EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ABSTRACT In the competitive environment of open economy human resource management with the

increased modern trends becoming significant factor for the efficient running of organization Human resource management emerged from personnel management and personnel management emerged from manpower planning. The consideration of changes taking place in managing human resource led to adaptation of strategic HRM the consideration of strategy and HRM system jointly led to the emergence of strategic human resource management SHRM which is crucial for achieving a corporation¶s long term goal. This article attempts to bring the historical evolution of HRM and changing roles of HR professional from time to time in order to considered employees as an important assets which helps in attaining goals of the organization. The article finally draws attention to the fact that SHRM and not PM or HRM are people considered for modern industrialization that is to be used for creating and sustaining competitive advantage for the firm. INTRODUCTION American writers Terrey and Franklin (1996) mentioned about the 6 Ms of management, viz. Men and women, material, money, market and method. But among these, men and women - the only living being- do the effective coordination and utilization of these human and nonhuman resources. All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and Human resource gained more attention as the workforce considered to be an important resource to gain competitive advantage of organization and also it helpful in utilizing the resources of an organization to a optimum extent in order to achieve organizational goal. Managing human resource is an complex process. As Harzing and Ruysseveldt said a better way to understand the philosophy of human resource management demands a thorough understanding about the evolution of the concept itself from the ancestral concept personnel management. In 1990 due to liberalized government policies of various countries the human resource started floating from one country to another this led to diversification of workforce and cross culture took place as a result employees from one nation migrating to another nation and bringing their culture with them this led to mixed organization culture so the HR professional has to play major role in coordinating the workforce of different culture in an organization. Approaches towards recruitment of staff focused to geocentric from ethnocentric and polycentric which is more efficient because workforce will be selected based on talent regardless of nationality. Method of recruiting also changed towards efficient policies like using of head hunters, cross national advertising, E- recruitment. EVOLUTION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMETN Evolution of Personnel management started in 19th century at that time there was a boom in industrialization which leads to increase in franchising and influence of trade unions and harshness of industrial condition called for the better of industrial condition. There was no department as such for taking care of above problem only welfare officers came into being to take care of above situation. These welfare officers were only women¶s who take care of protectionism of women and girls because they feel it as worthy if women employee are sick they visit their home give food accommodation give moral welfare. As the role of women increasing like they were getting employed in modern industries where their work is packing assembly or other routine job so the quality required by these women employee increased so these welfare officer who were women their responsibility also increased that is to recruitment training development. But ambiguity has been increased due to increased in production and also increased in paternalistic behavior relationship between employer and employee and also aiming at moral protection of women and girls and also side by side the aim of achieving economies of scale is also increased like achieving higher output by minimizing cost by resolving grievances control of sickness these leads to mixed aim of achieving organizational objective in order to achieve but at that time their was only a handful of welfare officer was their they wanted to improve the condition of working of women in 1900 there were only few welfare officer was their but in 1913 number of welfare officer has been increased to take care of the situation. GROWTH IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 1914-39 The exact growth of personnel management started during First World War because the number of munitions manufactured at a large scale so the number of employees needed to manufacture increased on the other hand the welfare officer also increased by 1300 to take care of employees it also sought the supply of labor to munitions factories as the supply of welfare officer made mandatory by government. During war women recruited at a large scale to fill the gap of men who left the factories to joint war which in turn leads to dispute labour union to employ unskilled women The title labour manager or employment manager came in the yeat 1920 in engineering industry and other industries where the factories was very huge to handle absence, recruitment, queries over business and so on. Companies started merger and acquisition as strategy to grow in the mid of 19th century due to large number of employees employed they created their own specialist personnel department to unify the different policies and manage absence and recruitment with the objective of improving productivity. But this department is mainly concerned with hourly paid workers. As personnel management exist only in the emerging companies like plastic, chemicals and multiple retail. But during 1930¶s the economy started to grow at a rapid pace due to this big corporation came in to existence they feel to improve the value of employee benefits like different kinds of allowances as a measure of retaining motivating employee. SECOND WORLD WAR LEADS TO IMPROVEMENT IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. Second world war increased the importance of having personnel department because of producing large war materials the ministry of labour and national services insisted to combine both personnel department and welfare officer work on a full time basis. Again in second world war the number of women employees is more to fill the gap left by men who join the battle field again re-training proper recruitment taken place government saw the there is a huge neeed to have personnel department to take care of all employees in well manner. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ERA As the industrial revolution take place simultaneously the factory system came in to being that leads increase in working rules and regulation to large number to employees increase in the hierarchical structure also increased in working hours but decrease in pay bad working condition, social distance between employee and employer has increased, increased bureaucratization all these factor results in increasing monotony boredom job displacement impersonality due to these factor personnel management got higher attention. 1945 ± 1979 STARTED COLLECTIVE BARGAINING POWER AND INDUSTRIAL RELATION HAVE PRIMACY ROLE TO PLAY. As in the Second World War the term employment manager started to take care of women employees the combination of both welfare officers and employment manager leads to personnel management. Though in the war times the productivity increased due to number of employment policies undertaken but the role of personnel management during war time was small that to implement the rules demanded to produce large

