.3,000 in the second quarter, the unit-holder will receive only the appreciation, i.e.,
Rs.6,500.
7. Leveraged Buyout
A Leveraged Buyout (LBO) involves the purchase of a target company or division of a
company where a substantial portion of funds is borrowed, and the assets of the target
company secure such portion of the fund. The debt may be in the form of bank finance, (junk)
bond offer, seller finance, and loans from Specialist Funds. These debts are repaid from future
earnings and free cash flows of the company, issuance of public stock, additional capital
contributions, sale of uncorrelated divisions or assets of the company or any combination of
the above. The cash flow requirements for debt service force managers to sell unrequired
assets, improve operational efficiency, and cut wasteful capital expenditure including
employee layoffs.
Specialist financiers lead the Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs), whose executives take direct equity
holdings in the acquired corporation, though majority of the funding for the purchase is in the
form of debt. Incumbent management may play a vital role in the transaction and in equity
holding. Sometimes, however, a financial buyer may even replace the incumbent
management.
The reason behind using the term 'Leveraged Buyout' is that it allows companies to make
< TOP >
19
large acquisitions without having to commit a lot of capital. A Leveraged Buyout may also be
referred to as a hostile takeover, a highly leveraged transaction, or a bootstrap transaction.
The LBO market comprises three major types of transactions: (i) those in which a public
company is taken by a private firm (this is usually the takeover segment of the LBO market),
(ii) divestitures that result from selling off divisions of a public corporation, and (iii) private
market transactions involving companies whose stocks are not publicly traded.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)
A Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a corporation or a Business Trust that combines the
capital of many investors to acquire (or provide financing for) various real estate assets.
Investors are able to invest in a professionally managed portfolio of real estate assets. The
structure also qualifies as a pass-through entity and distributes maximum portion of its
earnings as dividends to shareholders. One of the major advantages of this investment is
its liquidity as compared to traditional direct investment and through private equity route,
which offers low liquidity on investment. The primary reason for the liquid nature of REITs is
that they are traded in major exchanges as any ordinary share of a company.
Characteristics of REITs
A corporation in the business of real estate, which wants to qualify as a REIT to reap the
advantages of being a pass-through entity free from taxation at the corporate level, must
comply with the Internal Revenue Code (as defined in the US) provisions:
i. It must be structured either as a corporation, a Business Trust, or similar association,
ii. A Board of Directors or Trustees must manage it
iii. Shares are fully transferable,
< TOP OF THE DOCUMENT >

25% (b) 10. (II) and (III) above (I). risk factors: standard risk factors and specific risk factors. III. A 9.000 every month for the period of 24 months in the units of equity diversified scheme. IV. Accordingly. (III) and (IV) above All (I). Which of the following is not an advantage of investment in mutual funds? (a) Diversification benefits (b) Low transaction costs (c) Availability of various schemes to suit different needs (d) Professional management (e) Selection of stocks as per the liking of the investors. The finance provided to a company which plans to go public with in a short period of time is usually known as (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Bridge financing Mezzanine financing Acquisition financing Turnaround financing Private placement financing. (II) and (III) above. Owing to increase in inflation. (II) and (IV) above (I).28%.98% (c) 10. <Answer > 2 . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Only (I) above Only (III) above Both (I) and (II) above Both (II) and (III) above All (I).6. III. <Answer > 8.1. Fund with an ExMark of 95% or above may be called an index fund. where he invests Rs.971. The scheme invests in close-ended schemes. he purchases more units when scheme’s NAV is low and fewer units when NAV is high. Mr. Kumar opts for an investment plan being offered by Kotak Mutual Fund. 10 Tauras mutual fund offers a Fund of Fund scheme. For a typical mainstream equity fund. Which of the following can be considered as standard risk factors? I. which in turn puts pressure on liquidity in market and adversely affects the Net Asset Value (NAV) of mutual fund. (III) and (IV) above (II). (II). (III) and (IV) above. which invest in the units of overseas mutual fund schemes in globally emerging market and due to recession in that economy NAV of mutual fund decreases. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (I). RBI hikes the CRR rate.5. <Answer > <Answer > <Answer > 11. the yield to maturity will be approximately (a) 11. The investment plan opted by Mr. the ExMark usually runs from 30% to 40%. Changes in tax laws affect the return on investment in units.64% (d) 10. If the face value of the bond is Rs. II.000 and the remaining maturity of the bond is 5 years. 9. NAV of mutual fund decreases because government changes some of its major policy.45% (e) 10.5% GOI bond is currently trading in the market at a price of Rs. The usual name for the concept of ExMark is R-squared. The offer document of the scheme specifies about two . <Answer > 7.Which of the following statements is/are true with respect to ExMark? I. II. Kumar is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Automatic Reinvestment Plan Systematic Encashment Plan Systematic Transfer Plan Automatic Investment Plan Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan.

