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RESEARCH TOPIC ON
(Travel & Tourism)
NAME: STUDENT ID: COURSE: SUBJECT:
Santosh Kumar Gurung 0809BHC018 BTEC HNC/HND Travel Tourism & HospitalityManagement
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Mount Everest: Overview Recent Research Research for development of Mount Everest area Strategies employed in the Research Literary Review Scientists Ponder Revision in Height: A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
04 04 06 06 07 08 10 13 14
Methodology 11 Ethical Issue 12 References
Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal. Nepal, which know as land of mountains where more the 235 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 metres) above the
sea level. The highest peak is Mount Everest. Climbing No mountain in the world has a greater attraction on climbers than the highest of them all. Mount Everest is situated on the border of Nepal. For the Nepalese government it's a major source of income, as each climber needs to pay up to US$25,000 to obtain a permit to be able to climb the mountain.
Mount Everest is the highest rock point under ice and snow which is 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) high from the level of sea. Mount Everest situated in Asia in between Nepal and China. Mount Everest has some other names given by people of China and Nepal. “Chomolangma” from China which means “The Mother of Snow” and “Sagarmatha” from Nepal which means “Mother of the Universe”.
8,848 m (29,029 ft) 
8,848 m (29,029 ft)
One of a few dozen peaks whose elevation and prominence are equal
Seven Summits Eight-thousander Country high point Ultra
Solukhumbu District,Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal Tingri County, Xigazê Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China
Mahalangur Himal, Himalayas
29 May 1953 Edmund Hillary Tenzing Norgay
South Col (Nepal)
Recent Research In April 2010, both China and Nepal agreed on the official height of Mount Everest. Both countries, which shared the mountain, now recognised Mount
Everest as being 8,848 metres tall. This official height included the snow cap. Nepal also recognised the rock height as 8,844 metres, a claim made by China. Geography
Research for development of Mount Everest area (Nepal)
In the wake of the climate change debate a great number of new researches concerned with high altitude ecosystems - atmospheric and cryospheric phenomena and environmental issues - have been launched. However, the problems and concern of the inhabitants of these areas stakeholders of high altitude ecosystem management in developing countries have received little attention in the design of such research programs. Over the past year, Ev-K2-CNR has continued to integrate stakeholder needs and real management issues regarding mountain ecosystems in the Hindu KushKarakoram-Himalaya Region, most notably in the HKKH Partnership Project. Mechanisms to support adaptive management of Sagarmatha National Park near Mount Everest whereby key stakeholders are included in the participatory design of practically relevant researches have been developed in partnership with leading organizations in this field. The practical application of methodologies and tools developed based on this approach by stakeholders demonstrate that such a participatory process is the key to ensuring that academic efforts result in useful knowledge that supports decision-making processes in high altitude eco system management. The thematic areas for research programs in the Everest Region were identified by the stakeholders as water pollution, energy management, wildlife, solid waste management, indoor air pollution, forest ecology and tourism.
Strategies employed in the Research
Through this research I intend to provide insight into the underlying drivers of land use and cover change and what this means for the sustainability of the region. In addition, I will also utilise the research findings to generate a portfolio of adaptation strategies capable of informing affected stakeholders of the scenarios for different management trajectories The proposed research project takes a multi-step approach. For the purposes of this research note I highlight the overall approach: Step 1: Provide a quantitative and spatially explicit picture of the extent and dynamics of land use/cover change over the past 50 years. What are the current systems of land use and methods, how have these mountains evolved over time? Step 2: Identify the critical drivers (external and internal) of landscape change at the local level, and assess distinguishable clusters of human environmental interactions, which represent problem or opportunity contexts or syndromes. What are the critical developments at present, and can the effects of change over time be quantified? How to identify the local effects of vulnerable and sustainable coupled human-environment components to interacting perturbations, including climate change? Step 3: What are the environmental services (and associated economic and social benefits) delivered by or directly linked to land use/cover systems at different spatial and temporal scales, and what are their interdependencies? Who are the stakeholders or stakeholder groups interested in, and benefiting from these environmental services? How is the provision of selected environmental services affected by the changes in landscape dynamics? Step 4: What are the possible scenarios of the availability of selected environmental services? Can distinguishable patterns of problems as well as opportunity contexts or syndromes of socio-economic or political decisionmaking variables be distinguished, and spatially related to the use of environmental services? Which stakeholders (groups) would win or lose under different scenarios?
Team sets out to clear bodies from Everest's death zone A team of mountaineer had moved from Kathmandu to Mount Everest for cleaning the death bodies and rubbish in high peak. Namgyal Sherpa who climbs the Mount Everest 7 times comes up with the idea and the reason to clean Everest. Namgyal sain, “This is the first time they were cleaning the death zone. It is very difficult and dangerous”. The team used special bags for the bodies to bring it down. Namgyal have seen 3 corpses lying there for years in his attempts. And also expected to bring down the body of a Swiss climber who died in the mountain in 2008. They went to make cremate it below the base camp for making cremate they got the family. They were cleaning the south Col because the attempt often happens from south and become a highest rubbish peak of the world. Empty Oxygen bottles, old ropes, cans, foods and remnant of tent. Before those rubbish was covered by the snow. Global warming which melt the snow of the mountains which shows the rubbish and the dead bodies in peak. The situation make climber little nervous by seeing dead bodies in their way. The most disastrous attempt 1996, 8 people were died 36 hrs and 3 of the casualties were with an Indian paramilitary police expedition on the north side of the mountain and the rest were guide and clients on commercial American expeditions climbing the traditional South Col route. “Into Thin Air” the bestselling book and film scenes in the “Dead Zone” shows the disasters of high peak where the 5 westerner’s dead. One of the guides, New Zealander Rob Hall was the one who speaks last time with his wife on satellite phone. He said he was reasonably comfortable and told her not to “worry too much”. His body found after 2 weeks later the tragedy sparked fierce arguments over the commercialisation of mountaineering on the world's highest peak.
