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2009 International Conference on Electrical, Communications, and Computers

Temperature-meter via USB base don PIC 18F2550 for Solar


Energy Concentrator System.
González Manzanilla F.O.[1], Arízaga Silva J.A[2], Moreno Barrera. O [3]
[1]fer-oz@hotmail.com
[2]arízaga@gmail.com
[3] kyerec@hotmail.com
[1,2,3]UNIVERSIDAD POLITECNICA DE PUEBLA

Abstract: A study of a novel temperature measurement radiation concentrators. The sun presents/displays
system is presented this system is with direct physical changes interns and external, because in its
connection to the PC used to mesure temperature in an nucleus continuous reaction of fusion takes place
optical system of concentration of solar radiation. The fusioning two atoms of hydrogen in one of helium [3, 4,
system will measure the temperature in the focus of the 5] an example of the external disturbances are the
parable of the system and transmit the information via sunspots, which has brought about magnetic storms,
the USB (Universal Serial Bus) to a computer for later which sometimes have generated disturbances and
analysis. The system is based on a microcontroller PIC interferences in telecommunications thus this radiation
18F2550 this microcontroller has ten analog-to-digital is not stable.
converter (A/D) channels and also has a USB version
2.0 slave module, the temperature sensing is done The originating radiation of the sun that is to a
through a thermocouple type K. In this work the medium range between the Earth and the sun knows as
theoretical and practical optical system, describes the Gsc Solar Constant been the average value Gsc =
necessary characteristics of the measurement system 1373 W/m2. Which is also known as irradiance.
and its purpose within the research project on
renewable energy held by the Polytechnic University of Once the solar radiation arrives to the atmosphere is
Puebla. The second part presents the implementation of dispersed by gases and clouds this effect produces
the temperature system as well as the development of attenuation, the solar radiation that arrives at the Earth
the program that receives, analyzes and saves the data surface is called global radiation Gg, and Gg <
received by the meter temperature. Finally, we present 1100W/m2. As much the extraterrestrial radiation, as
the results of the measurements in the field and a the global radiation is in figure 1, the ligther line
projection system for the future. represents the extraterrestrial radiation, and the shaded
Keywords: Temperature, USB. outline denotes the global radiation [2, 3, 4, 5].

Introduction In the particular case of Cholula, Puebla, where the


In recent years scientist have recognized the effects that UPP is located, in agreement with the data registered by
are taking place by the contamination, in particular the UPP weather station, following data were collected:
form the climatic change as consecuence of greenhouse in 331 days of monitoring, 243 were sunny and 88 with
effect gases, produced by the fossil fuel burning fire. cloudiness with indices of global solar radiation are
between 900 and 950 W/m2, in sunny days and among
A possible relatively cheap solution is photothermal 550 and 400 W/m2 cloudy days, thus presents/displays
energy, which has been studied over several years and considerable advantages for being this a gratuitous and
with diverse applications at present [1]. nonpolluting resource. In the following graphs is the
Phototermal energy is based mainly on the use of behavior of the global radiation according to the hour,
spherical and parabolic mirrors, which work like solar and date.

978-0-7695-3587-6/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE 1


DOI 10.1109/CONIELECOMP.2009.22

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In figure 2, monthly global radiation appears,
particularly March, was the one of greater number of
sunny days, 29 and 2 only dimmed (18 and 23 of
March), each reached the maximum global radiation
between the 12,00 and the 14:00 hours. In figure 3
monthly global radiation appears, the more cloudy
month was September with 19 days and the rest 11
days were sunny.

Figure 1: Solar Radiation Spectrum [2, 3, 4].

RADIACION GLOBAL MES DE MARZO 2008

1200

1000
RADIACIONGLOBALGgW/m2

800

600 RADIACION

400

200

0
06:30a.m.

09:30a.m.

12:00p.m.

02:30p.m.

05:00p.m.

07:30p.m.

08:30a.m.

12:00p.m.

02:30p.m.

05:00p.m.

07:30p.m.

08:30a.m.

11:00a.m.

01:30p.m.

04:00p.m.

06:30p.m.

07:30a.m.

10:00a.m.

12:30p.m.

03:00p.m.

05:30p.m.

08:00p.m.

09:00a.m.

11:30a.m.

02:00p.m.

04:30p.m.

FECHA / HORA 07:00p.m.

