British Isles

1

British Isles
British Isles

English: British Isles French: Îles Britanniques Irish: Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór[1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa[2] Manx: Ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh[3] Scottish Gaelic: Eileanan Bhreatainn[4] Welsh: Ynysoedd Prydain[5]

Satellite image of the British Isles, excluding Orkney (obscured by cloud) and Shetland (out of frame).

Geography Location Coordinates Total islands Major islands Area Western Europe 54°N 4°W 6,000+ Great Britain and Ireland 315134 km2 (121673.9 sq mi)

Highest elevation 1344 m (4409 ft) Highest point Ben Nevis Sovereign states and Crown Dependencies Guernsey Largest city Saint Peter Port Isle of Man Largest city Douglas Ireland

British Isles 2 Dublin Jersey Largest city Largest city Saint Helier United Kingdom Largest city London Demographics Population Ethnic groups ~65 million British. the United Kingdom. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Manx. with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland. with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies.[8] The British Isles also include three dependencies of the British Crown: the Isle of Man and. Irish. Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east. Britain and Ireland is becoming a preferred description. Pictish (northern Britain) and Brythons (southern Britain) tribes inhabited the islands at the turn of the 1st millennium. The climate is temperate marine. which is notably larger than other lakes on the isles.700 million years old.000 BC in Great Britain and 8000 BC in Ireland. The subsequent Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the later Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. by 12. At that time. Scottish. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the latitude. covers only 381 square kilometres (147 sq mi). Scoti (Ireland). which had been part of a separate continental landmass. The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe that include the islands of Great Britain and Ireland and over six thousand smaller islands. Ulster-Scots. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the distribution of the islands' population and culture throughout the world and a rapid de-population of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century.[7] [12] where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word British with Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages. Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland.[13] The Government of Ireland does not use the term[14] and its embassy in London discourages its use. Welsh [6] English. The first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominating the bulk of what is now England. The term British Isles is controversial in Ireland. Much of the Brythonic-crontrolled of Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43. Kale. This led to a landscape which was long dominated by temperate rainforest. while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty (1919–1922). Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. with mild winters and warm wet summers. Channel Islanders. the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey in the Channel Islands.[13] [16] [17] and Atlantic Archipelago is increasingly favoured in academia. although the latter are not physically a part of the archipelago. by tradition. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation.[18] [19] [20] [21] although British Isles is still commonly . soon restricted only to The Pale.[9] [10] The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and Ireland and are 2. The 1603 Union of the Crowns.[15] As a result. followed by more permanent settlements and political change – particularly in England. Cornish. Great Britain was a peninsula of the European continent from which Ireland had become separated to form an island. English Gypsies.[7] There are two sovereign states located on the islands: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom) and Ireland (also described as the Republic of Ireland). Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1344 metres (4409 ft) and Lough Neagh. Irish Travellers.[11] Viking invasions began in the 9th century.

[37] In 2006. At that time. Great Britain and Britain would later become synonymous with the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom. decided to stop using the term in Ireland[38] [39] and in 2001 the rugby union team the British Isles (or British Lions) was renamed the British and Irish Lions. in northern-western France that had been settled by Britons.[22] [23] The original records have been lost. UK and Ireland. it was reported that National Geographic said it would use the wording British and Irish Isles instead. an Irish publisher of school text books.[27] The classical writer. the archipelago is referred to simply as "these islands". Other names used to describe the islands aside from British Isles.[23] [26] The shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar. the inhabits of the islands of Pretanike were called the Πρεττανοι (Priteni or Pretani). however. Almagest (147–148 AD). Historians today.[29] Today. suggesting these may have been native names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest. it was used to distinguish the island of Britain from the peninsula of Brittany.[30] [31] British-Irish Isles. Diodorus used the Latin form. used αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι (the Prettanic Isles) to refer to the islands. suggest that use of the term British Isles should be avoided[36] and. and Marcian of Heraclea.[16] 3 Etymology The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.[23] Strabo used Βρεττανία (Brettania). later writings that quoted from the Massaliote Periplus (6th century BC) and Pytheas's On the Ocean (circa 325–320 BC)[24] have survived.[35] Some publishers' style guides. In the 1st century BC. In his later work. in the Middle Ages. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Folens. after which Britain became the more common-place name for the island called Great Britain.[32] Britain and Ireland. Geography .[28] The name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain. the Government of Ireland does not use the term British Isles [14] and its embassy in London discourages its use. he gave these islands the names Albion. Ptolemy. Iwernia. in his Periplus maris exteri. 150 AD). Great Britain would return to use a millennium later. this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones[16] although it is still commonly used.[33] Owing to political and national associations with the word British. such as the Economic History Society's and the Guardian newspaper's. and Mona (the Isle of Man). Πρεττανια (Prettania) from Πρεττανικη (Prettanike).[34] In documents drawn up jointly between the British and Irish governments. which was confusingly similar to the medieval writers. referred to the larger island as Great Britain (Megale Britannia) and to Ireland as Little Britain (Mikra Brettania) in his work. though not in absolute agreement.British Isles employed.[25] Along these lines. and British Isles and Ireland. Geography (c. include the Anglo-Celtic Isles. in early 2008. largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago.

