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Digital Signage in the Transportation Industry
INSIDE: Airports are leading the way with digital arrival/departure boards, digital signs in terminal restaurants and new methods of airport advertising, but the rest of the transportation industry is catching up. Find out what has worked, what hasn’t and find out what you need to know for your next deployment.
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Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 About the sponsors Introduction Chapter 1 | | An overview of digital signage Cost/benefit analysis How it affects the business process Why is it so challenging? Content delivery: Wired vs. wireless Unique features of digital signage networks Digital signage at the airport The arrival and departure board, reinvented The importance of real-time messaging at the airport Communicating with travelers Advertising in airports with digital signage Case study: ADFLOW Nuance Duty-free shops Digital signage on public transportation Displaying advertisements Taxi digital signage gets the green light Building the perfect screen layout Incorporation of RSS feeds Content and live TV implications N.Y. cabbies threaten strike over digital signs in cabs Case study: London Underground video network Digital signage on the road The controversy over digital billboards Digital billboards and advertising on the road Ask the expert: What is your opinion on digital billboards? Pump-top displays come of age Additional reading
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LG Electronics, Inc., is a global leader and technological innovator in the fields of consumer electronics and mobile communications. With more than 82,000 employees throughout the world, LG is a leading provider of LCDs, plasma screens, OLED modules and LED projectors. As established digital technologies continue to improve and new ones emerge, LG is committed to being on the forefront of the latest developments in digital signage.
Digital Signage Today, operated by Louisville, Ky.-based NetWorld Alliance, is the leading online publisher of news and information on the emerging world of digital signage, dynamic messaging and cutting-edge business communication technologies. The content, which is updated every business day and read by professionals around the world, is provided free of charge to readers.
Published by NetWorld Alliance. © 2008 www.networldalliance.com Written and edited by Bill Yackey, editor, Digital Signage Today Dick Good, CEO Tom Harper, president and publisher Bob Fincher, executive vice president and general manager, Technology Division Joseph Grove, senior vice president and associate publisher
o see the impact of digital signage on the transportation industry, a traveler doesn’t have to look far. On the way to the airport, he sees digital billboards lining the highway, changing their messages every 20 seconds or so. When he stops to get gas, he is entertained by weather and news reports from a pump-top video screen. Once at the airport, he checks the arrival/departure board, which is displayed on multiple flat screens. As he waits in the terminal, he engages in interactive touchscreen advertising. And once he lands and gets in a taxi, a rear-seat digital sign shows him where he is via GPS and shows ads for local restaurants. While writing this guide, I experienced that chain of events several times. I was able to chronicle the digital signage applications I saw while in Paris’ Gare du Nord and London’s St. Pancras stations, Chicago O’Hare Airport, Las Vegas McCarran Airport, New York LaGuardia Airport and the world’s busiest airport, London Heathrow. On the ground, I spent a considerable amount of time in New York taxis and on the London Underground, both of which utilize digital signage in unique ways, as we will explore later. In this guide, we will focus on ways the travel industry is using digital signage to make the experience easier for its customers, and technology that digital
signage companies are designing to capitalize on those opportunities. We would like to thank LG Electronics for their Bill Yackey, editor Digital Signage Today sponsorship of this guide, which allows us to provide it to you free of charge.
© 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media
Sponsored by LG Electronics, Inc.
© 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. the lines are blurred. other forms of messaging. they can communicate with computer networks and fetch new content. digital signs display interest rates and product information.Chapter 1 An overview of digital signage I n a world where flat-screen monitors are beginning to take over CRT televisions. it sometimes can be difficult to pinpoint the exact definition of digital signage. restaurants and hotels. as well as lifestyle messages and branding. or supplement. Inc. A flat screen in my house on which I watch TV? No. keeping travelers up-to-date on arrival and departure times while providing an advertising vehicle for shops. much less a network of many flat screens. and still is changing. simply wasn’t viable or costeffective. Screens were too expensive. Because digital signage has become so versatile and affordable. How it affects the business process Some of the ways digital signage is being used today include: In airports and bus stations. In banks. But the LCD/plasma revolution changed. too big and wore out too quickly. but this definition seems to encompass the generalities of digital signage: Digital signage is any form of business communication where a dynamic messaging device is used to take the place of. The ROI wasn’t strong enough. placing a flat screen. they are thin and can hang on a wall (which means no more CRT monitors hanging from the ceiling on sketchy mounts). A flat screen in an airport running live television? Maybe. Cost/benefit analysis Until very recently. eliminating the days of employees trotting from screen to screen with armloads of VCR tapes. the de facto standard for visual communication thus far. it is used in many venues. all of that. Screens are so affordable they can rival the printing costs of static posters over the course of time. As you can see. A flat screen on top of a gas pump running advertisements? Yes. 5 .
