Chapter One

Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra

Text 1-26 —Introduction
The devotee of Krishna is always victorious, regardless of the material odds against him. Texts 1-11 —The battle, and omens of victory Duryodhana’s conversation with Dronacarya reveals his expertise in political diplomacy, as well as his inflated ego. Texts 12-26 — The war begins Conchshells are blown by both armies(12-19). Arjuna’s chariot drawn between the two armies, he sees his relatives and becomes confused (20-26)

Text 27-46 — Arjuna’s arguments against fighting in the war
27-29 — Argument 1: Compassion
Arjuna, as a softhearted, gentle devotee, does not want to kill. This compassion is good, but is not properly guided by intelligence.1

30-35 — Argument 2: Enjoyment All possible outcomes in the battle bring only suffering. Arjuna feels the war is not worth it for his personal satisfaction.2 In material consciousness, both victory and defeat bring suffering. 36 — Argument 3: Sinful reaction
Arjuna argues that it is sinful to kill his superiors and relatives.3

37-43 — Argument 4: Destruction of family
Arjuna says that fighting in this war will ruin society by destroying families and their religious and moral traditions.4

Text 44-46 — Conclusion:
Arjuna decides not to fight, and, in despair, throws aside his bow and arrows.
1 2 3 4

Krishna Krishna Krishna Krishna

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compassion in 2.10-30 enjoyment in 2.31-38 sinful reaction in 2.33 destruction of family in 3.20-24

Chapter Two
Contents of the Gita Summarized

Texts 1-9 — Arjuna’s Surrender
Krishna responds to Arjuna’s confusion with strong, critical words (1-3). Arjuna restats his previous arguments [4-6], then becomes confused. He therefore surrenders to Krishna in the mood of a disciple, setting the proper example [7-8]. He then honestly expresses his mind to his spiritual master, saying, “Govinda, I shall not fight.” [9]

Texts 10-13 — Krishna’s basic instructions on the soul
A truly wise person does not mistake the body to be the self. The individual soul eternally exists, and the body constantly changes. Therefore, one should not abandon his religious duties due to bodily attachments.

Texts 14-25 — Krishna restates and strengthens His points
One must execute his duty regardless of bodily inconvenience [14, 15] for the soul is eternal and the body temporary. [16] The soul cannot be killed and the body cannot be saved from death [17-18], therefore Arjuna should not shrink from the necessity of war. Krishna reiterates these points from different angles, [1921] and quotes sastra to support His opinion [20]. He then explains that the soul is impervious to all material transformations. For the soul, death is simply a change of body, as commonplace as a change of clothes. [22-25]

Texts 26-30 — Even if there is no soul…
Krishna addresses the following doubt, “What if, as many philosophers say, there is no soul distinct from the body?” Even if this is true, Arjuna should still fight. [26] If the soul is not a distinct entity and is simply a product of matter, it will dissolve again into matter after death, and again that matter will be reformed into life. Thus “death” generates no loss. [27-28] Krishna says the idea that there is no distinct soul is merely the creation of groping philosophers whose insufficient minds are bewildered by the imperceptible and amazing soul [29]. Factually, the soul is a distinct, indestructible entity living within the body. [30]

Texts 31-38 — Happiness comes from duty
Arjuna argued that war would bring him unhappiness. Here Krishna shows that abandoning the war would bring unhappiness by creating an infamous stain in Arjuna’s ksatriya reputation. Fighting in the war, however, could bring only happiness, win or lose - If Arjuna loses he goes to the heavenly planets, if he wins he enjoys the earthly kingdom. [31-37] Krishna concludes by stating that Arjuna should not make his decisions based upon material happiness. Rather, he should fight for the sake of duty and thus become purified. [38]

Texts 39-53 — Action without reaction: buddhi-yoga
39-46 —Acting with and without wisdom (buddhi) 39-41 — The glories of buddhi-yoga Two significant glories of buddhi-yoga: its benefits are eternal, and it frees one from indecisiveness. 42-46 — The faults of acting without buddhi Those who act without knowledge become enamoured by opulence and enjoyment, and follow only the portions of the Vedas that grant material boons (42-43). Such persons never develop steadiness or determination (44). Therefore one should rise above the materialistic portion of the Vedas by knowing that their purpose is to serve Krishna (45-46) 47-53 —The result of acting in buddhi-yoga: liberation Acting out of duty only, without personal attachment, is “yoga” (47-48). This yoga keeps all sinful reactions far away, and will purify even previous sins, thereby granting liberation (49-51). However, to engage in such detached, dutiful activity one must become disinterested in all hopes of sense gratification—typically promised in Vedic karmakhanda (52). Being thus fixed, one achieves samadhi (53).

Texts 54-72 — Symptoms of one in buddhi-yoga
Text 54 — Arjuna’s questions Arjuna asks four questions about the character of one who has realized and become fixed in buddhi-yoga 1.What are his general symptoms? 2.How does he speak?

3.How does he sit still (i.e. restrain himself)? 4.How does he walk (i.e. engage in activity)? Text 55-71 — Krishna’s answers 55 — The general symptom of a self-realized soul He renounces all desires for sense gratification and enjoys pleasure within himself. 56-57 — How he speaks He neither praises nor condemns the duality of mundane good and evil. 58-63 — How he “sits” He can perfectly withdraw his senses from the sense objects (58) because he has a higher taste of spiritual bliss (59), gained by focusing the mind on Krishna (61). There is no other effective means to control the senses (60). If not fixed on Krishna, the mind fixates on sense objects, and thus inevitably drags one into illusion (62-63). 64-71 — How he “walks” When engaging his senses, he does so with regulation and religious principle (65). Thus his senses become satisfied, and his mind becomes peaceful (66). Without such regulated engagement agitated senses (67) search for satisfaction in sense objects, thus dragging the devotee into illusion (68). Although the sensory engagements of a selfrealized soul appear similar to the activities of materialists, they are as different as night and day (69), for, unlike the common man, the actions of a buddhi-yogi are not driven by desire (70) or falseego (71). Text 72 —Conclusion: One thus situated enters the kingdom of God.

One cannot even remain alive. How could one cultivate buddhi. “Religion without philosophy is sentiment. thus liberating the performer from the reactions to his work. without personal attachment. for the soul is active in both the conditioned and liberated state. Knowledge without action is powerless. but no one can give up all activities. They are nondifferent from yajna. to say nothing of achieving self-realization. and sense control – yet fight in a bloody war at the same time? He asks Krishna to clear up his confusion: which path is better. (4) Knowledge in a vacuum cannot help anyone. or sometimes fanaticism. samadhi. This is the superior yoga. Superiority of Karma-yoga A sincere person effectively controls the senses and mind by engaging them in dutiful work without attachment (7). how can the same actions free him? Actions done for Vishnu’s sake. Those who make a show of complete renunciation are pretenders (6). with an aim to differentiate the permanent from the impermanent and thus detach the soul from the body.” . Texts 9-16 — How Karma purifies If actions bind the living entity through Karma.6 Inferiority of Sankhya-yoga Sankhya is incomplete. 6 Srila Prabhupada says. and they liberate the performer (9). Krishna told Arjuna to become both a yogi and a warrior. Sankhya yoga is impractical (5). karma (active duties) or sankhya (cultivation of knowledge)? Texts 3-8 — Karma yoga is superior to Sankhya yoga5 Both Karma and Sankhya are valid and interdependent paths of self-realization (3) Action (karma) without knowledge (sankhya) is mundane work. It must be put into practice. This appeared contradictory and confusing to Arjuna. Karma-yoga — Engagement in dutiful activity without desire for fruitive result. produce no karmic reaction. 5 Definitions Sankhya-yoga —Analytic study of nature’s elements. while philosophy without religion is mental speculation. It requires renunciation from active life.Chapter Three Karma Yoga Texts 1-2 — Arjuna’s confusion In the Second Chapter. without engaging in some work (8).

