You are on page 1of 17

Steve Jobs 1

Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs

Jobs holding a white iPhone 4 at Worldwide Developers Conference 2010

Born [1] [1]
Steven Paul JobsFebruary 24, 1955 San Francisco, California, USA

Residence [2]
Palo Alto, California, USA

Nationality American

Alma mater Reed College (dropped out in 1972)

Occupation [3]
Chairman and CEO, Apple Inc.

Salary [4] [5] [6] [7]


Net worth [8]

$6.1 billion (2010)

Board member of The Walt Disney Company[9]

Religion [10]

Spouse Laurene Powell (1991–present)

Children 4


Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is an American business magnate and inventor. He is the co-founder and
chief executive officer of Apple Inc. Jobs also previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he
became a member of the board of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney.
He was credited in the 1995 movie Toy Story as an executive producer.[11]
In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, Mike Markkula,[12] and others, designed, developed,
and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. In the early
1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of the mouse-driven graphical user interface which
led to the creation of the Macintosh.[13] [14] After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1984,[15] [16]
Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher
education and business markets. Apple's subsequent 1996 buyout of NeXT brought Jobs back to the company he
Steve Jobs 2

co-founded, and he has served as its CEO since 1997.

In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd which was spun off as Pixar Animation
Studios.[17] He remained CEO and majority shareholder at 50.1% until its acquisition by The Walt Disney company
in 2006.[3] Consequently Jobs became Disney's largest individual shareholder at 7% and a member of Disney's Board
of Directors.[18] [19] [20] [21]
Jobs' history in business has contributed much to the symbolic image of the idiosyncratic, individualistic Silicon
Valley entrepreneur, emphasizing the importance of design and understanding the crucial role aesthetics play in
public appeal. His work driving forward the development of products that are both functional and elegant has earned
him a devoted following.[22]

Early years
Jobs was born in San Francisco[1] and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs (née
Hagopian[23] ) of Mountain View, California, who named him Steven Paul. Paul
and Clara later adopted a daughter, who they named Patti. Jobs' biological
parents — Abdulfattah Jandali, a Syrian[24] graduate student who later became a
political science professor,[25] and Joanne Simpson, an American graduate
student[24] who went on to become a speech language pathologist[26] — later
married, giving birth to and raising Jobs' biological sister, the novelist Mona
Simpson.[27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32]

Steve Jobs at the WWDC 07 Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High School and Homestead High School in
Cupertino, California,[22] and frequented after-school lectures at the
Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto, California. He was soon hired there and worked with Steve Wozniak as a
summer employee.[33] In 1972, Jobs graduated from high school and enrolled in Reed College in Portland, Oregon.
Although he dropped out after only one semester,[34] he continued auditing classes at Reed, such as one in
calligraphy, while sleeping on the floor in friends' rooms, returning Coke bottles for food money, and getting weekly
free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple.[16] Jobs later stated, "If I had never dropped in on that single course in
college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts."[16]

In the autumn of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club
with Wozniak. He took a job as a technician at Atari, a manufacturer of popular video games, with the primary intent
of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.
Jobs then traveled to India with a Reed College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search
of spiritual enlightenment. He came back a Buddhist with his head shaved and wearing traditional Indian
clothing.[35] [36] During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, calling his LSD experiences "one of the two
or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life".[37] He has stated that people around him who did not share
his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.[37]
Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board for the game Breakout.
According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari had offered US$100 for each chip that was eliminated in the
machine. Jobs had little interest or knowledge in circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the
bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari,
Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly
line. At the time, Jobs told Wozniak that Atari had only given them $700 (instead of the actual $5000) and that
Wozniak's share was thus $350.[38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]
Steve Jobs 3


Beginnings of Apple Computer

In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne,[44] with later funding
from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C.
"Mike" Markkula Jr.,[12] founded Apple. Prior to co-founding Apple, Wozniak
was an electronics hacker. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends for several years,
having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced
21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest
Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to expand,
Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifth
D: All Things Digital conference the company began looking for an experienced executive to help manage its
(D5) in 2007. expansion.

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as

CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Steve Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola
to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come
with me and change the world?"[45] [46] The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled
"1984." At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to
a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium."[47] The Macintosh became
the first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface. The development of the Mac was
started by Jef Raskin, and eventually taken over by Jobs.

While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time had described
him as an erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a
deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley, and at the end of May 1985 – following an internal power
struggle and an announcement of significant layoffs – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh

NeXT Computer
Around the same time, Jobs founded another computer company, NeXT Computer. Like the Apple Lisa, the NeXT
workstation was technologically advanced; however, it was largely dismissed by industry as cost-prohibitive. Among
those who could afford it, however, the NeXT workstation garnered a strong following because of its technical
strengths, chief among them its object-oriented software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the
scientific and academic fields because of the innovative, experimental new technologies it incorporated (such as the
Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port).
The NeXTcube was described by Jobs as an "interpersonal" computer, which he believed was the next step after
"personal" computing. That is, if computers could allow people to communicate and collaborate together in an easy
way, it would solve many of the problems that "personal" computing had come up against.
"1990 CERN: A Joint proposal for a hypertext system is presented to the management. Mike Sendall buys a
NeXT cube for evaluation, and gives it to Tim [Berners-Lee]. Tim's prototype implementation on NeXTStep is
made in the space of a few months, thanks to the qualities of the NeXTStep software development system.
This prototype offers WYSIWYG browsing/authoring! Current Web browsers used in "surfing the Internet"
are mere passive windows, depriving the user of the possibility to contribute. During some sessions in the
CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. I was determined that the name should
not yet again be taken from Greek mythology. Tim proposes "World-Wide Web". I like this very much, except
that it is difficult to pronounce in French..." by Robert Cailliau, 2 November 1995. [49]
Steve Jobs 4

During a time when e-mail for most people was plain text, Jobs loved to
demo the NeXT's e-mail system, NeXTMail, as an example of his
"interpersonal" philosophy. NeXTMail was one of the first to support
universally visible, clickable embedded graphics and audio within

Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by such things as the NeXTcube's
magnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only
50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel.

Pixar and Disney

In 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the
price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as capital.[50]
The new company, which was originally based at Lucasfilm's Kerner Studios in San Rafael, California, but has since
relocated to Emeryville, California, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. After years
of unprofitability selling the Pixar Image Computer, it contracted with Disney to produce a number of
computer-animated feature films, which Disney would co-finance and distribute.
The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story, brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was
released in 1995. Over the next ten plus years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company would
produce the box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo (2003),
The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009) and Toy Story 3 (2010).
Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E and Up each received the Academy Award for Best Animated
Feature, an award introduced in 2001.
In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive
Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership,[51] and in early 2004 Jobs announced that Pixar would
seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract with Disney expired.
In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs and
Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock
transaction worth $7.4 billion. Once the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single
shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock.[18] Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner,
who holds 1.7%, and Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who held about 1% of the company's stock and whose
criticisms of Eisner included the soured Pixar relationship and accelerated his ousting. Jobs joined the company's
board of directors upon completion of the merger.
Jobs also helps oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation businesses with a seat on a special six-man steering
Steve Jobs 5

Return to Apple
In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $429 million. The deal
was finalized in late 1996,[52] bringing Jobs back to the company he co-founded.
He soon became Apple's interim CEO after the directors lost confidence in and
ousted then-CEO Gil Amelio in a boardroom coup. In March 1998, to
concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs immediately
terminated a number of projects such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the
coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while
riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors
opened. The reality was that Jobs' summary executions were rare, but a handful
of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company."[53] Jobs also changed the
licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly for the
manufacturers to continue making machines.

With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way
into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X.
Jobs on stage at Macworld
Under Jobs's guidance the company increased sales significantly with the Conference & Expo, San Francisco,
introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs January 11, 2005.
and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld
Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. Jobs
quipped at the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO.'[54]

In recent years, the company has branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the
introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company
made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. In 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business
with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod
and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also
reminds his employees that "real artists ship",[55] by which he means that delivering working products on time is as
important as innovation and attractive design.
Jobs is both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed
the "reality distortion field" and is particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as
"Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple's own World Wide Developers Conferences.
In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the U.S. by lashing out at
environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. However, a few weeks later,
Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded
by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement
speaker.[16] The banner read "Steve — Don't be a mini-player recycle all e-waste". In 2006, he further expanded
Apple's recycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and
"environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.[56]

Business life

As of October 2009, Jobs owned 5.426 million shares of Apple, most of which was granted in 2003 when Jobs was
given 10 million shares. He also owned 138 million shares of Disney, which he received in exchange for Disney's
acquisition of Pixar.[57] Forbes estimated his net wealth at $5.1 billion in 2009, making him the 43rd wealthiest
American.[58] Jobs has been criticized for his lack of public philanthropy despite his wealth, particularly in recent
Steve Jobs 6

years as other billionaires (such as Bill Gates and Warren Buffett) have pledged significant portions of their fortunes
to charity.[59] As of 2006, Jobs had not appeared on national tallies of charitable donations totaling $1 million or
more, as compiled by Indiana University's Center on Philanthropy.[60] Although he may well have donated
significant sums anonymously, some have doubted this assumption, given Jobs' equally poor track record on
corporate philanthropy;[61] after resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy
programs as a temporary cost-cutting measure until profitability improved.[62] Despite the company's
record-breaking profits and $40 billion cash on hand,[63] Jobs has not reinstated a philanthropic division at Apple.