12.12 In accordance with the regulations.76. Which of the following practices is/are considered unethical by the SEBI? I.5446 Rs.11. He describes his decision to his sister.57 and 7.1458. deviation of the fund’s return is 15. Underlying stock price remains unchanged. Mr. who is fund manager. <Answer > 14 Which of the following strategies of asset allocation assumes that the risk tolerance of the investor is highly . Jain. I.35 1. III. the redemption price of unit of mutual fund scheme is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Rs.3768 per unit. a fund manager.10.20%. Jain is 125%. Underlying stock prices first decline and then rise. SEBI acts as a watchdog to control any unethical or unfair business . Nathani. <Answer > 16 If the NAV of the mutual fund scheme is Rs. II. Piyush. is managing a portfolio. Ahmed to exit the scheme without paying any exit load.80 1.7910 Rs. during a period. (II) and (III) above. who tells her friend. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Only (I) above Only (II) above Only (III) above Both (I) and (II) above Both (I) and (III) above. MD of mutual fund scheme.12. Standard .12.1678 per unit and unamortized initial issue expenses is . stock for himself with the expectation that he can sell when the share price double due to the action of Mr. is a close friend of Mr. Piyush immediately buys Jargon Ltd. Kamal. Jain is a good friend of Mr. 9.50 1.1678 Rs.0. when . He allows Mr. <Answer > 15 The rupee cost averaging gives maximum return. which has a significant share in Jack Ltd. practices. president of Jack Ltd. decides to sell his shares almost double the market price.3459 Rs. It is undertaken for a fairly long period. Mr. Kaushik.. sensitive to his net worth? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Systematic asset allocation Flexible asset allocation Strategic asset allocation Tactical asset allocation Insured asset allocation. II. the return on the portfolio managed by Mr. Re. The beta of the fund is approximately (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. controlling shareholder of the Jargon Ltd. Mr. <Answer > 3 . Ahmed. Nathani.46 respectively. Mr. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Only (I) above Only (III) above Both (I) and (II) above Both (II) and (III) above All (I). III.16 1. <Answer > 13 The Sharpe ratio and Treynor ratio of Reliance Equity Fund are 0. Owing to superior stock selection skills.

22 Which of the following can be considered as ‘bootstrap transaction’? . 8. each unit is selling at a 5% discount to NAV.962% 12.72 Rs.5% and 2.52 Number of outstanding units is 200 million. 21 Which of the following is not an exit strategy available to a Venture capital fund? .874. <Answer > <Answer > <Answer > 4 .16.14.19.35. equals Rs. The rate of return to the investor in the fund during the year is approximately (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 10.98 Rs.86 Other current assets 481. <Answer > 19 Consider the following data of Omega Mutual Fund (Income plan): . receive over the 8-year period will be approximately (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Rs.987.34.125% 10.76 Rs. each unit was selling at a 3% premium to NAV.897. 9. 6. If the investor sells his units. 7.2.54. (a) Initial public offerings (b) Strategic buy (c) Buy back by promoters (d) Merger and Acquisition (e) Liquidation of the company. (a) Venture capital is a capital investment which can be in the form of equity only (b) Venture capital is a long term investment and usually carries low risk (c) Venture capital is passive investment strategy (d) Venture capital shares the characteristics of private equity fund investment (e) Venture capital and traditional lending and borrowing are almost similar.36 Rs. Roshan buys a 8-year.15.15. The fund paid year-end distributions of income and capital gains of Rs. its NAV .50.5% respectively.512% 11.86 Other liabilities 390. <Answer > 20 Which of the following statements is true with respect to Venture capital? .75 Rs.781. By the year end.10.25 Rs . (a) Pension funds (b) Hedge funds (c) Venture capital (d) Private equity investment (e) Leveraged buyout.45 Accrued expenses 84. Entry load and exit load applicable to this scheme are 1.17 The NAV of each unit of a closed-end fund at the beginning of the year was Rs. the per unit price he will get is approximately (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Rs.124%. (Rs.40.650. At the beginning of the year.20 Receivables 180. <Answer > 18 Mr.12 Rs.80 Accrued income 163. The annuity he is entitled to . By the end of the year.14. 11% annuity deposit certificate for Rs.17.659.826% 11.19 Rs.in million) Value of investments 2.362.40 on each unit.

05 Rs. When the yields on the bonds are expected to go along at the normal economy growth rates. II.7. (III) and (IV) above. 24 ABC Ltd.65% 5. (II) and (III) above. Inverted curve is situation where long term investors look for higher yield. (a) Catastrophic risk can be very significant (b) Significant provisions for unearned premiums and outstanding claims are made (c) Claims are less frequent than in life policies (d) The increasing significance of investment income in fixing premiums lead to a tendency to distinguish an underwriting profit or loss from an insurance profit or loss in the accounts (e) Investments are mostly made for either short-term or medium-term contracts. a yield curve starts on the left with the short maturity and ends on the right with the longest maturity. but the managed portfolio consists of both investment grade as well as non investment grade bonds. <Answer > 28 A fund manager is managing certain portfolio.67% 6. The maturity periods are taken on Y-axis and market determined interest rates on the X-axis to draw the yield curve. Which of the following managed portfolios may contain the . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Only (III) above Both (I) and (II) above Both (I) and (III) above Both (II) and (III) above All (I).7.98%.75 Rs. The ex.150 per share.25. <Answer > <Answer > 25 Which of the following statements is not true with respect to different types of mutual funds? . (a) Balanced funds are suitable for those investors.25 Rs.175. the yield curve tends to be gently upward rising. II. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Only (I) above Only (III) above Both (I) and (IV) above Both (III) and (IV) above All (I).23 Which of the following statements is not true with respect to features of general insurance fund? .62% 7. element of tracking error risk? I.6. the tracking . IV. Normally.95 Rs.78% 8.6. offered right shares to its shareholders in the ratio of 4:1 at the rate of Rs. error is approximately (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 9. <Answer > 5 . (II). rights price of the share is Rs. If the risk of the market returns is 32%. The benchmark index comprises only investment grade bonds.6.1 with residual risk of 8%. like short sales to take advantage of declining market (e) Growth fund schemes are suitable to those investors who can bear short-term decline in value. The value of right will be (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Rs. III. who are willing to take moderate risk (b) Income fund generally invest a major portion of their funds in equities (c) Exchange traded funds provide investors a fund that closely tracks the performance of an index with the ability to buy/sell on an intra-day basis (d) Leveraged fund engages in speculative and risky investments. 26 Which of the following statements is/are not true with respect to yield curve? . I. III. The benchmark index consists of mortgage-backed securities and the managed portfolio does not include them. The duration for the benchmark index is 5 years and that of a managed portfolio is also 5 years. <Answer > <Answer > 27 Contra fund has a beta of 1.

