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A-level Chemistry
Paper 4
Final Mock (2011)

QUESTION

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9
Total

Duration 2 hours

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a 1 Magnesium chloride is the only existing chloride of magnesium It has ionic bonding with some
covalent character Another chloride of magnesium is hypothetical MgCl3 he theoretical lattice
energy of MgCl3 is -5440 kJ/mole
(a)Explain, with the aid of a suitable equation containing state symbols, what is meant by the
statement the ³lattice energy of MgCl3 is -5440 kJ/mole´
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________________________________________________________________________________
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(b) Use the following data together with the relevant data from the    to construct a BornHaber cycle and calculate the standard enthalpy change of formation of MgCl3 how all your working

st

Lattice energy of MgCl3
Enthalpy change of atomization of magnesium(s)
enthalpy change of atomization of chlorine(g)
Ist electron affinity of chlorine

=
=
=
=

-5440 kJ/mole
+148 kJ/mole
+122 kJ/mole
-349 kJ/mole

¨H?= ----------------------kJ/mole 

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(c)When magnesium reacts with chlorine it initially forms MgCl MgCl then undergoes disproportionation
reaction to produce magnesium and MgCl2

(i) Write a balanced equation for this reaction
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) he ù for the above reaction is -829 kj/mol Use this values to calculate the ù
using the above reaction You need ù ? of MgCl which is -94 kj/mol

?

for MgCl2by

(iii) By comparing your results from (b) and (c)(ii) suggest, with a reason, the non-existence of MgCl3
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
(d)

Chloride
MgCl2
CaCl2

Lattice energy/kjmol-1
-2526
-2258

By quoting suitable data from the data booklet and by considering the above data would you expect
the value for the lattice energy of cobalt(II) chloride to be lower or higher than MgCl2 and CaCl2
Explain your answer
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

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a 2 Old mine workings are often the cause of the pollution of mountain streams One of the main
chemical responsible for such pollution is iron pyrites, Fe2, in which iron has an oxidation state of
+2 he early miners unwittingly accelerated the chemical processes by grinding up unwanted rock
containing some ore and dumping it in waste heaps
(a) Air and rain combine to oxidize iron pyrites
Complete the balancing of the equation for this reaction

«« Fe2(s) + 7O2(g) + 2H
O(l)

«« Fe
(aq) + «« O 
aq) + «« H+(aq)

(b) he resulting ions then run off into the local streams where the iron(II) ions are oxidized
(i) Using the Data Booklet explain why the water in the streams must be acidic for oxygen to
oxidize the iron(II) ions
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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Use the appropriate data from the Data Booklet write an equation for the oxidation of iron(II) ions
in the stream water under acidic conditions
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(c) Iron(III) ions are present in the stream as complex ions
Complete the following table about these complex ions
N

Name of ligand in complex

Coordination number of complex

N

Name of shape of complex 

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(d)Explain why the 3d orbitals around a transition metal ion split into two groups when the ion is
surrounded by six ligands in an octahedral complex
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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(e) Hexacyanoferrate(ÔÔÔ), [Fe(CN)6]3- ,is another complex of iron which is used to test the presence of
Fe(III) ions Draw the splitting pattern of d-orbitals in [Fe(CN)6]  and the complex mentioned in (c)
Properly label each orbital before and after the splitting

E

___

___

___

___

___

___

Complex from (c)

[Fe(CN)6]

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a 3 he hydrolysis of ethyl ethanoate is a reversible reaction he equation for the equilibrium is
shown below
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

CH3COOH + C2H5OH

A student mixed together 8 0 moles of ethyl ethanoate and 5 0 moles of water He also added a small
amount of hydrochloric acid to catalyze the reaction 
he student left the mixture until it had reached equilibrium at constant temperature He found that
2 0mole of ethanoic acid had formed
(a)(i)Complete the table below to complete the composition of equilibrium mixture

Component
Initial amount/mol

CH3COOC2H5

H2O

CH3COOH

C2H5OH

80

50

0

0

Equilibrium amount/mol
20

(ii) he mole fraction of ethanoic acid can be found from the composition of the equilibrium mixture
Explain what is meant by the term ¬   

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(iii) Calculate the mole fraction of ethanoic acid in the equilibrium mixture

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(b) Use your data from (a)(i) to calculate the vale of Kc 