Scientists Ponder Revision in Height: A Methodology
Members of the 1998 American Everest Expedition has come up with a surprising conclusion. After crunching some of the data collected while on the mountain, they now speculate the actual height of Mount Everest may need to be adjusted.
The current accepted height of 8,848 meters, or 29,028 feet, was arrived at in 1954 by an Indian Surveyor named B. L. Gulatee. Gulatee used the tools available to him at the time, including optical equipment (theodolite) which can be affected by atmospheric refraction, and spirit levels, which can actually be affected by the gravitational pull of the mountains themselves. The 1998 American Everest Expedition used GPS equipment, which is not subject to distortion caused by those phenomena. The expedition, sponsored by Boston's Museum of Science and partially by The National Geographic Society, was wholly oriented to making scientific measurements on the mountain. When expedition leader Wally Berg reached the summit on May 20, one of his primary mandates from the scientists was to mount a GPS receiver firmly in the highest solid bedrock on the summit. That point is the Barry Bishop Ledge, so named because it is the same rock outcrop visible in the famous 1963 photograph of Lute Jerstad taken by Barry Bishop near the summit, with the American flag visible. For several years this outcrop was referred to as Barry Bishop Rock, but at the suggestions of the Museum of Science’s Brad, the name has been revised to Barry Bishop Ledge to more accurately reflect its nature. During his two hours of work on or near the summit, Wally Berg was able to laboriously drill two holes in Barry Bishop Ledge, place two bolts, establish a benchmark and fix a Trimble 4800 GPS receiver in place. Wally then turned on the receiver, which began collecting data. The device, along with its data, was retrieved by other climbers approximately a week later. Charles Corfield, of Palo Alto, California, who was science manager for the 1998 American Everest Expedition, and Dave Mencin, of Boulder, Colorado, who was the chief on-location The Trimble GPS scientist for the expedition, have now reviewed the data with other scientists. They have reached the conclusion that the
long-accepted altitude of Mount Everest — 29,028 feet — may need to be adjusted downward, although not so much as to threaten the mountain's status as the highest on earth. "It's a classic work," concurs Corfield, "and sets a high standard to follow." Corfield described to The Mountain Zone how the measurements were conducted: "Last spring, our priority was to establish and occupy a benchmark on the Bishop Ledge. Running a GPS receiver on the actual summit itself was not high on our list — the summit is made of snow and is therefore a moving target due to seasonal accumulation and ablation of the summit snowpack. "However, the height we have measured for the Bishop Ledge suggests that the official height of the mountain itself may well need to be revisited. "Our figures from this spring, which I will round to the nearest 10m for simplicity, are as follows: after corrections for geoid. Bishop Ledge was measured at 8,810 meters.
Now our best guess is that the summit lies no higher than 20 meters above the ledge, and probably no more than 15 meters — give or take changes in snowpack. Therefore, the contemporary height for the summit would be no more than 8,830 meters, which is a hair less than 29,000', or about 30 feet lower than the current accepted height of Mount Everest."
Dave Mencin added, "The thing I think we need to point out is that the largest probable error in these computations is our 'guess' at the vertical separation between Bishop Ledge and the snow summit." Even so, both scientists think that some revision in the altitude of Mount Everest is required, but not necessarily to any significant effect. "To dispel any doubts," cautioned Corfield, "Everest remains the tallest mountain by a wide margin. K2, the second highest mountain in the world, has been measured at 28,250 feet." But a new "official" height of Mount Everest might in fact mean that no mountain on earth is higher than 29,000 feet.
Mount Everest world most extreme place because of the very extreme weather on the top. Death or Life the decision making in the “Death Zone”. Mount Everest earned its name because it is almost impossible to survive in the difficult temperatures and the thin air of such altitudes. Where there is a third as much oxygen as at sea level for more than a couple of days. The temperature around -40 degree at that time if you did not take oxygen correctly your brain not works properly which lose your decision making power and the result the freeze death. For summit there are 18 routes to Everest and every route have death zone but some routes are more extreme if you don’t know about the use of equipments very hard to say you will be there on the top. Sometimes the weather turns bad, “Ice Storm”. Ice Storm condition is very difficult condition for the climber. If climbers team leader does not recognise the situation all will collapse in death zone. Climbers climb in some groups and they have rescue groups too and they all are in contact with each other. The radio which help the climber to communicate and to know about the situations.
From ABC camp 2, Storm Pummels Everest
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www.wikipidia.org http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6666889.stm http://www.vagabondish.com/worlds-first-hang-gliding-over-mounteverest/
www.everestpeaceproject.com http://www.nepaltibettravel.com/Trips/Nepal/Kanchanjunga/Expedition/ Kanchenjunga+Expedition+8586m.
• http://www.travellerspoint.com/guide/Mount_Everest/ • http://classic.mountainzone.com/features/everestht/ • http://www.ouramazingplanet.com/mysterious-1924-mount-everestdisappearances-linked-to-sudden-storm-0430/ • http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-atnasa/2009/10apr_because/ • http://www.tuaw.com/2010/10/29/3g-now-available-on-mount-everest/ • http://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-living/articles/45722.aspx
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