the most recent being the Devensian. Over the last 500 million years the land which forms the islands has drifted northwest from around 30°S. Lakes on the islands are generally not large. Anglesey and the Isle of Man between Great Britain and Ireland. however only seven peaks in these areas reach above 1000 m (3281 ft). Most Atlantic depressions pass to the north of the islands. the Variscan orogeny in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. Orkney and Shetland to the north. covering 381 square kilometres (147 sq mi). Cambridgeshire at −2. with Ben Nevis being the highest point on the islands at 1343 m (4406 ft). These orogenic belts form a complex geology which records a huge and varied span of earth history. The islands' geology is highly complex. Baltica formed roughly the The British Isles in relation to the north-west north western half of Ireland and Scotland. though there are large numbers of limestone and chalk rocks that formed in the Permian and Triassic periods. and south Wales. with summers mild and also wet.1 square kilometres (27 sq mi).[40] Of particular note was the Caledonian Orogeny during the Ordovician Period. The west coasts of Ireland and northern Great Britain that directly face the Atlantic Ocean are generally characterised by long peninsulas. The North Atlantic Drift ("Gulf Stream") which flows from the Gulf of Mexico brings with it significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the islands' latitudes. combined with the general westerly circulation and interactions with the landmass. Ireland is to the west and covers 84. although Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland is an exception. The river Severn at 354 km (220 mi) is the longest in Great Britain and the Shannon at 386 km (240 mi) is the longest in Ireland. though there was certainly a single ice sheet covering the entire sea. this imposes an east-west variation in climate. leaving the British Isles in their current form.[43] Other mountainous areas include Wales and parts of Ireland. The largest of the other islands are to be found in the Hebrides. Great Britain is to the east and covers 216. the central Irish Sea was de-glaciated and the English Channel flooded. 488–444 Ma and early Silurian period. The largest freshwater body in Great Britain is Loch Lomond at 71.British Isles 4 The British Isles lie at the juncture of several regions with past episodes of tectonic mountain building. Further collisions caused European continental shelf.[41] The islands have been shaped by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary Period. The islands are at relatively low altitudes.75 m (−9. c. when the craton Baltica collided with the terrane Avalonia to form the mountains and hills in northern Britain and Ireland. Whether or not there was a land bridge between Great Britain and Ireland at this time is somewhat disputed.777 km2 (83. The isles have a temperate marine climate.406 km2 (32.[42] The Scottish Highlands in the northern part of Great Britain are mountainous.[45] .000 to 5. There are about 136 permanently inhabited islands in the group. There are a number of major rivers within the British Isles. As this ended.698 square miles). forming the hills of Munster.000 years ago. south-west England. with sea levels rising to current levels some 4. with central Ireland and southern Great Britain particularly low lying: the lowest point in the islands is Holme. the internal and eastern coasts are "smoother". over half of the total landmass of the group.02 ft).589 square miles). and the Channel Islands near the coast of France. and headlands and bays. crossing the equator around 370 million years ago to reach its present northern latitude. the largest two being Great Britain and Ireland.[44] Winters are cool and wet.

These forests were cleared extensively over the past millennium to make way for crop and pasture land. though not native to Ireland. Great Britain has slightly more variation and native wild life. Large birds are declining in number. Neither Great Britain nor Ireland are inhabited by many reptiles or amphibians. there are few numbers of species with Ireland having even less. bear and reindeer are today extinct. are very common. Animal and plant life in the archipelago is similar to that of the northwestern European continent. gorse and bracken. There are more than 21. crab and oysters on the coastline. some species such as red deer are protected. and Great Britain in particular. Ireland. Shetland pony. wych elm. Only three snakes are native to Great Britain: the common European adder. all small birds. elm. polecats. giving rise to a diverse pattern of vegetation. Common types are the chaffinch. ash. ash and beech are amongst the most common trees in England. birch and pine. pollock and bass are among the sea fish as well as mussels. However. In general. hedgehogs. hedgerows. However. badgers. such as wolf. All native flora and fauna in Ireland. which are native to Ireland but not found on Great Britain. pine and birch are most common. sparrow and starling. the only window during which this could occur was between the end of the last Ice Age (about 12. perch and pike.000 years ago) and when the land bridge connecting the two islands was flooded by sea (about 8. Beech and lime. and red grouse. hares. This patterns in true also for birds and insects. relatively large areas of forest remain in east and north Scotland and in southeast England. the water voles. for example. In Scotland. sole. wildcats. are also common there. cod. Natural forests in Ireland are mainly oak. Larger animals. the grass snake and the smooth snake. partridge. blackbird. except for those kept for game such as pheasant. most shrews. is made up of species that migrated from the elsewhere in Europe. Domestic animals native to the islands include the Connemara pony. wild grasses. However. . Over 200 species of bird reside permanently on the islands and another 200 migrate to them. Almost all land outside of urban areas is farmland. Irish wolfhound and several types of cattle and sheep. and stoats. in particular salmon. with weasels. Most forest land in Ireland are maintained by state forestation programmes. notable reversals of this theme include the Kerry slug and certain species of wood lice. trout.000 species of insects found on the islands. such as foxes. However. Fish are abundant in the rivers and lakes of the islands. Originally forests covered all parts of the islands but today only account for about 9% of the land area of Great Britain and 5% of Ireland. Woods. Farmland hosts a variety of semi-natural vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. Many rivers contain otters and seals are common on coasts. moles. Some female red deer in Killarney National Park. Dogfish.[46] none are native to Ireland. mountain slopes and marshes host heather.British Isles 5 Flora and fauna The islands enjoy a mild climate and varied soils. Other small mammals. roe deer and common toads also being absent in Ireland. Oak. However.000 years ago).

West Midlands conurbation (2. often as a means to conceal meaning from those outside the group. The largest urban area by far is the London metropolitan area with 12–14 million inhabitants.[50] The Norn language of Orkney and Shetland became extinct around 1880. with the population of Scotland remaining unchanged since 1951. sometimes in the form of Scots. The linguistic heritage of the British Isles is rich.7 million) in Scotland and Greater Dublin Area (1.288 are shaded blue. the population of Ireland has fallen to less than one tenth of the population of the British Isles.1 million) in England.[47] with twelve languages from six groups across four branches of the Indo-European family. since the Great Irish Famine. or close to. West Yorkshire Urban Area (2. The famine.3 million). In elsewhere on Great Britain and on Ireland. which accounts for almost 80% of the total population of the islands.5 million). Greater Glasgow (1. high density of population is limited to areas around. However.British Isles 6 Demographics The demographics of the British Isles today are characterised by a generally high density of population in England. The Insular Celtic languages of the Goidelic sub-group (Irish. spoken in north-western France) are the only remaining Celtic languages – the last of their continental relations becoming extinct before the 7th century. a few large cities. drastically reduced the Irish population and permanently altered the demographic make-up of the British Isles.[48] The Norman languages of Guernésiais.[51] . Other major populations centres include Greater Manchester Urban Area (2. Population density per km² of the British Isles' regions. is a language spoken by Irish Travellers.6 million) in Ireland. London and Dublin. with respective population densities of 4. Manx and Scottish Gaelic) and the Brythonic sub-group (Cornish. Jèrriais and Sarkese spoken in the Channel Islands are similar to French. On a global scale.761 and 1. Ireland for most of its history comprised a population proportionate to its land area (about one third of the total population). English. The population of England rose rapidly during the 19th and 20th centuries whereas the populations of Scotland and Wales have shown little increase during the 20th century. is the dominant language. A cant. which caused a century-long population decline. Welsh and Breton. called Shelta. this disaster led to the creation of an Irish diaspora that numbers fifteen times the current population of the island. with few monoglots remaining in the other languages of the region.[49] However.