the tops of gas pumps — has the potential to improve its worth with an upgrade to digital. multiple screen sizes and orientations are used — and a 42-inch screen in landscape mode calls for very different content than a 32-inch screen in portrait. but none of them can be reused outright. 6 . existing media assets often provide a good starting point. communicating with customers about in-store specials. The greater the number of screens in the network. our definition might make digital signage seem like simplicity itself. In all but the simplest digital signage deployments. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Virtually any place that has printed signage — bus shelters and payphone booths. and grows every day. In banks. managing traffic and hotspots and conveying brand messages.” Why is it so challenging? On the surface. Digital signage content has a completely new set of requirements. Mike White. In casinos and entertainment venues. facilitating a level of communication between parties that would have been unthinkable just a few years ago. right? In the case of televisions and homes. Content needs will vary across the enterprise. the greater the organizational challenge for content. In doctors’ offices and waiting rooms. providing entertainment to bored patients while giving an ad vehicle to pharmaceutical companies and other providers. president of systems integration firm Multi-Media Solutions. that usually is all there is to it. in most cases. directing customers to other parts of the store. dynamic messaging. plug it in. yes. Inc. creating a customer experience that is consistent with the ambiance and atmosphere of excitement. for a number of reasons: The content strategy usually needs to be tackled from scratch. The list goes on. After all. Despite all the progress that has been made. turn it on — that’s all there is to it. In schools and on corporate campuses. shopping malls. most everyone has a television set in his home and. called digital signage “one of the toughest A/V installs in the world. But dynamic signage in the business environment is exponentially more complicated. that set was installed by the person who bought it.CHAPTER 1 An overv iew of digital signage In retail. digital signage still is a very complex proposition for the company installing it. as well as lifestyle messages and branding. although even this is changing as the evolving nature of home theater becomes more and more complex. Take it home. displaying interest rates and product information.
” — Keith Kelsen. CEO of worldwide marketing for MediaTile Company. All screens are connected using Cat 5 Ethernet cables and have access to the Internet. The most beneficial digital signage products touch one or more networks. Cellular digital signage allows screens to be connected to a network even when placed at long distances. How are all the screens in the network going to be connected? A popular choice to date has been to use a hard-wired intranet system similar to a local area network (LAN) in an office. At retail. Digital signage appears on the surface to be an IT project. The rub? It’s both. Some screens can lose the wires and be connected using Wi-Fi wireless connections. “A cellular-based network provides all of the advantages of Ethernet and Wi-Fi without getting tangled up in complicated infrastructure. Inc. wireless One of the major decisions that digital signage deployers are faced with has to do with connectivity. The MediaTile Company nage deployments in the transportation sector. and it increases with the number of networks and nodes involved.” Content delivery: Wired vs. We not only believe it’s the best option — we think that any solution that offers zero in-store or on-site wireless technology is the only option and the real future of connectivity.” said Keith Kelsen. And yet it also is a marketing initiative. But getting any two (or more) networks to communicate is an IT challenge. CEO of worldwide marketing. Very different business disciplines are at work. There are no hubs and servers. the signage network might be designed to communicate with the POS network. “There are no cables. in order to gauge content effectiveness versus sales. 7 . the connection is made through frequencies that our cell phones use. But a new movement in this space may prove especially effective for digital sig- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Unlike Wi-Fi.CHAPTER 1 An overv iew of digital signage Multiple networks might be involved. for instance. and calls for some real teamwork and sharing of duties. “A cellular-based network provides all of the advantages of Ethernet and Wi-Fi without getting tangled up in complicated infrastructure.
For example. 8 . For example. Time is known. Audience is known. (Excerpted from “Digital Signage Networks: Theory. the medium allows for animation and. If a display is near one particular product. Having dynamic. The specifics of an event can be known (concert. the content can be customized and tailored “on the fly” to each display device separately. Finally. Psychology and Strategy” by Pixel Inspiration Ltd. Another aspect of “place” that is quite relevant is the fact that often a display is near the point of purchase. Although the size of this effect and the explanation for why it happens are controversial.. Because the location of any display will be known. Content is dynamic. the content creation/distribution process is more rapid and less costly. content is “served” as a function of time of day. Compared to print.) © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. audience demographic and psychographic information can be well specified. content aimed at business travelers might be shown at an airport on Monday mornings and family-aimed content might be shown Friday afternoons. flight delay). Also. Inc. sale. reminder) or promote a complementary product or service available elsewhere. Events are known. the content on the display can be crafted strategically with this in mind.CHAPTER 1 An overv iew of digital signage Unique features of digital signage networks Place is known. Because time and place are known. Information related to the fusion of time and place can also be known. this information can be used to make the content more appropriate to the place. in the case of kiosks. A great deal of research has shown that advertisements near the point of purchase are far more effective. The traffic flow can be known. Such information — and its use — is limited only by the creativity of the digital signage network designers. For example. create an appropriate mind set (ambiance. current weather conditions can be known. reprinted with permission. the content could promote that product or its benefits. This allows for highly relevant “narrowcasting” that should speak directly to the audience at that moment. digital content has numerous advantages over other forms of advertising. it is clear that point-of-purchase information has a massive impact on behavior. Because a digital signage network is controlled by a computer system. interactive opportunities.
For processes such as booking and checking in to a flight. as well as aid the constant flow of traffic in the terminals. Simply put. but it serves a more important purpose of conveying updated flight and airport information to them. Airports have discovered that the traditional way of traveling — calling an airline to book a ticket. digital signage can make for a safer and more secure environment. Traveling is a matter of getting people places as fast and efficiently as possible. When people outside of the industry discuss digital signage and self-service applications. For airport authorities. security point and gate and referring to an analog-style flight board — could be improved greatly by the use of digital signage and kiosks. it is becoming unnecessary to have an airline employee assist customers. They were updated by airline © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. reinvented Just as airports have become some of the most fertile places for digital signage to grow. more variations on the technologies exist inside the walls of airports than in most places. which is critical in the fast-paced airport setting. these boards were mechanical and flipped flight numbers around in a rotating fashion. the arrival and departure boards in airport terminals scream digital signage opportunity. the arrival and departure boards in airport terminals scream digital signage opportunity. The arrival and departure board. Inc. airlines and airport authorities realized (and still are realizing) that those robot-like tasks didn’t require humans.Chapter 2 Digital signage at the airport I n the past 10 years. Leading that vertical is the airport industry. their conversations often turn to examples in the airport setting. Just as airports have become some of the most fertile places for digital signage to grow. which has automated travel processes and used these technologies to speed up the entire travel process. the travel industry has been one of the leading sectors of digital signage and self-service expansion. Dynamic messaging on screens is aesthetically pleasing for travelers. 9 . Digital signage is emerging as a way of enhancing that travel experience from a customer point of view. Traditionally. while making the process easier for airport and airline employees. After all. checking in at the terminal.
The importance of real-time messaging at the airport When people consider airport digital signage. director of marketing and business development for Keywest Technology. But the potential is there. FIDS also have the ability to make the information larger so it can be seen from farther away. Some European train stations still use this method. taxis and little else.” said David Little. the lights spell out the flight names and departure/arrival times in bright red and green set against a black background. 10 . which. FIDS can help with the traffic flow of airports by allowing people to see the flight information in multiple areas en route to their terminal. Along with the traditional back-end benefits of digital signage such as real-time updating and network connectivity. The next step of digital signage being used as arrival and departure boards is known in the industry as Flight Information Display Systems (FIDS). Generally. and each board had to be changed individually when a flight was delayed or changed. with larger airports moving to digital signage faster than smaller ones. like digital signage. restau- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. “What I see as a critical need that digital signage could effectively address in airports is wayfinding. “Airport digital signage can include information on popular destinations. the LED arrival board can be found in most airports around the country.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport employees. can be updated remotely. When the lights appear in a moving ticker format.” Little said. The next advancement for airport arrival boards was LED light boards. The state of arrival boards lies somewhere between LED and digital. among others. Philadelphia International Airport. a digital signage hardware and software provider. Inc. some airports have used larger-than-normal screens sizes and also put screens side by side. although they may not be the most effective use of digital signage in that setting. they immediately think about arrival boards and alert systems. To help with this. Sea-Tac International Airport. Little points out that in airports wayfinding signage typically is stagnant and directs travelers to baggage claims. with dynamic messages displayed across them. One of the biggest disadvantages to the light boards is that they aren’t visually appealing to the traveler. Boston Logan Airport and Anchorage Airport. thus preventing the large crowds that can gather under LED boards trying to read their flight info. the words become harder to read. “There are so many features available at modern airports and train stations that it takes a bit of digital creativity to assist people with all of the options available to them. Nonetheless. Washington Dulles Airport. FIDS and variations of this technology have been deployed in the Denver Airport.