Bond laddering means buying bonds scheduled to mature at several different dates in the future. A bond laddering is an effective tool for some one who needs to ride the yield curve.4 0. Answer all questions. You are required to a.120 minutes on Section B.a. Fund of Funds (FoF) and Manage The Manager (MTM) funds.5 Beta 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Both (I) and (II) above Both (I) and (III) above Both (III) and (IV) above (I). rather than all at the same time. (III) and (IV) above. In bond laddering. Compute Treynors ratio for all the schemes. How do you differentiate these two categories of multi manager funds? (10 marks) <Answer> 3. Do not spend more than 110 . stock fund that invests only in the stocks of companies operating in construction industry. Marks are indicated against each question.5 and 0. different fund houses have different investment styles.29 Mr. and perform differently under different market ( 6 marks) 6 .5 1. I. because. Bond laddering is an active bond management strategy.0 Treynor ratio and Sharpe ratio for market portfolio are 6.7 2. c. (II) and (III) above (I). ( 4 marks) ( 4 marks) ( 8 marks) Caselet 1 Read the caselet carefully and answer the following questions: <Answer> 2. The information pertaining to the schemes are given below: Scheme Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme Principal Equity Diversified Scheme M&S Equity Diversified Scheme Alpha/Residual risk 1.5% p. depending on just one fund manager or a fund house to produce astounding returns is not advisable. II. Rakshak for investment? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Growth funds Value funds Broad-based specialty funds Concentrated specialty funds Tax saving funds. each group of bonds represents a rung on the investment maturity ladder. Shah is handling different schemes of a large mutual fund for the last three years. Mr. IV. T-Bills are trading in the market at 7. END OF SECTION A <Answer > Section B : Problems/Caselets (50 Marks)      This section consists of questions with serial number 1 – 5 . Rakshak opines that construction industry has a bright future and hence he wants to invest in a common . Which of the following funds is more suitable to Mr. III.6 Alpha (%) 1. According to the caselet. Compute Sharpe ratio for all the schemes. Detailed workings/explanations should form part of your answer. Compute the return from all the schemes.5 0. As per the caselet.0 0. <Answer> 1.9 2.5 respectively. there are two categories of multi manager funds.5 2. b. <Answer > 30 Which of the following statements are true with respect to bond laddering strategy? .6 1.5 0.

the latter is most likely to have a lower-cost factor. Standard Chartered. are multi-manager funds worth it? Since. There are two categories of multi manager funds – Funds of Funds (FoF) and Manage The Manager (MTM). they don’t come under the FoFs umbrella where there are tax issues. which is typically higher than single manager funds that charge anything between 1. it would be foolhardy to make a comparison of such funds with diversified mutual funds in India.5% and 2%. The enormous categories. Fidelity and ABN Amro have introduced FoFs that partly invest outside their ‘in-house’ schemes. the fund is distributed among their own schemes. This extra charge is not applicable to MTM funds. Currently. Multi-manager funds aim to achieve better long-term returns than a single-manager fund. how can you rely on just one fund manger or a fund house to produce astounding returns? After all. a moot point is that the underlying manager fees are not charged to the fund separately. Here’s where multi. as an investor in MTM funds. the first in India.75% extra. This idea has resulted in the emergence of multi manager funds. all these funds are recently launched in India. while other investment houses that have multi-manger products. The need of the hour is simplification. make the investment process difficult and confusing. A good way to find out whether the fund is expensive is to look at the expense ratio. So. investment options are getting complicated day by day. with less volatility. just as the very best batsmen can play a bad shot and get out for a duck. and perform differently under different market conditions. the greatest investment manger can go through bouts of poor performance. Franklin Templeton. though FoFs can charge 0. Multi-manager funds address these needs directly.manager funds score a ton. explain the advantages of multi manager funds. From a taxation point of view. It is not different from mutual funds. So. So. many product innovations and hundreds of schemes. Investors around the world want the best investment managers manage their money for them and they want to diversify their investments across more than one manager. Therefore. you have access to the best of managers without any extra cost and the same tax benefit. Investment houses such as Kotak. every manager has a specific mandate based on its expertise in a certain investment style. is one such step and it has already made its way into the Indian market. In India. So. Next. MTM funds are treated similar to any other mutual fund. let’s look at costs.from aggressive to defensive . offer only FoFs. How much that adds up to is a grey area and fund houses are not comfortable in revealing it. and Pru ICICI have introduced multi-manger funds in the form of Funds of Funds (FoFs). it’s easier to manage and is less expensive. An analysis among international funds however shows that 7 . However. In India. a few investment houses such as Birla Sun Life. So. the industry has maximum permissible charge of 2. what are multi-manager funds? Multi-manager funds employ the skills of investment managers to manage the assets. Charges are one of the important parameters in determining long term growth for your money. OptiMix offers MTM mutual funds.400bn worldwide.5% and 3. Multi-manager funds come in different forms .5%. The expense ratio is the figure investors must consider because it takes into account not just the annual management fees but also all other costs. In this context. OptiMix has products with zero brand bias. In MTM funds. multi-manager funds manage nearly $1. Internationally multi-manager funds have an expense ratio between 2. various asset classes. It’s like saying the sum-of-the-parts is greater than the whole. On the other hand. They offer exposure to the investment expertise of some of the leading investment management firms selected and monitored by a specialist in the field and make them available in a convenient package to easy to buy and monitor. A lazy way of looking at such funds would be to describe them as something that bundles the best performing managers into a single fund. Multi-manager funds tend to give investors exposure to different fund management styles with inputs from the multi-manager fund itself.conditions. However. The difference being the former invests in different funds and the latter invests in equities directly under the guidance and advice of appointed fund managers.5%. So. In MTM. For the retail investor.depending on the exposure to equities and Gsecs. Different fund houses have different investment styles. Multi-manager mutual funds. All funds carry an entry load and an annual charge.