Stock options backdating issue

In 2001, Steve Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of
$18.30, which allegedly should have been $21.10, thereby incurring taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not
report as income. This indicated backdating. Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. If found liable, Jobs
might have faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. Apple claimed that the options were originally
granted at a special board meeting that may never have taken place. Furthermore, the investigation is focusing on
false dating of the options resulting in a retroactive $20 million increase in the exercise price. The case is the subject
of active criminal and civil government investigations,[64] though an independent internal Apple investigation
completed on December 29, 2006, found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him
were returned without being exercised in 2003.[65] On July 1, 2008, a $7 billion class action suit was filed against
several members of the Apple Board of Directors for revenue lost due to the alleged securities fraud.[66] [67]

Management style
Much has been made of Jobs' aggressive and demanding personality. Fortune wrote that he "is considered one of
Silicon Valley's leading egomaniacs."[68] Commentaries on his temperamental style can be found in Mike Moritz's
The Little Kingdom, one of the few authorized biographies of Jobs; The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, by Alan
Deutschman; and iCon: Steve Jobs, by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon.
Jef Raskin, a former colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France," alluding to Jobs'
compelling and larger-than-life persona.[69]
Jobs has always aspired to position Apple and its products at the forefront of the information technology industry by
foreseeing and setting trends, at least in innovation and style. He summed up that self-concept at the end of his
keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007 by quoting ice hockey legend Wayne
There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. 'I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has
been.' And we've always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very very beginning. And we always will.
—Steve Jobs
Floyd Norman said that at Pixar, Jobs was a "mature, mellow individual" and never interfered with the creative
process of the filmmakers.[71]
In 2005, Steve Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores in response to their
publishing an unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs.[72] In its 2010 annual earnings report, Wiley said it had
"closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad."[73]
Steve Jobs 7

Jobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in over 230 awarded patents or patent applications related to a
range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers,
keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages.[74] [75]

Personal life
Jobs married Laurene Powell, on March 18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the Zen Buddhist monk Kobun
Chino Otogawa.[76] The couple have a son, Reed Paul Jobs,[77] and two other children. Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa
Brennan-Jobs (born 1978), from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan.[78] She briefly raised their
daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity, claiming that he was sterile; he later acknowledged paternity.[78]
In the unauthorized biography, The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once
dated Joan Baez. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, as saying
she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez in large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob
Dylan." In another unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the authors
suggest that Jobs might have married Baez, but her age at the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple could have
Jobs is also a Beatles fan. He has referenced them on more than one occasion at Keynotes and also was interviewed
on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. When asked about his business model on 60 Minutes, he replied:[79]
My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in
check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts. Great things in business
are not done by one person, they are done by a team of people.
In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically
progressive reputation, where Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan,
daughter of Rita Hayworth, also had apartments. With the help of I.M. Pei, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment
in the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 frontman Bono. Jobs
had never moved in.[80] [81]
In 1984, Jobs purchased a 17000-square-foot (1600 m2), 14 bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion, designed by George
Washington Smith in Woodside, California, also known as Jackling House. Although it reportedly remained in an
almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years. According to reports, he kept an old BMW
motorcycle in the living room, and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998. Since the early 1990s, Jobs has lived in a house in
the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there
August 7, 1996.[82]
He allowed the mansion to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on
the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside
Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year
to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it. A number of people expressed interest, including
several with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same
year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs was denied
the right to demolish the property, by a court decision.[83] The court decision was overturned on appeal in March
2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February 2011[84]
He usually wears a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by St. Croix, Levi's 501 blue jeans, and New Balance
991 sneakers.[85] He is a pescetarian.[86]
His choice of car is a silver 2006 Mercedes SL 55 AMG, which has no licence plates.[87] [88]
Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting when Jobs first criticized Dell for
making "un-innovative beige boxes."[89] On October 6, 1997, in a Gartner Symposium, when Michael Dell was
Steve Jobs 8

asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled Apple Computer, he said "I'd shut it down and give the money
back to the shareholders."[90] In 2006, Steve Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization
rose above Dell's. The email read:[91]
Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market
close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I
thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.

Health concerns
In mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous tumor in his
pancreas.[92] The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very grim; Jobs, however, stated that he had a rare, far
less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.[92] After initially resisting the idea of conventional
medical intervention and embarking on a special diet to thwart the disease, Jobs underwent a
pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor.[93]
Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy.[92] [95] During Jobs' absence,
Timothy D. Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.[92]
In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual Worldwide
Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually
"listless" delivery,[96] [97] together with his choice to delegate significant portions
of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and internet
speculation about his health.[98] In contrast, according to an Ars Technica journal
report, WWDC attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine";[99]
following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is

Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs' 2008 WWDC keynote
address;[101] Apple officials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and that
he was taking antibiotics,[102] while others surmised his cachectic appearance
was due to the Whipple procedure.[103] During a July conference call discussing
Jobs at the 2008 Macworld Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Steve Jobs'
Conference & Expo.
health by insisting that it was a "private matter." Others, however, voiced the
opinion that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs' hands-on
approach to running his company. The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone
conversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,'
they weren’t life-threatening and he doesn’t have a recurrence of cancer."[105]

On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service,
containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to
facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's untimely death.) Although the error was promptly
rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,[106] [107] [108] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs' health.[109]
Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are
greatly exaggerated";[110] at a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading
"110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.[111]
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's
final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs' health.[112]
[113] [114]
In a statement given on January 5, 2009 on,[115] Jobs said that he had been suffering from a
"hormone imbalance" for several months.[116] On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in
the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought" and
announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health. Tim
Steve Jobs 9

Cook, who had previously acted as CEO in Jobs' 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple,[117] with Jobs still
involved with "major strategic decisions."[117]
In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis,
Tennessee.[118] [119] Jobs' prognosis was "excellent."[119]
On January 17, 2011, one and a half years after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Apple announced that he had
been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was
made "so he could focus on his health." As during his 2009 medical leave, Tim Cook will run day-to-day operations,
but Jobs will continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company.[120] [121]

He was awarded the National Medal of Technology from President Ronald Reagan in 1984 with Steve Wozniak
(among the first people to ever receive the honor),[122] and a Jefferson Award for Public Service in the category
"Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (aka the Samuel S. Beard Award) in 1987.[123]
On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortune Magazine.[124]
On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Jobs into
the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.[125]
In August 2009, Jobs was selected the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers on a survey by Junior
On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade by Fortune Magazine.[127]
In November 2009 Jobs was ranked #57 on Forbes: The World's Most Powerful People.[128]
In December 2010, the Financial Times named Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending its essay by stating, "In
his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the
man he had pushed out: 'Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. This was a
lunatic plan. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.' How wrong can you be".[129]

In popular culture
Jobs was prominently featured in three films about the history of the personal computing industry:
• Triumph of the Nerds — a 1996 three-part documentary for PBS, about the rise of the home computer/personal
• Nerds 2.0.1 — a 1998 three-part documentary for PBS, (and sequel to Triumph of the Nerds) which chronicles the
development of the Internet.
• Pirates of Silicon Valley — a 1999 docudrama which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft. He was
portrayed by Noah Wyle.
Jobs has also been frequently parodied:
• Mad Magazine — a feature called Calvin and Jobs, a parody of Calvin and Hobbes, starring Steve in the role of
Hobbes and his attempts to explain to Calvin his job.
• Jobs was also parodied in "Mypods and Boomsticks," a 2008 Simpsons episode which features an adventure into
the 'world' of Mapple, MyPods, and "Steve Mobbs."
• 30 Rock parodied Jobs's keynote presentation style, turtleneck and all in the episode "Cutbacks."
• Jobs was also parodied on Mad TV and Saturday Night Live.
Steve Jobs 10

