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SOLAR CELLS: A NEW SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY.
Héctor Ramírez, *Maritza Rodríguez, **Nadia Martínez
* Rapid Product Realization for Developing Markets Research Chair Chapter Juarez Tecnológico de Monterrey campus Ciudad Juárez Ave. Tomás Fernández Campos No. 8945 Cd Juárez, Chihuahua e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com página web http://www.itesm.edu/
Palabras clave: Celdas solares, efecto fotovoltaico, energía solar y electricidad. Abstract.
An experimental solar cell model will be done in order to convert sunlight into electricity by the photovoltaic effect in which it will be able to eliminate the current use (C.F.E) and it would make possible the saving of a considerable amount of money. This model could be stand in the professional building from the I.T.E.S.M without obstacle. A class dome will be installed in the roof as a layer of glass in order to intensify the sunbeams for a better quality in the solar cell; also, a cooler that regulates the highest temperature permitted. Variables such as: current, voltage, power, efficiency, temperature and the intensity of the sunlight are dependant properties taken into account. Equations, graphics and results are also presented.
Key words: Solar cells, photovoltaic effect, solar energy and electricity.
This voltage is useful to conduct a current across an extern circuit in order to produce work. A thin screen is used in order to origin an electric field. since when the college exceeds the limit that the federal commission of electricity imposes on it.y 1. in which light enters in a semiconductor device of two layers and it produces a difference in the potency between the layers. THE FUNCTION OF A SOLAR CELL. in I.T. OBJECTIVE. to power a computer. y 2. The photovoltaic cells are made of semiconducting materials. In this project we will only focus in classrooms 3 from the I.M. positive in one side and negative in the other. the result is an electric current that it can be used as electricity. an elevator. . when the energy becomes of the sunbeams it reach the photovoltaic cells and the electrons are hitting and remove from the atoms of the semiconducting material. to power a small pump. of course. we have to use diesel generators and the cost is too high. to power electrical printers or doors.M. in special silicon.E. When these free electrons are taken. it has to create its own energy with diesel generators. The common way to use the solar cells is based in the photovoltaic effect. y 3. Some semiconducting materials absorb the photons in sunlight and they emit electrons.S. Nowadays it is very difficult to be paying piles and piles of money in electrical light because it is indispensable for many things in daily life. Our main purpose it is to create energy using natural resources without any cost and that energy will benefit our pockets.S. INTRODUCTION.E. when we use more energy than permitted.T. it is one of the biggest problems. The solar or photovoltaic cell is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity in an atomic level.
the technology advanced and it reached a high grade of trust while reducing its cost. the technology with a photovoltaic cell began to win recognition as a source of energy for applications not related with space. Pearson and Fuller in 1954. which it was necessary before efficient solar cells could be made. A deep comprehension of the scientific principles was provided by Albert Einstein in 1905 and Schottky in 1930. The construction of the photovoltaic cells has been expanded because of the lack of systems of electrical networks and the big rural areas in the world today. Although the efficient solar cells have been available since 50¶s.500 to 7. During the energy crises in the 70¶s. etc. In the 60¶s. . which they required of very small amounts of energy. Photovoltaic cells cost a low price and it can be used electrification and rural telephony such as: water pumping and cathodic protection. education via satellite. 5 dollars to generate each KWh.y 4. A solar silicon cell that turned 6% of the solar light affects its electricity and it was developed by Chapin. 25 to 0. the scientific research of the photovoltaic effect began in 1839. This material was used during many years for the photometers. The use of the solar cells has been increasing because it is a good source of renewable energy. STATE OF ART. The effect was observed first in a solid material (the metal selenium) in 1877. since the 90¶s the photovoltaic technology has been used in order to provide electricity to different uses such as: satellite telephone systems. when the French scientist.000 US$/KW installed and from 0. Henri Becquerel discovered that an electrical current could be produced making shine a light on certain chemical solutions. Throughout the space programs. the space industry began to use this kind of technology for the first time to provide electrical energy inside the space crafts. it was described as a solar battery and nothing more than a curiosity because it was too expensive to use in a higher scale. and this is the common cell that it was used in specialized uses such as orbital satellites as of 1958. security and control of unboarded marine platforms. The costs of generation and investment are from 3.
However. with the Europe Parlament proposing a plan 1. some countries are supporting the construction of solar homes.S. These fences also are used in enclosures of the fauna and protected areas. In U. The cathodic protection is one method to protect the metal structures against the corrosion. with which by the year 2010 they expect to reach about 4. These wires give an unloading to any animal that touch them. Nowadays. The positive terminal of the source is connected to a galvanic anode or of sacrifice that is generally a piece of the remainder metal. . in which he told that before the 2010 year it will be installed a million solar boards in America.A. Europe and the U. In Europe. a conditioner of energy and a battery.000 solar homes. Clinton¶s President announced a program about solar roofs. in the middle of the 19¶s it was launched an important effort to develop solar boards integrated in the construction of buildings in order to be connected to a network. Japan has a program that wants to build 70.820 MW produce by photovoltaic systems. These fences have one or two wires ³alive´ that stay with near 500 volts of DC.Uses and actual developments During the 18th and 19th century the major market for the solar boards was in the power supplies for remote areas and some consumer goods (clocks. Wires require a high voltage but very little current and they are located in remote areas where the cost of electricity is too high. toys and calculating).A. These needs can be solved by a photovoltaic system of solar cells.S. Electrical fences The electrical fences are used extensively in agriculture to avoid that the cattle or the predators enters or leaves a close field. In order to reach the cathodic protection it applies a small negative voltage in the metal structure and this one avoids the oxidation. photovoltaic roofs are leading the development of the market in Japan.000MW.
Costs and potency On the other hand. The photovoltaic modules and adjustments produce direct current (CC).1 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT A SOLAR CELL. The generation of electrical energy (AC/DC) is obtained through the transformation of the solar energy using solar cells that are connected forming an adjustment that connects a load controller. more electricity will be produced. A way to control the limitation is using two or more different cells. At several latitudes. These types of cells are known as ³multijuntura´ cells also called ³tandem´ cells. This energy can be stored in batteries and it is used in a direct way or it becomes to alternating current. The solar cells can satisfy signals in the streets. for example the one of a common system of 12 volts. bony. even though those cells always require a battery to have energy. They are so popular in remote places. the average that arrives to the earth surface is 100W/m on winter and 250 W/m on summer. especially in countries such as Mexico. great advances in the photovoltaic technology are taking place and experimental panels with high yields to 40%. y 4. This means that several modules can be connected with others to form an adjustment. The modules are designed to provide a certain level with voltage. that in general while it is the area of the adjustment more. is called photovoltaic module. with a band space and one or more junctions in order to generate a voltage. The devices multijuntura can obtain a better efficiency of total conversion because they can convert the greatest part of the bright phantom in electricity. but energy will obtain. These adjustments can in series be connected as much as in parallel to produce any amount of voltage or current that is required. it considers the diurnal cycle and the atmospheric conditions.C with high efficiency. a conditioner of energy and a pump of C.Illumination People require illumination in far places where the cost to apply energy by a network is too expensive. An arrangement of several solar cells connected electrically together and mounted in a structure of support or a frame. The produced current depends directly on how much light arrives until the module. . These systems consist in a photovoltaic board added to a battery.
because the free electrons have to pass across the circuit in order to put with the positives holes. As the amount of production increases. in series or parallel. or 50. approximately. How can we do our solar cell? Solar cells get into a module in which it is connected and encapsulated. it can be hoped to obtain 12 and 30 watts by squared meter of photovoltaic cell in winter and summer. to create an arrangement with the desired peak DC voltage and current. The holes move towards the positive layer or layer of type p and electrons towards the refusal or negative type n. or both. In order to understand the operation of a photovoltaic cell. They are sometimes connected in series. a panel of 10 W cost A$ 150 towards December of 2005. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. creating an additive voltage. .08 $/kWh (USD). 12%. 0000 of pesos in amounts of ~400. generally silicon type p and silicon type n. Modules are connected one to another. the cost is between 1 and 7 dollars by watt. respectively.06 $/day. 0. nuclear power and hydroelectric). a square meter will generate up from 0. In this kind of devices the pass of the light obtains by a semiconductor material. and one km ² will generate up to 30 MW. most of them can only be recombined happening through an external circuit outside the material due to the internal barrier of potential energy. The light of certain wavelengths can ionize atoms in silicon and the deep field produced by the union that separates some of the positive charges (³holes´) of the negative charges (electrons) within the photovoltaic device. Therefore if one becomes a circuit can be produced a current from the illuminated cells. Although these opposite charges are attracted mutually.000 $/(km ² . the prices probably continue lowering.With and efficiency of conversion of. With the current costs of electrical energy.day). and one of 20 W cost A$ 300. The solar cells are formed by two types of material. coal. When these panels are installed. we need to consider the nature of the material and the nature of the sunlight. For example. The present power consumption of the earth population is near to 12-13 TW at any time given (including derivatives of petroleum. Sale prices in Australia for small systems are close to A$ 12 to A$ 15 by watt. The price of the photovoltaic panels was from 1 to 2$/watt (USD) and of 1.
but the voltage decreases. temperature of a solar cell .Temperature affects in a solar cell. The temperature between the sunlight rises is around 6000K and a solar cell works at 300K. Graphic about temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage Graphic about the current vs. The current is steady in high temperatures. efficiency. because when the temperature increases the current also rises. and output power of the cell decrease. but the voltage decreases. also. the rise of the cell temperature gives a decline in the potency. As the temperature of a solar cell increases the open circuit voltage.
we will use our obtained knowledge in the mechanics of materials class. in which affects our base.Mechanic operations In order to obtain the efforts and deformations of our solar panel.077 N and its diagram would be: . the principal efforts by the mohr circle. the maximum angle will be to 30 and the force that hits the panel will be of 8952. when the angle moves because of the sun. The diagram will be like that: We only have one torsion moment. with this operation we will obtain not only the principal efforts but also another principal efforts.