can also reduce dependence upon foreign capital for investments in infrastructure assets. as these will largely invest in unlisted companies. Considering the magnitude of investments required during the next five years. With a view to suggesting a detailed action/plan for 'operationalising' this. the Hon'ble Finance Minister mentioned the need to promote the flow of investment to the Infrastructure sector by permitting domestic mutual funds to launch and operate Dedicated Infrastructure Funds (DIFs). The proposed DIF's will need to be structured differently from the current Mutual Fund Schemes. DIFs. the proposed Dedicated Infrastructure Funds (DIFs) will largely invest in unlisted infrastructure projects and/or companies. it has been observed that these have increasingly become a significant channel for focused investment into the listed equity and debt markets. Household savings have traditionally been channelised into Bank Deposits. To sustain its current economic growth trajectory. to be in the range of US$280bn-US$475bn. Similarly. but have high minimum contribution requirements. Such funds can act as channeling agents of capital from Indian retail investors. The household savings rate to GDP hovers around the 30% mark. India will need to develop and augment infrastructure in all the key sectors like Power. if they are successful in attracting large retail-investor participation. India is a country of savers. Analyze why it is difficult to make retail investors participate in infrastructure development through Venture Capital Funds (VCFs). but have high minimum contribution requirements. DIFs. 5. In the 2007 Budget speech for the Financial Year 2007-08.since their inception. Roads. They can not get listed on the stock exchanges till the expiry of three years from the date of issue and can not reach public domain through advertisements. Airports etc. pension funds. with longer gestation periods. it is imperative to tap all available sources of the capital and a significant role needs to be played by the private sector. venture capital funds have the ability to invest in unlisted and longer tenure projects. As mentioned in the caselet. DIFs can be structured to fill this gap and can be uniquely 8 <Answer> ( 8 marks) <Answer> (10 marks) . resources and commitment required to manage these investments will be significantly higher than as well as different from that used for existing Mutual Funds. END OF CASELET 1 Caselet 2 Read the caselet carefully and answer the following questions: 4. The basic infrastructure a country develops is the backbone for its long-term economic growth and employment generation. Analyse the factors which will increase the cost of managing and operating proposed DIFs compared to current Mutual Funds. From an investor perspective. Various government bodies & Committees. Venture Capital Funds have the ability to invest in such unlisted and longer tenure projects. Insurance etc. With the advent of mutual funds. As mentioned in the caselet. It is not possible to achieve inclusive and sustainable growth without the creation of enabling infrastructure in an economy. thus leaving out the retail investors. Small Savings Schemes of the Government. insurance companies as well as overseas institutional investors. Ports. international agencies and research houses point to the investment requirement for the infrastructure sector. if the country is able to channelize large investments in infrastructure creation. the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) had set up the Committee to suggest the broad guidelines for launch and operations of DIFs. DIFs can also provide an alternative investment opportunity to retail investors and ensure broader public participation in the infrastructure creation in the country. like a diversified portfolio is better than an individual stock. The level of expertise. thus leaving out the retail investors. multi-manager funds may be a better idea than single manager funds. Rail. Urban-Infrastructure. But. most multi-manager funds have performed more consistently than the single-manager funds. A sustainable and long-term shift to 9-10% GDP growth rate is only possible. during the next five years. can potentially become an important source of capital for various infrastructure projects that are important for the country's economic development.

b. In light of the unique nature of DIFs like dedicated teams for the management of such schemes. the DIF's may be allowed to take control of the asset. in line with global practices. Answer all questions. as per global practice. Do not spend more than 25 -30 minutes on Section C. requirement of in-depth research because of companies being unlisted and information not being available. Leveraged Buyout (LBO). subject to adequate disclosures in the offer documents and approval of trustees. In this context. the DIFs should also be allowed to charge a performance fee after providing a certain minimum return to the unit holders. In terms of Investments. higher level of monitoring of investments. Additionally. if they so desire. resources and commitment required to manage these investments will be significantly higher than as well as different from that used for existing Mutual Funds. ( 10 marks) Write short notes on: a. discuss the different investment plans offered by mutual funds in India. <Answer> 7. As the proposed Dedicated Infrastructure Funds will largely invest in unlisted infrastructure projects and/or companies.7 . mutual funds provide different schemes to suit the risk and return profile of various investors. Today. END OF CASELET 2 E N D O F S E C T I O N B Section C : Applied Theory (20 Marks)     6. The Committee therefore suggests that maximum overall permissible expense ratio for DIFs including investment management fees be additional 1% over and above that specified in the Mutual Fund Regulations. they provide the investors with the convenience of periodic purchase plans. the level of expertise. it is suggested that the DIF's may be allowed to invest up to 100% of its funds into unlisted securities including both equity and debt instruments. 9 ( 5 marks) ( 5 marks) <Answer> . The Committee believes that DIFs should operate as close-ended schemes with a maturity period of seven years and a possibility of one or two extensions. and own up to 100% of the paid up capital of a company. In this process. should be limited to 10% of the NAV at the time of making the investments. Exposure to listed companies. the fee structure of such funds will have to be different from the existing Mutual Fund schemes. Marks are indicated against each question. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Further. The proposed DIF's should get listed within 24 months of the launch of the scheme and be allowed to buy-back the units. however. from the market within certain limits to safeguard the interests of investors.positioned to benefit both the ongoing infrastructure initiatives as well as the potential retail investors. This section consists of questions with serial number 6 .

END OF SECTION C END OF QUESTION PAPER 10 .