[1] "Smithsonian Oral and Video Histories: Steve Jobs" (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ collections/ comphist/ sj1. html). Smithsonian
Institution. April 20, 1995. . Retrieved September 20, 2006.
[2] Gauvin, P and Arrington, V. (Aug 9, 1996). WAVERLEY STREET: Clinton stops by Palo Alto for dinner: Excited residents greet president
in front of Steve Jobs' house (http:/ / www. paloaltoonline. com/ weekly/ morgue/ news/ 1996_Aug_9. CLINTON. html). Palo Alto Online.
Retrieved on: 2010-07-19.
[3] "Apple — Press Info — Bios — Steve Jobs" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ bios/ jobs. html). Apple Inc.. May 2006. . Retrieved September
20, 2006.
[4] "Putting Pay for Performance to the Test" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ packages/ flash/ business/ 20070408_EXECPAY_GRAPHIC/ index.
html). New York Times. April 8, 2007. .
[5] "Apple again pays Jobs $1 salary" (http:/ / www. news. com/ 2100-1047_3-6049166. html). CNET March 13, 2006. .
[6] "Jobs' salary remained at $1 in 2005" (http:/ / www. appleinsider. com/ articles/ 06/ 03/ 14/ jobss_salary_remained_at_1_in_2005. html).
AppleInsider. March 14, 2006. .
[7] "Steve Jobs banks his $1 salary, loses $500m" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ news/
steve-jobs-banks-his-1-salary-loses-500m-1232618. html). The Independent (London). January 8, 2009. . Retrieved October 2, 2009.
[8] "Forbes 400 Richest Americans" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ profile/ steve-jobs). Forbes. August, 2010. . Retrieved September 22, 2010.
[9] "The Walt Disney Company and Affiliated Companies – Board of Directors" (http:/ / corporate. disney. go. com/ corporate/
board_of_directors. html). Walt Disney Company. . Retrieved October 2, 2009.
[10] Elkind, Peter (March 15, 2008). "The trouble with Steve Jobs" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ news/ companies/ elkind_jobs.
fortune/ index. htm). Fortune. . Retrieved July 21, 2008.
[11] IMDB, "Toy Story" Credits (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0114709/ fullcredits)
[12] Markoff, John (September 1, 1997). "An 'Unknown' Co-Founder Leaves After 20 Years of Glory and Turmoil" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
1997/ 09/ 01/ business/ an-unknown-co-founder-leaves-after-20-years-of-glory-and-turmoil. html). New York Times. .
[13] Kahney, Leander (January 6, 2004). "Wired News: We're All Mac Users Now" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ mac/ news/ 2004/ 01/
61730). Wired News. . Retrieved September 20, 2006.
[14] "America's Most Admired Companies: Jobs' journey timeline" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ magazines/ fortune/ storysupplement/ stevejobs/
index. html). . Retrieved May 24, 2010. Jobs and a team of engineers visit Xerox PARC, where they see a demo of mouse
and graphical user interface
[15] Vivek Kaul (May 11, 2009). "What Steve Jobs did when he was fired from Apple" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ money/
report_what-steve-jobs-did-when-he-was-fired-from-apple_1254757). DNA (newspaper). .
[16] "'You've got to find what you love,' Jobs says" (http:/ / news-service. stanford. edu/ news/ 2005/ june15/ jobs-061505. html). Stanford
Report. June 14, 2005. . Retrieved March 31, 2006."I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that
could have ever happened to me".
[17] "Pixar History – 1986" (http:/ / www. pixar. com/ companyinfo/ history/ 1986. html). Pixar. . Retrieved April 25, 2008.
[18] January 25, 2006 Disney buys Pixar for $7.4 bn (http:/ / inhome. rediff. com/ money/ 2006/ jan/ 25disney. htm),
[19] "The Walt Disney Company — Steve Jobs Biography" (http:/ / corporate. disney. go. com/ corporate/ bios/ steve_jobs. html). .
[20] Holson, Laura M. (January 25, 2006). "Disney Agrees to Acquire Pixar in a $7.4 Billion Deal" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 01/ 25/
business/ 25disney. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-01-17.
[21] "Pixar Becomes Unit of Disney" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 06/ business/ media/ 06pixar. html). The New York Times & The
Associated Press. May 6, 2006. . Retrieved 2010-01-17.
[22] Cringely, Robert X. (April 1, 2004). "Steve Jobs – Apple Computer, Pixar" (http:/ / www. inc. com/ magazine/ 20040401/ 25jobs. html).
Inc. Magazine. . Retrieved September 20, 2006.
[23] «Mother: Clara Hagopian (adoptive mother, accountant)» — Steve Jobs biography (http:/ / www. nndb. com/ people/ 520/ 000023451/ ) at
[24] Sherman, Suzan. "BOMB Magazine: Mona Simpson by Ameena Meer" (http:/ / bombsite. com/ issues/ 20/ articles/ 947). .
Retrieved 2010-11-11.
[25] Smith, David (January 29, 2006). "The non-stop revolutionary" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ media/ 2006/ jan/ 29/ citynews. apple). The
Guardian (London). .
[26] Lohr, Steve (January 12, 1997). "Creating Jobs" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1997/ 01/ 12/ magazine/ creating-jobs. html?pagewanted=5).
The New York Times. .
[27] Alan Deutschman, Richard Siklos, Heather Halberstadt, John Brodie, Duff McDonald, Craig Offman and Richard Rushfield, "The New
Establishment 2005: The 50 Most Powerful Leaders of the Information Age" (http:/ / www. accessmylibrary. com/ article-1G1-138671839/
new-establishment-2005-50. html), Vanity Fair, October 1, 2005.
[28] Andy Behrendt, "Apple Computer mogul's roots tied to Green Bay", Green Bay Press-Gazette, December 4, 2005.
[29] David Smith, "The non-stop revolutionary" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ media/ 2006/ jan/ 29/ citynews. apple), The Observer (U.K.),
January 26, 2006.
[30] Rob Waugh, additional reporting by Paul Henderson, "iGod—how Apple went bad, and made billions from doing it" (http:/ / www.
dailymail. co. uk/ home/ moslive/ article-1017242/ iGod--Apple-went-bad-billions-doing-it. html), Daily Mail (U.K.), April 30, 2008.
Steve Jobs 11

[31] "Steve Jobs, Apple's iGod: Profile" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ technology/ apple/ 4242660/ Steve-Jobs-Apples-iGod-Profile. html),
Telegraph (U.K.), January 14, 2009.
[32] http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ news/ companies/ elkind_jobs. fortune/ index. htm
[33] "Biography: Steve Jobs" (http:/ / www. theapplemuseum. com/ index. php?id=49). The Apple Museum. . Retrieved May 18, 2006.
[34] Campbell, Duncan (June 8, 2004). "The Guardian Profile: Steve Jobs" (http:/ / arts. guardian. co. uk/ features/ story/ 0,11710,1241745,00.
html). Guardian Unlimited (London). . Retrieved March 31, 2006.
[35] Andrews, Amanda (January 14, 2009). "Steve Jobs, Apple's iGod: Profile" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ technology/ apple/ 4242660/
Steve-Jobs-Apples-iGod-Profile. html). London: . Retrieved October 29, 2009.
[36] "Steve Jobs profile: Apple's hard core" (http:/ / news. scotsman. com/ comment/ Steve-Jobs-profile-Apple39s-hard. 4863847. jp). News
scotsman. . Retrieved October 29, 2009.
[37] Markoff, John (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. The Penguin Group.
pg. xviii–xix. ISBN 0-670-03382-0.
[38] Letters – General Questions Answered (http:/ / www. woz. org/ letters/ general/ 91. html),
[39] Wozniak, Steven: "iWoz", a: pages 147–148, b: page 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7
[40] Kent, Stevn: "The Ultimate History of Video Games", pages 71–73. Three Rivers, 2001. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4
[41] "Player 2 Stage 1: The Coin Eaters" (http:/ / www. thedoteaters. com/ p2_stage1. php). 2007-09-29. . Retrieved
[42] "Breakout" (http:/ / www. arcade-history. com/ index. php?page=detail& id=3397). Arcade History. 2002-06-25. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[43] "Classic Gaming: A Complete History of Breakout" (http:/ / classicgaming. gamespy. com/ View. php?view=Articles. Detail& id=395). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[44] Owen W. Linzmayer, No Starch Press. "Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc." (http:/ / extras. denverpost. com/
books/ chap0411h. htm). The Denver Post. .
[45] Leonard, Andrew (September 28, 1999). "Do penguins eat apples?" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ tech/ feature/ 1999/ 09/ 28/ mac_linux/ index.
html). . Retrieved February 10, 2007.
[46] "His Opportunity to Change the World" (http:/ / www. actsweb. org/ articles/ article. php?i=1160& d=2& c=6). .
[47] Hertzfeld, Andy. "The Times They Are A-Changin'" (http:/ / www. folklore. org/ StoryView. py?project=Macintosh&
story=The_Times_They_Are_A-Changin. txt). .
[48] Hertzfeld, Andy. "The End Of An Era" (http:/ / www. folklore. org/ StoryView. py?project=Macintosh& story=The_End_Of_An_Era. txt). .
[49] Roads and Crossroads of Internet History (http:/ / www. netvalley. com/ cgi-bin/ intval/ net_history. pl?chapter=4) Chapter 4: Birth of the
[50] "Pixar Founding Documents" (http:/ / alvyray. com/ Pixar/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[51] Wolff, Michael, "iPod, Therefore I am" (http:/ / www. vanityfair. com/ culture/ features/ 2006/ 04/ wolff200604?currentPage=all), Vanity
Fair magazine, April, 2006. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
[52] Apple Computer, Inc. Finalizes Acquisition of NeXT Software Inc. (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ */ product. info. apple. com/ pr/ press.
releases/ 1997/ q2/ 970207. pr. rel. next. html), Apple Inc., February 7, 1997. Retrieved on June 25, 2006.
[53] "The once and future Steve Jobs" (http:/ / archive. salon. com/ tech/ books/ 2000/ 10/ 11/ jobs_excerpt/ index2. html). October
11, 2000. .
[54] "Jobs announces new MacOS, becomes 'iCEO'" (http:/ / archives. cnn. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 01/ 05/ macworld. keynote/ index.
html). January 5, 2000. .
[55] "Real Artists Ship" (http:/ / folklore. org/ StoryView. py?project=Macintosh& story=Real_Artists_Ship. txt). .
[56] "Apple Improves Recycling Plan" (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,1895,1952356,00. asp). PC Magazine. April 21, 2006. .
[57] "Steve Jobs is $300 million richer" (http:/ / tech. fortune. cnn. com/ 2009/ 10/ 21/ steve-jobs-is-282-million-richer/ ). Fortune. Retrieved
June 10, 2010.
[58] "The 400 Richest Americans 2009" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ lists/ 2009/ 54/ rich-list-09_The-400-Richest-Americans_Rank_2. html).
Fortune. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
[59] "Thoughts On The Steve Jobs Legacy" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ technology/ ByteOfTheApple/ blog/ archives/ 2008/ 08/
thoughts_on_the_1. html). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
[60] "Jobs vs. Gates: Who's the Star?" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ mac/ commentary/ cultofmac/ 2006/ 01/ 70072). Wired. Retrieved
August 10, 2010.
[61] "Is Apple Anti-Charity?" (http:/ / philanthropy. com/ blogPost/ Is-Apple-Anti-Charity-/ 24565/ ). The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Retrieved
August 12, 2010.
[62] "The Trouble With Steve Jobs" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ news/ companies/ elkind_jobs. fortune/ index4. htm). Fortune.
Retrieved August 12, 2010.
[63] "Almost $40 Billion In Cash: What Is Apple Waiting For?" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ technology/ ByteOfTheApple/ blog/
archives/ 2010/ 01/ almost_40_billion_in_cash_what_is_apple_waiting_for. html). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
[64] "New questions raised about Steve Jobs's role in Apple stock options scandal" (http:/ / www. canada. com/ topics/ finance/ story.
html?id=e23e0409-6b23-4176-83b6-b42012dd79fd& k=88694). December 28, 2006. .
Steve Jobs 12

[65] "Apple restates, acknowledges faked documents" (http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ news/ latest/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=196800077). EE
Times. December 29, 2006. . Retrieved January 1, 2007.
[66] "Group Wants $7B USD From Apple, Steve Jobs, Executives Over Securities Fraud" (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ Group+ Wants+ 7B+
USD+ From+ Apple+ Steve+ Jobs+ Executives+ Over+ Securities+ Fraud+ / article12258. htm). .
[67] "Apple, Steve Jobs, Executives, Board, Sued For Securities Fraud" (http:/ / www. informationweek. com/ news/ global-cio/ legal/
showArticle. jhtml?articleID=208802018). .
[68] Colvin, Geoff (March 19, 2007). "Steve Jobs' Bad Bet." (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ magazines/ fortune/ fortune_archive/ 2007/ 03/ 19/
8402325/ index. htm?source=yahoo_quote). Fortune. . Retrieved 2011-02-23.
[69] Appleyard, Bryan (2009-08-16). "Steve Jobs: The man who polished Apple" (http:/ / technology. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/
tech_and_web/ article6797859. ece?token=null& offset=12& page=2). Times Online (The Sunday Times): p. 2. . Retrieved 2011-02-23.
[70] "JOBS MACWORLD 07" (http:/ / blog. seattlepi. nwsource. com/ microsoft/ library/ applekeynote. html).
2007. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[71] Floyd Norman (January 19, 2009). "Steve Jobs: A Tough Act to Follow" (http:/ / jimhillmedia. com/ blogs/ floyd_norman/ archive/ 2009/
01/ 19/ steve-jobs-a-tough-act-to-follow. aspx). Jim Hill Media. . Retrieved January 19, 2009.
[72] Hafner, Katie (April 30, 2005). "Steve Jobs' Review of His Biography: Ban It" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 04/ 30/ technology/
30apple. html?ex=1272513600& en=7cc0ad54117bc197& ei=5090& partner=rssuserland& emc=rss). The New York Times: p. Technology. .
Retrieved October 16, 2006.
[73] Weinman, Sarah (6/17/10). "Education Publisher John Wiley & Sons Closes Fiscal Year on a Strong Note" (http:/ / www. dailyfinance.
com/ story/ company-news/ education-publisher-john-wiley-and-sons-closes-fiscal-year-on-a-st/ 19520334/ ?icid=sphere_copyright).
DailyFinance (AOL). . Retrieved 2010-09-03.
[74] "IN/"Jobs, Steven"" "[[United States Government|Governmental (http:/ / patft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&
Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ search-adv. htm& r=0& f=S& l=50& d=PTXT& Query=IN/ "Jobs,+ Steven"Query)] patent
database"]. "IN/"Jobs, Steven"". Retrieved June 7, 2010.
[75] "IN/"Jobs, Steve"" "[[United States Government|Governmental (http:/ / patft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&
Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ search-adv. htm& r=0& f=S& l=50& d=PTXT& Query=IN/ "Jobs,+ Steve"Query)] patent
database"]. "IN/"Jobs, Steve"". Retrieved June 7, 2010.
[76] Elkind, Peter (March 4, 2008). "Steve Jobs (pg 2) – Mar. 4, 2008" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ news/ companies/ elkind_jobs.
fortune/ index2. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[77] "At 04:24 a picture is displayed" (http:/ / video. google. com/ videoplay?docid=-8495483285864450495& ei=0S48SvvLGYvr-Aaukuy4Cg). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[78] Elkind, Peter (March 15, 2008). "The trouble with Steve Jobs" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2008/ 03/ 02/ news/ companies/ elkind_jobs.
fortune/ index2. htm). Fortune. . Retrieved January 6, 2009.
[79] "Videos – Free video downloads and streaming video – CNET TV" (http:/ / cnettv. cnet. com/ 60-minutes-steve-jobs/ 9742-1_53-50004696.
html). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[80] Morgenson, Gretchen (December 28, 1987). "At home with Steve Jobs". Forbes.
[81] Tallant, Nicola (May 1, 2005). "Bono's E11.5M 'Bargain Buy'". The Sunday People.
[82] Aguilar, Quinn (June 20, 2010). "Do You Know Steve Jobs?" (http:/ / www. siliconvalleycurious. com/ 2010/ 06/ do-you-know-steve-jobs/
). Silicon Valley Curious. .
[83] Egelko, Bob (January 10, 2007). "Appeals court says Jobs can't raze Woodside mansion" (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ c/ a/
2007/ 01/ 10/ BAGFNNGE216. DTL). San Francisco Chronicle. .
[84] Samuels, Diana (February 16, 2011). "Demolition begins on Steve Jobs' Woodside Mansion" (http:/ / www. mercurynews. com/ peninsula/
ci_17399002?nclick_check=1). Mercury News. .
[85] "Gizmodo on Steve Jobs' attire" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ gadgets/ pcs/ wear-the-exact-outfit-of-steve-jobs-for-458-157402. php). 2006-02-28. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[86] "Jobs gets out of the Happy Meal business" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ Apple/ ?p=192). ZDNet. May 9, 2006. . Retrieved 2010-06-23.
[87] What kind of car does Steve Jobs drive? (http:/ / celebritycar. weebly. com/ steve-jobs. html). Celebrity Car. . Retrieved August 18, 2010
[88] Basile, Ray. Steve Jobs Barcode License Plate Mystery Solved (http:/ / www. iphonesavior. com/ 2008/ 09/ steve-jobs-barc. html). iPhone
Savior. . Retrieved August 18, 2010
[89] "If Apple can go home again, why not Dell?" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-10787_3-9940589-60. html) CNET News. May 19, 2008.
[90] "Dell: Apple should close shop" (http:/ / www. news. com/ Dell-Apple-should-close-shop/ 2100-1001_3-203937. html). CNET. .
[91] Markoff, John (January 16, 2006). "Michael Dell Should Eat His Words, Apple Chief Suggests" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 01/ 16/
technology/ 16apple. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved May 24, 2010.
[92] Evangelista, Benny (August 2, 2004). "Apple's Jobs has cancerous tumor removed" (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ c/
a/ 2004/ 08/ 02/ MNGMJ816F41. DTL). San Francisco Chronicle: p. A1. . Retrieved August 9, 2006.
[93] "Pancreatic Cancer Treatment" (http:/ / www. mayoclinic. org/ pancreatic-cancer/ treatment. html). Mayo Clinic. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[94] NY Times (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 23/ technology/ 23apple. html?bl& ex=1216958400& en=0d31b1999828e3cc& ei=5087 )
[95] Elmer, Philip (2008-06-13). "Steve Jobs and Whipple" (http:/ / apple20. blogs. fortune. cnn. com/ 2008/ 06/ 13/
steve-jobs-life-after-the-whipple/ ?source=yahoo_quote). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
Steve Jobs 13