voters in Scotland. that allow passport-free travel between EU members states. unionists are those who want Northern Ireland to remain a part of the United Kingdom and nationalists are those who want Northern Ireland join with the rest of Ireland. Northern Ireland uses a system of power sharing whereby unionists and nationalists share executive posts proportionately and where the assent of both groups are required for the Northern Ireland Assembly to make certain decisions. Of these. with the remainder of the island forming Northern Ireland. where the head of state is the President of Ireland. which governs the remainder of the archipelago with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. forming Great Britain. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland and England and Wales (the latter being one entity) form separate legal jurisdiction. Exceptions to this are presidential elections and constitutional referendums in the Republic of Ireland. this area required formal recognition during the course of negotiations for the Amsterdam Treaty of the European Union and is now known as the Common Travel Area. In addition to this.) The British monarch is the head of state for all parts of the isles except for the Republic of Ireland. the Jersey and the Guernsey. Wales and Northern Ireland have "devolved" governments meaning that they have their own parliaments/assemblies and are self-governing with respect to certain areas set down by law. Ireland and the United Kingdom are part of the European Union (EU). sometimes called the Republic of Ireland. governs five sixths of the island of Ireland. All parts of the United Kingdom return members to parliament in London. Scotland. Reciprocal arrangements allow British and Irish citizens to full voting rights in the two states. these pre-date European Union law. However. All of the states in the isles are parliamentary democracies with their own separate parliaments. They exercise constitutional rights of self-government and judicial [52] independence. an informal free-travel area had existed across the region.British Isles 7 Government There are two sovereign states in the isles: Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Wales and Northern Ireland return members to a parliament in Edinburgh and to assemblies in Cardiff and Belfast respectively. for which there is no comparable franchise in the other states. Governance in the norm is by majority rule. Scotland and Wales. For judicial purposes. Other EU nationals may only vote in local and European Parliament elections while resident in either the UK or Ireland. since the partition of Ireland. The Crown Dependencies are not a part of the European Union but have certain limited privileges and obligations that were negotiated as a part of the UK's accession to the EU.[52] [53] [54] Neither the United Kingdom or Ireland area part of the Schengen area. Ireland. and Northern Ireland in the north-east of the island of Ireland. The Euler diagram of states and government in the British Isles United Kingdom is made up of four constituent parts: England. usually shortened to simply the United Kingdom. responsibility for international representation rests largely upon the UK (in consultation with the respective governments). Scotland. (In the context of Northern Ireland. In 1997. and responsibility for defence is reserved by the UK. and in both jurisdictions go further than that required by European Union law. In the United Kingdom. with there being no single law for the UK as a whole. however. a UK Ministry of Justice report investigating . In 2008. The Isle of Man and the two states of the Channel Islands. are known as the Crown Dependencies.

and 25 members of the parliament of the United Kingdom. Reports on its findings are presented to the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom.[57] Many civil bodies are organised throughout the islands as a whole. During the February 2008 meeting of the British-Irish Council. Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom. which is deliberately organised without regard to national boundaries on the basis that a service which is not political or religious should not recognise sectarian or political divisions.British Isles how to strengthen the British sense of citizenship proposed to end this arrangement arguing that. The Romans expanded their civilisation to control southern Great Britain but were impeded in advancing any further. the Irish parliament. the National Assembly for Wales. For example the Samaritans. the life boats service. has suggested that the body should shadow the British-Irish Council's work. it is not a means of expressing closeness between countries.[58] 8 History At the end of the last ice age. citizens of Northern Ireland are entitled to the choice of Irish or British citizenship or both and the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom consult on matters not devolved to the Northern Ireland Executive. The RNLI. Similarly. Niall Blaney. Another body established under that agreement. with the purpose of building mutual understanding between members of both legislature. Belgium and the Netherlands. their arrival seems to have been at the invitation of the Britons as mercenaries to repulse incursions by the Scots and Picts. about two thousand years ago. About two to four millennia later. though recent genetic evidence suggests Britons still formed the bulk of the population. The Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland also meet as the North/South Ministerial Council to develop policies common across the island of Ireland. Originally it comprised 25 members of the Oireachtas. For example. is also organised throughout the islands as a whole. covering both the United Kingdom and Ireland. the British-Irish Council. as the ice melted.000 years ago. Anglo-Saxon demands on the British became so great that they came to culturally dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain. "the right to vote is one of the hallmarks of the political status of citizens. the Northern Ireland Assembly. Britain probably became repopulated with people before the ice age ended and certainly before it became separated from the mainland. building Hadrian's Wall to mark the northern frontier of their empire in 122 AD. This . is made up of the major political entities governing the islands. The British-Irish Council does not have executive powers but meets biannually to discuss issues of mutual importance. the British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body has no legislative powers but investigates and collects witness evidence from the public on matters of mutual concern to its members. Great Britain became separated from the mainland. sea levels rose separating Ireland from the mainland. Ice covered almost all of what is now Ireland and Great Britain with the exception of most of modern-day Munster and much of what we now call England. creating also the Isle of Man. The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (Irish: Comhlacht Idir-Pharlaiminteach na Breataine agus na hÉireann) predates the British-Irish Council and was established in 1990. At that time. At the time of the Roman Empire. the northern part of Great Britain by a people known as Picts and the southern half by Britons. Initially. These arrangements were made following the 1998 Belfast Agreement.[56] Leading on from developments in the British-Irish Council. In time. it was agreed to set-up a standing secretariat that would serve as a permanent 'civil service' for the Council. Since then the role and scope of the body has been expanded to include representatives from the Scottish Parliament. Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century AD. various tribes were inhabiting the islands. Between 14. what are now the British Isles were joined to the European mainland as a mass of land extending north west from the modern-day northern coastline of France.000 to 10. It is likely that Ireland became settled by sea after it had already become an island."[55] The Northern Ireland Peace Process has led to a number of unusual arrangements between the Republic of Ireland. the States of Jersey. the States of Guernsey and the High Court of Tynwald (Isle of Man). Ireland was populated by a people known as Scots. the chair of the British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary.

Though initially intended to be kept as an independent kingdom. and a guarantee of religious tolerance was a cornerstone of the Treaty of Limerick. traditionally by the Romano-Brition. largely Catholic and Irish. the terms of Limerick were 9 . Viking invasions began in the 9th century. Though the Vikings were eventually neutralised in Ireland. As Europe. Cork. In 1534. founding monasteries and universities and were later joined by Anglo-Saxon missions of the same nature. their influence remained in the cities of Dublin. eventually become feudal possession of the Kingdom of Denmark. Scotland. This theme would influence Irish politics for centuries to come. Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. Ireland. Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland. England however was slowly conquered around the turn of the first millennium AD. Resistance held out. particularly along the east coast of Ireland. At the invitation of a provincial king and under the authority of Pope Adrian IV (the only Englishman to be elected pope). Waterford and Wexford. in Cornwall and what is now known as Wales. as King of England. Power in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms. to rule as effective monarch under the title of Lord of Ireland. but which strictly speaking had been a feudal possession of the Pope since the Norman invasion invasion was declared a separate kingdom in personal union with England. During the course of the 15th century. thereby removing the authority of the Pope from the affairs of the English Church. The relations between the descendants of Vikings in England and counterparts in Normandy. This title was granted to his younger son but when Henry's heir unexpectedly died the title of King of England and Lord of Ireland became entwined in one person. religious division and war. remain associated to the English Crown as the Channel Islands to this day. thereby also releasing the King of England as from being vassal of the King of France. English colonialism in Ireland of the 16th century was extended by large-scale Scottish and English colonies in Ulster. Saint Patrick. A similar situation existed in the Principality of Wales. the Crown of England would assert a claim to the Crown of France. which was slowly being annexed into the Kingdom of England by a series of laws. that changed when the King of Scotland inherited the Crown of England. His response was to place the King of England as "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England". the west coast of modern-day Scotland and the Isle of Man. By the Late Middle Ages. The resulting English Civil War or War of the Three Kingdoms led to a revolutionary republic in England. Following defeat to the parliaments army. King Henry VIII. in northern France. which conquered England. A century later the marriage of the future Henry II of England to Eleanor of Aquitaine created the Angevin Empire. and consequently the Crown of Ireland also. Ireland had been unaffected by the Romans except. A prime issue was. inter alia. an era known as the Dark Ages. first to Great Britain and then to the continent. at first having been a strong defender of Roman Catholicism in the face of the Reformation. in the evolving political climate. Religious division heightened and the King in England came into conflict with parliament. separated from the Roman Church after failing to secure a divorce from the Pope. the failure of the Irish High King to ensure the terms of the Treaty of Windsor led Henry II. meanwhile had remained an independent Kingdom. The king's army was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne and at the militarily crucial Battle of Aughrim in Ireland. the Angevins invaded Ireland in 1169. including Britain descended turmoil following in the collapse of Roman civilisation. which had been held by the King of England as Lord of Ireland. significantly. Ireland. having been Christianised. followed by more permanent settlements. large scale land distributions from loyalist Irish nobility to English commoners in the service of the parliamentary army created the beginnings a new Ascendancy class which over the next hundred years would obliterated the English (Hiberno-Norman) and Gaelic Irish nobility in Ireland. lay at the heart of a series of events that led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The subsequent 17th century was one of political upheaval. The remnants of the Duchy of Normandy. The "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 repeated similar themes: a Catholic king pushing for religious tolerance in opposition to a Protestant parliament in England. Limerick. the king found it politically impossible to restore all the lands of former land-owners in Ireland. When the monarchy was restored in England.British Isles dominance creating what is now England and leaving culturally British enclaves only in the north of what is now England. largely Catholic was mainly loyal to the king. In 1603. over his policy of tolerance towards Catholicism. partially under the French Crown. Ireland entering a golden age and responded with missions. The new class was Protestant and British the common people were. However.

the most prominent of which is association football. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining outside of the United Kingdom but with their ultimate good governance being the responsibility of the British Crown (effectively the British government). Rugby union is also widely enjoyed across the islands. rugby. even within the UK. the British Empire expanded rapidly elsewhere. including golf. as well as many minor sports such as croquet. water polo and handball. Scotland and Wales that undertakes tours of the southern hemisphere rugby playing nations every four years. Ireland. The Mercury Music Prize is handed out every year to the best album from a British or Irish musician or group. This team was formerly known as the British Isles and the British Lions. it is a common passion in all parts of the islands. Mass migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the distribution of the islands' population and culture throughout the world and a rapid de-population of Ireland in the second-half of the 19th century. The Ryder Cup in golf was originally played between a United States team and a team representing Great Britain and Ireland. the Costa Book Awards are awarded to authors resident in the UK or Ireland.[59] giving people in Ireland a high level of familiarity with cultural matters in Great Britain. A few cultural events are organised for the island group as a whole. bowls. the colonies of North American that would become the United States of America were lost by the start of the 19th century. From 1979 onwards this was expanded to include the whole of Europe. The four national rugby teams from Great Britain and Ireland play each other each year for the Triple Crown as part of the Six Nations Championship. although British television. snooker and darts. and the new Irish parliament was packed with the new elite which legislated increasing intolerant Penal Laws. The Man Booker Prize is awarded to authors from the Commonwealth of Nations and Ireland. but has been called the British and Irish Lions since 2001. a new monarchy was installed. . Many globally popular sports had modern rules codified in the British Isles.British Isles superseded. For example. 10 Culture The United Kingdom and Ireland have separate media. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty (1919–1922). Ireland play as a united team. Following an attempted republican revolution in Ireland in 1798. Pádraig Harrington teeing off at the Open Championship (golf) in 2007. with six counties that form Northern Ireland remaining as an autonomous region of the UK. Also since 2001 the professional club teams of Ireland. cricket. Although. A number of sports are popular throughout the British Isles. association football. The British and Irish Lions is a team made up of players from England. creating the United Kingdom. Scotland and Wales have competed together in the Magners League. which discommoded both Dissenters and Catholics. pitch and putt. leagues and national teams. Poverty in Ireland remained desperate however and industrialisation in England led to terrible condition for the working class. newspapers and magazines are widely available in Ireland. the Kingdoms of Ireland and Great Britain were unified in 1801. The Kingdoms of England and Scotland were unified in 1707 creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. A century later it would cover one thirds of the globe. While this is organised separately in different national associations. represented by players from both Northern Ireland and the Republic.