A 7. c and d are the advantages of a mutual fund. 11 .00 981. When a company plans to go public with in a short period of time and funds are < TOP > required for the maintenance of day-to-day operations.2 Years Duration of liabilities = 12 Years Duration of liabilities > Duration of assets Reinvestment risk arises due to mismatch between duration of assets and duration of liabilities. 4. E C A distressed security is ‘Hard-to-value’ securities. Automatic Investment Plan (AIP). AIP makes the volatility in the market work in investor’s favor. Thus. over a period of time. Credit risk factor measures the percentage of outstanding international debts in terms of country GDP. r = 9.56 Therefore. B 6. < TOP > Duration of assets = (8 X 0. AIP allows investors to plan their savings through a structured regular monthly savings program. investment in stocks should be equal to < TOP > 100 minus your age and rest of the money should go to bonds. these market fluctuations are generally averaged. Since a fixed amount is invested.05 At r = 11% RHS = 944. Therefore pension fund is facing reinvestment risk.05 . According to 100 minus your age method. b. on a regular basis. more units are purchased when a scheme’s NAV is low and fewer units when the NAV is high. Hence 75% of the funds should be invested in stocks and 25% in bonds.28% All the alternatives a. As a result. < TOP > 5. then this type of financing is known as bridge financing.56 = 10. is a < TOP > method of investing a fixed sum. the average cost of the investment is often reduced. D 8.6) = 9.944.4) + (10X 0. in a mutual fund scheme.  < TOP > Political risk indicates the probability of economic losses arising due to < TOP > government actions. The investor is given the option of investing at a specified frequency of months in a specified scheme of the mutual fund for a constant sum of investment. Alternative (e) < TOP > is not an advantage as the fund managers though try to have holdings in the flavors of the season however stock selection as per the living of all the investors is not possible. 2. A A REASON An investor under a Mutual Fund scheme is entitled to receive information about the < TOP > ‘Net Asset Value’ at intervals not exceeding one week. Economic risk arises due to change in macro economic conditions of the country. 3. E 971 = 95 95 95 95 1095 + + + + 2 3 4 1 r (1  r ) (1  r ) (1  r ) (1  r )5 At r = 10% RHS = 981.971. also called Systematic Investment Plan.05 . Let the YTM of the bond be r. E 10 + 981.Suggested Answers Mutual and other Funds (CFA650) : October 2008 Section A : Basic Concepts ANSWER 1.

correct answer is C. Mutual funds are vehicles of collective investments under which investors in a scheme are treated equally. The rupee cost averaging gives the best result when it is undertaken for a fairly long < TOP > period.4 × 0.14. C  Personal trading by fund managers and employees. changes in the < TOP > government policy. Redemption price = NAV – Unamortized initial issue expenses per unit Redemption price = 12.42 The price of unit at the end of the year = Rs. changes in tax laws.68–14.57 = = i  = 13.7910 per unit The price of unit at the beginning of the year = Rs. changes in interest rates. can create conflicting and at times interesting situations. volatility in market. Thus.20% 1. which they use to trade on their personal account. resulting in a more aggressive asset mix.3768 = Rs.14.74 (13.42 = 11. D 16.4 – 0. they have access to information that is unavailable to others.68 The price of the fund fell by – 0.09% = = 15. Funds with an ExMark of 95% or above may be called an index fund. Therefore. which is done by fund employees.42) Rate of return = (2. these people collude with other inside people to access private information. 17. Statement III is ethical as the returns are due to superior stock selection skills.16. Therefore. In normal cases. Insider trading is likely to impact investors in a very bad way. C Standard risk factors arises due to absence of liquidity in the market. For a typical mainstream equity fund.14 × 1.74)/14. the concept of preferential treatment is avoided here. Fund managers buy and sell securities in the market for the mutual fund portfolios. The more the value of this. Whereas investing in a close ended scheme is a specific risk factor.46  = 0. The usual < TOP > name for the concept of ExMark is R-squared. E The Insured asset allocation strategy assumes that the risk tolerance of the investor is < TOP > highly sensitive to his net worth.95 = 13. the ExMark usually runs from 80% to 90%. It gives higher return when stock prices first decline and then rise. i  14. The practices that are considered unethical by the SEBI are:   Insider trading. pressure on the exchange rate of rupee.11. the fund managers are not insiders. B Treynor  ratio Sharpe ratio = Ri  R F  Ri  R F i < TOP > i 7. Preferential treatment to selected investors. < TOP > < TOP > 15. Hence (III) is wrong but (I) and (II) are correct.10. Personal trading.512%. C C 12 . 13. This ensures the effective cost of purchasing is lower but value of the portfolio is higher. ‘Insider Trading’ means buying or selling securities on the basis of privileged information available to the funds by persons regarded as insiders to the company. etc. statement II illustrates preferential treatment to selected investors.1678 – 0. Statement I is an example of Insider trading. correct answer is option c. < TOP > 11. the larger is his risk tolerance. C 12.03 = Rs.