[96] "Looking very thin, almost gaunt":Kahney, Leander. "Has Steve Jobs Lost His Magic?" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ mac/
commentary/ cultofmac/ 2006/ 08/ 71557). Cult of Mac. Wired News. . Retrieved August 8, 2006.
[97] "[The audience was] uninspired (and concerned) by Jobs' relatively listless delivery":Meyers, Michelle. "Jobs speech wasn’t very Jobs-like"
(http:/ / www. news. com/ 8301-10784_3-6103427-7. html). BLOGMA (CNET . Retrieved August 8, 2006.
[98] Saracevic, Al (August 9, 2006). "Where's Jobs' Mojo?" (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2006/ 08/ 09/
BUGTEKDE6M1. DTL). San Francisco Chronicle: p. C1. . Retrieved August 9, 2006.
[99] Cheng, Jacqui. "What happened to The Steve we know and love?" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ journals/ apple. ars/ 2006/ 8/ 8/ 4913). Infinite
Loop. Ars Technica. . Retrieved August 8, 2006.
[100] Claburn, Thomas (August 11, 2006). "Steve Jobs Lives!" (http:/ / www. informationweek. com/ blog/ main/ archives/ 2006/ 08/
steve_jobs_live. html). InformationWeek. . Retrieved October 9, 2007.
[101] "Business Technology: Steve Jobs' Appearance Grabs Notice, Not Just the IPhone" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ biztech/ 2008/ 06/ 10/
steve-jobss-appearance-grabs-notice-not-just-the-iphone/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[102] "Apple says Steve Jobs feeling a little under the weather" (http:/ / www. appleinsider. com/ articles/ 08/ 06/ 10/
apple_says_steve_jobs_feeling_a_little_under_the_weather_recently. html) in AppleInsider.
[103] Elmer, Philip (2008-06-13). "Fortune Magazine Article" (http:/ / apple20. blogs. fortune. cnn. com/ 2008/ 06/ 13/
steve-jobs-life-after-the-whipple/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[104] "Steve Jobs and Apple" (http:/ / blog. marketingdoctor. tv/ 2008/ 07/ 24/ brand-advisory. aspx) Marketing Doctor Blog. July 24, 2008.
[105] Talking Business: Apple’s Culture of Secrecy (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 26/ business/ 26nocera. html) The New York Times
(July 26, 2008).
[106] "Steve Jobs' Obituary, As Run By Bloomberg" (http:/ / gawker. com/ 5042795/ bloomberg-runs-steve-jobs-obituary). Gawker Media.
August 27, 2008. . Retrieved August 28, 2008.
[107] Moore, Matthew (August 28, 2008). "Steve Jobs Obituary Published By Bloomberg" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ newstopics/
howaboutthat/ 2638481/ Steve-Jobs-obituary-published-by-Bloomberg. html). London: The Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved August 28, 2008.
[108] "Bloomberg mistakenly publishes Steve Jobs obituary" (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ cnet/ 20080828/ tc_cnet/ 83011357931002788637).
Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. August 28, 2008. . Retrieved August 28, 2008.
[109] "Bloomberg publishes Jobs obit but why?" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ BTL/ ?p=9825). Zdnet Blogs. ZDnet. August 28, 2008. . Retrieved
August 29, 2008.
[110] "Apple posts 'Lets Rock' event video" (http:/ / www. macworld. com/ article/ 135466/ 2008/ 09/ september. html). Macworld. September
10, 2008. . Retrieved September 11, 2008.
[111] "Live from Apple's "spotlight turns to notebooks" event" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2008/ 10/ 14/
live-from-apples-spotlight-turns-to-notebooks-event/ ). Engadget. 2008-10-14. . Retrieved October 14, 2008.
[112] Stone, Brad (December 17, 2008). "Apple's Chief to Skip Macworld, Fueling Speculation" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 17/
technology/ companies/ 17apple. html?ref=technology). The New York Times. . Retrieved May 24, 2010.
[113] Apple abandons Macworld amid Jobs illness rumours (http:/ / www. gq-magazine. co. uk/ Daily_News/ default. aspx?sid=53882) Daily
Headlines – UK
[114] "Steve Jobs' Health Declining Rapidly, Reason for Macworld Cancellation – Steve Jobs' health" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 5120687/
steve-jobs-health-declining-rapidly-reason-for-macworld-cancellation?skyline=true& s=x). Gizmodo. 2008-12-30. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[115] Jobs, Steve (January 5, 2009). "Letter from Apple CEO Steve Jobs" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ library/ 2009/ 01/ 05sjletter. html). Apple Inc.. . Retrieved January 20, 2009.
[116] "Apple's Jobs admits poor health" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7811857. stm). BBC News. January 5, 2009. . Retrieved
January 5, 2009.
[117] "Apple Media Advisory" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ library/ 2009/ 01/ 14advisory. html). Apple Inc.. January 14, 2009. . Retrieved
January 14, 2009.
[118] "Steve Jobs Receives Liver Transplant – Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare" (http:/ / methodisthealth. org/ methodist/ About+ Us/
Newsroom/ News/ Steve+ Jobs+ Receives+ Liver+ Transplant). 2009-06-23. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[119] "Steve Jobs recovering after liver transplant" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2009/ US/ 06/ 23/ steve. jobs. liver. transplant/ index. html). 2009-06-23. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[120] Helft, Miguel (January 17, 2010). "Apple Says Steve Jobs Will Take a New Medical Leave" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 01/ 18/
technology/ 18apple. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved January 17, 2010.
[121] "Steve Jobs to take medical leave of absence but remain Apple CEO" (http:/ / www. appleinsider. com/ articles/ 11/ 01/ 17/
steve_jobs_to_take_medical_leave_of_absence_but_remain_apple_ceo. html). .
[122] "THE NATIONAL MEDAL OF TECHNOLOGY RECIPIENTS 1985 Laureates" (http:/ / www. uspto. gov/ nmti/ recipients_85. html). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[123] "National Winners | public service awards" (http:/ / www. jeffersonawards. org/ pastwinners/ national). Jefferson . Retrieved
[124] "25 most powerful people in business 1. Steve Jobs" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ galleries/ 2007/ fortune/ 0711/ gallery. power_25. fortune/
). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[125] Jobs inducted into California Hall of Fame (http:/ / www. californiamuseum. org/ Exhibits/ Hall-of-Fame/ inductees. html), California
Museum. Retrieved 2007.
Steve Jobs 14

[126] "Steve Jobs bigger than Oprah!" (http:/ / www. ja. org/ files/ polls/ Teens-Entrepreneurship-Part-2. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[127] Lashinsky, Adam (2009-11-05). "Steve Jobs: CEO of the decade" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2009/ 11/ 04/ technology/
steve_jobs_ceo_decade. fortune/ index. htm/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-19.
[128] Noer, Michael (November 11, 2009). "The World's Most Powerful People" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2009/ 11/ 11/
worlds-most-powerful-leadership-power-09-people_land. html). .
[129] Richard Waters and Joseph Menn, "Silicon Valley visionary who put Apple on top," [[Financial Times (http:/ / www. ft. com/ cms/ s/ 0/
f01db172-0e06-11e0-86e9-00144feabdc0. html)], December 22, 2010]. The actual text from the biography is:

Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. That's why it hired a soft-drinks guy
in the first place. By now, however, I knew this was a lunatic plan; our race to realize it had been a death
march. Technology companies are only superficially in the same category as consumer products companies.
We couldn't bend reality to all our dreams of changing the world. The world would also have to change us.
Our perspective had been hopelessly wrong. High tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.
The consumer business had collapsed at the end of 1984. Most people who bought computers stuffed them in
the closet because balancing a checkbook wasn't reason enough to flick on the switch. Consumers weren't
ready to put computers in their homes as easily as they installed telephones, refrigerators, televisions, and even
Cuisinarts. They weren't willing to pay a couple of thousand dollars for something they didn't know what to do
John Sculley and John A. Byrne, Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple -- a journey of adventure, ideas and the future, Harper &
Row, 1987

• Caddes, Carolyn (1986). Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers. Tioga Publishing Co..
ISBN 0-935382-56-9.
• Cringely, Robert X. (1996). Accidental Empires. HarperBusiness. ISBN 0-88730-855-4.
• Denning, Peter J. & Frenkel, Karen A. (1989). A Conversation with Steve Jobs. Comm. ACM. Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.
• Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8.
• Freiberger, Paul & Swaine, Michael (1999). Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer.
McGraw-Hill Trade. ISBN 0-07-135892-7.
• Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 0-596-00719-1.
• Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-886411-83-2.
• Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor Press, Doubleday.
ISBN 0-385-19195-2.
• Levy, Steven (1994). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything.
Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-85244-9.
• Malone, Michael S. (1999). Infinite Loop. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-638-4. Bantam Doubleday Dell. ISBN
• Markoff, John (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer
Industry. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03382-0.
• Simon, William L. & Young, Jeffrey S. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of
Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-72083-6.
• Stross, Randall E. (1993). Steve Jobs and The NeXT Big Thing. Atheneum Books. ISBN 0-689-12135-0.
• Slater, Robert (1987). Portraits in Silicon. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19262-4. Chapter 28
• Young, Jeffrey S. (1988). Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. Scott, Foresman & Co.. ISBN 0-673-18864-7.
• Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I invented the personal computer, co-founded
Apple and had fun doing it. W. W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-06143-4.
Steve Jobs 15

External links
• "Thirty Years of Innovation at Apple: Jobs on the Job" (
steve_jobs/). Time. 2007.
• Steve Jobs' executive profile at Apple (
• YouTube video of first Jobs' Macworld keynote in 1997, when he returned to Apple (
watch?v=PEHNrqPkefI), where he announced partnership with Microsoft.
• Jobs’s commencement address ( at Stanford University,
June 12, 2005 (YouTube video).
• Steve Jobs ( at the Internet Movie Database
• "Thoughts on Music" ( by Steve Jobs, February 6, 2007.
• "Thoughts on Flash" ( by Steve Jobs, April, 2010.
• Bloomberg Game Changers: Steve Jobs ( A 48 minute video on
Steve Jobs by Bloomberg

• Anecdotes ( Jobs&detail=medium)
from Steve Jobs' early days in Apple as reported by Andy Hertzfeld.
• Lohr, Steve (January 12, 1997). "Creating Jobs" (
html?res=9F04EED71139F931A25752C0A961958260). New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
• Booth, Cathy (August 18, 1997). "Steve's job: restart Apple" (
0,9171,986849,00.html). Time. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
• Elkind, Peter (March 5, 2008). "The trouble with Steve Jobs" (
companies/elkind_jobs.fortune/index.htm?postversion=2008030513). Fortune. Retrieved March 5, 2008.

• Smithsonian Institution Oral History Interview (
pdf)PDF (143 KB) — April 20, 1995.
• Steve Jobs in 1994: The Rolling Stone Interview (
steve-jobs-in-1994-the-rolling-stone-interview-20110117), Rolling Stone – Republished January 17, 2011.
Archived URL (
• The Seed of Apple's Innovation (
nf20041012_4018_db083.htm), BusinessWeek — October 12, 2004.
• How Big Can Apple Get? (
index.htm), Fortune — February 21, 2005.
• ‘Good for the Soul’ (
15262121/site/newsweek/) at the Wayback Machine (archived October 22, 2006)., Newsweek — October 15,
• Bill Gates and Steve Jobs (video and transcript of on stage interview) (
d5-gates-jobs-interview/), All Things D – May 30, 2007.
• Videotaped Deposition of Steven P. Jobs in front of the Securities and Exchange Commission (http://images.  – March 18, 2008
Article Sources and Contributors 16

Article Sources and Contributors

Steve Jobs  Source:  Contributors: -Majestic-, 24fan24,, 47of74, 4RunnerRebel, 7265, A2zindiajobs, A3RO, ACCOM2222,
AEMoreira042281, AJCham, AKGhetto, AVM, Aaron Schulz, AbJ32, Abeg92, Ablebakerus, Abrcrmb boi, Abrech, AbsolutDan, Acalamari, Accurizer, Acp, Adallas, Adam1213, Adamprin,
Adashiel, Addshore, Addy14, Adrian.benko, AdultSwim, Ageekgal, Ahmed Mohamed, Ahoerstemeier, Ahronzombi, Aht820, Aido2002, Air12345, Airplaneman, Aisle 12, Aitias, Akcarver,
Akersmc, AkitoTenkawa, Al-gorey, Alan Liefting, Alanbly, Alanraywiki, Alecperkins, Aleenf1, Alex.atkins, AlexHammer, Alexhb, Alexhkchau, AlexiusHoratius, Alexliao1995, Alientraveller,
Alison, AlistairMcMillan, Alixioa, All Hallow's Wraith, Allansiew, Alphathon, Alrasheedan, Alsandro, Altenmann, AmasianCrasian, Amathas, Amchow78, Amophar, Amorymeltzer,
AnandKumria, Anas Salloum, Anastrophe, Anaxial, Ancient Apparition, Andrevan, Andrew schaug, AndrewHowse, Andweallfalldown, Andyjsmith, Anetode, Angela, Anomicene, Anonymi,
Anonymous anonymous, Antandrus, Anythings, Appledave95, Aragorn2, Arch dude, Archon Shiva, Ardo191, Aristophanes68, Arny, Artisticroman, Arvindrad, Asarelah, Ascidian, Ashley Y,
Ashnet007, AshwiniKalantri, Ashwinpowers, Asofaihp, Aspects, Astral, Astralblue, Astrale01, Asymmetric, Asyndeton, Attis1, Atwarwiththem, AuburnPilot, Aupajo, Average Earthman,
AvicAWB, Avicennasis, Aw3012, Az1568, Azer13, B. Fairbairn, BSveen, Badofold, Badseed, Balubino, Bandicoot87, Banzai!, Barefootguru, Barek, BaronLarf, Barrettmagic, Baseball Watcher,
BashBrannigan, Bawolff, Bbatsell, Bbriggs1, Bdesham, Beach drifter, Bearcat, Bebaak, Ben-Zin, BenFrantzDale, Bender235, Benjji22212, Benl47, Bento00, Beretta f-92, Betchaboy, Bgraabek,
Bhadani, BiOGoly, BigHaz, BillJeanIsNotMyLover, BillMasen, BillyPreset, Bishino, Bishonen, BlackDesire, Blackholeltd, Blackjackagain, Blacklabel2010, Bladealpha92, Bladerunner33,
Blake-, Blake02, Blamblamblam, Blast your rage, Blizow, Blood sliver, BloodDoll, Bloph uk, BlueAg09, Bluear, Blueboy96, Blueronin, Bneely, Bob12343, Bobo192, Boehm, Bongwarrior,
Bookalign, Bookandcoffee, Boothy443, BorgQueen, Bornhj, Bortelli95, Boulevardier, Bradkoch2007, Brady8, Bradybd, Brandon, Bratsche, Brentdax, Brian Kendig, Brian0918, Brian6325,
BritneySpearow, Brittanydanielle08, Brittanylalala, Bronzey214, Brookzy, BrotherFlounder, Brrk.3001, Brucelai, Brucethemoose, Brucevdk, Bssc81, Btm, Bueller 007, Buildings, Bunnyhop11,
Bupbin, Burpelson AFB, Buzzard321, Bwfrank, Bwithh, C.Fred, CMWrestlemaniaPunkCharlie, CWPappas,, Calvin 1998, Camilo Sanchez, Can't sleep, clown will eat me,
CanisRufus, Canjecricketer, CapitalR, Captain Disdain, Carboncopy, Carbuncle, Cardmagic, Carinemily, Carom, Cartoon Boy, CattleGirl, Cavenba, Cbrown1023, Cburgdorfer, Cburnett,
Ccacsmss, Cculber007, Cdespinosa, Ceefro, Ceyockey, Chanlyn, Chanting Fox, Chaohwa, Charlesbell515, Charliechambers, CharlotteWebb, Chavando, Cheezy8, ChevronCars!!!!!!!!!,
Chevymontecarlo, Chick Bowen, Chickenofbristol, Chill Pill Bill, Chill doubt, China1234567, Chipuni, Chivista, Chmod007, Chodorkovskiy, Chovain, Chris 73, Chris Kenny, Chris1219,
Chrislk02, Christian75, Chumleyk, CiTrusD, Cicero Oliveira, Ciceronl, CieloEstrellado, Cielomobile, Cincydude55, Cinosaur, Cj67, Ckatz, ClaesWallin, Clarityfiend, Clarkbhm, Classicfilms,
Cleared as filed, Clicketyclack, Closedmouth, CoachPush123, Cocoaguy, Cody6, Coemgenus, Coffee4binky, Colin Barrett, Colinstu, Colmlqs, Colonies Chris, Comcast866, Cometstyles,
CommonsDelinker, Compuguy1088, Comte de Chagny, Connelly, ConnorJack, Connormah, Conversion script, Coolcaesar, Copbobby2, Corixidae, Cosmix, CraigD1993, Crazycomputers,
Credema, Cremepuff222, Crockspot, Crunch, Csaag, Csanford, Csaribay, Cuckoocat, Curps, Cwastell, CybDarla, CyberSkull, Cybercobra, CycloneGU, CygnusPius, D7240, DARTH SIDIOUS
2, DESiegel, DMCer, DStoykov, DVD R W, DVdm, Da monster under your bed, DaDrumBum, Dabomb87, Daboss, Daddy Kindsoul, Dadude3320, Dailo, DaltinWentsworth, Dametenshi, Dan
Harkless, Daniel Lawrence, Daniel5127, DanielCD, Danielfolsom, Danno uk, Dannyjames8, Danski14, Danweber2006, Daqu, Dark Shikari, Darkchaos556, Darrell Greenwood, Davewild, David
Gerard, DavidSJ, Davidm617617, Daytonlowell, Dbabbitt, Dbiel, Ddxc, DeadEyeArrow, DeadmanUndertaker, Decrypt3, Deenoe, Defunctzombie, Delldot, Demosthenes 1, Den fjättrade ankan,
Denelson83, DenisRS, Denstat, Deodar, DerHexer, Desertsky85451, Deskana, Deskhence, Dethme0w, Dfreeman, Diagonalfish, Diberri, Diehard2k5, Differentgravy, Digifant, Digitalme,
Dillard421, Dina, DinajGao, Dios Aron, Dirkbike, Dirtybutclean, Discospinster, Disgusted, Dismas, Dispenser, Dlarose, Dlohcierekim, Dmiat, DocWatson42, Doctoroxenbriery, Doctorzoidberg,
Donatj, Donfbreed, Douga6, Dougjih, Dpbsmith, Dpeters11, Dr.K., Drjt87, Drmies, DropDeadGorgias, Dru007, Druminor, Drumpat01, DubaiTerminator, Dubkiller, Dureo, Dusseldorp,
Dutchdame, Dwarfpower, Dwell88, Dysprosia, E1ven, EJF (huggle), ERcheck, EVula, Ebygum, Ech10, EchetusXe, Edgar181, Edison, Edward, Efcfan1234, Ehurtley, Ejohnsequilar,
ElCharismo, Elcocinero, Elektrik Shoos, Eleven Special, Elistoughton, Ellmist, Ellomate, Elsdragon, Elsendero, Elvisfan2095, Emc2, Empaler, Endofskull, Endor chicken, Endyf, Enigmatical,
Enoch Lai, Enviroboy, Epbr123, ErikHaugen, Ertemplin, Esprit15d, EvanM07, Evanscottmorgan, Everard Proudfoot, Evercat, Everyking, Evo98custom, EwokiWiki, Excirial, Explicit, Extransit,
Ezeu, FF2010, Faithlessthewonderboy, Falcon866, Fallout boy, Fan-1967, Farhikht, Farosdaughter, FatalError, Father McKenzie, Faunas, Feinoha, Fermatprime, Fermion, FeverBee,
Fieldday-sunday, Figmillenium, Fire.Tree, FixerMX, Fl, Flaht008, Flammifer, Flowanda, Flowiki, Fluppy, Fluri, Flyer 13, FlyingToaster, Forever Dusk, Fosibodu, Fourthords, Franamax,
FrancoGG, Freakofnurture, Frecklefoot, Fred Bradstadt, Friedo, Frymaster, Funpage, Furiousd90, Furrykef, Fuzheado, Fuzzy980, Fvasconcellos, Fyyer, GHe, GMULoyaleagle, GabrielF,
Gabriellundmark, Gabrielsimon, Gadfium, GageSkidmore, Gaius Cornelius, Gamaliel, Gamersedge, Garfield226, Garion96, Gary King, Gauss, Geoffreyq, George415, Gerbrant, Gettingtoit,
Gibbons.Burke, Gilliam, Gillis, Gilo1969, Gimmetrow, Ginkgo100, Gjd001, Glen, Glennf, Gnzdntkllpplido, Goglemastr, Gogo Dodo, GoingBatty, GoldDragon, GoldRenet, Golfboy562,
Goosefraba99, Gorilla 999, GorillaWarfare, GraemeL, Grahamalonian, Gramaic, GrandPoohBah, Green caterpillar, GreenBlue, GregAsche, Grjako, Ground Zero, GroundedZero, Grstain,
Gscshoyru, Gsp8181, Gtg204y, Gtstricky, Guat6, Guoguo12, Gurch, Gurchzilla, Guyzero, Gwernol, HOT L Baltimore, Hackajar, Hadal, Hagaland, Haipa Doragon, HalfShadow, Hall Monitor,
Hammerandclaw, Hanacy, Happypuppy8, Harej, HarmonicFeather, Harro5, Harryboyles, Harrygrayblakeman, Hateless, Hawaiihead, Hay264, Hazard-SJ, Hazelnut1968, Hazmat5507, Hdt83,
Hearth, Hedicito, Heirpixel, HelgeStenstrom, Heliomance, Hellgi, Hemanshu, Henlbac, HereToHelp, Hervegirod, Hes Nikke, Hessamnia, HiB2Bornot2B, HiDrNick, HighCheese, Hildanknight,
Hipocrite, Hiramrajkamal, Historyfanaticblueagentsuperstar, Hkeely, Hmains, Hmrox, Holden15, Homagetocatalonia, Homerbklyn, Hooverbag, Hornpipe2, Horstdepp, Hoshie, Hthth,
Htmlguy716, Httpwwwdotcom, Huailin, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, Hunter32x, HurryEndsHere, Ialsoagree, Iamstevejobs, IanManka, Ianbetteridge, Icedragz, Idont Havaname, Ike-bana,
Ilikepie1123, Ilse@, InShaneee, Indexfinger, Indigokk, Insanity Incarnate, Interguru, Invincible Ninja, Iphone406, IronGargoyle, Iskeptic, Islamisgr88, Istara, Ithizar, Itself, J, J Di, J. Nguyen,
J.delanoy, J.watson95, J2xshandy, JBull12, JCO312, JEB90, JForget, JFreeman, JGorton, JHP, JLaTondre, Jacek Kendysz, Jack O'Lantern, Jacksyi, Jacob Shamsian, Jacobolus, Jacono, Jaizovic,
Jak119, Jake7425, James.kendall, James086, Jamesgibbon, Jamiemichelle, Jamsta, Jane Herman, Jashfa93, Jason Stormchild, JasonAQuest, Jasonanaggie, Jatkins, Jav72, Jawed, Jaxl, JayKeaton,
Jaybugatti, Jaywontdart, Jbellanca, Jberr011, Jclyons, Jecko7, Jedi94, Jeepday, Jeffhoy, Jeremy Visser, Jerryseinfeld, Jes007, JesseHogan, Jetman, Jfaughnan, Jfire, Jiang, Jim Michael, JimmB,
Jimmyjamman, Jimmyneutron44, Jj137, Jjjddd444222, Jjlasne, Jleedev, Jmcollier, Jmlk17, Jmrowland, Jnivekk, JoanneB, Joe.lint, Joe2832, JoeSmack, Joebob708, Joejoejo, Joey-Merl, Johann
Wolfgang, John, John C PI, John Vandenberg, John254, JohnWittle, Johnlogic, Johnmc, Johnno31, Joi, Jojhutton, Jonahb52, Jonathan.s.kt, Jonnybrx, Jonpaulusa, JordanSamuels, Jorgen veisdal,
Josh the Nerd, Josh7289, JoshEdgar, Joshygoodwin, Jossi, Joyous!, Jrdioko, Jrkagan, Jtmg11, JuJube, JustEaton, Justavo, Justin The Claw, Justin W Smith, Justinc, Justinmeister, Jvcdude,
Jwisser, Jyppster, Jæs, K1Bond007, Kaare, Kaiba, Kane5187, Kapkorn, KarlBattery, Karrmann, Kasyapa, Katherine, Kathmandu2007, Kayau, Kazrak, Kbdank71, Ke4roh, Keenanx420x, Keep
your fork, there's pie, Keilana, Keithjack, Kerotan, Kesac, Kevin.zaker, Kevin1111, Kevinbrad, Kevinebaugh, Kewpid, KeybladeSephi, Kharhaz, Khoogheem, Killdevil, KimChee, Kingalex456,
Kinneyboy90, Kitchawan, Kiteinthewind, Kitty31, Kjmathew, Kkm010, Kmweber, KnowledgeOfSelf, Koasterlover, Kodster, Koolx, Kpbizbuzz, KrakatoaKatie, Krash, Krisdahl, Krishna
athreya, Krystyn Dominik, Kspiteri, Kubigula, Kukini, Kungfuadam, Kungming2, Kurieeto, Kurt Shaped Box, Kuru, Kurykh, Kvdveer, Kwiki, Kylalak, Kyro, L Kensington, LD444, LFaraone,
LG4761, LOL, Lagomen, Lagringa, LaidOff, Lakers, Lankiveil, Laplacian, Lars T., Lasix, Ldabrahams, Leahcimnoswerk, LeedsKing, Leflyman, Leif, Leifern, Leopold Stotch, Lerdthenerd,
Lestrade, Lethe, Lifefeed, Lightdarkness, Lightdifference, Lightmouse, Lightningstripe, Lilac Soul, Lilaspastia, Little Miss Might Be Wrong, LittleOldMe, Littlebigpainting, Lizard King, Ljhliesl,
Llamadog903, Lmblackjack21, Londonivm, Lord Opeth, Lordkokkei, LotsOfPProblems, Luk, Lulugo, Lumos3, Luna Santin, Luxatron, Luxury-Yacht, Lyght, Lynch1000s, M gol, MER-C,
MMBBTT, MPerel, Macduff, Mack2, Macman44, Macy, MadnessInside, Maelgwn, Maerk, Magickallwiz, Magister Mathematicae, MagneticFlux, Mahanga, Mailer diablo, Majidp, Majorly,
Makesdark, Malachi007, Malcolm, Malcolmxl5, Malo, Mamawrites, Manderiko, Manufracture, Mardus, Marialy, Markhobley, Markthemac, MarkusHagenlocher, Martarius, Martini833,
Martinp23, Martinribadeneira, Marwanks, Massimo Macconi, Master Jay, Masterjamie, Mastertechnician, Mat7788, Materialscientist, Matt B., Matt Peacock, Matt Yohe, Matthewrbowker, Mattl,
Maury Markowitz, Mav, Max Shakhray, MaxSem, Maximus Rex, Mayosolo, Maythammahdipour, Mayumashu, Mayurg, Mb1000, Mbeck145, Mclowes, Mcp sunny, Mdhillison, Meegs,
Meehawl, Meeples, Mendelini, Meraloma, Mercifull, Mercury, Merope, Mets501, Mgabrys, Mhking, Mhocker, MiShogun, Michael Greiner, Michael L. Kaufman, Michbich, Mickey8297,
Micx10, Middleman 77, MightyWarrior, Mike J B, Mike Payne, Mike Rosoft, Mike1, Mike6271, Mikeboogie, Mikemage55, Mileswiki, Milonica, Minesweeper, Mipadi, Miron, Mirror Vax,
Miterdale, Mjpieters, Mlaffs, Mo0, Mohkalb, Moncrief, Mono, MonoAV, Moonrover101, Moscatanix, MosheA, Mothmolevna, Movietrailer, Mr jinks, Mr-Hack24, Mr. Lefty, MrC539,
MrShamrock, Mrbrown, Mrmanhattanproject, Mrmctorso, Mshecket, Msoos, Msridhar, Mtyilmaz, Muffuletta, Muhandis, Mundart, MureninC, Mushroom, Mutchy126, Mvjs, Mx3, Mxn,
Mysdaao, Mysid, MysteryDog, N Yo FACE, N7VQM, NHRHS2010, Nachoman-au, Nageeb, Nakon, NathanielPoe, NawlinWiki, Ned Scott, Negative47, NekoFever, NellieBly, Nemesis63,
Nepenthes, Nerdy117, NerdyScienceDude, Netscott, Netsnipe, Neverquick, NewEnglandYankee, Newyowker, Nex Vesica, Nick, NicolaM, Nicolaiplum, Niemasd, Nietzsche 2, Nightscream,
Nima1024, Ninnnu, Nneonneo, No Guru, Noloop, Nom de guerre, NoobOfWar, Norm mit, Norsktroll, Northumbrian, Not_now, Notme12, Nskrill, NuclearWarfare, Numendil, Nut-meg,
Nv8200p, OBloodyHell, Oanabay04, Ocaasi, Oda Mari, Odysseus1138, Ohconfucius, Ohnoitsjamie, OldManCa, Olorin28, Olz06, Omar.ElNaggar, Omicronpersei8, One, Orioane, Orphic, Orz,
Ott2, Outspan, OverlordQ, Oxymoron83, PEAR, PFRSC87, PGSONIC, PM800, PTSE, Padrhig, Page Up, Pagingmrherman, Pakaran, Palawanlizard, Paliku, Paloma Walker, Parable1991,
Paranomia, Patrick Bernier, Patrick T. Wynne, Paul August, Paul E Ester, PaulGarner, PaulHanson, Pavel Vozenilek, Paxswill, Pboy2k5, Pcmacman1, Pde, PeaceWithin, Peacekeeper 1234,
Peasaep, Peruvianllama, Peter Farago, Peterc1421, Peterchasefx, Petersburg, Pevarnj, Pgerrity, Pgk, PhGustaf, PhilHibbs, Philip Trueman, Philwelch, Phoe6, PhoenixAscendant, Pilgaard,
Pilotguy, PilsnerUrquell, PinchasC, Piper108, Piperdown, Pistolen08, Plainsong, PlayStation 69, PoinDexta1, PointedEars, Polik0986, Popageorgio, Pparazorback, Praguestepcihld, Prcvl,
Preacher King of Mao, Prestonmag, Prestonmcconkie, Pretzels, Promethean, Proofreader77, Prowikipedians, Psantora, Pseudomonas, Pstaveley, Puffy1632, Pumpmeup, Pwner2, Qaovxtazypdl,
Quadell, Quantis, Quasihuman, Quazooer97140, Qxz, R'son-W, R031E5, Rada, Radhekrishna, RadicalBender, Railhaus, RainbowOfLight, Rajpaj, Ramallite, Randhirreddy, RandomP, Raul654,
Razorflame, Rcarrjr, Realm of Shadows, Rearete, Rebroad, RedAndr, Redgecko20, Redjar, Reginmund, Reisio, RememberOctober29, Ren9507, Renesis, RenniePet, Repetition, Retired
username, Rettetast, RexNL, Rfgagel, Rhindle The Red, Rhoadrunner, Rhobite, Richard D. LeCour, Richardcavell, Richiekim, Richietjpr, RickK, Rjd0060, Rje, Rjwilmsi, Rklawton, Rlee0001,
Rma212, RobJ1981, Robert K S, RobertG, Robth, Robwingfield, Rockinfreakapotomi, Rockslave, Rogerb67, Rogerd, Romanm, Ronnie1990, Rorschach, Rory096, Rossumcapek, Rothorpe,
Roxas prower, RoyBoy, Royalguard11, Rp, Rreagan007, Rshin, RucasHost, Running, Ryan Baumann, Ryan Norton, Ryan27406, RyanCross, RyanGerbil10, S myrick, S5, SColombo,
SD6-Agent, SHADOW4, SMIK90, SMasters, ST47, Sagannotcarl, Sai2020, Sam Korn, Samsara, Sandstein, Sango123, Save-Me-Oprah, Savie Kumara, ScaldingHotSoup, Scetoaux, Schapel,
Scientizzle, Scott Bywater, Scott182, Scottydude, Scoutersig, Sdfisher, Sean Whitton, Sean William, Seanpaune, Seb17, Seckelberry, Secretlondon, Seekyu, Sepiraph, Serein (renamed because of
SUL), SexyBern, Sexyparty, Sfacets, Sg1gatehawk, Shadi74, Shadowhillway, Shalom Yechiel, ShaneCavanaugh, Shanel, SheeEttin, ShelfSkewed, Shervinafshar, Shifterpower, Shii,
Shipreckdpenguin, Shoaler, Shreevatsa, Shreshth91, Siddharthmukund, Sigge365, Sigma902, Silence, Simanyay, SimonP, Sir Lothar, Siroxo, SkinnerIJA, Skyhawkrider, Skyzyx, SlimVirgin,
Slowking Man, Slp1, Smalljim, Smoth 007, Smurfy, Smyth, SnappingTurtle, Sonett72, Spaceman85, Spangineer, Spectorza, Spellcast, Spencer, Spiderone, SpikeJones, Spinnick597, Splash,
SpoonThief, Spork the Great, Spvn, SqueakBox, Srikantkedia, Sriram sh, Srose, Staecker, Stan Shebs, StaticElectric, StaticGull, Steelers1236, Stefan2, Stefanomione, Stephan Leeds, Stephen
Shaw, Stephenb, Stephenharper5, SteveSims, Steven Zhang, Stevenmitchell, Steventity, Steverapaport, Stirling Newberry, Stocksy, Stonefield, StringRay, SubSeven, Suf23, Sunray,
Article Sources and Contributors 17

Super-Magician, Superflush, Supertouch, Surfeited, Sverdrup, Swaq, Swarve, SwissPol, Swliv, Swokm, Syrthiss, T-bomb, TAG.Odessa, TDS, TEG24601, TJDay, TPIRFanSteve, Ta bu shi da
yu, TaerkastUA, Tagith, Takeel, TakuyaMurata, Tangotango, Taoye, Taroaldo, Tarquin, TashTish, Tawker, Taz Manchester, Tbhotch, Technion, TedE, Teehee123, Teeroy, TehBrandon, Teles,
Tenticle, Teorth, TeunSpaans, Tex, Tgeller, Tgwena, The Clawed One, The Rambling Man, The Random Editor, The Sartorialist, The stuart, TheBlackAvenger, TheDJ, TheFloppyOne,
TheJames94, TheKMan, TheMandarin, TheNewMinistry, TheRanger, TheScotch, TheSolomon, TheThomas, Theanthrope, Thechoirlife2006, Theda, Thegreatglobetrotter, Thehelpfulone,
Theneokid, Theonlyedge, Therefore, Thingg, ThinkMark, Threeafterthree, Thunderboltz, Tide rolls, TigerK 69, Tiki Nss, Tillmanssssss, Timberframe, Timberlax, Timdream, Timemag, Timrem,
Timwi, Tiptoety, Titansolaris, Titoxd, Tjfrank944, Tjmayerinsf, Toastedrebel, Tobias, Tobit2, Tokison, Tomchiukc, Tomd2712, Tomdobb, Tone, Tony Hunter, Tony Sidaway, Tony1, TonyW,
Tooki, Torchwoodwho, Toussaint, Treevis400, Tregoweth, Trisreed, Trovatore, Troy 07, Tst1974, TubularWorld, Tuggler, Tverbeek, Twaz, Tweisbach, Twp, Tyhsu, Typhoon, Tyrol5,
Uberkermit, Ucanlookitup, Ugen64, Ukexpat, Uli, Ultraviolet scissor flame, Una Smith, UncleDouggie, Unigolyn, Uniwalk, Untitledmind72, Urdna, Useight, Utcursch, Ute in DC, UtherSRG,
Valermos, VanBurenen, Varanwal, Variable, Vary, Vector Potential, Vees, Veinor, Veldin963, Viajero, Vikram ramesh, Vilcxjo, Vision Insider, Vitund, Vivekpatil32, Vkire, Volt4ire, Vrenator,
W.T. Mckee, Wackymacs, Wallnut, Walloon, Wallstreethotrod, Warofdreams, Warren, WatchAndObserve, Wayneds, Weatherman5000, Weekendsolar, Weetbixkid, Welladjusted84,
WereSpielChequers, Wgungfu, Whitebird, Wiki alf, WikiED, WikiLeon, Wikievil666, Wikifier, Wikifun95, WikipedianMarlith, Wikisux, Wikiwatcher1, Wikiwill999, WinXPUser, Wknight94,
Wmahan, Wmcleod, Wolftengu, Wonderbiscuit, Woohookitty, Work permit, Wpktsfs, Wy harvard, Xb2u7Zjzc32, Xcourtx3, Xen 1986, Xeta991, Xhienne, Xris0, Xtanstic, XxGreenDayzxX,
Yamanbaiia, Yesteraeon, Yidisheryid, Ylee, Yoasif, Yousou, Ysangkok, Yugarunadhar, Yurik, Yurivict, Yuxinzhu93, ZacBowling, Zambaccian, Zarzu, ZeWrestler, Zealotgi, Zendonut, Zenscifi,
Zeoblast, Zeqounx, Zhen Lin, ZimZalaBim, Zinneke, Zinrud, Zkibler89, Zombie007, Zondi, Zoombus, Zukin, Zvn, Zzuuzz, 2580 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Steve Jobs Headshot 2010-CROP.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:fetchcomms
File:Increase2.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Sarang
File:Steve Jobs signature.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Steve Jobs
File:Steve Jobs WWDC07.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors:
File:Steve Jobs and Bill Gates (522695099).jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution
2.0  Contributors: Joi Ito from Inbamura, Japan
File:Stevejobs Macworld2005.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors:
FlickreviewR, Frumpy, Guety, Ilse@, LX, MGA73, Morio, Werewombat, 1 anonymous edits
File:Steve Jobs.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Matthew Yohe Original uploader was
Aido2002 at en.wikipedia

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/