(c) he student also carried out practical work on acids and alkalis He measured the pH of aqueous
solutions of hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid He found that a 0 02 mol/dm ethanoic acid has a pH
of 3 23
(i) Calculate the value, including units, of K for ethanoic acid

Answer= -------------------------------------------(ii) he student found that 0 02 mol/dm HCl has a pH of 1 70 He then mixed together 25 cm of this
solution with 75 cm of water
Determine the pH of the diluted solution

pH= -----------------------

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a 5 Hydrogen iodide gas is mixed with iodine gas 
wo reactions take place forming different compounds of iodine, " and
Compounds " and

each contain Ô and ~ only 

In the first reaction, compound " forms as a reddish-brown liquid
Compound " contains 78 15%of Ô by mass 
In the second reaction, compound forms as yellow crystals
Compound has a molar mass of 467 g/mol
Deduce possible identities for " and

and write balanced equations for their formation

": ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Equation: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Equation:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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(b) Haloalkanes have been used as aerosoul propellants and refrigerants but are now largely banned
due to the damage they cause to ozone layer in stratosphere
One haloalkane is methylene bromide CH2Br2 A sample of methylene bromide was enriched with
deuterium (VH) On analysis it was found that half of the hydrogen content of the sample was
deuterium In the mass spectrum there are peaks with following ¬  values Give the molecular
formula of fragment responsible for each ¬  value 

¬   

"     

15

173

175

177

(ii) uggest why it is unlikely to have a ¬  value at 179 in the mass spectrum of deuteriated CH2Br2
________________________________________________________________________________
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a 6 wo reaction schemes are given In both the schemes only the structural formulae of organic
compounds have been shown In your answers show only the structural formulae or skeletal formulae
of the organic compounds 
cheme 1 starts with phenol and scheme 2 starts with 

NaOH

HO

Zn dust

Ô ÔÔ

Phenol ÔÔÔ 

NaOH in ethanol 

( 
(

heat under reflux 

Ô

"  
(a)(i) Give the structural formulae of B
(ii) Give the reagents and conditions for step III ___________________________________________
and provide the skeletal formula of  in the empty box

(iii) Give the skeletal formula of P
(b) (ii) When P is converted to A in reaction step  a gas is also formed Give the reagents and
conditions for step V
________________________________________________________________________________
(iii) tate the type of reaction occurring during 
tep I _________________________________ 
tep III ________________________________ 
tep IV ________________________________ 
tep V ________________________________

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(iv) In a manufacturing process 1000g of benzene were prepared by 1275g of phenol Calculate the
percentage yield of the process (Y¬   
Y¬  ) 

Cyclohexenol is a closed-chain organic compound having both the alkene and alcohol functional
groups ome of its reactions are shown below:
MnO4- + H+/
HO

heat under reflux 

Ô     

Ú
c)(i) Cyclohexenol is heated at 350oC with Al2O3, W and X are obtained which share the same
molecular formula uggest the skeletal formulae of W and X and draw them in the empty boxes
above
(ii) What type of isomerism exists between W and X?
________________________________________________________________________________
(iii)  has the molecular formula   and dissolves in sodium hydroxide uggest the structural
formula of  and draw it in the empty box above 

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½ 
 
  
    

   
  
   

              

    
  
           
   
    
    

     

(d)(i) Without referring to the structure of benzene what do you mean by ³delocalization of electrons´?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii)Now consider the molecules from scheme 1 and 2 together with the following mentioned species to
decide which molecule has delocalized J -electrons hen place a tick in the appropriate column

Compound

Delocalization of --electrons
6

Delocalization of - electrons 
6

B
-

CH3CO2 

W

X   

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a 7 he most remarkable property of water is that it is a liquid at room temperature found on Earth
Even more interesting is the polar nature of water he polar nature of water means that most ionic
compounds can dissolve in water But hydrogen bonding also means that polar covalent molecules,
sugars and amino acids, for example, are also soluble in water
(a) What are the two important properties of Hydrogen bonding which make them important for life?
Give example in each case
1_______________________________________________________________________________
Example_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

2_______________________________________________________________________________
Example_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

In common with other catalysts enzymes provide an alternative reaction pathway that has a lower
activation energy barrier than the uncatalyzed reaction
Most inorganic catalysts catalyze a range of reactions involving similar substances hey are able to
function over quite a wide range of temperatures and pressures Although they are able to produce
significant effects in speeding up reactions, their effectiveness as catalysts has been minimized by
enzymes
(b) uggest three ways in which enzymes differ from inorganic catalysts
1)_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2)_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3)_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________ 