E Annuity = = = 34.025) = Rs. there is no payment of bonus or return of paid premiums. The main features of general funds are:   Significant provisions for unearned premiums and outstanding claims that are made. long term debt or convertible securities.8) 34. < TOP >       13 . and as such. E C A leveraged buyout may also be referred to as a hostile takeover.35. 22. stage of development of the companies or geographical location.86) / 200 = Rs. 20.45 + 481.1461 < TOP > Rs. Claims are more frequent than in life policies. 23. 897. 21. Venture capital shares the characteristics of private equity fund investment and is treated as one of its branches Venture capital is very different from traditional lending and borrowing. Unless there is an adverse occurrence.52 -390. So. B The following exit alternatives are available for a VC fund depending upon the exit < TOP > timings. D NAV = (Value of investments + Receivables + Accrued income + Other current < TOP > assets – Liabilities – Accrued Expenses) / Number of units outstanding = (2874.      Initial Public Offerings Buy back by promoters or company Strategic sale Merger and Acquisition. c. a highly leveraged < TOP > transaction. Venture capital is a long term investment and usually carries high risk with the potential for delivering above average returns. a. Hence (d) is the answer.50 5. non-occurrence of an adversity assures a profit for the insurance company. usually annual even if there is an expectation of renewal. Catastrophic risk can be very significant. Contracts are short-term. 19. These funds are based on the insurance principle of funds collection from many and compensation to a few affected ones.20 + 180.16.72. 897.50 PVIFA(11%.12 Now the selling price of the investor will be Rs.781. investments cannot be made for very long-term contracts.6. particularly in times of economic stringency.12 X (1-0.18. Investment income in recent years has become increasingly significant in fixing premiums. premium income is not consistent and reliable.15. b. or a bootstrap transaction.16. D d. Venture capital is a capital investment made in a new firm which can be in the < TOP > form of equity capital.86 – 84. Investments are mostly made for either short-term or medium-term contracts. e. This increasing significance has been followed by a tendency to distinguish an underwriting profit or loss from an insurance profit or loss in the accounts.80 + 163. and Liquidation of the company. Unlike other forms of financing Venture capital is active investment strategy and venture capitalist take keen interest in the business performance of the firm.

When the yields on the bonds are expected to go along at the normal economy growth rates. IT. a yield curve starts on the left with the short maturity and ends on the right with the longest maturity. (1. Concentrated specialty Funds invest in the stocks of single industry. the yield curve tends to be gently upward rising. The structure of ETFs is such that it protects long-term investors from inflows and outflows of short-term investors. IV. along with capital appreciation.1 .08) 2   Tracking error =  28. III. Broad based specialty funds focus on major market sub-sectors such as new economy and old economy stocks. These funds or schemes generally invest in fixed incomes such as bonds and corporate debentures. I. like short sales to take advantage of declining market. < TOP > 1/ 2 26. B I. D      14 . C 27. B Tracking error of the fund relative to the market is. The maturity periods are taken on X-axis and market determined interest rates < TOP > on the Y-axis to draw the yield curve.175 = Rights offer price = Rs.0) 2 (0. The duration of both benchmark index and managed portfolio is same therefore there will be on tracking error. II. who are willing to take some risk and seek both income and capital appreciation. II. statement b is not true and all other options are correct. B 1 x (175  150) 4 = Rs.32) 2 + (0. The objective of growth fund scheme is to provide capital appreciation for the < TOP > medium to long term investors.25 Balanced fund invest in both units and fixed income securities in the proportion < TOP > indicated in their offer document.1.24.6. Therefore. then the latter has a greater credit risk than the benchmark index. The aim of value fund is to provide regular and steady income to investors as well as growth.62% The benchmark index comprises only investment grade bonds. The benchmark index consists of mortgage-backed securities and the managed portfolio does not include them. Leveraged fund engage in speculative and risky investments. = 8. such as pharmaceuticals. The aim of income fund is to provide regular and steady income to investors. This is because the fund does not bear extra transaction cost when buying/selling due to frequent subscriptions and redemptions. but the managed < TOP > portfolio consists of both investment grade as well as non investment grade bonds. of rights offered = 200/4 = 50 = No.150 Vr = 25. etc. 29. Growth fund schemes normally invest a major portion of their funds in equities and are willing to bear short-term decline in value for possible future appreciation in the NAV of the scheme. of original shares held = 200 = Ex-rights price = Rs. III. Vr = < TOP > Vr = Value of rights n m Pex Pof = No. Normally. then the latter is not exposed to prepayment risk. A n x (Pex  Pof ) m Where. Inverted curve is a situation where long term investors look for lower yield. Such funds are suitable for those investors. Tax saving funds provides tax savings to investors.

Treynor’s ratio for market portfolio = (RM–RF)/βM As βM of market portfolio is 1 Market Risk Premium (RM–RF) = 6.64(%)2 Total risk = Residual Risk + Systematic risk Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.24(%)2 Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 17.50 M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = (19.81(%)2 Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.25 + 331.5)/2.77(%) 3.5 × 6.30.6 × 6.62 × 132 = 432.5)/18. B Bond laddering is a passive bond management strategy where the purpose is to < TOP > match the assets with liability in the terms of maturity.79 Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = (26.5)/1.17% M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 2/1.9/0.D S. a.52 × 132 = 1056.84(%) Sharpe Ratio = (RP–RF)/σP Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = (18.7 = 7. Treynor Ratio = (RP–RF)/βP Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = (18.5 =1.5)/1.25(%)2 M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.6 =4.5 +1.25% M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 2 + 7.24(%)2 Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.6 = 7.05 (%)2 17.3889 + 1056.5)/0.5 = 7.5 + 0.24 = 333.5805% 15 .95% Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.5 + 2. Appraisal ratio = Alpha/Residual Risk Residual risk = Alpha/Appraisal ratio Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.5/1 =1. Section B : Problems 1.5 σM = 6.90% b.4 × 6.33% Residual risk2 Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.5 = 12.5 + 7.5/0.5/0.10% Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.5 = 13% Systematic risk = Beta2× σM2 Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.26(%) Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = = 9.64 = 434.9 + 7.26 = 0.7 × 6.10–7.57 Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = (12.5% Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 0.D S.24 + 82.4089 (%)2 20.5 = 18.25 = 1073.7689 + 432.3889(%)2 M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.5 + 7.5 + 1.95–7.5% Total Return = Alpha + Rf + Beta (Rm–Rf) Kotak Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.25(%)2 Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = 3.4 = 7.5 = 1.42 × 132 = 331. Here the effort is not made to take advantage of change in yield curve.72 × 132 = 82.D = S.8% Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = 2.25–7.D = < TOP > M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = 1.5 = 19.10–7.90–7.28(%) Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = = 32.6389 (%)2 S.75 c.7689(%)2 Sharpe’s ratio of market portfolio = (RM–RF)/σM = 0.81 = 86.5 = 26.49 (%)2 18.