T = .15m) * sen(120º) = 1342.17 kg/ms 2 ) * (10m * .7643 N = 387. then our purpose will be that the highest velocity would be around 150km/hr.216 Pa Obtaining the results we have that the principal efforts are equal.53 ) = 774. first we obtain the torsion moment.15m) = 1549.667m/s and the air density is of 1. F = (1033.1902 kg/ m3.25m * 1549.88 / .1902 kg/m3) * (41.We will begin to use the air pressure equation in order to obtain air velocities forces.667 m/s)2 P = 1033. .392699 = 1973.216 Pa -1973.17 kg/ms 2 ) * (10m * .216 Pa Because of we didn t obtain efforts in axis X or Y.7643 N For the second part.127 N Now.17 kg/ms 2 F = P * A * sen(a) Sen(a) will be in this case 1 because the founded area is perpendicular to the pressure. converted into meters 41.44 Nm t = 2T / * c3 txy = 2 * (387.44 Nm) / ( * . such as: +1973. if the angle changes the force too: F = (1033. we will obtain the principal efforts. The formula used in order to obtain the air pressure is: P = ½ * d * v2 P = ½ * (1.
E. When the source of the cell is totally charged. Which one of these absorb energy of the solar beams and it releases the light into electric current to obtain the sufficient tension like to charge a battery of 12 volts. it will use cathode protection. the cathode protection is a method to protect iron structures against corrosion. at the midday and with clear sky. 1350 watts Although the sun produces approximately. the cooler and the crystal dome will have a high price. that is corrode instead of the structure that is wanted to protect. perforations and railway lines. buildings. The source positive terminal is connected to an galvanic anode or the sacrifice that is generally a piece of iron. The sunlight insides about the cells. which intensify solar beams for a better quality. reservoirs. The sun follows a complete spectrum of frequencies and forces. In general. also no spend more in diesel For material of photovoltaic panel does not have corrosions. the solar panel reloaded the source for later be used in aulas 3 and take less C electric energy consumption. Solar cells with multiple band gap absorber materials are able to more efficiently convert the solar spectrum. that is equal to a automobile battery. It estimates that a square meter of solar cell catches on the earth. Of there. pipelines. in the space. To reach the cathode protection it is applied a small negative voltage to the iron structure and it avoids that it oxides. the solar spectrum may be broken down into smaller bins. li e a dome. some particles release electrons when it enters in contact with the silicon crystal of the cell surface. this one could be recovered because people would not have to pay bills of electricity in the C. a solar cell only use the 25 percent of that energy. . electrons that pass to an extern circuit and. in the way. also appl a layer of glass. where it will can absorb the li ht sun without obstacle. 1. By using multiple band gaps.000 watts of energy per square foot on a sunny day.Concl ions Our proj t about solar cells must be on t e roof of aulas 3. 1000 watts. it is apply to bridges. The great problem is in the light itself. The material and construction of a solar cell of that si e. Out alternative help to pay a low cost of energy and we can use our natural source: sunlight. a solar panel has 36 photovoltaic cells interconnected.F. but. also a cooler for the solar panel temperature does not exceed the limit and deli er a low level voltage because of its down. it would be used in classrooms 3 and it would decrease the consumption of the buyer energy. emit energy in form of useful work. like on a lamp.
).com/energia/celulas textos cientificos.f.).f. de textos cientificos: http://www. de paneles solares: http://www. de instalacion energia solar: http://www.References: anes. (s.com.ucsc.textoscientificos.mx/ quantum. Recuperado el 07 de 04 de 2009.instalacionenergiasolar. Recuperado el 07 de 04 de 2009. Recuperado el 07 de 04 de 2009. (s.).com/energia/celdas-fotovoltaicas. (s.html instalacion energia solar.f. (s. de anes: http://www.f. (s.).org/tutorial/cell.com/energia/aplicaceldas .f.html paneles solares. de quantum: http://quantum.).panelessolares.anes. Recuperado el 07 de 04 de 2009. de textos cientificos: http://www.f.).edu/research/SolarCell/Tarn_Senior%20Thesis.textoscientificos.soe. (s. Recuperado el 07 de 04 de 2009. Recuperado el 05 de 05 de 2009.pdf textos cientificos.
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