Without following the prescriptions of the Veda. Sacrifice has two results: it fulfils desires and purifies the heart. thus gradually purifying his heart (10). Krishna has no mundane desires. Enjoying the results of sacrifice is religious. Although endeavoring for sense gratification. nor has he any aversion to them (17-18). How does sacrifice fulfill desires? Vishnu and the demigods. unqualified people would prematurely imitate His example and thus ruin themselves and society (22-24). For example.What if one cannot work for Vishnu without personal attachment? He should fulfill his desires through Vedic Yajna. Sacrifice brings rain from the demigods. which nourishes the crops that make everyone prosperous and happy (14). he will eventually try to fulfill his desires by irresponsible means (26). being pleased by the sacrifices. Such great people perform prescribed duties with detachment. selfish activity simply takes one into darkness (16). how does it purify the heart? Sacrifices are delineated in the Vedas. but trying to enjoy without sacrifice is sinful (12). The example given is of food (13). Otherwise. If an attached person renounces worldly responsibilities. If sacrifice is executed for enjoyment. As such. The self-realized perform their duties to set the proper example for common people (25). Following the rules of sacrifice is therefore an act of following the will of Krishna. which emanate from the Lord. he will coincidentally perform sacrifice to Vishnu and the demigods. Why don’t they set an example of renunciation? Most people are not qualified to follow an example of renunciation. Texts 17-35 — Acting without fruitive desire (niskama karma yoga) One with material desires should become purified by prescribed duties. benedict the performer with fulfillment of his desires (11). yet He carefully performs prescribed duties. to set the proper example for common men (19-21). but what about someone already purified of material desires? One without material desires has no need of duties. . these activities are ultimately transcendental and purifying (15).

it is very difficult. It can devour everything in the world. What is that force?” (36) Krishna answers that lust (37) covers the living entity (38) and forces him into sin. . Still. Although an ignorant person may engage in work for inferior sense gratification. They therefore never endeavor to enjoy the fruits of such work (28). Destroy lust in the senses by following religious regulations (41). take strength to defeat this enemy (43). the mind. but you can gradually purify them by dovetailing their sense enjoyment according to religious duty (34). There is something that forces one to abandon duty and act sinfully. and the intelligence (40). Lust is therefore our ultimate enemy. How can one conquer this enemy? To conquer an enemy. which is stronger than the senses (42). Rather they should set the proper example by performing all duties exclusively for the pleasure of Krishna (30). It is very powerful. Lust hides in the senses. but the wise are aware that all material activities are transacted by the modes of nature. Anyone who follows this teaching will be liberated (31). it is very dangerous to give up one’s duties and try to follow someone else’s path (35). even against his will. You cannot force someone to give up their conditioned nature and material desires (33). anyone who does not will be ruined (32). yet still remain hungry and strong (39). Therefore. Since the senses are the weakest. one must know where he hides. Intelligence is stronger than the mind. they are the easiest place to begin conquering lust. the wise should not discourage them from work (29). “You have explained that one must always do his duty. Texts 36-43 — Conquering the ultimate enemy: lust Arjuna asks. Knowing that the soul is higher than even the intelligence. and teach others to do the same (26).How should one preach to those who are attached? The ignorant consider themselves the doer and enjoyer of their duties (27).

Krishna’s answer reveals His transcendental position: “My ‘birth’ and ‘death’ are not like yours (5). Because the disciplic succession which carried this ancient knowledge down through the ages is lost(2). Krishna now instructs it again to Arjuna. Texts 11-15 — Reciprocation & Elevation Text 10 explained that one who approaches Krishna without attachment. and anger. which is unborn and never dies (6). Texts 9-10 — Effects of knowing Krishna’s transcendental position Those who understand this about Krishna’s appearance and activities are liberated (9). fear or anger will achieve pure love of Godhead. . could have instructed Bhagavad Gita to Vivisvan over 100 million years ago (4). not Krishna (12). but such persons generally approach demigods. If the worshipper cannot be free from material desires Krishna will fulfill those desires. Texts 1-3 — Ancient origins of Bhagavad Gita The science of work described in previous chapters is very old and authorized. Krishna gives that knowledge. fear. and ultimately achieved love for Krishna (10). for I appear in My original transcendental form. to reestablish religion and annihilate irreligion (7) by uplifting the saintly and destroying the miscreants (8). In this chapter. who is only about 100 years old. What about those who understand Krishna and take shelter of Him but cannot fully surrender and overcome their attachments? Krishna rewards the worshipper whatever he desires (11). I appear by My own will. Many persons in the past have thus become liberated from attachment. who is qualified to receive it because he is a friend and devotee of Krishna. Krishna taught this same science to Vivisvan millions of years ago (1).(3) Texts 4-8 — Knowledge of Krishna’s transcendental position Arjuna asks how Krishna.Chapter Four Transcendental Knowledge Texts 1-10 — Transcendental Knowledge about Krishna The second and third chapters stressed working in knowledge.

Previous liberated souls performed their varnasrama duties for Krishna’s pleasure. vikarma. improper action. and is satisfied with whatever he obtains by providence. allowing one to taste nectar in this life and the next. Since Krishna is free from all fruitive attachments. different sacrifices are meant for different types of people (32). Texts 25-33 — Varieties of sacrifice Texts 25-29 list various sacrifices appropriate for different types of people. To be effective. (15) Texts 16-24 — Inaction in action Without following previous liberated souls one is sure to be bewildered in discerning proper action. sacrifices must be performed with knowledge of their purpose and goal (33). .How can these people become free from their excessive attachments? Krishna created the varnasrama dharma system so such people could purify themselves by regulating their desires (13). Akarma can result from karma. Such sacrifices free one from sin. (23) Working in this consciousness reveals Brahman (24). He has no personal interest in varnasrama. He creates it only to help the living entities fulfill their desires and become purified (14). and akarma (17). If performed in the consciousness described in 19-23 they give the result described in 24 — realization of Brahman. only for life’s necessities (22). and to advance towards liberation (30-31). Texts 19-24 — Example of inaction in action (akarma in karma) One’s actions produce no reaction when he works without attachment to sense gratification (19-20). As different types of medicine cure different diseases. Krishna advises Arjuna to do the same. improper action. and transcendental action – karma. and sinful reaction can result from improper renunciation (18). In other words. and karma can result from akarma. Texts 17-18 — Distinguishing three types of actions One must accurately differentiate between proper action. freedom from reaction can result from proper action. and inaction (16). knowing Him to be the transcendental creator of Varnasrama.

he will cross over the ocean of miseries (36). O Arjuna. Texts 39-40 — Eligibility Who can acquire transcendental knowledge from a selfrealized soul? The faithful can. stand and fight. With such vision. The faithless cannot (40).Texts 34-42 — How to Acquire Knowledge Texts 34-38 — Acquiring knowledge and it’s reward Duty and sacrifice must be performed in knowledge – but how does one acquire such knowledge? By inquiring from and serving a guru (34) one will obtain knowledge and realization that all living entities are part of Brahman. and finally achieve the mature fruit of all mysticism and devotion (38). with dedication and sense control (39). burn his sins to ashes (37). Texts 41-42 — Conclusion No sinful reactions can affect one who performs his duties with transcendental knowledge (41).” (42) . Therefore. Rather. “Armed with yoga. one will never fall into illusion (35).