have access to managers that fund of funds cannot access Focused on managers skills for future returns Closer Monitoring. The various factors which keep the retail investors away from participating in venture capital < TOP > funds are: Liquidity: No venture capital fund can get its units listed on a recognized stock exchange until the expiry of three years from the date of the issuance of units by the venture capital fund. in which the DIFs do invest.25–7.5873% Principal Equity Diversified Scheme = (26.The NAV calculation for current Mutual Fund schemes is based upon the market prices of the securities. 3. Investment Size: Minimum investment size for an investor is very high. Retail investments would require a lower minimum investment size as well as an ability to reach out to investors through public channels. it will have to evaluate multiple investment. and not relying on the performance of any one investment manager or style. Some of the factors.5)/20. Therefore retail investors are not in a position to invest through this route.84 = 0. These will include expenses related to legal fees. 5. Manage the manager funds Portfolios are populated segregated managers with Fund of funds Portfolios are populated (retail) funds with < TOP > Can assign customized restrictions to selected managers Require substantial assets. custodian and administrator.5722% M&S Equity Diversified Scheme = (19. The costs associated with the evaluation of the projects. Not possible to monitor some essential risk factors No control over manager (or investment team). No 1. due to additional layers of fees 6.5)/9. 4. 7. Therefore it would not be possible under the existing regulatory (SEBI VCF Regulations) to allow wider retail investor participation in the Infrastructure Sector by directly owning infrastructure assets through the venture capital route. By investing in a multi-manager fund.5950% 2. in the unlisted space.28 = 0. due-diligence costs. For every single investment a DIF makes. However for investments in Unlisted 16 . They establish a dedicated team of specialists to bring the best investment management capabilities available. There is a chance for a broad level of diversification that helps reduce investment risk and improves the likelihood of achieving consistent returns by having exposure to a number of investment managers. 2. if asset base is big Portfolios are diversified across market sectors and asset classes Little or no seed capital required Mostly focused on historic returns of funds Has no influence on the underlying Fund Managers. Expenses related to periodic valuations. Promotion and Reach: No Venture Capital Fund can advertise in any public domain for the subscription or purchase of any of its units. we will benefit from a comprehensive manager research < TOP > and selection process. 5.95–7. S. However.90–7. which will increase the cost of managing and operating proposed DIFs < TOP > compared to current Mutual Funds are: Higher Investment Costs. advisory fees etc.Reliance Equity Diversified Scheme = (12.77 = 0. 3. travel costs.Listed instruments are fairly liquid and provide managers an option of easy entry and exit.5)/32. better risk control on overall portfolio and access to portfolio holdings Complete control over managers • high flexibility by easy exchange of managers • greater level of transparency Most likely lower costs. 4. apart from higher managerial time and effort spent on each investment idea. the process of both entry and exit can be quite lengthy and complex. will therefore be significantly higher compared to other mutual funds. Very easy exchange of funds Higher costs.

DIF's will need to do all the basic research to be able to meaningfully evaluate investment proposals. However. information flow is restricted and there is practically no third-party research available. When you invest a fixed amount every month. the proposed DIF's will need to be managed by dedicated teams. AIPs or SIPs work better as opposed to one-time investing. The withdrawal can be monthly. in the unlisted space. The investor. thus. This is a good discipline since it forces the investor to commit cash at market lows. AIP allows investors to plan their savings through a structured regular monthly savings program. On the other hand. thereby increasing the costs. thus. Growth Option ii. DIF's will have to engage external parties to periodically value the investments. By investing in each. All this will result in higher commitment and efforts on the part of senior team members of the Mutual Funds. the investor can buy fewer units when the market moves up and more units when the market moves down. will be extremely deep. Listed securities are well researched by in-house research teams as well as several sell-side brokers. the number of Mutual Fund units you actually buy depends on their market price. As per prevailing international practices. SIP makes the volatility in the market work in investor's favor. Requirement of a dedicated Team: Unlike existing Mutual Funds where the same team may manage multiple schemes. increasing the number of units investors hold. DIFs may need to invest time to provide inputs to strategic decision making. Under rupee-cost averaging. As per international best practices. the average cost of the investment is often reduced. Mutual Funds offer the investor an option of collecting dividends or re-investing the same. Dividend Reinvestment Plan Option. The level of involvement of a DIF.space. Under growth option. Thus. is a method of investing a fixed sum. The investor is given the option of investing at a specified frequency of months in a specified scheme of the Mutual Fund for a constant sum of investment. Investors may even be pleased when prices fall because the fixed rupee investment would now fetch more units. a fully dedicated team manages such funds. these market fluctuations are generally averaged. Investment monitoring Costs. Automatic Investment Plan (AIP) Automatic Investment Plan. when other investors around him are wary and exiting the market. even in volatile markets with relative ease. Section C: Applied Theory 6. quarterly or half-yearly. in a Mutual Fund scheme. board level decisions (probably with a seat on the board of the investee companies) and even day-to-day functioning of the investee companies. with each investment. In most cases. As a result. making the cost of researching companies lower. Additionally. Different investment plans Mutual Funds offer in India are: < TOP > Automatic Reinvestment Plans (ARP) Under this. The SIP reduces the average purchase cost. on a regular basis. also called Systematic Investment Plan. an investor typically buys more of Mutual Fund units when prices are low. In dividend reinvestment plan option. Since a fixed amount is invested.The DIFs will have to continuously monitor the performance of investee projects. dividends or capital gains are re-invested in purchasing additional units instead of paying the investors in the form of cash. the team managing the funds shall ideally stay with the investments through the full cycle (79 years) and internationally is thus compensated for their longer commitment. over a period of time. Both the investment evaluation and monitoring processes will be time-consuming. Automatic re-investment plans come under two options: i. This is because of rupee-cost averaging. This plan appeals to investors in the high-income bracket. he would buy fewer Mutual Fund units when prices are high. Most of the companies have a fairly long history and a lot of information is publicly available. more units are purchased when a scheme's NAV is low and fewer units when the NAV is high. realizes only capital appreciation on the investment. Automatic Withdrawal Plan (AWP) Automatic Withdrawal Plan or Systematic Withdrawal Plan or Systematic Encashment Plan allows the investor the facility to withdraw a pre-determined amount/units from his Fund at a pre-determined interval. The 17 . the dividend accrued on Mutual Funds is automatically re-invested in purchasing additional units in open-ended Funds. returns from investments are reinvested.