Minimum status differentials Compensation Individual pay linked to job evaluation Pay linked to skills and mastery Employment Employees viewed as variable cost Assurances that participation will not result in job losses Employee voice Employee input allowed on a narrow agenda. Employee participation enacted on a wide range of issues Labour management relations Adversarial labour relations Mutuality with joint planning and problem solving . training.s and 60. The practice include are: Strict and rigorous selection and recruitment High level of training. There was a complete shift from post war collectivism and towards individualism and changes in structure of economy. Improvement in selection training appraisal and new management techniques has been expanded to improve the performance of the employees which demands to improve the profile of personnel management. The situation becoming worse and worse it was critical for both employers and unions due to this reason personnel manager was blaming for lacking of negotiation skill to resolve these situation and plan for industrial relationship strategies because of these deficiencies personnel management was not given high priority these leads to management to think something higher profile which have all the skill to negotiate to motivate. In the year 1960 Even the domestic rules and regulation was increased towards employability the new legislation was introduced towards employment. especially induction training and on the job training Team working Multitasking Better management-worker communications Use of quality circles and an emphasis on right first time quality Encouragement of employee suggestions and innovation Single status symbols such as common canteens and corporate uniforms The reason of above practice is create an organization atmosphere where workers can grow and identify their own success and goal which match with organization. During there is an enormous growth in an engineering industry but in 1950. The key to success of Japanese companies like Toyota Matsushita are the practice adopted for efficient management of workforce as these companies started opening its manufacturing plant in western countries the practice of these companies also started practiced by western companies. Personnel management perform different function such as y y y y y Collective bargaining role Implementation of legislation role Bureaucratic role Social conscience of the business role Growing performance improvement role RISING ROLE OF HRM The role of HRM has gain more important in the year 1980.s there was an enormous growth in other type of industry which leads to the increasing the role of personnel management at same time large companies wanted to develop their own employment policies which suites to their company which leads to improve emerging new aspect in personnel management. During 1990. Some people thought that HRM was evolved to solve union problem as there is an demand to take care of employees of an organization as a whole it performs different function. The year 1960 was high inflation so there was a regulation on wages paid by the employer personnel manager has to understand this new aspect of regulation regarding inflation to develop policies to implement new measures which aligned with employee¶s satisfaction level. and redundancy payments.s the success of large Japanese corporation in export market like automobiles and electronic goods took surprise to many western companies but studies says that the success of these Japanese firm is due to effective management of workforce the studies also shows that the workforce of Japanese firm are more productive and efficient than western firm. But there is an increasing in the bargaining between employer and unions during pre world war.scale goods but it was not focusing on other aspect of managing human resource that is by motivation. In the year mid of 1960¶s organization started giving much importance to employ the personnel specialist to perform different activities in order to make the employees as a whole package to perform in the organization. equal pay opportunities. increasing morale. promotion. performance appraisal etc but the role of negotiation of union has gain important role. the world is becoming global village and labour started moving from one country to another this resulted in managing the workforce diversity this become the challenge for the personnel management to manage these workforce diversity. employment protection. Emphasis on management symbols Flat organisation structure. The bargaining power of unions has increases which resulted in unnecessary official and unofficial strikes which were damaging the economy particularly manufacturing industry in UK the strikes were in huge number and it became famous in maintain poor industrial relation and the number of working days lost due to strike which resulted in closer of number of factories. Management practice Control Commitment y y y y y y y y Job design Focused on the individual Focused on the team Performance management Measured standards for minimum performance Higher ³stretch´ objectives Management structure Top down and hierarchical.