understanding that he. because they both lead to the same goal – self-realization (4-5). “Renunciation of work is good and working in devotion is also good. It therefore quickly bestows liberation (6). “First you tell me to renounce work. renunciation is too difficult and distressful. Arjuna begins Chapter Five by asking for clarification. He should give the fruits of his actions to Krishna – this insures that he is freed from fruitive motivation.” Texts 4-6 — Why karma yoga is better than sannyasa Karma-yoga and sannyasa are the same. not out of attachment to the fruits of his work. and thus untouched by karmic reaction (10). the soul. Which one do you want me to do?” (1) Krishna answers. Karma-yoga is better because it is easier. He should try to shelter and support all living entities just as he would take care of his own self — which is practically impossible without controlling the senses. He will easily achieve liberation (3). 7 See “Confusing Verses of Chapter Four” . One who works in devotion is the true renunciate.Chapter Five Karma-yoga — Action in Krishna Consciousness Texts 1-6 — Karma Yoga is Superior to Sannyasa In Chapter Four. is not directly involved in these affairs. Krishna confused Arjuna again by simultaneously stressing jïäna (renunciation) and karma (work). then you tell me to work. He should perform his worldly duties with detachment. The karma-yogi performs his duties for purification. and the intelligence (7). become entangled by their actions and suffer (11-12). but better Arjuna says. the mind. Those who are greedy for enjoyment. He therefore attains peace. 2.7 Texts 1-3 — Karma yoga is the same as sannyasa. Texts 7-12 — How to perform karma yoga The dutiful householder should perform karma yoga as follows: 1. the real sannyasi. but working in devotion is better (2). However. 3. however. which are only automated interactions between the senses and sense objects (8-9).

not the soul. he can fulfill my desire through material nature. one must first know himself to be different from the body . enlightened soul sees everything and everyone equally (18) because he has no attraction or aversion to matter and is thus as flawless and impartial as the Lord (19). Being without desire or hatred. and is therefore responsible for their good and bad reactions. the sanction of the Supersoul. like the inhabitant of a city. “I am the master. which is actually only a source of misery (22). that without the Lord’s sanction. Texts 18-26 — Characteristics of an enlightened. Material nature is insentient. and the transformation of material inhabitant of the body. To realize this. Therefore he sees the Lord as the ultimate performer of all actions. He thus sees the body. not the self. and if the Lord agrees. The soul initiates all actions by his desires. and is therefore never attracted to temporary sense gratification (21). he cannot do anything. however. “I can only desire. When the living entity desires something.Texts 13-17 — How to be detached from one’s actions and their fruits Detachment comes to one who realizes that he is not autonomous in his actions.” Rather. The body performs actions. he thinks. he experiences great happiness within. culminating in full enlightenment (16). When a person understands this he no longer thinks. There are three factors in any worldly activity: The desire of the living entity. He therefore perceives material nature as the cause of all worldly actions (14). liberated karma yogi Texts 18-22 — The vision of a self-realized soul The liberated. his intelligence does not rejoice or lament. . Being fixed on the self. as the performer and cause of all work (13). rather it remains sharp and fixed in the self (20). Does that make Him responsible for all the good and bad things done in this world? He is not responsible (15). I am independent. and controlled by the Supreme Lord.” Knowing this allows him to be detached from the fruits of his endeavors and thus effectively perform karma-yoga. and the cause of all fruits. leading to liberation (17). He simply sanctions the activities desired by the soul. the Supersoul may then command material nature to bring about its fulfillment.

the supreme enjoyer. ultimate controller. By meditating on the Supersoul.Texts 23-26 — Internal and external behavior of a self-realized soul The karma yogi patiently tolerates the forces of desire and anger (23) by focussing his happiness. he soon attains liberation (26). and best friend (29). . one can develop devotion to Him (bhakti-yoga). activities. Endeavoring in this way. Texts 27-29 — From karma yoga to bhakti yoga One who thus purifies his vision and activity by niskama karma yoga can then make further advancement by practice of meditation (añöäìga-yoga) (27-28). and goals inward (24) and purifying his external activities by constantly working for the benefit of others (25).

he should sit down on a proper seat and fix the mind upon one point (11-12). A controlled mind is a friend. freed from fear and sexual activity. etc. Sitting very straight and staring at the tip of the nose.Chapter Six Dhyana Yoga Texts 1-9 — Prerequisites for Meditation Before practicing the meditation mentioned at the end of Chapter Five(añöäìga-yoga). There. Further advanced. secluded place. for it fixates on material desires (6). Texts 5-6 — Full control of the mind The mind can be either a friend or an enemy (5). Detached action is equal to renunciation. In the beginning. he can also give up the work itself (4). Later.friends and enemies. giving up the desire to enjoy their fruit (3). Texts 10-17 — Basic practices of meditation (astanga-yoga) One free of possessiveness and material desires may practice añöäìa-yoga in a sacred. he sees all people equally . as both require freedom from desire for sense gratification (2). and gold (8). (9). for by giving up desire for the fruits of one’s actions one becomes a true saàyäsé and yogé (1).pebbles. Texts 7-9 — Complete indifference to material existence One who has made the mind his friend is completely neutral to all varieties of material existence such as heat and cold. etc. Texts 1-4 — From niskama-karma-yoga to meditation One should not prematurely renounce his duties. he meditates on the Supersoul (13-14) and thus go back to Godhead (15). one should continue to perform his activities. An uncontrolled mind is an enemy. when completely purified. where he can carefully control his mind by fixing it upon the Supersoul (10). stones. (7). The yogé . for it focuses on the Supersoul. (b) in full control of the mind. one must become (a) purified by niskäma-karma-yoga. honor and dishonor. and (c) completely indifferent to and unaffected by all material things. pious and sinners. He sees all objects equally .

Thinking that there is nothing greater than this joy. At first. He thus never looses sight of the Supreme Lord. sleeping. realizes the self (27) and achieves full perfection and bliss by realizing the Supersoul (28). to become happy by turning their consciousness toward Krishna (32). but the yogé must never give in. even in the midst of great difficulty. without distinction between friend or enemy. Texts 31-32 — The actions of a perfect yogi Realizing Krishna to be the origin of Supersoul. Krishna replies that it is indeed difficult. and that Krishna consciousness brings happiness. but possible by steady practice and detachment. like an unwavering flame in a windless place (19). obstinate mind (33-34). He will gradually experience happiness as he becomes freed from the modes of nature and sinful reactions. He relishes boundless transcendental happiness by directly experiencing the soul and Supersoul within his heart. Texts 33-45 — Doubts about yoga Texts 33-36 — Is it really possible to control the mind? Arjuna doubts that it is possible to control the powerful. Texts 29-30 — The vision of a perfect yogi The realized yogé sees the Supersoul in everyone’s heart. and therefore never falls from the path of yoga (30). recreation. the mind will fly about in search of enjoyment. the perfect yogé worships and serves Him in all circumstances (31). and sees everyone being supported by the Supersoul (29). It requires patient faith and firm determination (24) to achieve the goal step by step (25). and work (16-17). his focus never departs from within. the yogé tries to help everyone. Texts 18-32 — Perfection in meditation The yogé becomes perfect when his concentration remains perfectly fixed on the self without the slightest distraction (18). Texts 24-28 — Coming to perfection Such perfection does not come cheaply. .must keep careful balance in his eating. He must always bring the mind back within himself (26). Having experienced that external consciousness causes unhappiness. He thereby escapes all misery (20-23).