Specialist financiers lead the Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs). sale of uncorrelated divisions or assets of the company or any combination of the above. if there is no minimum capital appreciation amount (except for last transfer leading to closure of account). Leveraged Buyout A Leveraged Buyout (LBO) involves the purchase of a target company or division of a company where a substantial portion of funds is borrowed. But the unpredictability in Equity Funds can be quite a deterrent for the investor to make a choice. whose executives take direct equity holdings in the acquired corporation. Incumbent management may play a vital role in the transaction and in equity holding. till the first transfer date. Automatic Withdrawal Plans are different from Monthly Income Plans as the former allows investors to get back the principal amount invested while the latter only pays the income part on regular basis. If an investor opts for FSTP and in case. Capital Appreciation Systematic Transfer Plan (CASTP). there is no minimum amount (as specified above) available in the unit-holder's account. he is independent of market movement and the average withdrawal value is higher than the average cost price.100. no transfers will take place. unit holders will be eligible to transfer the entire capital appreciation amount (minimum Rs.3. earned by the scheme during the specified period shall be automatically redeemed and paid to the investors at the applicable NAV. however. A transfer will be treated as redemption of units from the scheme from which the transfer is made and as investment in units of scheme into which the transfer is made. Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) Investing in a Debt Fund normally assures fairly consistent returns to the investor whereas equities have the potential to create wealth. 7. issuance of public stock. though majority of the funding for the purchase is in the form of debt. Thus. The investor is usually required to maintain a minimum balance in his account under this plan. Unitholders should be aware that if they decide to take up this facility. Sometimes.3500 in the first quarter and Rs. will be calculated from the enrolment date of the CASTP under the folio. if any. the residual amount will be transferred to the transferee scheme and the account of the unit holder will be closed. Under this facility. When an investor withdraws at an interval periodically. The cash flow requirements for debt service force managers to sell unrequired assets.000 in the second quarter. the unit holders can opt to redeem/switch (transfer) fixed amount of money from their accounts at periodic intervals. which means two schemes managed by the same Asset Management Company and belonging to the same Mutual Fund. thereafter. Subsequent capital appreciation. improve operational efficiency.000 and in multiples of Rs. Under the Capital Appreciation Systematic Transfer Plan (CASTP). FSTP offers transfer facility at weekly. (junk) bond offer. Unit holders will be eligible to transfer a fixed amount (for example.. there is possibility of erosion of capital. The debt may be in the form of bank finance. STPs offer comes in two plans for unit-holders: i. i. a financial buyer may even replace the incumbent management. Under this.investor's units will be redeemed at the applicable NAV as on that day. The reason behind using the term 'Leveraged Buyout' is that it allows companies to make 18 < TOP > . the unit holders can opt to redeem amounts equivalent to the appreciation in their investment value at periodic intervals. will be the capital appreciation between the previous CASTP date (where redemption has been processed and paid) and the next CASTP date. Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) allows the investor to transfer on a periodic basis a specified amount from one scheme to another within the same Fund family. The amount withdrawn is treated as redemption of units at the applicable NAV as specified in the Offer Document. monthly and quarterly intervals. The capital appreciation.6. a minimum Rs. 1. for example.e. Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan (FSTP) ii. if any. for schemes). and cut wasteful capital expenditure including employee layoffs.500. and the assets of the target company secure such portion of the fund. and loans from Specialist Funds. seller finance. if any. the unit-holder will receive only the appreciation. These debts are repaid from future earnings and free cash flows of the company. 1.000) by way of capital appreciation. the appreciation. if the appreciation is Rs. Rs. additional capital contributions. Fixed Systematic Transfer Plan (FSTP) Under this facility.

or similar association. Investors are able to invest in a professionally managed portfolio of real estate assets. Characteristics of REITs A corporation in the business of real estate. a Business Trust. which wants to qualify as a REIT to reap the advantages of being a pass-through entity free from taxation at the corporate level. The LBO market comprises three major types of transactions: (i) those in which a public company is taken by a private firm (this is usually the takeover segment of the LBO market). a highly leveraged transaction. The primary reason for the liquid nature of REITs is that they are traded in major exchanges as any ordinary share of a company. or a bootstrap transaction. must comply with the Internal Revenue Code (as defined in the US) provisions: i. which offers low liquidity on investment. It must be structured either as a corporation. (ii) divestitures that result from selling off divisions of a public corporation. and (iii) private market transactions involving companies whose stocks are not publicly traded. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) A Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a corporation or a Business Trust that combines the capital of many investors to acquire (or provide financing for) various real estate assets. One of the major advantages of this investment is its liquidity as compared to traditional direct investment and through private equity route. iii. The structure also qualifies as a pass-through entity and distributes maximum portion of its earnings as dividends to shareholders. < TOP OF THE DOCUMENT > 19 . ii.large acquisitions without having to commit a lot of capital. A Leveraged Buyout may also be referred to as a hostile takeover. A Board of Directors or Trustees must manage it Shares are fully transferable.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful