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a Rebound Hammer, CAPO/Pullout, Windsor probeultrasonic pulse velocity  


              
    


   
          
       

             
    

                       

 
 
 
           


       

                           

  

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Ô Strength and density determination

Ô Depth of carbonation of concrete

Ô Chemical analysis

Ô Water/gas permeability

Ô Petrographic analysis

Ô ASHTO Chloride permeability test

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aollowing are the factors which affect the compressive strength of extracted concrete

cores:

Ô |  


º If the ratio of diameter of core to maximum size of stone aggregate is less than 3À a

reduction in strength is reported. For concrete with 20mm size aggregateÀ 50mm dia core has been tested to give

10% lower results than with 10mm dia cores.

Ô     º It is reported that the presence of transverse steel causes a 5 to

15% reduction in compressive strength of core. The effect of embedded steel is higher on stronger concrete and

as its location moves away from endsÀ i.e. towards the middle. However presence of steel parallel to the axis of the

core is not desirable.


Ô ¦   º This has been already discussed above. However its value should be minimum 0.95 and maximum 2.

Higher ratio would cause a reduction in strength.

Ô Y
  º No age allowance is recommended by the Concrete Society as some evidence is reported to

suggest that in-situ concrete gains little strength after 28 days. Whereas others suggest that under average

conditionsÀ the increase over 28 days¶ strength is 10% after 3 monthsÀ 15% after 6 months. Hence it is not easy to

deal the effect of age on core strength.

Ô |
  º The effect in reducing the core strength appears to be higher in stronger concretes and

reduction has been reported as 15% for 40 MPa concrete. However a reduction of 5 50 7% is considered

reasonable.

Ô  
   º The strength of cores is generally less than that of standard cylindersÀ partly as a

consequence of disturbance due to vibrations during drilling operations. Whatever best precautions are taken

during drillingÀ there is always a risk of slight damage.

Ô |     º Because site curing is invariably inferior to curing prescribed for

standard specimensÀ the in-situ core strength is invariably lower than the standard specimens taken and tested

during concreting operations.