[64] estimated the cost of building a bridge from County Antrim in Northern Ireland to Galloway in Scotland at £3.ie Terminology Database. com/ books?id=rasBRQwwOIIC& pg=PA7) When we think about social work in the British Isles.). does not use this term. p. Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland.British Isles 11 Transport London Heathrow Airport is Europe's busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic and the Dublin-London route is the busiest air route in Europe. 9. what do we expect to see? [13] Davies. Foclóir Gaeilge Béarla. the British or West European Isles. gla. 200509280360. p. oireachtas-debates. http:/ / www. by British engineering firm Symonds. Several potential Irish Sea MS Stena Explorer. Polaitíocht · Politics. including several other native languages and dialects that have regional or special status. Either tunnel. Gene Study SaysJames Owen for National Geographic News. even though these islands are strictly speaking an archipelago immediately off the coast of Normandy (France) rather than part of the British Isles. The group also includes the United Kingdom crown dependencies of the Isle of Man. a large fast ferry operating tunnel projects have been proposed. "Both geographic and historical factors distinguish the Cornish as an ethnic group. opened in 1994. gov. while a minority of the Welsh and Scottish are not keen on 'Great Britain'. Dáil Éireann Volume 606 . For disambiguation purposes.[60] The English Channel and the southern North Sea are the busiest seaways in the world. 1945-1999. ac. London. A proposal in 2007. Logainmneacha » Ceantar/Réigiún · Placenames » Area/Region) Éire bain agus an Bhreatain bain2 Mhór" [2] Dinneen. Oxford: Elsevier. . the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs stated that "The British Isles is not an officially recognised term in any legal or inter-governmental sense. Hall. the state "may be described" as so. [9] Oxford English Dictionary: "British Isles: a geographical term for the islands comprising Great Britain and Ireland with all their offshore islands including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. html).000 islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. "Some of the Irish dislike the 'British' in 'British Isles'. including the countries of the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England. links Great Britain to France and is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world. … In response to these difficulties. The idea of building a tunnel under the Irish Sea has been raised since 1895. the Channel Islands (the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey). Steven Shardlow (http:/ / books. Dallen. google.28 September 2005. 0606.[62] when it was first investigated. at 80 km (50 mi). British Culture of the Postwar: An Introduction to Literature and Society. most recently the Tusker Tunnel the Holyhead–Dun Laoghaire route between Great Britain and Ireland. A rail tunnel was proposed in 1997 on a different route. com/ news/ 2005/ 07/ 0719_050719_britishgene.Official Terms" (http:/ / www. Republic of Ireland is often used although technically not the name of the state but. ie/ Search. ISBN 9780750679787. It is without any official status. [6] Thernstrom. Foras na Gaeilge / Dublin City University. 'Britain and Ireland' is becoming preferred official usage if not in the vernacular. Other languages are spoken. between the ports of Rosslare and Fishguard proposed by The Institute [63] of Engineers of Ireland in 2004. The Government. "Oileain [sic] Iarthair Eorpa. Alistair." Encyclopædia Britannica [8] The diplomatic and constitutional name of the Irish state is simply Ireland. July 19. continue to monitor the media in Britain for any . Stephan (1980). "The British Isles comprise more than 6." [14] " Written Answers ." [3] Office of The President of Tynwald. http:/ / www." [11] British Have Changed Little Since Ice Age. World Geography of Travel and Tourism: A Regional Approach. Timothy (2008). References [1] "British Isles" (http:/ / www.5bn (€5bn). and the Republic of Ireland. html) [12] Social work in the British Isles by Malcolm Payne. 2005 (http:/ / news. Irish-English Dictionary (2nd (1979 reprint) ed. ISBN 0415128110. focal. a contentious term if ever there was one. although there is a growing trend amounts some critics to refer to Britain and Ireland as 'the archipelago'. Our officials in the Embassy of Ireland. Alan (2000). Lew. and by tradition. org. tynwald. focal. "the British Isles s pl (Tíreolaíocht · Geography. 812. would be by far the longest in the world. between Dublin and Holyhead. Stair · History. Dublin: The Educational Company of Ireland. nationalgeographic. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups.[61] The Channel Tunnel. Patrick (1927). ie/ D/ 0606/ D. Cambridge. im/ papers/ press/ 2008/ pr33. Colin. ISBN 0674375122. including the Department of Foreign Affairs. uk/ departments/ celtic/ duilleagangidhlig/ [5] These are the official languages of the eight jurisdictions within the British Isles. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 243. Sinfield. and would cost an estimated €20 billion. pdf [4] University of Glasgow Department of Celtic. In his response. aspx?term=the British Isles& lang=1)." [7] "British Isles. p." [10] Alan. Routledge. according to the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.

Manchester University Press. and IRELAND (including the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND). timesonline. ISBN 0333963407. "A spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London said: “The British Isles has a dated ring to it. Since the early twentieth century.M1). Gerry (2002). the (geography) see BRITISH ISLES British Isles." [15] Sharrock. Coleman (1982). though it has found increasing favour with scholars promoting the new 'British History'. 1500-1800. 98. google. 1577. 284. have proposed the 'Atlantic Archipelago' or even 'the East Atlantic Archipelago' (see." From the OED. was. "A geographical term taken to mean Great Britain. The Times (UK)." [22] Foster." [17] "Guardian Style Guide" (http:/ / www. not even in geographical terms. 172-174. co." [18] Norquay. p. 47. "At the outset. Guardian. Smyth. [24] Harley. ece). Krishan (2003). google. retrieved 7 July 2010. the President. Ian (2003)." [20] Kumar. "British and Irish historians increasingly use 'Atlantic archipelago' as a less metro-centric term for what is popularly known as the British Isles. together with all offshore islands. [29] John Dee. "There is mug to be said for considering the archipelago as a whole. Shetland and the Isle of Man. or an extended south-eastern English imperium. 'Britain and Ireland' is the more favoured expression. These include the name of the State. Pocock 1975a: 606. co. We would discourage its useage [sic]. 1986) Not surprisingly this does not seem to have caught on with the general public. ISBN 0521777364. . p. that nomenclature has been regarded by some as increasingly less usable. I don't see it catching on in popular discourse or official political circles. It is unlikely that the ultimate in non-partisanship that has recently appeared the (East) 'Atlantic Archipelago' will have any appeal beyond captious scholars. A. Cambridge University Press. . p. Mealor. p. Archipelagic identities: literature and identity in the Atlantic Archipelago." [32] John Oakland. 6. The British Atlantic world. p. 2003. Texas: University of Texas Press. Glenda.. p. 1577 J. The plate in the National Geographic Atlas of the World once titled British Isles now reads Britain and Ireland. ISBN 0754635848.British Isles abuse of the official terms as set out in the Constitution of Ireland and in legislation. Tompson. British Civilization: A Student's Dictionary (http:/ / books. I could.. "Some scholars. Figgis & Co. ISBN 0121797805. e. the (geography) A geographical (not political or CONSTITUTIONAL) term for ENGLAND. Simon (2004). Ashgate Publishing. given its (understandable) unpopularity in the Irish Republic. the term these islands being widely used instead. … Nowadays. "The term we favour here – Atlantic Archipelago – may prove to be of no greater use in the long run. [25] Davies. p. guardian. under a common Crown since 1603 onwards.frame and shape very much of Gemistus those his two Greek Orations." [19] Schwyzer. Austin. ISBN 0719057493. inevitably. and faythfull Aduise. 12. "In some ways 'Atlantic Archipelago' is intended to do the work of including without excluding." [21] Armitage. [27] Snyder. 1995: 292n. Arte Navigation. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ europe/ article658099. We are independent. as if we are still part of the Empire. 65. David. 150. "New atlas lets Ireland slip shackles of Britain" (http:/ / www. p. p. 17. we are not part of Britain. Taoiseach and others. 1. s. however. p. ISBN 0-292-72518-3. uk/ styleguide/ b). Palgrave Macmillan. 4. It has been perceived as cloaking the idea of a 'greater England'. p. WALES. [28] Freeman." [31] Irish historical studies: Joint Journal of the Irish Historical Society and the Ulster Society for Irish Historical Studies. ISBN 9780567082800. David (3 October 2006). 1990. p.g. and in better and more allowable manner. 65 "The syncere Intent.”" [16] Hazlett. p. "British Isles" [30] D. Michael (2002). . Demography of immigrants and minority groups in the United Kingdom: proceedings of the eighteenth annual symposium of the Eugenics Society. Braddick. SCOTLAND. Ireland and some or all of the adjacent islands such as Orkney. com/ books?id=ZSHhfOM-5AEC& pg=PA65). The Reformation in Britain and Ireland: an introduction. 68. it should be stated that while the expression 'The British Isles' is evidently still commonly employed. though there are problems with that too. of Georgius Gemistus Pletho. The phrase is best avoided. Across the margins: cultural identity and change in the Atlantic archipelago. com/ books?id=N9tRrtt2o68C& pg=PP1& dq="British+ Civilization:+ A+ Student's+ Dictionary"& sig=Ub6Y20p_tWpxtK8JHN0cwF4LxZI#PPA22. seeking to avoid the political and ethnic connotations of 'the British Isles'. p. Continuum International Publishing Group. [26] Snyder. Volume 1981. Academic Press. Ireland and the classical world (http:/ / books. its intermittent use throughout this work is only in the geographic sense. . or the North-West European Archipelago. A more accurate (and politically acceptable) term today is the British-Irish Isles. London 1981. but at this stage it does at least have the merit of questioning the ideology underpinning more established nomenclature. 10. The Making of English National Identity.. at least not in a hurry. "The geographical term British Isles is not generally acceptable in Ireland. Hodges. [23] Allen. Routledge: London 12 British-Irish Isles. … There is no consensus on the matter. 213. Philip (2001). p. for a history of the British or Anglo-Celtic isles or 'these islands'.for our Brytish Iles. I prefer the Anglo-Celtic Isles. Philip.v. in so far as that is acceptable. and while it seems to have taken root in terms of academic conferences and publishing.