Figure 2: Monthly global radiation in March


RADIACION GLOBAL MES DE SEPTIEMBRE 2008

1200

1000
RADIACION GLOBAL W/m2

800

600 RADIACION

400

200

0
07:00 a.m.
04:30 p.m.
12:30 p.m.
08:30 a.m.
06:00 p.m.
01:30 p.m.
09:00 a.m.
06:30 p.m.
02:30 p.m.
10:30 a.m.
08:00 p.m.
04:30 p.m.
12:30 p.m.
08:30 a.m.
06:00 p.m.
02:00 p.m.
09:30 a.m.
07:00 p.m.
03:00 p.m.
11:00 a.m.
08:30 p.m.
04:30 p.m.
12:30 p.m.
08:30 a.m.
06:00 p.m.
02:30 p.m.
10:30 a.m.
08:00 p.m.
04:30 p.m.
01:00 p.m.
09:30 a.m.
07:00 p.m.
04:00 p.m.
12:30 p.m.
09:00 a.m.
06:30 p.m.
03:00 p.m.
11:00 a.m.
07:30 a.m.
05:00 p.m.
01:30 p.m.
09:30 a.m.
07:00 p.m.

FECHA/HORA

Figure 3: Monthly global radiation in September

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Materials and Methods
Solar concentration
Optical System
Is based on one parabolic mirror with diameter of 51
cm with a depth of 4,2 cm, so that the center calculates
which is the point of greater incidence, and where the
greater temperature is located. The fundamental
equation (1.1) of a parabolic mirror: (1.1) Where the F
is the center, which is located to a distance +p/2
towards the origin, Z is the cartesian axis, and the graph
of this function is observed in the figure (4).
Figure 5: Concentrator graphic using Matlab.

Figure 4: Grafica de la función Z 2 = 4 Fy


Figure 6: Real form of the concentrator with its focal
point F
Figure 5 allows to observe the bidimensional
uuur
application of this equation being used Matlab. Another Oy
A parabolic over the axis is that one that pass
approach for the concentrator in three dimensions as it uuur
is appraised in graphic 6 and 7. Therefore] would be through the Oy point and it forms an equidistant point
applied for this type of forms with circular parabolic F in the origin, described by point equation 1.3
form of of revolution [1 from point OY is given by the
equation: p
ρ 2 = 2 p( − y)
Z 2 + X 2 = 2 Fy (1.2) 2 (1.3)

Or

ρ2 = x 2 + z 2 (1.4)

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Figure 8 diagram blocks of digital thermometer

Temperature sensors
The digital system of counts with a circuit signal
conditioner AD595 for thermocouple K type which
allows to obtain a relation of exit of 10mV/ºC. This is
configurated to work with monopole sources voltage
for a rank of work of 0 to 4,6 1200º Cs. [4,6]
Figure 7: Focus Parabole.
The decision to choose this type of sensors was based
Thus calculating the focus in Matlab value F = on diverse characteristics which they emphasize,
0,397554 ms, it is in that point where the system of linearity, low power consumption of and facility of
measurement of temperature will be located, and in configuration, besides being one more an option
which a thermocouple was used K type, like sensor economic than the commercial temperature sensors.
obtaining temperatures superiors to 300° C.
Unit Control Center
An important consideration is that also we can obtain Configured using a PIC microcontroller , the Central
the area that covers the concentrator where Ar is the Unit of Control (UCC) is in charge of the necessary
concentrator area and Ac is the area of concentration, tasks to take the information collected by the
Ar = 0,20982379 m2 and the Ac = 7.853x 10-5 M. thermocouple until being able to visualize them in the
The concentration C is ratio between incident area and PC.
concentrated is therefore: These tasks are enlisted next:
Obtain the analogical signal of the exit of the circuit

C= A C
signal conditioner.
Make A/D conversion (ADC) of input channel. This
A r (1.5) conversion is realised to 10 bits.
Give format to the signals
Concentration is then: Contact with the PC when the sensor is connected to
port USB.
C = 2671.56 Receive and decode instructions from the PC

Digital system Send digital data to the resident program in the


In order to take the temperature in diverse points and Computer
the center from the solar concentrator it was decided to The UCC is programmed in C [7], the block diagram
improve the monitoring process and to make it more of the UCC appears in figure 9;
efficient by means of the use of a digital system. Diverse types of microcontroller exist in the market , at
The digital thermometer system that appears is divided, present many manufacturers include modules USB in
for its study, in three blocks, same that are observed in their devices, other manufacturers uses serial
Figure 8. communication with some integrated circuit that to
realise USB communication.

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In the search of the microcontroller with which it would PC USB Port an application was developed in Visual
work took into account different criteria that had to be BASIC, which are connected to a table in a data base
fulfilled to obtain the best yield of the product. which receives the information directly from from the
Internal module USB V 2.0. sensors.
Converter A/D.
Number of analog channels > 8. The sample time, time period between two samples data
Available design Tools are received from the microcontroller is variable value
Architecture optimized for programming in C. and can be chosen by the user.
C Compiler for the manufacturer or third parties. Tools
of Test (Debugger or Emulatos). INICIO

Between the several options studied, the Microchip


CONFIGURACION
microcontrollers count with all the listed benefits that MÓDULO ADC

made ideal for this project; in specific the family


CONFIGURACION
18FXX5X and in particular the 5 PIC18F2550 [5] MÓDULO USB

allowed to simplify the project development.


NO
Interphase USB PUERTO
USB
CONECTADO?
The universal series bus (USB) [6] is a standard
designed to connect devices, through a serial bus.
SI
Originally it was thought to connect computer devices,
eliminating the necessity to connect internal cards, and
NO
also connecting and disconnecting the devices without INSTRUCCIÓN
DESDE
having to reinitiate the PC (hot-swap). Nevertheless, LA PC

nowadays it is used in diverse devices.


SI
The USB and their protocol are in charge of USB IF
(Implementers Forum), [8] which is a corporation LEER
DATOS ANALÓGICOS
founded by diverse companies to create and to maintain
standard USB. CONVERTIR
A DIGITAL
Different classes ars defined in USB standard, some of
them are, the HID (Human Device Interface), CDC
ENVIAR DATOS
(Communication Device Class), MSD (Masive Store A PC

Device) .
Figure 9 flow chart of the UCC

In terms of the needs of the project it was decided to


This application allows to receive the information of
use the HID class which allows to use the device in
the sensor and to store it as numeric data in a data base
Windows to realise the connection without needing
for its later analysis.
extra controllers. [8]

In Figure 10 the application is observed where the


Information Process System
information of the thermometer system.

In order to receive the temperature data from the


measurement digital system when this is connected to a

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sample per second being used a thermocouple K type
obtaining a curve from temperature which is in Figure
11.

Figure 10. Application that receives temperature. This system presents diverse advantages in its design,
they are:
Tests and Results Process automation
Relation of prices of at least a quarter of the
Within the tests realised to the device is the use of a commercial cost.
parabolic plate like the presented/displayed one in Possibility of use in any PC with port USB. Availability
figure 4. The measures of the parabolic plate are: 0.51 of data immediately for analysis with any software or
m of diameter and a center of 0,397554 M. via Web.
Possibility of feedback temperature control.
Measurements were realised in the center of the
parabola with the purpose of to take at least 600
samples during a time from 10 minutes at the rate of a

Figure 11. Data registered in Agust 10 2008 .

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References
[1] www.four-solaire.fr

[2] Hinojosa JF. Concentradores Solares 31 Semana Nacional de


energia solar

[3] Ζengel Yonus A., Transferencia de Calor y Masa un enfoque


práctico. 3ra Ed. Mc.Graw Hill.

[4] Incropera, Frank P., Fundamentos de Transferencia de Calor


4ta. Edición. Ed. PEARSON

[5] Manrique Valadez J.A., Transferencia de Calor, 2da. Ed.


Alfaomega.

[6] Webb Jhon, Industrial Control Electronics, Second Edition Ed.


Merrill.

[7] Charles H. Lehmann, Geometría Analítica, 29va Ed. LIMUSA.

[8] Swokosky Earl. W. Calculo con Geometría Analítica, 2da. Ed.


Grupo Editorial Iberoamérica.

[9] Kindle Joseph H., Teoría y Problemas de Geometría Analítica


plana y del espacio Ed. Mc. Graw Hill

[10] Hecht Eugene, Óptica, 2da. Ed. Addison Wesley Longman.

[11] Analog Devices. AD595 DATASHEET.

[12] García Iglesias José M., Dispositivos lógicos Programables, 1ra.


Ed. Alfaomega

[13] www.microchip.com

[14] http://www.garcia-cuervo.net/picmania.garcia-
cuervo.net/USB_0_Desencadenado.php

[15] Angulo JM. “Microcontroladores Diseño practico de


aplicaciones” 3ra Ed. Mc.G Hill. España.

[16] http://www.usb.org/about

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