O Krishna. Thus the yogé eventually achieves liberation (45). happy life. Other yogés.However. who make significant advancement but cannot attain perfection. Even better than the yogé is the devotee who worships Krishna. A yogé who falls away after making only a little advancement takes birth in the heavenly planets for a long. Texts 37-45 — Failure in yoga = total failure materially and spiritually? Arjuna asks. He is then reborn into a religious and/or wealthy family (41). only You can satisfy this doubt of mine (39). Texts 46-47 — The topmost yogi A yogé is better than all others who endeavor for perfection (48). and immediately begin their yoga practice from the point at which they left off (43-44). without carefully following the rules and regulations of spiritual life it is practically impossible (3536). It seems he has ruined himself materially and spiritually (38). (47) . “What happens to one who gives up everything to practice yoga. “My dear friend. but later falls away from the path of self-realization? (37) Having given up his worldly duties he will not go to heaven. take birth in a family of transcendentalists (42). One who does good always benefits (40). he does not lose anything materially or spiritually. yet having also given up yoga he will not get liberation either.” Krishna answers.

How is it possible to do this? Texts 1-3 — “Just hear” To always think of Krishna in devotion. Fragrance is the essence of earth. and I am the origin of the modes themselves. Light. The pradhana (“béjaà”) is the cause and essence of all material entities. one must hear about Krishna and His supreme position (1). sexuality. “I am the origin of all these essences. The life force is the essence of all living beings. This knowledge is very rarely achieved (3). of ether. Summary: “I am the essence and origin of everything in the three modes of nature. power. Nothing is superior to Him. Everything depends on Him. has no origin. I am never subordinate to them ” (12). strength. Texts 13-19 — Surrendering to Krishna Why don’t people know this about You? . Superior to both mater and spirit.” This may arouse a doubt: Taste. Therefore. Strength is the essence of the strong. of the powerful (10). “Oà. Krishna. Krishna will fully reveal Himself as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If Krishna is all of those things. as the existence of a pearl necklace depends upon its thread (7).” of the Vedas. is Krishna . of the sun and moon. is He also within the modes of nature? In answer Krishna states. Texts 8-12 — Examples how everything depends on Krishna Krishna is the essence and cause of all things. Superior to it is the conscious entity. who can control matter (5). Sound. however.the origin of both (6). Penance is the essence of asceticism (9). Heat. etc. Power. Endeavor is the essence of being human (8). are all objects within the three modes of nature. Texts 4-7 — The supreme position of Krishna Material energy consists of eight elements (4). the source of both spiritual (numinous) and material (phenomenal) existence (2). In this chapter. Taste is the essence of water.Chapter Seven Knowledge of The Absolute Krishna completed the sixth chapter by stating that the best yogé is one who always thinks of Him in devotion. of Fire. Intelligence is the essence of the intelligent. however. And regulated sex life is the essence of following religious principles (11).

The other three are also dear (18). Texts 20-24 — Surrendering. Some turn to demigods. etc.. (14) Then why don’t they surrender to You? There are four reasons: (15) • they are simply attached to fruitive work – müòha • they have no genuine spiritual culture and are enamoured by material “culture” – narädhama • the range of their knowledge is devoted only to the material world – mäyayäpahåta-jïänäù • they are envious towards God – äsuraà bhävam äçitäù Who does surrender? Four types of pious people: (16) • those needing relief from distress – ärtaù • those who want opulence – arthärthé • those who have become inquisitive – jijïäsuù • those who are wise – jïäné Of these four. Only by surrendering to Me can one overcome. is very strong. knowledge. Not knowing this. After many lifetimes they come to the platform of jïäné. but not to Krishna Many people turn to higher forces to fulfill their needs for relief.Because they are bewildered by the three modes (13) How can they get free from these modes? My mäyä. it is Krishna who supplies both the faith offered by the worshipper (21) and the reward granted by the demigod (22). He is without material desires and gives his mind to Krishna. However. realizing väsudeva sarvam (“Krishna is everything”) they finally become pure devotees – which is very rare (19). Texts 20-23 — Those who surrender to the demigods Persons controlled by material desires often surrender to demigods (20). made of the three modes. opulence. less- . Then. other’s to the impersonal Brahman. who is the best? The wise man is best because his attraction to Krishna is more pure and steady (17). but not all of them surrender directly to Krishna. They can never get free by their own efforts.

How can they remove this bewilderment and come to recognize Krishna as the Supreme? One can become free from the delusion of duality by ceasing to act according to desire and hate. behaving religiously and thus eradicating his sinful reactions. from the foolish and unintelligent (25). Fools think that I can be covered by mäyä. even at the difficult time of death (30).” How do they become covered? And when? From the very beginning their desire and hate cause them to become bewildered by duality (27). and therefore takes refuge in Krishna’s service. by my mäyä. Text 24 —Those who worship the impersonal Brahman The unintelligent think impersonal Brahman is supreme. whereas Krishna’s devotees achieve unlimited eternal bliss in His association (23). He can also get free from bewilderment and become a devotee (29). Texts 25-30 — Overcoming inability to recognize and serve Krishna If it is true that Krishna’s form and pastimes are eternal. therefore they cannot know Me (26). Then they can serve Krishna with full determination (28). Those who thus surrender to Krishna can know Him. present and future. due to intelligence. I cover them.intelligent demigod worshippers ignore Krishna and thus achieve only temporary material rewards. Sometimes. . I can never be covered. They imagine Krishna’s form and pastimes to be temporary manifestations of Brahman in contact with the modes of nature. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. one desires to be freed from old age and death. I am always fully cognizant of everything. why aren’t they always visible to everyone? “I hide myself. past.

6. and thus attains this supreme abode (8). 3. 7. How to remember Krishna at the time of death? The answer to this question forms the main subject of the entire chapter. 4. Therefore. Brahman (spirit) is the indestructible living entity Adhyatma (the controller of body) is one’s acquired nature Karma (work) is activity which generates a material body Adhibhuta (the material manifestation) is the constantly changing world Adhidaiva (the supreme demigod) is the universal form Adhiyajna (the enjoyer of sacrifice) is Paramatma Where does Adhiyajna reside? The Paramatma resides in the heart of all. it is easier and more effective to remember the Lord through unalloyed love and . oldest person. should renounce all sense gratification. especially sex life (11-12). 5. and should chant “0m” to remember the Supreme Personality of Godhead (13). This will insure that one remembers Krishna at the time of death. for one’s state of mind at the time of death determines the destination attained in the next life (6). Texts 9-13 — Practicing Remembrance of Krishna through Meditation One may practice remembering Krishna by meditating on Him as the wisest. yet is smaller than the smallest and has an inconceivable transcendental form beyond all darkness and brilliant like the sun (9). who is the controller and maintainer of all. throughout life one should practice remembering Krishna by dedicating his mental and physical activities to the Lord’s service (7). To facilitate this meditation one should practice fixing the prana in the topmost chakra (10). 2. Texts 5-8 — Krishna Answers the Eighth Question Whoever remembers the Supreme at the point of death will attain the supreme destination. Texts 14-15 — Practicing Remembrance of Krishna through Bhakti Although this yoga practice is genuine. 8.Chapter Eight Attaining the Supreme Texts 1-4 — Arjuna Asks Eight Questions (1-2) Krishna Answers the First Seven As Follows (3-4) 1.

eternal. Such bhakti-yogis achieve Krishna directly. yoga. Texts 27-28 — Supremacy of Bhakti in Attaining the Supreme Bhakti-yogis. which are all places of temporality and death (16).devotion (14). while those who pass in the times of darkness may not (24-26). That allpervading Lord and His abode are attained by unalloyed bhaktiyoga (22).for they are always fixed in devotion to the Supreme (27) and thus automatically and effortlessly achieve all the results of jnana. Yogis who pass in times of brightness may attain the Supreme. is the transcendental. attain the Supreme regardless of these external circumstances . however. however. indestructible (20) abode of the Supreme Lord (21). and never fall down from the highest Vaikuntha planet (15). Texts 23-26 — Attaining the Supreme through Mystic Yoga The Supreme abode can also be achieved through mystic yoga. Texts 16-22 — Glories of the Supreme Abode Krishna glorifies the supreme abode by contrasting it to the material worlds. by controlling the time at which one leaves his body (23). . being destroyed and recreated again and again (17-19). The spiritual world. and karma (28).

cannot (3). but all of space is not contained within the atmosphere. Everything created emerges from Krishna (7). however. yet Krishna does not become affected or burdened. yet Krishna is not within everything. Similarly everything is within Krishna. Full dedication to Krishna is possible when one understands Krishna’s unique supremacy. as they deserve.Chapter Nine The Most Confidential Knowledge Chapter eight concluded that bhakti is the best form of yoga. Text 6 — Illustrates these points with the example of sky and space • The atmosphere is contained within space. yet Krishna is not within everything. He remains neutral and simply sanctions the material energy to punish or reward the living entities with good or evil.8 the sky does not blow away or move. Texts 4-10 — Knowing Krishna’s Unique Supremacy. Whether manifest or unmanifest. (10) 8 Wind / atmosphere = vayu. • Although the wind blows within the sky. Texts 4-5 — Two philosophical points: • Everything is within Krishna. Texts 1-3 — Introduction Because Arjuna is free from envy of Krishna (1) he can hear and understand this most confidential knowledge (2). Chapter Nine supplies the specific knowledge required for performing that most confidential yoga. . yet does not cause Him any burden. Texts 7-10 — More details on Krishna’s supremacy Everything destroyed merges into Krishna. the entire universe is fully under His control (8) yet He is not directly responsible for the good and evil done therein (9). • Everything rests upon Krishna. Similarly everything rests upon Krishna. Space / sky = akash. Those who are faithless.

those who know Krishna’s supremacy come under the protection of the divine nature (13) by constantly engaging in His service. since whatever they worship is simply a manifestation of Him (16-20).“Krishna has become many” • Worshippers of universal form . one will foolishly mistake Him to be an ordinary living entity (11). Whereas direct worshippers. It is so simple. demigod worshippers. Texts 27-34 — Superiority of Bhakti Bhakti is the simplest path.“Everything is Krishna” Texts 16-25 — The Faults of Indirect Worship These three – monists. indirect worship does not yield the same result as direct worship. temporary destinations (25). In summary.worship Krishna indirectly. even if they are not completely perfect. Texts 13-14 — Mahatmas On the other hand. and Others. Only the direct worshipper can achieve Krishna’s eternal association. Texts 11-12 — Duratmas Without knowing Krishna’s supremacy. one is sure to fall down (24). yet it yields the most super-excellent result. Therefore it is unwise to worship Krishna indirectly (23). Indirect worship. brings temporary results that end in repeated birth and death (21).Texts 11-15 — Duratmas. Mahatmas. be overwhelmed by the demoniac nature and achieve complete ruination (12). Without directly recognizing Krishna’s supreme position. one needs only offer a flower or some water (26). They are: • The monists . and universal form worshippers . achieve complete perfection by Krishna’s grace (22). One can even offer the fruit of whatever he is already . however. He will therefore lose all devotional inclination. others achieve lesser. nor fully accept Him.“I am one with Krishna” • The demigod worshippers . Texts 15 — Others There are still others who neither fully reject Krishna.

The bhakta offers a little flower and gets everything.Therefore. He fully protects and maintains His devotees because they fully depend on Him exclusively (29). Even if the devotee is imperfect. . what to speak of the qualified (33). Thus you will achieve the most confidential result of the most confidential knowledge – Krishna’s personal association (34). He reciprocates perfectly with everyone. Even the disadvantaged or unqualified devotee will achieve Krishna by His mercy (32). Krishna counts him as a saint (30) and quickly purifies him (31). The demigod worshippers work so hard and get only birth and death as a reward.doing (27). The result he gains is liberation and realization of Krishna (28). worship Krishna directly by always thinking of Him and serving Him. Is this fair? Krishna is fair and equal to all.

which guides the devotee back to Krishna’s association (10). I will now reveal more wonderful details to you about my opulence. Text 1 — Introduction Krishna continues enthusiastically speaking to Arjuna.Chapter Ten The Opulence of the Absolute Having established that the supreme yoga. since no one among demigods or demons can perfectly know the Supreme (14) only the Lord can fully know Himself (15). Texts 8-11 — Bhagavad Gita Summarized in Four Verses9 One who knows Krishna’s position as the Supreme source of everything becomes His pure devotee (8). and He is the source of the sages themselves (6). Texts 12-18 — Arjuna’s Response Arjuna accepts that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead (12). beautiful. Krishna becomes his life and soul.” Texts 2-7 — Krishna. Therefore no one can understand Krishna by conventional means. and he speaks and hears about Krishna constantly (9). Great sages confirm this (13) but Arjuna especially accepts Krishna’s own statements as truisms. they cannot know Sri Krishna as the unborn beginningless Supreme Lord (3) because He is the origin of the qualities by which one seeks to understand truth (4-5). if one does understand these mystic opulences of Krishna. In other words. This attracts Krishna’s mercy. the Mysterious Origin of Everything Not even the demigods and great sages can know Krishna fully because He is the origin of everything (2). and powerful things within this world. he will become Krishna’s devotee (7). However. “Keep listening carefully. in this chapter Krishna will teach us how to remember Him when we see opulent. bhakti. is practiced by constant remembrance of Him. and destroys all His impediments (11). 9 “Chatur-shloki bhagavad-gita” .

and powerful springs from but a spark of His splendor (41). and thus relish great nectar (18). revealing Him to be the cause of everything (20). Indeed Krishna supports and pervades the entire universe with a mere fragment of Himself (42). There is no end to Krishna’s opulence (40). Texts 19-42 — The Opulence of the Absolute Krishna gives a partial list of His unlimited opulences (19). for everything opulent. By hearing about Krishna’s opulence one will always remember Him (17). Texts 21-38 present Krishna’s opulences by showing Him as the chief of all qualities and personalities.Arjuna therefore requests to hear about Krishna directly from Krishna. beautiful. In summary. nothing great or small can exist without Krishna (39). .