If an HR Manager is efficient enough to handle and to take out best from his team members any oragnisation and can achieve more from his target goals. Provide active support in the selection of Recruitment agencies which meet the corporate standard. 3. Responsible for mentoring.html#ixzz1EnNejxBk Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Set of 20 Key responsibilities of HR Manager. REFERENCES Read more: http://www. other business lines staff. ensuring compliance and to contribute the development of corporate HR policies.com/training-articles/evolution-of-human-resource-management-1294285. HR Manager is one of the most important key to open a lock hanging on the door of success in an organisation. To ensure timely recruitment of required level / quality of Management staff. REASON FOR STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOUCE MANAGEMENT Globalization and internationalization of market integration Increased technological change Cross culture issues Increased competition Increasing new concept CONCLUSION By doing complete analysis of evolution of HRM the conclusion is their will be modern trends will be occurring in HRM like strategic human resource management it is mandatory for every organization to treat all employees in a well manner because they are the assets of an organization which helps in achieving organization goal. SHRM means combination of strategy and HRM. to ensure the provision of a professional HR service to the organization.Manage a team of staff. HR manager plays an very important role in hierarchy. Ensure Corporate Branding in recruitment webs and advertisements. In an organization SHRM means accepting and involving the HR function as a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company¶s strategies through HR activities. guiding and developing them as a second line to the current position. including non-billable staff with appropriate global approvals.Figure 1 Walton¶s control to commitment (Source adopted from Walton 1985) RISE OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Strategic human resource management is a branch of human resource management. To develop the HR team. Stated below are major responsibilities of HR Manager:Responsibilities: 1. . 2. in order to meet business needs. To maintain and develop HR policies. focusing on Employee Retention and key Employee Identification initiatives. It also refers to linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives to achieve goals of an organization it also helps in improving the performance of innovation flexibility and competitive advantage. FEATURES OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT y y y y y y y Linkage of HR policy with organizational strategy in order to achieve organizational goals and objective Linkage of individual HR intervention so that they are mutually supportive. 4.articlesbase. and also in between the higher management and low level employees.

including adequate opportunities for career growth and development. Staff Retention. Succession Planning. 9. refine and fine-tune effective methods or tools for selection / or provide external consultants to ensure the right people with the desired level of competence are brought into the organization or are promoted. Ensure compliance to the approved salary budget.5. 8. Management Development / Career Development. 13. Compensation / Benefit programs. Coordinate increments and promotions of all staff. Prepare information and input for the salary budgets. . give focus on pay for performance and salary benchmarks where available. Reward and Recognition. Ensure a motivational climate in the organization. 10.Ensure adherence to corporate guideline on salary adjustments and promotions. To develop the HR business plan. Ensure appropriate communication at all staff levels. 6. Develop. Staff Induction. To facilitate / support the development of the Team members 11. To facilitate development of staff with special focus on Line Management 12. To maintain and develop leading edge HR systems and processes to address the effective management of people in relation to the following in order to maintain competitive advantage for: Performance Management. To recommend and ensure implementation of Strategic directions for people development within the organization. Competency Building / Mapping. 7.

15. y y y y y y y y y y y Recruiting Hiring Training Organization Development Communication Performance Management Coaching Policy Recommendation Salary and Benefits Team Building Employee Relations . 16. He cannot take any above stated responsibility for granted. 18. Counseling and Guidance cell .provide support to Managers in case of disciplinary issues. With Love and affection Depending on the size of the organization. Above 20 points are amongst the most important responsibilities which has to be taken care by an HR Manager. Co-ordinate the design.14. Provide counsel and assistance to employees at all levels in accordance with the company's policies and procedures as well as relevant legislation. the HR manager has responsibility for all of the functions that deal with the needs and activities of the organization's people including these areas of responsibility. Administer all employee benefit programs with conjunction with the Finance and Administration department. Oversee the central HR Administration employee offer letters salary letters and employment contracts. 19. Responsible for overall centralized HR admin function 20. 17. Responsible for Corporate HR function. implementation and administration of human resource policies and activities to ensure the availability and effective utilization of human resources for meeting the company's objectives. Approve updated organizational charts on a monthly basis and maintain complete/accurate personnel records.

The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. performance development and appraisal systems. know finance and accounting. employee assistance programs. In this role. concern and commitment to serve customers well. recognition and strategic pay. organization development interventions. and be accountable and responsible for cost reductions and the measurement of all HR programs and processes. The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall strategic business plan and objectives. to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute. HR people will have to prove they have the business savvy necessary to sit there. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency. the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. reward. Dave Ulrich. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. gain sharing and profit-sharing strategies. To be successful business partners. goals and action plans. HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. contributing. and happy. This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions. the HR manager provides employee development opportunities.y Leadership With all of this in mind. one of the best thinkers and writers in the HR field today. the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives. in Human Resource Champions. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated. he champions the identification of the organizational mission. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. recommends three additional roles for the HR manager. and employee development. In this role. communication and empowerment through responsibility. Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to change. and a professor at the University of Michigan. values. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally valued. the HR staff members have to think like business people. Fostering effective methods of goal setting. due process approaches to problem solving and regularly scheduled communication opportunities. builds employee ownership of the organization. . vision. HR Role: Business and Strategic Partner In today¶s organizations. he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this. To promote the overall success of his organization. HR Role: Change Champion The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion change. HR Role: Employee Advocate As an employee sponsor or advocate. It's not enough to ask for a seat at the executive table. career and succession planning. hiring. Finally.

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