gov. petroleum.ie (http:/ / www. Norn (the Norse language of Shetland: c. xml). Conroy. there are virtually no monoglot speakers of Irish. London: Marshall Cavendish. 2008. Encyclopaedia Britannica. and power) ad sinks for the disposal of refuse from its intensely urbanized and industrialized coats. Tom (2006-10-03). British Columbia: Ladysmith. 'British Isles' references leave Irish eyes frowning. 29 November 2002). England: BBC.. . Retrieved 2010-11-07." [51] Hindley.com. ie/ article/ 2008/ jan/ 27/ british-isles-references-leave-irish-eyes-frowning/ ?q=). The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. however. "Continental Celtic includes Gaulish. im/ cso/ externalrelations/ eu. stm). tv/ archives/ etv/ I/ htmlI/ ireland/ ireland. . in particular. gg/ ccm/ navigation/ about-guernsey/ constitution/ ). Retrieved 17 October 2008. 28 February 2008 2008. ISBN 9780080359434. ISBN 0415035864.. "Shelta does in fact exist as a secret language as is used to conceal meaning from outsiders. gov. justice. . uk/ home)." [49] Varner. . ece) [35] World and its Peoples: Ireland and United Kingdom. . John. Telegraph.Isle of Man Government . "No only are the English Channel and the Southern North Sea. [60] Seán McCárthaigh. M. Museum. pdf). irishtimes. Lepontic. com/ newspaper/ frontpage/ 2006/ 1002/ 1158591275647. 31 March 2003 [61] Hardisty. uk/ journal/ submitarticle. 5. [53] "States of Guernsey: Constitution" (http:/ / gov. Retrieved 2010-11-07. blackwellreference. p. . ed. R.im. Ehs. Retrieved 4 July 2010. . gov. tribune. [41] Ibid. Oxon: Taylor & Francis. 2 October 2006 [39] Peterkin. ISBN 0=415-11786-0. 27 January 2008 [38] The Irish Times. p.Chief Secretarys Office" (http:/ / www. ipac. stm). Wildlife Britain wildlifebritain. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ europe/ article658099. bbc. [59] "Ireland" (http:/ / www. In the Republic of Ireland.tv. BBC: London [58] RNLI. Retrieved 2010-11-07. p." [52] "Jersey's relationship with the UK and EU" (http:/ / www. The Death of the Irish Language: a Qualified Obituary. Dublin–London busiest air traffic route within EU (http:/ / archives. [44] Mayes.uk. apart from the very young. Gov. Reg (1990). North Carolina: Lulu Press. com. [47] WB Lockwood (1975). Gov. co. D. ISBN 0-233-96666-8. wildlifebritain. The British Seas: an Introduction to the Oceanography and Resources of the North-west European Continental Shelf. Leland: The Man & the Myth. htm). [40] Goudie. Jane (1999).British Isles [33] "Blackwellreference. 2505. gov. E. co. Morrisville. or Welsh. Charles G. je/ Government/ JerseyWorld/ InternationalAffairs/ Pages/ RelationshipEUandUK. p. " Folens to wipe 'British Isles' off the map in new atlas (http:/ / www.. org. Retrieved 5 July 2010. . pp. com/ britishsnakes. [34] The Times: "New atlas lets Ireland slip shackles of Britain". org. . Andrew S. "British Isles is removed from school atlases" (http:/ / www. 221. Blackwellreference. Julian. ehs. London: Routledge. 13. "Thus. Volume 5.co. p. Hispano-Celtic (or Celtiberian) and Galatian. co. Brunsden (1994). Spriggs. Archaeology and Language (London: Routledge) 35: p. "Celts and Other: Maritime Contact and Linguistic Change". Oxford: Pergamon Press. "UK's lowest spot is getting lower" (http:/ / news. asp) Irish Examiner. ISBN 0-414-04339-0.. The RNLI is a charity that provides a 24-hour lifesaving service around the UK and Republic of Ireland. [55] Goldsmith. uk/ news/ main. 1880). telegraph.org.uk (http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 August 2010. All were extinct by the seventh century AD. Simpson. aggregates. Scots Gaelic. co. Citizenship: Our Common Bond (http:/ / www. In all documents jointly drawn up by the British and Irish governments. Retrieved 2010-11-07. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 7268911. Asher (1994). 41. aspx). com/ public/ tocnode?id=g9781405129923_toclevel_ss1-14).gg. "The nomenclature of Great Britain and Ireland and the status of the different parts of the archipelago are often confused by people in other parts of the world. html)". "Three indigenous language have died in the British Isles since around 1780: Cornish (traditionally in 1777). asp). 127. Manx (1974). this name is considered to be exclusionary. p. Jack (1990).je. London: Routledge.com. February 2008 [57] Martina Purdy. However. [43] "Encyclopaedia Britannica online:Ben Nevis" (http:/ / search. Languages of the British Isles Past and Present. [37] Tribune. the name British-Irish Isles is occasionally used. "An introduction to the rich linguistic heritage of Great Britain and Ireland. uk/ eb/ article-9078533). [54] "Relationship with European Union . (http:/ / www." [50] J. p. php). Dennis Wheeler (1997). 1. p. [42] BBC News (Friday. [45] Ibid. eb. but the seas are also sources of the European community's industrial wealth (fisheries. museum. Retrieved 2010-11-07. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 2529365. the archipelago is simply referred to as "these islands. Matthew.uk. Regional Climates of the British Isles. Retrieved 2010-11-07. uk/ docs/ citizenship-report-full. an Atlas. cambridgeshire." [48] Waddel." [36] "Economic History Society Style Guide" (http:/ / www. 2010. 2010. The Sunday Tribune. bbc. 5. xml). Unionists urged to drop boycott (http:/ / news. rnli. .org. Gary (2008). Gov. The name British Isles is commonly used by geographers for the archipelago. ie/ irishexaminer/ 2003/ 03/ 31/ story437213650. [46] "Guide to British Snakes" (http:/ / www. in the Republic of Ireland. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 13–14. Y. ISBN 978-1-4357-4304-6. 2." The name British Isles remains the only generally accepted terms for the archipelago off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. tcm. the term British-Irish Isles is not recognized by international geographers. p. The Environment of the British Isles. Ministry of Justice: London [56] [Communiqué of the British-Irish Council]." 13 . 8.com" (http:/ / www. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 10/ 03/ nisles03. timesonline. used primarily in Gypsy business or negotiations or when speaking around the police. the busiest shipping clearways in the world.