Texts 5-34 — Vision of the Universal Form Krishna tells Arjuna that in the universal form he will see limitless forms (5). (16) spread in all directions and blazing like the sun (17). “Your name pleases and attracts everyone. unlimited arms. replies.. divine. It is a terrible. more radiant than hundreds of thousands of suns (12). The sun and moon are Your eyes (19). the terrible form of universal time (20).Chapter Eleven The Universal Form Texts 1-4 — Arjuna’s request By hearing all Krishna has said. etc. Filled with ecstatic wonder.42 . Now he requests to see Krishna pervading the universe (4). mouths. Texts 35-46 — Arjuna’s Prayers Arjuna folds his hands and tremblingly prays in a faltering voice (35). He has heard that Krishna. pervades and supports the entire universe10 (3). unlimited. “Who are You? What is your mission?” (31) Krishna. all the demigods (6). in the form of Universal Time. fearsome sight (23) unsettling and bewildering the mind (24). Arjuna then sees kala-rupa. “I see in you all the demigods (15). do your duty. and containing all of material existence in one place (13). Krishna then allows Arjuna to see this form (8-9). and wondrous (11).. I have already destroyed all your enemies (33). bellies. who stands before him on the chariot. Arjuna’s illusion has been removed (1) and he understands that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead (2). My mission is to destroy everything (32). and become glorious as my instrument (34). indeed he will see everything in existence within the universal form (7). eyes. as well they 10 see 10. Therefore fight. while demons flee (36). You are the Supreme Lord (18). You are worshipped by great souls. Kala-rupa is being petitioned by the demigods and sages (21-22). devouring all people from all sides (29-30). with blazing deathlike faces and awful teeth (25) devouring all the soldiers of both armies (26-28). Arjuna fearfully asks. “Time I am. Arjuna prays (14).

You pervade everything (38) and are the essence of everything (39). four-armed Visnu Form. You are the oldest and wisest. Obeisances unto You! Almighty One! (46) “I have offended you by treating you as an ordinary friend. the shelter transcendental and limitless. No endeavor can reveal this two-armed form (53). Therefore let the vision be over (49). can bring one to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.should. My Lord. But this fearsome form has disturbed your mind. (45-46). . please withdraw this fearsome Universal Form and show me Your pleasant. This beautiful form pacified Arjuna’s mind (51).” Krishna then showed Arjuna His transcendental four-armed form. Therefore I fall down before you. mysterious form (54). for You are the Supreme God of Gods. Krishna then revealed that this two-armed form is actually more rarely seen than the Universal Form (52). begging forgiveness (44). Syamasundara Krishna. executed without envy. and finally this original two-armed form. Only the most purified devotional service free from jnana and karma. the Cause of all causes (37). Texts 47-55 — The Vision of Pure Devotees and Two Armed Krishna Krishna says “I have shown you this universal form that no one else has ever seen (47). It cannot be glimpsed by any personal effort (48). Please forgive me! (41-42) I know now that You are the Supreme Father (43). Only pure devotional service can reveal this most confidential. (50).

Krishna says. then you can prepare yourself for devotional service by cultivating knowledge. If you cannot dedicate your work to Krishna.Chapter Twelve Devotional Service Texts 1-7 — Supremacy of Devotional Service Having experienced the Universal Form. practice doing it by following sadhana (9). but their path is very difficult and troublesome (5-6). Arjuna wants to clarify that worship of Sri Krishna is superior to worship of the Universal Form or the unmanifested Brahman (1). He never causes distress to others (15). He is detached from everything worldly (16). These qualities make one very dear to Krishna. If you cannot engage your mind and intelligence in Krishna’s service by sadhana. then engage your external senses by working for Him (10). Dearest of all is one who makes Krishna the goal of his life (20). for Krishna personally delivers them (7). Texts 8-12 — How to Practice Devotional Service Practice devotional service by always thinking exclusively about Krishna (8). In this way you will progress through various realizations and become able to renounce the fruits of your work (12). Even if someone causes him distress. Texts 13-20 — Qualities of a Devotee A devotee never retaliates or envies any one. “those who practice devotional service are the most perfect (2). If you cannot do this. and equipoised in duality (19). . On the other hand.” Those who worship the unmanifested will also reach Krishna eventually (4). If you cannot do even that. he remains equipoised and forgiving because he is internally satisfied in constant yoga with Krishna. unaffected by material emotions (17). those who practice devotional service have a simple and easy path. continue doing your own work and offer the fruits to Krishna (11). All these good qualities result from his mind and intelligence being fixed on Krishna (13-14). He tries to help everyone because he has no false-ego or possessiveness.

undivided (17). etc. and the “knower of the field” (ksetra-jna) is the soul. Jneya: The soul and Supersoul are the real objects to be known. 11 Re: Chapter Title. and the source of all knowledge and enlightenment (18). transcendental (15). The Supersoul is all pervading (14). ksetra-jna. the Enjoyer. the Supersoul. (2) There is also a second ksetra-jna. This science of ksetra. jnana. who is the “knower of all fields. The soul is a type of Brahman that is eternal and subordinate to the Supreme Brahman (13). especially of Vyasadeva’s Vedanta Sutra. (7) Texts 8-19 — Description of jnana (the process of acquiring knowledge) and jneya (that which is to be known). all-reconciling (16). Jnana: Cultivation of the qualities described here is the real method of acquiring knowledge (8-12). and Consciousness Text 1 — Arjuna’s six questions Arjuna inquires about matter. ksetra • Spirit — purusa. happiness and distress. “nature” refers to mater (prakrti & ksetra) “enjoyer” refers to spirit (purusa & ksetra-jna) and “consciousness” in this context seems to refer to (jnana & jneya ) . Krishna explains that the field of activities (ksetra) consists of the gross and subtle elements.Chapter Thirteen Nature. ksetra-jna • Knowledge —jnana. and jneya is most fully understood by the Lord’s devotee (19) Text 20-26 — Description of prakrti (nature) and purusa (the enjoyer) All “good” and “bad” events (“transformations”) occur in matter (prakrti) (20). • Matter — prakrti. and sense objects. but the happiness and distress resulting from such events is caused by the purusa’s identification with prakrti (21). jneya11 Texts 2-7 — Description of ksetra and ksetra-jna Krishna explains that the “field of activities” (ksetra) is the body. the senses.” (3) Summarizing the philosophical conclusions of great sages. spirit and knowledge. (6) Transformations of this field cause desire and hatred.

Thus seeing the Supersoul everywhere. but the living entity is distinct from the field of activity (31). never mixing with the body (32). Seeing in this way. or as the sun illuminates all things yet remains unaffected (34). of which bhakti is easiest and best (26). One can achieve this understanding through various types of yoga (25). Texts 27-35 — Result of liberation through knowledge: realized vision The realized person can distinguish spirit and mater in all circumstances (27). he acts in proper knowledge and never degrades himself by pursuing the selfish desires of the mind (29). one becomes liberated (35). . There is a second type of purusa. who is never entangled like the ordinary purusa (23). and he sees the indestructible Supersoul always accompanying all the indestructible living entities (28). the Supersoul.The desire to enjoy forges the bond between purusa and prakrti (22). He sees that ultimately neither he nor others are acting (30). Knowing this causes liberation (24). just as the sky (space) pervades all things and is yet uncontaminated by them (33). Only the body acts in this world.

Similarly. and to enjoy (12).Chapter Fourteen The Three Modes of Material Nature Texts 1-2 — Introduction to and glorification of Chapter Fourteen One who understands this chapter attains liberation. indolence – alasya. Texts 3-10 — What binds the soul to the material world How does the soul come into the material world? Material nature is the mother. for He impregnates nature with the seed-like souls (4). . By observing moroseness. and knowledge . if one assists ignorance and passion. to begin new ventures. they will dominate (10) Texts 11-13 — Symptoms of the modes Observing the symptoms of illumination and proper understanding. Krishna is the father of all. Goodness binds the living entity with attachment to happiness. we know that ignorance prevails over goodness and passion (13). and confusion.jnana (6). Ignorance binds most forcibly with madness – pramada. Texts 14-18 — Death and activity in the modes 14-15 — Results of dying in various modes Dying in goodness leads to heavenly planets (15).sukha. we can understand that goodness dominates (11). “Attachment” is for what one does have. supplying the living entity with a physical body (3). and attachement – sanga 12 (7). If one assists goodness. laziness. We know that passion prevails over goodness and ignorance when we observe greed. Dying in passion leads to human birth among fruitive 12 “Desire” is for what one does not have. Passion binds by the ropes of desire – trsna. a strong desire to accumulate. and sleep – nidra (8-9). Having appeared in the material world. What binds the soul and keeps him there? The three modes of nature bind the soul to matter (5). it will dominate. These three modes struggle dominate each other.