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(c)Certain metals, particularly certain heavy metals, can have serious health effects even though they
may occur only in small amounts in the environment Part of the problem lies in the fact that they can
accumulate in the food chain and so build up to toxic levels over a period of time Lead and mercury
are two particular metals for which this has proved a significant problem

(i) uggest a source of both mercury and lead in the environment
Mercury__________________________________________________________________________
Lead____________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Mercury(II)ion disrupts the structure of protein and thereby denature the enzymes What type of
inhibitor is mercury(II)ion and what level of protein structure it disrupts

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________


  

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a 8 A large number of organic compounds are soluble in both water and non-aqueous solvents such
as hexane If such a compound is shaken with a mixture of water and the non-aqueous solvent, it will
dissolve in both solvents depending on the solubility in each
(a)(i) tate what is meant by the term 6        

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) An aqueous solution of a monoprotic organic acid, Ú, was shaken with hexane until the following
equilibrium was established

X (water)

X (hexane)

25 0 cm of the hexane layer needed 20 0 cm3 of 0 050 mol dm-3 NaOH(aq) for neutralization
25 0 cm3 of the water layer needed 13 3 cm3 of 0 050 mol ldm NaOH(aq) for neutralization

Calculate the value of partition coefficient 

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(b)Permethrin pesticides consist of large non-polar groups joined by an ester link hese molecules
are much more soluble in fats than they are in water
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In the diagram below, the large non-polar groups are represented by R and R
O
R-C-O-R$

K6Πis used to measure the relative solubilities of a pesticide in octan-1-ol and water Octan-1-ol
resembles a fat in its solvent abilities
(i) uggest why octan-1-ol behaves like a fat in ability to act as a solvent for pesticides
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Explain why the most efficient pesticides have high K6Πvalues
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________ 

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(c)Chromatography has evolved as a mandatory discipline at the heart of separation sciences It
normally uses two phases one is mobile phase and the other is stationary phase Different types of
materials are employed for these two phases of chromatography and have found applications in the
following chromatographic techniques

c   
      
      
  
    
  
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Different combinations of solid, liquid and gas have been chosen as stationary phase and mobile
phase in the table below If a combination is possible then write the appropriate abbreviation in the
column ³chromatographic technique´ If no combination is possible then write  For instance in the
first case when both the stationary and the liquid phases are chosen as solids there is no
chromatographic technique which uses both stationary phase and the mobile phase as solids so N is
written If possible two abbreviations can be used for one combination 

tationary phase

Mobile phase 

olid 

olid

Liquid

Gas

Gas 

olid

Liquid

Liquid 

olid

Liquid

Gas

Gas 

olid

Gas

Liquid 

olid

Gas

Liquid

Chromatographic technique

N

  

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a 9 Oil slicks are a major environmental concern when oil is spilled from oil tankers while at sea
Porous materials called sorbents are used which absorb oil
(a)(i) Unfortunately these materials also soak up water What does this tell you about the value of K6Œ
of oil in sorbent and water?
________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) What type of intermolecular forces exists between oil and porous material
________________________________________________________________________________
CFCs (CF2Cl2) have been widely used as refrigerators as coolant due to their inertness hey are
stable until they are broken down in the upper atmosphere by strong ultraviolet rays which generate
chlorine radicals hese radicals then deplete Ozone layer
CF2Cl2

CF2Cl + üCl

(b)(i) CH3Br also known to have the ozone depletion effect how by giving three equations how this
molecule depletes ozone layer in the upper atmosphere

(ii) uggest, with a reason, although the mass-scale production of CFCs have been banned following
Montreal Protocol in 1986 and later in 1991 the damaging effect of CFCs are still in practice
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

(c) he modern sunscreens contain a variety of compounds that absorb the dangerous UV A and UV
B some sunscreens contain nano-sized particles of titanium dioxide his substance does  absorb
ultraviolet radiation
(i) uggest how these nano-particles are able to protect skin from ultraviolet radiation
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

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Many people have concerns about problems that the new technologies might cause his is due to
the fact that nanoparticles can have very different properties from their related bulk materials Many
applications only require very small amounts of nanoparticles, so this reduces risks considerably
However some uses involve large quantities, for example sun screens
(ii)Explain by giving two reasons why the properties of materials can be different at the nanoscale
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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(ii) What risk is associated with these nano-sized particles at large scale?
________________________________________________________________________________
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