. A History of Britain: At the Edge of the World. html?dids=282943272:282943272& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& date=MAY+ 02. Stephen (2007).C. Christopher (2003). Biblo & Tannen Publishers. Angus (2001). com/ ?id=6D01BTuzScwC). com/ ?id=-qIzhamrT2kC). Blackwell Publishing. Collingwood. google. Davies. M. and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean (http:/ / books. stm). Robert Fitzroy. Foster (editor). The Britons (http:/ / books. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. com/ ?id=bD9RFgLaGQkC). google.bgs. ancient. BBC/Miramax. 3500 B. King of the Celts (http:/ / books. google. Donnchadh O Corrain. BBC. Bear & Company. com/ ?id=QI_-cR_nZYsC). David Woodward (1987). ISBN 1841769487. BBC 2002 Shortened History of England by G. google. Snyder.ac. Retrieved 22 July 2009.html) of the British Isles. John Brian. com/ ?id=uJaP4i7-_MIC). google. google. com/ ?id=fMcbnMFn8lcC). Oxford University Press.British Isles [62] "Tunnel under the Sea". com/ ?id=28C63w4vKD8C). by Simon Schama. 21 August 2007 14 Further reading • • • • • Allen. ISBN 0-19-280202-X. Harley. Empire (http:/ / books. The Washington Post. Niall (2004). google.uk/education/makeamap/home. ISBN 0-631-22260-X. ISBN 0333692837. Jean (1994). 2 May 1897 (Archive link) (http:/ / pqasb. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (http:/ / books.1603 A. bbc.+ 1897& author=& pub=The+ Washington+ Post& desc=TUNNEL+ UNDER+ THE+ SEA& pqatl=google) [63] Tunnel 'vision' under Irish Sea.D. ISBN 9264186549. The Isles a History. google. com/ washingtonpost_historical/ access/ 282943272. Basic Books. Maddison. Norman (2000). Macmillan. Markale. Professor of Irish History at University College Cork: (Chapter 1: Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland) (1 November 2001). Ferguson. ISBN 0892814527. From Twinbrook to the Trevi Fountain (http:/ / news. ISBN 0465023290. com/ ?id=luSjXeSByHEC). 2000 ISBN 978-0786866755 A History of Britain—The Complete Collection on DVD by Simon Schama. Humana Press. Retrieved 22 July 2009. ISBN 0819611603. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 6956570. ISBN 0226316335. The Oxford History of Ireland (http:/ / books. Robin George (1998). Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior (http:/ / books. 23 December 2004 [64] BBC News. Roman Britain and the English Settlements (http:/ / books. Trevelyan Penguin Books ISBN 978-0140233230 • • • • • • • External links • An interactive geological map (http://www. co. . pqarchiver. Osprey Publishing. The History of Cartography: Cartography in prehistoric.