One who realizes this can become liberated from those modes and their ill effects. 17-18 — Results of modes summarized Texts 19-27 — Transcending the modes The three modes of nature perform all material actions. Dying in ignorance leads to birth among the animals (16). and the Supreme Lord controls these modes (19). in passion to misery. even while remaining in the body (20). What are the symptoms of such a person (21)? He is completely neutral and detached from “good” and “bad” transformations of the modes (22-25). How does one achieve this liberation (21)? By engaging in pure devotional service one can achieve Brahman liberation (26). the source of Brahman (27). 16 — Results of actions in various modes Actions in goodness lead to purity.workers. in ignorance to foolishness. . and go beyond to realize Krishna.

one never leaves (6). What are the characteristics of that supreme abode? It is beautifully self-luminous. moon. Texts 12-15 — Appreciating Krishna’s Position Since the living entities are so enraptured in pursuit of sense gratification. Why don’t we see this happening? Perhaps fools cannot see. it is a reflection of the real tree in the spiritual world. but one can cut it down with the axe of renunciation. but they are now struggling hard with the mind and senses in the material world (7). all with the goal of enjoying the sense objects (9). from Whom the entire tree has sprouted (3-4). the living entity should contemplate that such pleasures are impossible to relish with out the light of the sun. nourished by the three modes and fruitive activities (2). Texts 7-11 — The Living Entity’s Transmigration The living entities are eternal parts of Krishna and thus belong with Him in the spiritual world. Then one must go beyond the tree and surrender to the Supreme Person. he enters various bodies to obtain different senses. because their minds are clarified by practice of yoga (11). but one trained in knowledge certainly can (10). Achieving that place.Chapter Fifteen The Yoga of the Supreme Person Texts 1-6 — Leaving the Material World The material world is like an upside-down banyan tree (1). all of which are Krishna’s energies. The living entity acquires the material mind and carries it from one body to the next. Krishna holds the earth together. This tree is not real. etc. Thus carried by the mind. from which . It is impossible to fully understand the tree. Who will be able to surrender to that Supreme Person? One who is free from false prestige and material possessions can surrender and attain the supreme abode (5). and fire. how can they ever come to appreciate Krishna? Enamoured with sense enjoyment. like the air carries various scents (8).

supplying the knowledge through which the living entity achieves liberation (15). Krishna also brings bliss to the transcendentalist by compiling the Vedanta. Texts 16-20 — Summary of Vedanta Being the knower of the Vedas. This is the essence of Vedanta. First. made tasty by His moonlight (13). Indeed. even the conditioned living entity can appreciate and recognize Krishna. one should know that there are two types of living entities: liberated and conditioned (16). The Supreme Soul (Paramatma). . remembrance of previous pleasant experiences. He provides awareness of current experiences. Krishna is the only source of happiness. is the master of both the liberated and conditioned living entities (17) and is therefore the Supreme Person (18). In this way. Krishna now summarizes Vedanta in three verses. and forgetfulness of unpleasant ones. The palatable dishes then prepared from these vegetables are indigestible without Krishna’s energies of fire and air (14). Whoever understands it will become perfect (20).vegetables grow. One who knows without a doubt that Sri Krishna is that Paramatma engages fully in devotional service (19).

. not destiny or mercy. Upon achieving wealth. their sinful activities take them to hell (16). Their entire life is dedicated to obtaining sense gratification. When their plans are frustrated. however. they seek relief in lust and power (10). they think it the result of their own hard work. They are cast into demoniac wombs (19) and thus glide down to hell (20). Texts 21-24 — Getting Free From Demoniac Qualities All these demoniac qualities begin with lust. Demoniac qualities lead to bondage (5). anger.They do not know good from evil. Instead of enjoying heavenly pleasure. powerful supreme enjoyer of heavenly delights (13-15). and are unclean. and dishonest (7). They plot to kill their enemies and become the perfect. brash. To control and regulate these three demoniac qualities. Texts 6-20 — Demoniac Nature Krishna describes the Nature of a person with demoniac qualities (6). They do not hesitate to secure money by unethical means for acheiving this goal (11-12). and greed. By controlling these qualities one escapes the demoniac life and attains happiness and the supreme destination (22).Chapter Sixteen The Divine and Demoniac Natures Texts 1-5 — Divine and Demoniac Qualities Krishna lists the characteristics of saintly (1-3) and demoniac people (4). They are atheists. Following this philosophy. Their hypocritical religious observances cannot save them (17) for they are envious of God and saintly people (18). saying that the world is unreal and is caused only by lust. one must follow the scriptural injunctions (23-24). not by God (8). they perform activities that destroy the world (9). Saintly qualities lead to liberation.

Chapter Seventeen The Divisions of Faith Texts 1-6 — Types of Conditioned Faith Arjuna asks. simplicity. and pure (8) Passion – overly spiced. wholesome. (13) Austerity Austerity has three aspects: Austerity of body . by cleanliness. untouchable (10) Sacrifice Goodness – done out of duty. What about those who do some kind of worship. celibacy and non violence (14) . speech. which will be either in the mode of goodness. sacrifice. however. he worships demigods. for they give pain to the Supersoul and all beings (5-6). or ignorance (2). and charity (7). overpowering flavors (9) Ignorance – old. without fruitive desire. if in passion. he worships demons. Such persons are demons. healthy. he worships ghosts (4). in ignorance. Thus his faith will be characterized by one of these three modes. but also disregard the Vedas?” (1) If one does not follow the Vedas – he will follow his natural instinct. decomposed. Texts 7-22 — Symptoms of Conditioned Faith One can determine the mode affecting one’s faith by observing symptoms in one’s eating. passion. follows Vedic prescriptions (11) Passion – done for fruitive reward or pride (12) Ignorance – done without faith. and charity to the priests. Others. “You mentioned that those who disregard the Vedas and do not worship God become Demoniac. without Vedic prescription. and mind Austerity of body – showing respect to superiors. Food Goodness – juicy. purposely go against the Vedas and perform terrible austerities out of lust and pride. (3) If one is in the mode of goodness. without prasad distribution. austerity. mantra chanting. Such people disregard the Vedas due to laziness.

or in a grudging mood (21) Ignorance – to improper person. honor. . and beneficial words (15) Austerity of the mind – satisfaction. without fruitive desires (17) Passion – without pride. a sense of duty. one can see that the basic characteristic of religion in the mode of goodness is motivation for purification. and charity by including in them the mantra.the mode of goodness . simplicity. “om tat sat” – reminding oneself that the goal of the religious activity is to satisfy Visnu. Religious activity not performed in the proper consciousness . and ignorance. Goodness – with faith.Austerity of speech – truthful. pleasing. Austerity. “Tat” helps one become free from fruitive desires and attain liberation (25). influenced by the modes of nature. and worship (18) Ignorance – foolishly done to harm oneself and others (19) Charity Goodness – without fruitive desire to proper person at proper time and place (20) Passion – without desire for fruitive rewards. passion. austerity. and Charity Analyzing the above information. and develop faith in the sastra. (23) “Om” helps one remember the Lord (24). One can instill this mentality in one’s sacrifice. or at wrong place or without proper respect (22) Texts 23-28 — Getting Free From Defects in One’s Sacrifice. Therefore one should give up his inborn conceptions of religion. and purification (16) One can engage in these austerities in the mode of goodness. and a desire to please the Lord. for increasing respect. “Sat” helps one dedicate the activity to the pleasure of the Lord and His devotee (26-27).is practically useless (28). gravity. self-control.

Karma yoga 13-44 – Summary of Chapters 13-17. without attachment to their fruits (11). He becomes liberated from all reaction (12). one who works without desire for these fruits is not subject to them. Three types of renunciation Ignorance . Texts 1-12 — Summary of chapters 1-6.renounces religious duties.Chapter Eighteen The Perfection of Renunciation Chapter Overview Texts Texts Texts Texts Texts Texts 1-12 – Summary of Chapters 1-6. and thus should not be given up.renounces worldly activities and performs religious duties without fruitive desire (9). says that there are three types of renunciation (4). . however. Krishna begins by citing great philosophers who say “tyaga” means to renounce the fruits of one’s work. Such renunciation is steady and unaffected by dualities like attachment and aversion (10). (2-3). Karma-yoga. thinking them too bothersome (8) Goodness .renounces religious duties. Krishna adds that it is practically impossible to give up all activity. Although various good and bad reactions result from religious duties. and “sannyasa” means to renounce both the fruits and the work itself. Krishna. Some even say that one should renounce religious duties in sannyasa. Arjuna asks Krishna to distinguish “tyaga: and “sannyasa” (1). and that religious duties (as opposed to worldly duties) purify the heart (5). One should perform them for purification without expectation of fruitive result (6). Therefore true renunciation is to perform only religious duties. thinking them material (7) Passion . Jnana-yoga 45-48 – Purification through karma-yoga 49-54 – Purification through jnana yoga 55-66 – The Supreme Objective: Bhakti-yoga 67-78 – Closing: About Bhagavad Gita.

Krishna refers to Vedanta-sutra (13). exerted by life airs to move the body Daivi – the sanction of God. performed in illusion. with determination and enthusiasm. V. and performers (19). activity is motivated by a person (“knower”) perceiving a desirable object/goal. One who does not foolishly think himself the sole cause of his fruits does not become enamoured by those fruits (17). not steady in both success and failure (27) . Adhisthan – the place Karta – the doer (i. Therefore it is not intelligent to consider oneself the independent doer of one’s actions (16). III.Texts 13-44 — Summary of Chapters 13-17. I. with effort (“work”) exerted by the karta (“doer”) (18). or destiny These five cooperatively perform every act – both religious and irreligious (15). envy. Being thus inspired. action. overwhelming desire to enjoy (24) Ignorance – Disregards sastra.e. action is then carried out by the senses. Action is motivated by the knower knowing the known. and lack of cleanliness. causes violence and distress to others (25) Performers Goodness – works without false ego. In other words. Knowledge Goodness – sees the same type of soul in all living beings (20) Passion – sees different types of souls in different living beings (21) Ignorance – sees no soul. consciousness reflected in falseego) Karana – the senses Cesta – the effort. II. Jnana Yoga To more precisely explain the consciousness of one not bound by the fruits of his actions. which describes five factors participating in every action (14). IV. only sense gratification (22) Action Goodness – effort is regulated by sastra (23) Passion – effort is unregulated. with greed. steady in both success and failure (26) Passion – works with fruitive desires. There are three types of knowledge.

trade Sudra – works by serving the other three classes (44) Texts 45-48 — Purification Through Karma-yoga. cheats and insults others to achieve success (28) There are also 3 types of understanding and determination (29) Understanding Goodness – can distinguish right from wrong (30) Passion – can’t distinguish right from wrong (31) Ignorance – mistakes right for wrong (32) Determination Goodness – unbreakable determination to achieve liberation by sense control (33) Passion – unbreakable determination to achieve sense gratification. cow protection. economic development. procrastinates. tolerant.Ignorance – obstinately goes against authority. Anyone – brahmana. lazy. poison later (38) Ignorance – only an illusory hope for nectar. ksatriya. knowledgeable. nectar later (37) Passion – nectar first. Arises from intoxication and sleep (39) The modes of nature affect everyone in this world (40) and thus create four types of people (41): Brahmana – works by being peaceful. vaisya. dejected. pure. austere. Poison from beginning to end. determined. As one should not take medicine . religious (42) Ksatriya – works by being heroic. generous. powerful. for the Lord’s pleasure (46). self controlled. resourceful. wise. and mundane religiosity (34) Ignorance – cannot go beyond dreaming (35) There are also 3 types of happiness (36) Happiness Goodness – poison first. or sudra and become perfect by following the duties prescribed to his varna (45). honest. courageous in battle. dominant (43) Vaisya – works at farming.

In this way one can remain in peaceful trance (51-53). Therefore surrender to Him utterly. I personally protect My devotee from all reactions and lead him directly to My supreme abode (56). Do only what I ask of you and nothing else – thus you will remain untouched by material reactions. and even if you try to abandon it the modes of nature will force you to do it (59). He can then realize Brahman. and may finally achieve devotion to Krishna (54). If you do not follow My orders. By His grace you will attain the Supreme Destination (62). and by eating. If one simply thinks of Krishna at all times.” (66) . The Supreme Lord is the master puppeteer (61). and can enter My abode (55). “Deliberate on this. I will personally take care of you. One who is self-controlled and completely unattached can engage in jnana-yoga (49) to achieve the supreme perfection (50) by controlling the mind.prescribed to someone else. what will become of His duties? “Give up those duties. “one who has devotion to Me can properly understand Me. Your duty is to fight. Texts 55-63 — Pure Bhakti Yoga Krishna says. worship Me. Your only real duty is to surrender exclusively to Me. become My devotee. Therefore. Do not hesitate. perform your duties in full dependence on My protection (57). like a puppet (60). speaking and doing very little. and freeing oneself from all bad qualities. offer obeisances to Me. Do not fear. and decide what you want to do (63). and not try to take someone else’s (47). one should stick to his own prescribed duties. thus you will come to Me” (65). even if one’s own duty appears difficult or defective (48) Texts 49-54 — Purification Through Jnana-yoga. If you do not. you will be bound (58).” Texts 64-66 — The Supreme Instruction Krishna will now reveal the supreme instruction (64): “Always think of Me. living alone. You will pass over all obstacles. you will follow the orders of your lower nature. giving up sense objects.

and especially not to those who envy Krishna (67). Arjuna replies that it has. and engaged in His service. Bhagavad-gita began with Dhrtarastra asking what would happen on the battlefield of Kuruksetra. No one is more dear to Krishna than he (69). Anyone who studies the Gita worships Krishna by his intelligence (70) If he hears with faith and without envy. Krishna asks if the Bhagavad-gita has freed Arjuna from ignorance and illusion (72). One who teaches the Gita to Krishna’s devotees gets pure devotional service and returns to Krishna (68). he will also attain auspicious love of Godhead. having heard the Gita by the mercy of his spiritual master (75). He is now prepared to follow Krishna’s desire. (71). and return to the spiritual planets. He finds thrilling pleasure by remembering Bhagavad-gita (76). Again and again he becomes struck with wonder and joy (77). Sanjaya now tactfully answers: “Krishna and Arjuna cannot be defeated. . You have no hope of victory” (78). devoted to Krishna.Texts 67-78 — The Glories of Teaching and Learning Bhagavad Gita One should not teach Bhagavad-gita to anyone who is not austere. Sanjaya glorifies the Gita Sanjaya’s hair stands on end (74).

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