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Black water Worldwide cc

Research By: Dr. Syed Hamid Hussain Naqvi Subzwari, Chief Editor
AB Group of Multimedia (R) Dubai, UAE

cc is a private military company founded as

USA in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark.[2][3] The company has a wide
array of business divisions, subsidiaries, and spin-off corporations but the
organization as a whole has aroused significant controversy.[4][5][6][7][8]
The Iraq War documents leak showed that Blackwater employees
committed serious abuses in Iraq, including killing civilians.[9] Altogether,
the documents reveal fourteen separate shooting incidents involving
Blackwater forces, which resulted in the deaths of ten civilians and the
wounding of seven others, not including the Nisoor Square massacre that
killed seventeen civilians. A third of the shootings occurred while
Blackwater forces were guarding US diplomats.[10]

In October 2007, Blackwater USA was renamed Blackwater Worldwide. It announced on

February 13, 2009 that it would operate under the new name "Xe." In a memo sent to employees,
President Gary Jackson wrote that the new name "reflects the change in company focus away
from the business of providing private security." A spokesperson for the company stated that it
feels the Blackwater name is too closely associated with the company's work in the occupation of
Iraq.[11] Spokeswoman Anne Tyrrell said there was no meaning in the new name, which the
company took over a year to arrive at in an internal search.[12]

Xe is currently the largest of the U.S. State Department's three private security contractors. Of
the 987 contractors Xe provides, 744 are U.S. citizens.[13][14] At least 90% of the company's
revenue comes from government contracts. Xe provided security services in Iraq to the United
States federal government, particularly the Central Intelligence Agency[1] on a contractual basis.
They no longer have a license to operate in Iraq: the new Iraqi government made multiple
attempts to expel them from the country,[15] and denied their application for an operating license
in January 2009.[16] However, the company is still under contract with the State Department and
some Xe personnel were working legally in Iraq at least until September 2009.[17]

The company was purchased on December 17, 2010 by USTC Holdings, an investment group.
Erik Prince will no longer have an equity stake in or involvement in the management or
operation of Xe.[18]

 c c

Both logos, side by side. Note the original below, with the curved Blackwater word mark.

Blackwater USA was formed in 1997, by Erik Prince in North Carolina, to provide training
support to military and law enforcement organizations. He spent part of his inherited wealth to
purchase about 6,000 acres (24 km2) (from Dow Jones Executive, Sean Trotter) of the Great
Dismal Swamp, a vast swamp on the North Carolina/Virginia border, now mostly a National
Wildlife Refuge. There he created his state-of-the-art private training facility, and his
contracting company, Blackwater, which he named for the peat-colored water of the swamp.[19]
In 2002 Blackwater Security Consulting (BSC) was formed. It was one of several private security
firms employed following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. BSC is one of over 60 private
security firms employed during the Iraq War to guard officials and installations, train Iraq's new
army and police, and provide other support for occupation forces.[20] Blackwater was also hired
during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina by the United States Department of Homeland
Security, as well as by private clients, including communications, petrochemical and insurance
companies.[21] Overall, the company has received over $1 billion USD in U.S. government
contracts.[citation needed] Blackwater consists of nine divisions, and a subsidiary, Blackwater

Erik Prince, Blackwater founder

Xe is a privately held company and does not publish much information about internal affairs.
Xe's founder and former CEO Erik Prince, a former Navy SEAL, attended the Naval Academy,
graduated from Hillsdale College, and was an intern in George H. W. Bush's White House.
Prince is a major financial supporter of Republican Party causes and candidates.[22] Xe's
president, Gary Jackson, is also a former Navy SEAL.[23]

Cofer Black, the company's vice-chairman from 2006 through 2008, was director of the CIA's
Counterterrorist Center (CTC) at the time of the September 11 attacks in 2001. He was the
United States Department of State coordinator for counterterrorism with the rank of ambassador
at large from December 2002 to November 2004. After leaving public service, Black became
chairman of the privately owned intelligence gathering company Total Intelligence Solutions,
Inc., as well as vice chairman for Xe. Robert Richer was vice president of intelligence until
January 2007, when he formed Total Intelligence Solutions. He was formerly the head of the
CIA's Near East Division.[24][25] Black was senior advisor for counterterrorism and national
security issues for the 2008 Presidential election bid of Mitt Romney.[26]
Xe's primary training facility opened by Jonathan Elliott and Nic Norment in 2001 is located on
7,000 acres (28 km2) in northeastern North Carolina, comprises several ranges: indoor, outdoor,
urban reproductions; an artificial lake; and a driving track in Camden and Currituck counties.
Company literature claims that it is the largest training facility in the country. In November 2006
Blackwater USA announced it recently acquired an 80-acre (30 ha) facility 150 miles (240 km)
west of Chicago in Mount Carroll, Illinois to be called Blackwater North. This facility is also
known as "The Site". This Xe facility has been operational since April 2007 and serves law
enforcement agencies throughout the Midwest. Xe is also trying to open an 824-acre (3.33 km2)
training facility three miles north of Potrero, a small town in rural east San Diego County,
California located 45 miles (72 km) east of San Diego, for military and law enforcement
training.[27][28][29][29][30] The opening has faced heavy opposition from local residents, residents
of nearby San Diego, local Congressmember Bob Filner, and environmentalist and anti-war
organizations. Opposition focused on a potential for wildfire increases, the proposed facility's
proximity to the Cleveland National Forest, noise pollution, and opposition to the actions of
Blackwater in Iraq.[31][32] In response, Brian Bonfiglio, project manager for Blackwater West,
said "There will be no explosives training and no tracer ammunition. Lead bullets don't start
fires." In October 2007, when wildfires swept through the area, Xe made at least three deliveries
of food, water, personal hygiene products and generator fuel to 300 residents near the proposed
training site, many of whom had been trapped for days without supplies. They also set up a "tent
city" for evacuees.[33] On March 7, 2008, Blackwater withdrew its application to set up a facility
in San Diego County.[citation needed]

In October 2007, Blackwater USA began a process of altering its name to Blackwater
Worldwide, and unveiled a new logo.[34] A Blackwater representative stated that the decision to
change the logo was made before the September 16, 2007, Nisoor Square shootings, but was not
changed officially until after.[34] Many referred to the change as having eliminated the previous
"cross hair" theme, replaced by a reticle instead.[34]

On July 21, 2008, Blackwater Worldwide stated that they would shift resources away from
security contracting because of extensive risk in that sector. "The experience we've had would
certainly be a disincentive to any other companies that want to step in and put their entire
business at risk," company founder and CEO Erik Prince told The Associated Press during a
daylong visit to the company's North Carolina compound.[35]

Prince announced his resignation as CEO on March 2, 2009. Prince will remain as chairman of
the board but will no longer be involved in day-to-day operations. Joseph Yorio was named as
the new president and CEO, replacing Gary Jackson as president and Prince as CEO. Danielle
Esposito was named the new chief operating officer and executive vice president.[36]

In 2009, Prince announced that he would relinquish involvement in the company's day-to-day
business and in December of that year that he plans to give up some of his ownership rights with
Xe and is considering becoming a teacher.[37]

þ c c c c

United States Training Center (USTC, formerly Blackwater Training Center) offers tactics and
weapons training to military, government, and law enforcement agencies. USTC also offers
several open-enrollment courses periodically throughout the year, from hand to hand combat
(executive course) to precision rifle marksmanship. They also offer courses in tactical and off
road driving.[38]

USTC's primary training facility, located on 7,000 acres (28 km2) in northeastern North
Carolina, comprises several ranges, indoor, outdoor, urban reproductions, a man-made lake,
and a driving track in Camden and Currituck counties. Company literature says that it is the
largest training facility in the country. In November 2006 Blackwater USA announced it
acquired an 80-acre (30 ha) facility 150 miles (240 km) west of Chicago, in Mount Carroll,
Illinois to be called Blackwater North. That facility has been operational since April 2007 and
serves law enforcement agencies throughout the Midwest.

 c  c c

This division provides and maintains target range steel targets and a "shoothouse" system. [39]

Blackwater MD-530F over Republican Palace, Baghdad

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Blackwater Security Consulting (BSC) was formed in 2001, and based in Moyock, North
Carolina. BSC is one of the private security firms employed during the Iraq War to guard
officials and installations, train Iraq's new Army and Police, and provide other support for
Coalition Forces.[20]

Its primary public contract is from the U.S. State Department under the Bureau of Diplomatic
Security's Worldwide Personal Protective Services (WPPS) and WPPS II umbrella contracts,
along with DynCorp International and Triple Canopy, Inc. for protective services in Iraq,
Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Israel.[40][41] Blackwater's responsibilities include the United States
embassy in Iraq.[42]

Blackwater Security is also now pursuing domestic work as disaster relief workers, following
their Katrina response. Blackwater officials have met with Arnold Schwarzenegger to discuss
earthquake response services.[43]

 c c

Training canines to work in patrol capacities as war dogs, explosives and drug detection, and
various other roles for military and law enforcement duties.


Blackwater Airships LLC was established in January 2006, to build a remotely piloted airship
vehicle (RPAV).[44]

 c c

Blackwater recently introduced its own armored personnel carrier, the Grizzly APC.[45]

 c"  c

Blackwater Maritime Security Services offers tactical training for maritime force protection
units. In the past it has trained Greek security forces for the 2004 Olympics, Azerbaijan Naval
Sea Commandos, and Afghanistan's Ministry of Interior.[46] Blackwater's facilities include a
manmade lake, with stacked containers simulating the hull and deck of a ship for maritime
assaults. Blackwater received a contract to train United States Navy sailors following the attack
on the USS Cole.[47]

It also purchased a 183-foot (56 m) vessel, McArthur, which has been outfitted for disaster
response and training.[48] According to Blackwater USA, it features "state of the art navigation
systems, full GMDSS communications, SEATEL Broadband, dedicated command and control
bays, helicopter decks, hospital and multiple support vessel capabilities."[48] McArthur was built
in 1966 by the Norfolk Shipbuilding and Drydock Company and served as the survey ship
USC&GS McArthur (MSS 22) for the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1966 to
1970 and as NOAAS McArthur (S 330) for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration from 1970 until her decommissioning in 2003. The ship is home-ported in
Norfolk, Virginia.[49]

# c$

The Raven Development Group is a construction management and management subsidiary. It

was established in 1999 to design and build Blackwater Worldwide's training facility in North
AWS CASA C-212 Aviocar in Afghanistan.

! c&
 c (AWS) was founded by Richard Pere and Tim Childrey, and is
based at Melbourne, Florida, USA. It owns and operates three subsidiaries: STI Aviation, Inc.
Air Quest, Inc. and Presidential Airways, Inc. In April 2003 it was acquired by Blackwater

c!  (PAW) is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regulations Part 135
charter cargo and passenger airline based at Melbourne International Airport. It operates
aircraft owned by AWS. Presidential Airways holds a Secret Facility Clearance from the U.S.
Department of Defense.[51] It operates several CASA 212 aircraft in addition to a Boeing
767.[52][53] Several of the MD-530 helicopters used by Blackwater Security Consulting in Iraq
are also operated through AWS.[54][55]

CASA C.212 Safety Card on a Presidential Airways flight over Afghanistan in October 2005

AWS also appears to provide services to the United States Central Intelligence Agency, as three
of its aircraft, with tail numbers N962BW, N964BW, and N968BW, have flown into its Camp
Peary facility.[56][57][58][59] Its aircraft have also been used in the CIA's extraordinary rendition
programs. [60][61] Blackwater also operates an airport at its Moyock, North Carolina facility,
called Blackwater Airstrip Airport (NC61).[62] The listed owner is E&J Holdings LLC.[62]

A CASA 212 aircraft, tail number N960BW, operated by Presidential Airways crashed on
November 27, 2004, in Afghanistan; it had been a contract flight for the United States Air Force
en route from Bagram to Farah.[63] All aboard, three soldiers and three civilian crew members,
were killed. Several of their surviving kin filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Presidential in
October 2005.[64]
In late September 2007, Presidential Airways received a $92m contract from the Department of
Defense for air transportation in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. [65][66]

'c!  focuses on aircraft maintenance, and is a FAA/JAA 145 repair station.[50] They
specialize in Short 360, EMB 120, Saab 340, and CASA 212 maintenance. As of January 2008,
STI Aviation appears to have been folded into AWS, along with Air Quest.[67]

Many of Blackwater's tactical and training aircraft are registered to Blackwater affiliate c
! c, named for Blackwater's owner, Erik Prince.[68] These aircraft include fourteen
Bell 412 helicopters, three Hughes/MD 369 "Little Bird" helicopters, four Bell 214ST medium-
lift helicopters, three Fairchild Swearingen Merlin IIIC turboprop airliners, nine Aérospatiale
Puma utility helicopters,[69] a Maule Air MT-7-235 STOL aircraft, an Embraer EMB 314 Super
Tucano counterinsurgency aircraft, and a Mooney M20E fixed wing aircraft.[70]

Aviation Worldwide Services was purchased for $200 million in 2010 by AAR Corp., an Illinois
company. In a letter released on February 8, 2011, the new owners informed state officials that
they are shutting down the Moyock, North Carolina, operation and moving some employees to a
new business location in Melbourne, Florida. Some 260 staff are affected with about 50 losing
their jobs, beginning at the end of February. The company views the aviation division as a
growth opportunity. [71]

% c c

A private security service, Greystone is registered in Barbados, and employs third country
nationals for offshore security work through its affiliate Satelles Solutions, Inc.[72] Their web site
advertises their ability to provide "personnel from the best militaries throughout the world" for
worldwide deployment. Tasks can be from very small scale up major operations to "facilitate
large scale stability operations requiring large numbers of people to assist in securing a

Greystone had planned to open a training facility on the grounds of the Subic Bay U.S. Naval
Base, but those plans were later abandoned.[73]

31 March 2004 Fallujah ambush, Andrew J. Moonen, and Blackwater Baghdad shootings

Paul Bremer escorted by Blackwater Security.

Blackwater Worldwide has played a substantial role during the Iraq War as a contractor for the
United States government. In 2003, Blackwater attained its first high-profile contract when it
received a $21 million no-bid contract for guarding the head of the Coalition Provisional
Authority, L. Paul Bremer.[74]

On March 31, 2004, four Blackwater Security Consulting (BSC) employees were ambushed and
killed in Fallujah, and their bodies were hung on bridges.

Since June 2004, Blackwater has been paid more than $320 million out of a $1 billion, five-year
State Department budget for the Worldwide Personal Protective Service, which protects U.S.
officials and some foreign officials in conflict zones.[75]

In 2006, Blackwater won the remunerative contract to protect diplomats for the U.S. embassy in
Iraq, the largest American embassy in the world. It is estimated by the Pentagon and company
representatives that there are 20,000 to 30,000 armed security contractors working in Iraq, and
some estimates are as high as 100,000, though no official figures exist.[75][76] Of the State
Department's dependence on private contractors like Blackwater for security purposes, U.S.
ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker told the U.S. Senate: "There is simply no way at all that the
State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security could ever have enough full-time personnel to
staff the security function in Iraq. There is no alternative except through contracts."[77][78]

In November 2008, the U.S. State Department prepared to issue a multi-million-dollar fine to
Blackwater for shipping hundreds of automatic firearms to Iraq without the necessary permits
and without paying the proper tariffs. Some of the weapons were believed to have ended up on
the country¶s black market.[79][dead link][80]

For work in Iraq, Xe has drawn contractors from their international pool of professionals, a
database containing "21,000 former Special Forces operatives, soldiers, and retired law
enforcement agents," overall.[81] For instance, Gary Jackson, the firm's president, has confirmed
that Bosnians, Filipinos, and Chileans "have been hired for tasks ranging from airport security
to protecting Paul Bremer, the head of the Coalition Provisional Authority." Between 2005 and
September 2007, Blackwater security staff were involved in 195 shooting incidents; in 163 of
those cases, Blackwater personnel fired first. 25 members of staff have been fired for violations
of Xe's drug and alcohol policy and 28 more for weapons-related incidents.[82]

( c c!
c) ( c

Main article: 31 March 2004 Fallujah ambush

A Blackwater Security Company MD-530F helicopter aids in securing the site of a car bomb
explosion in Baghdad, Iraq, December, 2004, during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

On March 31, 2004, Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah attacked a convoy containing four American
private military contractors from Blackwater USA who were conducting delivery for food
caterers ESS.[83] The four contractors, Scott Helvenston, Jerry Zovko, Wesley Batalona and
Michael Teague, were attacked and killed with grenades and small arms fire. Their bodies were
hung from a bridge crossing the Euphrates.[84] This event was one of the causes of the U.S.
military attack on the city in the First Battle of Fallujah.[85] In the fall of 2007, a congressional
report by the House Oversight Committee found that Blackwater intentionally "delayed and
impeded" investigations into the contractors' deaths.[86]

In April 2004, a few days after the Fallujah bridge hanging, a small team of Blackwater
contractors, along with a fire team of U.S. Marines and El Salvadorian troops, fired upon 400
Iraqi civilians protesting outside the Coalition Provisional Authority headquarters in Al Najaf,
Iraq.[47] The headquarters, occupying the former Kufa University campus, was the last area in
the city that remained in coalition control. During the protest, as supplies and ammunition ran
low, a team of Blackwater contractors 70 miles (113 km) away flew to the compound to resupply
and bring an injured U.S. Marine back to safety outside of the city.[87][88] In April 2005 six
Blackwater independent contractors were killed in Iraq when their Mi-8 helicopter was shot
down. Also killed were three Bulgarian crewmembers and two Fijian gunners. Initial reports
indicate the helicopter was shot down by rocket propelled grenades.[citation needed] In 2006 a car
accident occurred in the Baghdad Green Zone when an SUV driven by Blackwater operatives
crashed into a U.S. Army Humvee. Blackwater guards allegedly disarmed the Army soldiers and
forced them to lie on the ground at gunpoint until they could disentangle their SUV from the


On February 16, 2005, four Blackwater guards escorting a U.S. State Department convoy fired
70 rounds into an Iraqi's car. The guards stated that they felt threatened by the car's approach.
The fate of the car's driver was unknown because the convoy did not stop after the shooting. An
investigation by the State Department's Diplomatic Security Service concluded that the shooting
was not justified and that the Blackwater employees provided false statements to investigators.
The false statements claimed that the one of the Blackwater vehicles had been hit by insurgent
gunfire, but the investigation found that one of the Blackwater guards had actually fired into his
own vehicle. John Frese, the U.S. embassy in Iraq's top security official, declined to punish
Blackwater or the security guards, stating that "any disciplinary actions would be deemed as
lowering the morale" of the Blackwater contractors.[90]

On Christmas Eve 2006, a security guard of the Iraqi vice president, Adel Abdul Mahdi, was
shot and killed while on duty outside the Iraqi prime minister's compound. The Iraqi government
has accused Andrew J. Moonen, at the time an employee of Blackwater USA, of murdering him
while drunk. Moonen was subsequently fired by Blackwater for "violating alcohol and firearm
policy", and travelled from Iraq to the United States days after the incident. United States
Attorneys are currently investigating.[91] The United States State Department and Blackwater
USA had attempted to keep his identity secret. Despite the Blackwater incident, Moonen found
subsequent employment. From February to August 2007, he was employed by U.S. Defense
Department contractor Combat Support Associates (CSA) in Kuwait. In April 2007, the U.S.
Department of Defense tried to call him back to active duty, but cancelled the request because
Moonen was overseas.[92][93]

Blackwater Security guarding U.S. State Department employees

Five Blackwater contractors were killed on January 23, 2007, in Iraq when their Hughes H-6
helicopter was shot down on Baghdad's Haifa Street. The crash site was secured by a personal
security detail, callsign "Jester" from 1/26 Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Three insurgencies
claimed to be responsible for shooting down the helicopter, although such has not been
confirmed by the United States.[citation needed] A U.S. defense official has confirmed that four of the
five killed were shot execution style in the back of the head, but did not know whether the four
had survived the crash.[94][95]

In late May 2007, Blackwater contractors opened fire on the streets of Baghdad twice in two
days, one of the incidents provoking a standoff between the security contractors and Iraqi
Interior Ministry commandos, according to U.S. and Iraqi officials.[76] On May 30, 2007,
Blackwater employees shot an Iraqi civilian deemed to have been "driving too close" to a State
Department convoy that was being escorted by Blackwater contractors.[76][96] Other private
security contractors, such as Aegis Defence Services have been accused of similar actions.[96]
Doug Brooks, the president of the International Peace Operations Association ("IPOA"), a trade
group representing Blackwater and other military contractors, said that in his view military law
would not apply to Blackwater employees working for the State Department.[97] In October 2007,
Blackwater USA announced that the company was taking a "hiatus" from membership in

A sniper employed by Blackwater Worldwide opened fire from the roof of the Iraqi Justice
Ministry, killing three guards working for the state-funded Iraqi Media Network on February 6,
2006. According to the 13 witnesses who were present, the guards had not fired on the Justice
Ministry. An Iraqi police report described the shootings as "an act of terrorism" and said
Blackwater "caused the incident."[citation needed] Iraqi Media Network concluded that the guards
were killed "without any provocation."[citation needed] The U.S. State Department, based on
information obtained from Blackwater guards, who said they were fired upon, concluded that the
team's actions "fell within approved rules governing the use of force."[99]

c c c c
The Iraqi Government revoked Blackwater's license to operate in Iraq on September 17, 2007,
because of a highly controversial incident that occurred the previous day. In that incident,
seventeen (initially reported as eleven) Iraqis were killed.[100][101] The fatalities occurred while a
Blackwater Private Security Detail (PSD) was escorting a convoy of U.S. State Department
vehicles en route to a meeting in western Baghdad with United States Agency for International
Development officials. The U.S. State Department has said that "innocent life was lost."[102] An
anonymous U.S. military official was quoted as saying that Blackwater's guards opened fire
without provocation and used excessive force.[103] The incident sparked at least five
investigations, and an FBI probe found that Blackwater Employees used lethal force
recklessly.[104][105] Blackwater helicopters were dispatched to evacuate the Polish ambassador
following an insurgent assassination attempt on October 3, 2007.[106] The license was reinstated
by the American government in April 2008, but the Iraqis announced that they have refused to
extend that license in early 2009.[15][107]

þ  cc

On October 2, 2007, Erik Prince attended a congressional hearing conducted by the Committee
on Oversight and Government Reform following the controversy related to Blackwater's conduct
in Iraq and Afghanistan.[108][109] Blackwater hired the public relations firm BKSH & Associates
Worldwide, a subsidiary of Burson-Marsteller, to help Prince prepare for his testimony at the
hearing. Robert Tappan, a former U.S. State Department official who worked for the Coalition
Provisional Authority in Baghdad, was one of the executives handling the account.[110][111][112]
Burson-Marsteller was brought aboard by the Washington law firms representing Blackwater ±
McDermott Will & Emery and Crowell & Moring.[110] BKSH, a self-described "bipartisan" firm
(Hillary Rodham Clinton, when pursuing the Democratic presidential nomination, was also a
client), is headed by Charlie Black, a prominent Republican political strategist and former chief
spokesman for the Republican National Committee, and Scott Pastrick, former treasurer of the
Democratic National Committee.[113][114]

In his testimony before Congress, Prince said his company has a lack of remedies to deal with
employee misdeeds. When asked why an employee involved in the killing of a vice-presidential
guard incident had been "whisked out of the country" he replied, "We can't flog him, we can't
incarcerate him."[115] Asked by a member of Congress for financial information about his
company, Prince declined to provide it. "We're a private company, and there's a key word there
² private," he answered.[116] Later he stated that the company could provide it at a future date if
questions were submitted in writing.[117][118] When the term "mercenaries" was used to describe
Blackwater employees, Prince objected, characterizing them as "loyal Americans."[119]

A Committee on Oversight and Government Reform staff report, based largely on internal
Blackwater e-mail messages and State Department documents, describes Blackwater as "being
staffed with reckless, shoot-first guards who were not always sober and did not always stop to
see who or what was hit by their bullets."[120] A staff report compiled by the House Committee on
Oversight and Government Reform on behalf of Representative Waxman questioned the cost-
effectiveness of using Blackwater forces instead of U.S. troops. Blackwater charges the
government $1,222 per day per guard, "equivalent to $445,000 per year, or six times more than
the cost of an equivalent U.S. soldier," the report alleged.[121] During his testimony on Capitol
Hill, Erik Prince disputed this figure, saying that it costs money for the government to train a
soldier, to house and feed them, they don't just come prepared to fight. "That sergeant doesn't
show up naked and untrained." Prince stated.[121][122]

In the wake of Prince's testimony before Congress, the US House passed a bill in October 2007
that would make all private contractors working in Iraq and other combat zones subject to
prosecution by U.S. courts, and Senate Democratic leaders have said they plan to send similar
legislation to President Bush as soon as possible.[123] The legal status of Xe and other security
firms in Iraq is a subject of contention.[124] Two days before he left Iraq, L. Paul Bremer signed
"Order 17" giving all Americans associated with the CPA and the American government
immunity from Iraqi law.[125][126] A July 2007 report from the American Congressional Research
Service indicates that the Iraqi government still has no authority over private security firms
contracted by the U.S. government.[127] On October 5, 2007, the State Department announced
new rules for Blackwater's armed guards operating in Iraq. Under the new guidelines, State
Department security agents will accompany all Blackwater units operating in and around
Baghdad. The State Department will also install video surveillance equipment in all Blackwater
armored vehicles, and will keep recordings of all radio communications between Blackwater
convoys in Iraq and the military and civilian agencies that supervise their activities.[128]

In December 2008 a US State Department panel recommended that Xe should be dropped as the
main private security contractor for U.S. diplomats in Iraq.[129]

On Jan 30, 2009, The U.S. State Department told Blackwater Worldwide that it will not renew its
contract in Iraq.[130]

' *c c c

c  c

On September 23, 2007, the Iraqi government said that it expects to refer criminal charges to its
courts in connection with a shooting involving Blackwater guards.[131] However, on October 29,
2007, immunity from prosecution was granted by the U.S. State Department, delaying a criminal
inquiry into the September 16 shootings of 17 Iraqi civilians.[132] Immediately afterwards, the
Iraqi government approved a draft law to end any and all immunity for foreign military
contractors in Iraq, to overturn Order 17. The U.S. Department of Justice also said any
immunity deals offered to Blackwater employees were invalid, as the department that issued
them had no authority to do so.[133] It is unclear what legal status Blackwater Worldwide
operates under in the U.S. and other countries, or what protection the U.S. extends to
Blackwater Worldwide's operations globally.[134]

Legal specialists say that the U.S. government is unlikely to allow a trial in the Iraqi courts,
because there is little confidence that trials would be fair. Contractors accused of crimes abroad
could be tried in the United States under either military or civilian law; however, the applicable
military law, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, was changed in 2006, and appears to now
exempt State Department contractors that provide security escorts for a civilian agency.
Prosecution under civilian law would be through the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act,
which allows the extension of federal law to civilians supporting military operations; however,
according to the deputy assistant attorney general in the Justice Department's criminal division,
Robert Litt, trying a criminal case in federal court would require a secure chain of evidence,
with police securing the crime scene immediately, while evidence gathered by Iraqi investigators
would be regarded as suspect.[134]

A number of Iraqi families with killed relatives are taking Blackwater to court over alleged
"random killings committed by private Blackwater guards".[135]

On January 31, 2010, three current and former U.S. government officials confirmed the Justice
Department is investigating whether officials of Blackwater Worldwide tried to bribe Iraqi
government officials in hopes of retaining the firm¶s security work in Iraq after the shooting in
Nisour Square in Baghdad, which left 17 Iraqis dead and stoked bitter resentment against the
United States. The officials said that the Justice Department¶s fraud section opened the inquiry
late in 2009 to determine whether Blackwater employees violated a federal law banning
American corporations from paying bribes to foreign officials.[136]

'  ccË

c& c c

On April 16, 2010, five officials at Xe, including former CEO Gary Jackson, Blackwater¶s
former president were indicted on felony weapons charges. The indictment alleged that officials
falsified documents to hide gifts of weapons to King Abdullah II of Jordan.[137][138] The
indictment sprang from a 2008 raid, in which 22 weapons were seized, including 17 AK 47s.



Court documents made public reveal that Blackwater/Xe violated federal law hundreds of times
according to allegations by the federal government. In August 2010, the company agreed to pay
a $42 million fine to settle allegations that it unlawfully provided armaments, military equipment
and know-how overseas. The settlement and fine conclude a U.S. State Department investigation
that began in 2007. Most of the 288 violations of export control laws involved alleged by the
State Department were violations of US arms control laws, that is Blackwater/Xe providing
military or security training to foreign nationals or failing to vet adequately the backgrounds of
those it was training. Such laws are in place to make sure that enemies of the U.S. do not benefit
from American weapons or training.[141] (See also: Taliban)
Blackwater provided military training to security forces in numerous countries, often without
authorization from the U.S. government, according to the federal government allegations.
Blackwater/Xe also allegedly violated firearms regulations on numerous occasions. In one case,
the company diverted weapons intended for use in supporting U.S. military operations in Iraq to
the company's own private contracts. Also, the company "did not fully cooperate" with the State
Department investigation, and made several false statements to federal authorities.[142]

)' *cc

Blackwater CASA 212 over Afghanistan dropping supplies to U.S. Army troops

According to a company press release, Blackwater provided airlift, security, logistics, and
transportation services, as well as humanitarian support. It was reported that the company also
acted as law enforcement in the disaster-stricken areas, for example securing neighborhoods
and confronting criminals.[143] Blackwater moved about 200 personnel into the area hit by
Hurricane Katrina, most of whom (164 employees) were working under a contract with the
Department of Homeland Security to protect government facilities,[72] but the company held
contracts with private clients as well. Overall, Blackwater had a "visible, and financially
lucrative, presence in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as the use of the company
contractors cost U.S. taxpayers $240,000 a day."[81]

Xe is one of five companies picked by the Department of Defense Counter-Narcotics Technology

Program Office in a five-year contract for equipment, material and services in support of
counter-narcotics activities. The contract is worth up to $15 billion. The other companies picked
are Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, OHI, and Arinc Inc.[144] Blackwater USA
has also been contracted by various foreign governments. The DEA and DoD counternarcotics
program is supported by Blackwater Worldwide in Afghanistan as well.[145] ³Blackwater is
involved on DoD side´ of the counter-narcotics program in Afghanistan says Jeff Gibson, vice
president for international training at Blackwater. ³We interdict. The NIU surgically goes after
shipments going to Iran or Pakistan. We provide training to set up roadblocks, identify where
drug lords are, and act so as not to impact the community.´[145] About 16 Blackwater personnel
are in Afghanistan at any given time to support DoD and DEA efforts at training facilities
around the country.[145] Blackwater is also involved in mentoring Afghan officials in drug
interdiction and counter narcotics.[146] As Richard Douglas, a deputy assistant secretary of
defense, explained, "The fact is, we use Blackwater to do a lot of our training of counternarcotics
police in Afghanistan. I have to say that Blackwater has done a very good job."[147]
In 2005, it worked to train the Naval Sea Commando regiment of Azerbaijan, enhancing their
interdiction capabilities on the Caspian Sea.[148] In Asia, Blackwater has contracts in Japan
guarding AN/TPY-2 radar systems.[149]

Xe is currently being sued by the families of four contractors killed in Fallujah in March 2004.
The families say they are suing not for financial damages, but for the details of their sons' and
husbands' deaths, saying Xe has refused to supply these details, and that in its "zeal to exploit
this unexpected market for private security men," the company "showed a callous disregard for
the safety of its employees."[75] On February 7, 2007, four family members testified in front of the
House Government Reform Committee. They asked that Xe be held accountable for future
negligence of employees' lives, and that federal legislation be drawn up to govern contracts
between the Department of Defense and defense contractors.[75] Xe has counter-sued the lawyer
representing the empty estates of the deceased for $10 million on the grounds the lawsuit was
contractually prohibited from ever being filed.[150]

On November 27, 2004, an army report says that a Blackwater airplane, "in violation of
numerous government regulations and contract requirements," crashed into a mountainside in
Afghanistan, killing all six passengers on board.[151] Several U.S. military personnel were on
board because there was space on the cargo plane. It is alleged that Blackwater staff made a
series of errors leading to the plane crash,[citation needed] including failing to file a flight plan and
failing to use oxygen masks, which may have caused the pilot to succumb to high-altitude
euphoria.[152] The families of the three soldiers killed²Lt. Col. Michael McMahon, Chief
Warrant Officer Travis Grogan and Spec. Harley Miller²filed a wrongful death suit against
Blackwater, alleging negligence. Presidential Airways, a division of Blackwater, questioned the
validity of the Army's report, stating that it "contains numerous errors, misstatements, and
unfounded assumptions."[151]

  cc  cc' *c

On October 11, 2007, the Center for Constitutional Rights filed suit against Blackwater under
the Alien Tort Claims Act on behalf of an injured Iraqi and the families of three of the 17 Iraqis
killed by Blackwater employees during the September 16, 2007, Blackwater Baghdad

In June 2009, an amended lawsuit was filed in US District Court in Alexandria, Virginia,
alleging that Blackwater employees shot and killed three members of an Iraqi family, including a
nine-year-old boy, who were traveling from the Baghdad airport to Baghdad on July 1, 2007.
The suit also alleges that Blackwater employees used three company aircraft to kidnap Iraqi
citizens from Iraq and further accuses the company of engaging in weapons smuggling, money
laundering, tax evasion, child prostitution, illegal drug use and destruction of evidence. The
child prostitution charge refers to young Iraqi girls allegedly being brought to the Blackwater
compound in Baghdad's fortified Green Zone, identified in the lawsuit as the "Blackwater Man
Camp," to provide oral sex to contractors for $1. If the court rules against Xe on the
racketeering account, it could dissolve the company.[154]
The Justice Department was originally not expected to bring criminal charges against any
employees of the corporation; however, in December 2008, the Justice Department announced
they were charging five Blackwater employees. On December 31, 2009 Judge Ricardo Urbina
threw out the criminal case against the five guards under indictment. In announcing the
dismissal, Urbina said that the prosecutors violated the guards' Fifth Amendment rights by using
the statements they gave to the State Department as evidence. Urbina said that the guards would
have lost their jobs had they not given the statements, thus making the statements
inadmissible.[155] The Iraqi government has asked the US Justice Department to appeal the
decision, and also plans to sue the five guards accused of killing civilians.[156]

:c c
See also: Blackwater Worldwide arms smuggling allegations

Critics consider Xe's self-description as a private military company to be a euphemism for

mercenary activities.[51][157]Jeremy Scahill points out that Chilean nationals, mostly former
soldiers, whose country of origin does not participate in hostilities in Iraq, work for Xe in that
country; thus, those Chileans meet the definition of "mercenary."[158][159][160][161][162] Author
Chris Hedges wrote about the establishment of mercenary armies, referring to Blackwater as an
example of such a force, asserting its existence as a threat to democracy and a step towards the
creation of a modern day Praetorian Guard in a June 3, 2007, article in the Philadelphia

On November 27, 2004 an aircraft operated by Presidential Airways and owned by its sister
company, Blackwater AWS, crashed in Afghanistan; it had been a contract flight for the United
States Air Force en route from Bagram to Farah. All aboard, three soldiers and three civilian
crew members, were killed. Several of their survivors filed a wrongful death lawsuit against
Presidential in October 2005.[64][164][164][165][165][166][166][167][168]

In March 2006, Cofer Black, vice chairman of Blackwater USA, allegedly suggested at an
international conference in Amman, Jordan, that the company was ready to move towards
providing security professionals up to brigade size (3,000±5,000) for humanitarian efforts and
low-intensity conflicts. Critics have suggested this may be going too far in putting political
decisions in the hands of privately owned corporations.[169] The company denies this was ever

On September 22, 2007, U.S. federal prosecutors announced an investigation into allegations
that Blackwater employees may have smuggled weapons into Iraq, and that these weapons may
have been later transferred to the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), a Kurdish nationalist group
designated a terrorist organization by the United States, NATO and the EU.[171][172][173] The U.S.
government was investigating Blackwater for these alleged crimes.[174] On October 4, 2007, the
FBI took over the investigation.[175]

Prince claimed in September 2007 that there was a ³rush to judgment´ about Blackwater, due to
"inaccurate information".[176]
Xe, which had been operating in Iraq without an Iraqi government license, applied for one for
the first time, but the request was denied by Iraqi officials in January 2009. The Iraqi
government announced that Xe must leave Iraq as soon as a joint Iraqi±US committee finishes
drafting the new guidelines on private contractors under the current Iraqi±US security
agreement. Umm Tahsin, widow of one of the men killed by Xe employees in the Nisoor Square
shooting, said of the denial, "Those people are a group of criminals. What they did was a
massacre. Pushing them out is the best solution. They destroyed our family."[177] On January 31,
2009, the U.S. State Department notified Blackwater that the agency would not renew its security
contract with the company.[178] The Washington Times reported on March 17, 2009, that the U.S.
State Department had extended its Iraq security contract with Xe's air operations arm,
Presidential Airways, to September 3, 2009, for a cost of $22.2 million.[179]

On April 1, 2009, the U.S. State Department announced that Triple Canopy, Inc. would replace
Xe/Blackwater as the department's security contractor in Iraq.[180] The contract, for
$977 million, was awarded on March 31, 2009, and took effect on May 7, 2009. The Iraqi
government has speculated that Blackwater/Xe may still be able to profit from the deal because
Triple Canopy may subcontract a portion of its Iraq contract to the Falcon Group, an Iraqi
company rumored to have financial ties to Blackwater. A Blackwater spokeswoman, Anne Tyrell,
denied that Blackwater had a relationship with Falcon Group.[181] In spite of the ban on
Blackwater in Iraq, the State Department issued a task order for Blackwater to provide security
for diplomats in Hillah, Najaf, and Karbalah until August 4, 2009.[182]

Mark Manzetti, writing in the New York Times on August 19, 2009, reported that the CIA had
hired Blackwater "as part of a secret program to locate and assassinate top operatives of Al
Qaeda."[183] Newly appointed CIA director Leon Panetta had recently acknowledged a planned
secret targeted killing program, one withheld from Congressional oversight. Manzetti's sources,
which tied the program to Blackwater, declined to have their names made public. The CIA was
acting on a 2001 presidential legal pronouncement, known as a finding, which authorized the
CIA to pursue such efforts.[184] Several million dollars were spent on planning and training, but
it was never operationalized and no militants were caught or captured.[184][185] Jeremy Scahill
reported in The Nation in November 2009 that Blackwater operate alongside the CIA in Pakistan
in "snatch and grab" operations targeting senior members of the Taliban and Al Qaeda. The
report cited an unnamed source who has worked on covert US military programs, who revealed
that senior members of the Obama administration may not be aware that Blackwater is
operating under a US contract in Pakistan. A former Blackwater executive confirmed that they
operate covertly in Pakistan. A spokesman for Blackwater denied the claims, stating that they
have "only one employee in Pakistan."[186] In December 2009, the CIA canceled their contract
with Blackwater to load bombs onto drone aircraft in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[187]

ác Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army

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6.c â David Swanson, Scoop New Zealand, "Observing Our Government Through Blackwater",
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7.c â Ian Bruce, The Herald, London, "Blackwater uses armed force 'twice as often as other Iraq
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40.c â Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues.
41.c â
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48.c â + Blackwater Hits the High Seas | Danger Room from
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50.c â + Blackwater USA Completes Acquisition of Aviation Worldwide Services.
51.c â + Cherbonnier, Alice (March 26, 2007). "Blackwater Reveals Underpinnings of 'Private
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52.c â Hemingway, Mark (December 18, 2006). "Warriors for Hire". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved
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54.c â Blackwater Aviation News.
55.c â Name Results.
56.c â N-Number Results.
57.c â FlightAware > Live Flight Tracker > History > N964BW.
58.c â FlightAware > Live Flight Tracker > History > N962BW.
59.c â FlightAware > Live Flight Tracker > History > N968BW
60.c â
61.c â Here are NAMES in CIA Flights, Front-companies, Rendition Story! : Argentina Indymedia (( i
62.c â + FAA Information about Blackwater Airstrip Airport (NC61).
63.c â Broward-Palm Beach News ± Err America.
64.c â + Wilber, "A Crash's Echoes", Washington Post, October 17, 2007.
65.c â Think Progress » Pentagon Issues Blackwater New $92 Million Contract.
66.c â Pentagon Gives Blackwater New Contract ± by Ali Gharib.
67.c â Blackwater USA.
68.c â Blackwater Bulks Up Air Power Using Little-Known Company | Danger Room from
69.c â FAA REGISTRY Inquiry
70.c â Name Results.
71.c â
72.c â +  Sun.Star Manila ± Senator to look into mercenary list-up, exercises in Subic.
73.c â "Virginian-Pilot Archives".
74.c â "Blackwater USA: Building the 'Largest Private Army in the World'". Democracy Now!. 2004-
04-01. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
75.c â +   Bennet, Brian (March 15, 2007). "Victims of an Outsourced War". TIME.,9171,1599682,00.html. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
76.c â +  Fainaru, Steve; Saad al-Izzi (May 7, 2007). "U.S. Security Contractors Open Fire in
Baghdad". Washington Post. p. A01.
77.c â Zagorin, Adam; Bennet, Brian (September 17, 2007). "Iraq Limits Blackwater's Operations".
TIME.,8599,1662586,00.html. Retrieved October 24,
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Angeles Times). October 21, 2007.
10/32930222.pdf. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
79.c â Boston Herald: Blackwater faces fine for illegally shipping arms to Iraq.
80.c â "Blackwater Faces Hefty Fine for Iraq Gun Violations". Newser. November 13, 2008.
Retrieved January 4, 2009.
81.c â + Berkowitz, Bill. Blackwater Blues for Dead Contractors' Families, Inter Press Service, June
29, 2007. Accessed 2009-08-20.
82.c â "Blackwater boss grilled over Iraq". BBC News. October 2, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
83.c â "The High-Risk Contracting Business". Frontline (PBS). Retrieved
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84.c â "Residents hang slain Americans' bodies from bridge" May 6, 2004. Retrieved on
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86.c â "Report: Blackwater 'impeded' probe into contractor deaths". CNN. September 27, 2007. Retrieved December 28,
87.c â Priest, Dana (April 6, 2004). "Private Guards Repel Attack on U.S. Headquarters".
Washington Post.
2004Apr5?language=printer. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
88.c â "Contractors in combat: Firefight from a rooftop in Iraq". The Virginian-Pilot. July 25, 2006. Retrieved October 24,
89.c â Nordland, Rod; Mark Hosenball (October 15, 2007). "Blackwater Is Soaked: An arrogant
attitude only adds fuel to the criticism". Newsweek.
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90.c â Kelly, Matt, Lies In Iraq Shooting Unpunished, USA Today, April 2, 2009, p. 1.
91.c â Broder, John M. (October 3, 2007). "Ex-Paratrooper Is Suspect in a Blackwater Killing". New
York Times.
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92.c â Wright, Robin; Ann Scott Tyson (October 4, 2007). "Iraq reveals $100 million purchase of
Chinese arms". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved January 2,
93.c â "Contractor involved in Iraq shooting got job in Kuwait". CNN. October 4, 2007. Retrieved December 30,
94.c â Abdul-Zahra, Qassim (January 24, 2007). "Suicide Bombing Kills 7 North of Baghdad".
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95.c â Pelton, Robert Young: "Licensed to kill, hired guns in the war on terror," Crown, 2006-08-29.
96.c â + "Contractors accused of firing on civilians, GIs". Associated Press. August 11, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
97.c â Sizemore, Bill (January 11, 2007). "Iraq killing tracked to contractor could test laws". The
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98.c â "Blackwater quits security association" by August Cole, The Wall Street Journal, October 11,
99.c â Fainaru, Steve. "How Blackwater Sniper Fire Felled 3 Iraqi Guards". Washington Post (2007-
11-08). Retrieved 2007-11-13.
100.c â Blackwater 'killed 17', says Iraq
101.c â U.S. suspends diplomatic convoys throughout Iraq ±
102.c â U.S., Iraq to probe firefight involving Blackwater.
103.c â Blackwater faulted by U.S. military: report.
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107.c â Risen, James; Williams, Timothy (January 30, 2009). "U.S. Looks for Blackwater
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108.c â BBC News, "Blackwater boss grilled over Iraq", October 2, 2007.
109.c â Testimony of Erik D. Prince, Chairman and CEO, Blackwater For The House
Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, October 2, 2007.
110.c â + "Blackwater Hires PR Giant in Image Seige" [sic] by Richard Lardner, the
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111.c â "Blackwater Aided by PR Giant" by Richard Lardner, the Associated Press, October 5,
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114.c â National Association of Republican Campaign Professionals (NARCP) Board of
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115.c â "Iraq security firm denies trigger-happy charge" by Ewen MacAskill, The Guardian,
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116.c â "The man From Blackwater, shooting from the lip" by Dana Milbank, The Washington
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117.c â "Rise of the white-collar mercenary", Brian Dickerson, Detroit Free Press, October 3,
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121.c â + "Blackwater Chief Defends Firm", The Associated Press, October 2, 2007 By:
122.c â The Washington Post, October 4, 2007 By: DeYoung, Karen. "Former Seal Calls
Allegations Against Employees 'Baseless'".
123.c â House Passes Bill That Would Hike Penalties for U.S. Security Contractors in Iraq.
124.c â Blackwater Case Highlights Legal Uncertainties by Alissa J. Rubin and Paul von
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126.c â Hirch, Michael (September 20, 2007). "Blackwater and the Bush Legacy". Newsweek:
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133.c â "Iraq to end contractor immunity". BBC News. October 30, 2007. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
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135.c â August, Oliver (August 7, 2009). "Iraqis speak of random killings committed by private
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136.c â MARK MAZZETTI and JAMES RISEN (January 31, 2010). "U.S. Examines Whether
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137.c â "Former Blackwater president, 4 others charged". CNN. April 16, 2010.
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139.c â Pilkington, Ed (April 17, 2010). "Blackwater staff 'violated weapons law'". The
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141.c â McClatchy Newspapers, 2010 Aug. 23, State Department Details Blackwater
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Violations of U.S. Laws,"
143.c â Overkill: Feared Blackwater Mercenaries Deploy in New Orleans.
144.c â Five to vie for counter-narcoterrorism work.
145.c â +
146.c â
147.c â
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149.c â Blackwater: Japan's Missile Defense Force | Danger Room from
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Democracy Now!. 2007-10-11. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
154.c â Sizemore, Bill, "Lawsuit Now Accuses Xe Contractors Of Murder, Kidnapping",
Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, July 2, 2009.
155.c â "Charges dismissed against Iraq contractors". CNN. December 31, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
156.c â "Iraq to sue ex-Blackwater guards -". CNN. January 1, 2010. Retrieved April 26,
157.c â Corporate Mercenaries, War on Want.
158.c â Can Iraq (or Anyone) Hold Blackwater Accountable for Killing Iraqi Civilians? A
Debate on the Role of Private Contractors in Iraq
159.c â U.S. contractor recruits guards for Iraq in Chile: Forces say experienced soldiers are
quitting for private companies that pay more for similar work by Jonathan Franklin, The
Guardian, March 5, 2004.
160.c â La Fogata ± Irak Coletazos de Guerra Sucia En Iraq ð ,
161.c â News Analysis: For security in Iraq, corporate America turns to Central and South
America by Louis E. V. Nevaer, The Athens News, Athens, Ohio, June 28, 2007 (archived).
162.c â "Back in Iraq: The 'whores of war': America¶s hired guns in Iraq have been called µthe
coalition of the billing¶, but Blackwater mercenaries are accused of more than just taking the
money" by Neil Mackay, The Sunday Herald, September 27, 2007.
163.c â "What if our mercenaries turn on us?" (archived) by Chris Hedges for the New York
Times,, June 3, 2007.
164.c â + The Flight and Crash of "Blackwater 61" CBS News 60 Minutes ð 
165.c â + Blackwater 61 ± Cockpit Voice Recording rec.aviation.military ð 
167.c â WElcome Aboard Blackwater Airlines Seattle Weekly Newsð 
168.c â Welcome Aboard Blackwater Airlines Seattle Weekly Newsð 
169.c â "Blackwater USA says it can supply forces for conflicts".
170.c â "Inside America's private army" (continued).
171.c â "Foreign Terrorist Organizations List". United States Department of State. Archived
from the original on July 12, 2007.
Retrieved August 3, 2007. ± USSD Foreign Terrorist Organization.
172.c â "Terrorism Act 2000". Home Office. Retrieved August 14, 2007. ±
Terrorism Act 2000.
173.c â "Council Decision". Council of the European Union. Archived from the original on
July 14, 2007. Retrieved
August 14, 2007.
174.c â MSNBC, "Feds probe Blackwater links to arms smuggling", September 22, 2007.
175.c â AFP, "FBI probes Blackwater as Congress moves on Iraq security firms", October 4,
176.c â Demetri Sevastopulo, Financial Times, "FBI probes Blackwater over shooting",
Financial Times, October 2, 2007.
177.c â Londono, Ernesto and Qais Mizher, "Iraq To Deny New License To Blackwater
Security Firm", Washington Post, January 29, 2009, p. 12.
178.c â New York Times, "No Pact for Blackwater", January 31, 2009, p. 12.
179.c â McElhatton, Jim, "New Deal For Blackwater Bucks Baghdad Decision", Washington
Times, March 17, 2009, p. 1; Lee, Matthew, and Mike Baker (Associated Press), "Blackwater
Guards Still At Work In Iraq Despite Lacking License To Operate", Seattle Times, April 21, 2009.
180.c â Washington Times, "Va. Security Firm Replaces Blackwater", April 2, 2009, p. 13.
181.c â Nordland, Rod, "Ex-Blackwater Workers May Return To Iraq Jobs", New York Times,
April 4, 2009, p. 4.
182.c â Lee, Matthew, and Mike Baker (Associated Press), "Blackwater Guards Still At Work
In Iraq Despite Lacking License To Operate", Seattle Times, April 21, 2009.
1.c â Mark Manzetti (August 19, 2009). "C.I.A. Sought Blackwater¶s Help in Plan to Kill
Jihadists". New York Times.
Retrieved August 20, 2009.
183.c â + Wall Street Journal Secret Plan Against Al Queda
1.c â "Blackwater 'hired for CIA plan'". BBC News. August 20, 2009.
184.c â
1.c â "CIA cancels Blackwater drone missile-loading contract". BBC News. December 12,
2009. Retrieved December
12, 2009.

Ë c c


ác Scahill, Jeremy (2007) Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary
Army Nation Books, New York, ISBN 1-56025-979-5.
ác Singer, P. W. (2003) Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry
Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, ISBN 0-8014-4114-5.
ác Pelton, Robert Young (2006) Licensed to Kill, Hired Guns in the War on Terror Crown
Books, New York, ISBN 1-4000-9781-9; Extensive material on Blackwater in Prologue
and Chapter 2, "The New Breed," Chapter 5, "The Blackwater Bridge," Chapter 6,
"Under Siege," which discusses Blackwater at An Najaf, Chapter 7, "The Dog Track and
the Swamp," which chronicles Pelton's visits to Blackwater training facilities, one of
which is a dog track, Chapter 8, running the Gauntlet, and Chapter 11, "The Lord and
the Prince," partly about Erik Prince.


ác Peters, Ralph (September 30, 2007). "Trouble For Hire: The Mercenaries Who Murder
In Your Name". New York Post.
m. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
ác Lardner, Richard (October 1, 2007). "Blackwater portrayed as out of control". The
Boston Globe. Associated Press.
ators_to_iraq/. Retrieved April 13, 2008.[dead link]
ác Congress of the United States, House of Representatives (October 1, 2007). "Additional
Information about Blackwater USA" (PDF). Committee on Oversight and Government
Reform. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.
1001121609.pdf. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
ác Broder, John M. (October 2, 2007). "Report Says Firm Sought To Cover Iraq Shootings".
New York Times.
Retrieved October 3, 2007.
ác DeYoung, Karen (October 2, 2007). "Other Killings By Blackwater Staff Detailed: State
Dept. Papers Tell of Coverup". Washington Post.
dyn/content/article/2007/10/01/AR2007100100882.html?nav=rss_nation. Retrieved
October 3, 2007.
ác Schmitt, Eric (October 2, 2007). "Report Details Shooting By Drunken Blackwater
Worker". New York Times. Retrieved
October 3, 2007.
ác Glanz, James; Alissa J. Rubin (October 3, 2007). "From Errand To Fatal Shot To Hail
Of Fire To 17 Deaths". New York Times.
&en=88d4f081e338e806&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved October 4,
ác Fainaru, Steve (October 3, 2007). "Guards In Iraq Cite Frequent Shootings: Companies
Seldom Report Incidents, U.S. Officials Say". Washington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
ác Broder, John M. (October 3, 2007). "Chief Of Blackwater Defends His Employees". New
York Times.
Retrieved October 4, 2007.
ác Raghavan, Sudarsan (October 4, 2007). "Tracing The Paths Of 5 Who Died In A Storm
Of Gunfire". Washington Post.
dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100302646.html. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
ác Broder, John M. (October 4, 2007). "Ex-Paratrooper Is Suspect In Killing Of Iraqi". New
York Times.
Retrieved October 5, 2007.
ác Perry, John M. (October 4, 2007). "Blackwater Project Foes Hope For Backlash". Los
Angeles Times.
black4oct04,1,1033994.story?track=rss&ctrack=1&cset=true. Retrieved October 5,
2007.[dead link]
ác Eisnor, DiAnn (October 22, 2007). "Blackwater Map: World of Blackwater USA". Retrieved October 22, 2007.[dead link]
ác Laguna, Marybeth (November 30, 2008). "My Husband was a Blackwater Hero".
Washington Post ± Outlook and Opinions (Washington Post): pp. B03.
dyn/content/article/2008/11/28/AR2008112802283.html. Retrieved November 30, 2008.

ác Xe's official website

ác U.S. Training Center's official website
ác Greystone Limited's website (international division)
ác Blackwater Watch news aggregation site
ác Blackwater Watch
ác The Strategic Contractor ± op-ed 19 Sept 2007 by The Hague Centre for Strategic
ác Blackwater trophy video in Iraq and link to report discussing Blackwater's actions
around the world
ác The Site ± Illinois Training Facility
ác Blackwater's Dark Deeds Exposed by The Nation & MSNBC, August 5, 2009

ác "Shadow Company" Award-winning Documentary Film directed and written by Nick
Bicanic (the only film with footage of Blackwater employees training and operating in
Iraq) ± praised for balance by both Democrats and Republicans ± ranging from Amnesty
International to Blackwater.
ác "Private Warriors" episode of Frontline (June 21, 2005), includes piece on Blackwater
USA contractors
ác In Explosive Allegations, Ex-Employees Link Blackwater Founder to Murder, Threats ±
video by Democracy Now!

ác This page was last modified on 22 February 2011 at 23:34.