Kablammo. Xavexgoem. Racula. 7T7. Nick Ottery. Sdornan. Alfirin. Wetman. RoyBoy. JHunterJ. Widefox. Kingboyk. Mervyn.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Sony-youth Image:British Isles Euler diagram. Wibblywobbly. Kelly Martin. Shadow1. MrStalker. Ciarán Mór. Fenian Swine.wikipedia. Jtdirl. Koakhtzvigad. Elethiomel. Dave souza. Teles. Anonymous101. LeeHunter. Iamunknown. Neelmack. Doctor Boogaloo. Gidonb. Rrburke. Daithiquinn. Rockybiggs. MusicInTheHouse. Chesterdrawers. Green Giant. Nemo. TharkunColl. KnowledgeOfSelf. One Night In Hackney. IdreamofJeanie. Ddstretch. MacRusgail.org/w/index. RashersTierney. Fasach Nua.png  Source: http://en. Mejor Los Indios. BjF. Britannia Rules!. The Rambling Man. Hmains. Trugster. Dunlavin Green.org/w/index. Stemonitis. Angelbo. Khendon. AdamCarden. Omegatron. Cambridge42. Canthusus.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2. Jcully. Snowolf. The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick. Naomhain. Fæ. Narson. Caomhan27. Rjd0060. Grunners. Alison. Amalas. Skinsmoke. Amalthea. Sfan00 IMG. Robertvan1. Derek Ross. Doric Loon. Eckerslike. Silas Stoat. Stroppolo. Volcanoguy. Pondle. Canadian-Bacon. Deville. Thingg. Ilyushka88.loinsigh.wikipedia. Otolemur crassicaudatus.wikipedia. Wiki-Ed. Fvasconcellos. I'm the Cavalry. Erebus555. Jrleighton. Versus22. GoodDay. JephSullivan. Lotje. Kwekubo. QuartierLatin1968. Jayjg. PeterCanthropus. Billthekid77. Bik1973. Seidenstud. Bretagne 44. Tempac. ThatsGrand. Aubadaurada. Aglait. D6. Philip Baird Shearer. Rillian. Mani1. DrFrench. Jimregan. Aodhdubh. Woohookitty.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Rockfang File:Irl-female red deer Killarney. EricR. Joshurtree. Tameamseo. 1exec1. Jimfbleak. Toohool. Hjr. Appellative. Jane Bennet. Epbr123. Kendrick7. Jac16888. Saga City. Xtifr. Laburke. Timrollpickering. Triglyph2. Guest9999.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Endrick Shellycoat Image:British-Isles-NW-European-shelf. Welsh. El Gringo. Gilliam. Barryob. Vashti. Nouse4aname. Codyman1.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Barryob. JuanJose. MichiganCharms.org/w/index. Sloman.0  Contributors: William Murphy from Dublin. Sleepinbuff. SpookyMulder. Daniel Case. Shadowjams. Cuchullain. Monucg. 172. Xaosflux. DJ Clayworth. Beetstra. Kurieeto. Senra. Enzedbrit. Joseph Solis in Australia. Chienlit. Mawfive. Kuohatti. AzaToth. Jay-Sebastos. Hontogaichiban. Billreid. Manuel Trujillo Berges.0  Contributors: mozzercork Image:Bi-density. Tassedethe. HellBhoy. Tim131.Article Sources and Contributors 15 Article Sources and Contributors British Isles  Source: http://en. Yorkshire Phoenix. Pharos. Ross1912. WikHead. Charles Matthews. Codf1977. Jdforrester. Jeni. Sjc. Scientizzle. Gdr. Cheela. Gurabamhlaidhduit. Ahoerstemeier. Fulub Le Breton. Razorflame. Graham87.jpg  Source: http://en. Niaz. Invertzoo. Rockpocket. Hank Ramsey. Bkobres. PresN. Frankdeano. Padraig. OllieFury. NawlinWiki. Wangi. Scolaire. Jezzabr. Fyyer. Wooddoo-eng. Rcpaterson. Slant a380. Larry_Sanger. Stanstaple. Life of Riley. Dweir. Eob. Razor83. Reece Kelly. D. Morrismaciver. Hibernian. ‫ 789 . SqueakBox. Thelb4. TimTay. Jeff3000.org/w/index. TridtheKid. NeoFreak. Iota. AJRG.wikipedia. Kjkolb. Prodego. Thecul. AlistairMcMillan. CarterBar. Anlace. Alfabarry. SteveCrook. Joowwww.php?title=File:MS_Stena_Explorer_Dun_Laoghaire. Zimmer79. Tfz. Uncle Dick.svg  Source: http://en. Podgeb. Kesac. Jeanne boleyn. SidP. Beano ni. Fergananim. Crabula. Matt Lewis. Narson'sPetFerret. Gaimhreadhan. Popzmaster. Endrick Shellycoat. JLaTondre. ChrisCork. Lonewolf BC. Stonemad GB. Vintagekits. Storkk. Jaberwocky6669. MarkThomas. Anarchocelt. Avaragado. Bsherr. Crazyjimbo. AndySimpson.wikipedia. Kanags. Ckatz. Ringomassa. Stevo1000. Jengod. TheVenerableBede. Bjmullan. Djegan. Nickshanks. Slavechild. Mais oui!. John. Canterbury Tail. TheBritishExplorer. BD2412. Knepflerle. Smurrayinchester. Fys. Plastikspork. Menchi. 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Polymath69. SMcCandlish. Rich Farmbrough. Jimgawn. G2bambino. Roux. Aaron Schulz. Jack forbes (renamed). Grinner. Editstan. Ericoides. Sarah777.de. MidnightBlueMan. EdH. Jdorney. Tide rolls. CSWarren. SunCreator. Ro2000. Myanw. HighKing File:LocationBritishIsles-noborders. Camboxer. 0/ .Nut. SP-KP. Blorg. Waggers. Oblivious. Mucky Duck. MelForbes. Kintetsubuffalo. Wotapalaver. Wobble. Warofdreams. Snowded. Neutrality.org/w/index. Mtorpey. Bill Thayer. Shoreranger. Pfainuk. Setanta747. Glasgowfinder. Wknight94. Zigger. Grutness. Leithp. Blisco. Gliderman. VernoWhitney. Goldfishbutt. Stickee. Gaius Cornelius. Appraiser. Pigsonthewing. Daggerstab. Triwbe. Angusmclellan. Appleman30. Orlaigh. WikieWikieWikie. Lancslad. Jarry1250. Shabbyj. Stui.php?oldid=415397005  Contributors: (jarbarf). ‫ 2 . Shtove. Mark Wheaver.php?title=File:Bi-density. Retired username. SilasW.php?title=File:Britain_and_Ireland_satellite_image_bright. Man vyi. Ruziklan. Kakofonous. Rwheuving. SunCluster.wikipedia.org/w/index. Kwigell. Maxim. Zoney. Deb. DavidSaff. Barliner. Jonto. Daicaregos. Triton Rocker. Gobbleswoggler. Leandrod. Peter Clarke. Susvolans. Violask81976. Proton donor. Bardsandwarriors. Cantiorix. Parsecboy. 19irishlad83. Ebyabe.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ciaurlec. FCYTravis. MPF. Lexicon. Lofty. Curps. Bevo.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Mattbrundage. Sam Blacketer. Rnt20. Nolo31. Welshleprechaun. Schcambo. Smile a While. So God created Manchester. Paulc1001. Zundark. Grendelkhan. Ck lostsword. MacTire02. Owain. Lyteroptes. ColinBell. Jamesinderbyshire. Bkell. Suzumebachisecret. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. SheffieldSteel. Jnestorius. Gillean666. Rtdixon86. MurphiaMan. RTG. Stbalbach. Bazza 7. CreepOut. Ucucha. Snalwibma. WeaselADAPT.php?title=File:Irl-female_red_deer_Killarney.org/w/index. Fionnsci. Postrach. Tomsega. Edgrmarriott. Chase me ladies. Toon05. Grubber. Kernowabc. Hephaestos. Esperant. Rownon. Politis. Hroðulf. Rannpháirtí anaithnid. 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