and English airports have been forced to expand regulations for carry-on items. because of a digital signage network’s ability to be updated immediately and constantly. not just point to their intended gate. Enter a digital signage opportunity in the Manchester (England) Airport. 2001. founder and marketing and network developer for SeeSaw Networks. Communicating with travelers With increased security measures taking effect in airports globally. shops and hotels as well as timely information on local events and possibly the opportunity to buy tickets.” said Rocky Gunderson. Already a popular commodity at industry trade shows. digital wayfinding signs allow travelers to choose their route and learn about the airport before they enter the terminal. 11. a hungry traveler could not only use a digital wayfinding system to locate his gate. and that those liquids must be in clear bottles in a clear plastic bag. Touch technology is available on digital signs in sizes as large as 50 inches. Wait times were becoming longer after the regulation was put in place. recent attack attempts on airports have resulted in stricter TSA regulations as to what passengers can bring on a plane. England particularly has been one of the primary targets for airport terrorism since 9/11. 11 . One well-known example is the 100-milliliter liquid regulation. In the United States. For example. but also see what food offerings were in that area. Automatic RSS feeds could keep the boards updated so the network could operate with little human involvement. the volume allowed is three ounces. Similar to the aftermath of Sept. wayfinding signs could change to direct travelers to their flights by the name of their destination. Airport digital signage can include information on restaurants. mainly because people either forgot to throw away © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. which says passengers can carry a maximum of 100 milliliters of any liquid on a plane. travelers once again have seen an increase in wait time in the security checkpoint area. which will give way to more touchscreen wayfinding signs in the future. shops and hotels as well as timely information on local events and possibly the opportunity to buy tickets.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport rants. Inc. Also.
CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport their liquids or didn’t understand the parameters of the regulation.” said Barry Bugg. rear-projection screens in the check-in area. 12 . “As a result. The network was made up of 97 83-inch. but also enables airports to broadcast clear and vivid marketing and safety messages to passengers as they wait to check in. which costs us a great deal of money to dispose of. One example exists in the McGhee Tyson Airport in Knoxville. in a news release. Included in the system was a digital signage network in the airport that informed travelers of the new “Check before you check-in” campaign. American airports are using digital signage to speed up the security check-in process. a lack of awareness has meant that passengers have been surrendering bottles and liquids in their thousands. “Digital signage is really taking off in airports right now as it not only provides flexible branding opportunities for airlines. sun creams. In addition to the regulation messages. aerosols. Each day. The airport sees more than 120 arrivals and departures daily and seats about 4.” — Barry Bugg. developed a multichannel information system to get the message of the new regulation to its passengers before they got to the gate. The screens ran animated notices on the network that targeted travelers waiting in line to check in to their flights. the signs were used to display airport branding messages and marketing messages. tons of waste has been generated.” The Manchester Airport. head of product development for Manchester Airport. McGhee Tyson Airport services most of the East Tennessee area as well as provides service for air cargo and military aviation. Tenn. but also enables airports to broadcast clear and vivid marketing and safety messages to passengers as they wait to check in. account director for Pixel Inspiration © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Across the pond. including water. The Metropolitan Knoxville Airport Authority decided to integrate digital signage into its security checkpoint op- “Digital signage is really taking off in airports right now as it not only provides flexible branding opportunities for airlines. Manchester Airport disposed of more than a ton of liquids from passengers. deodorants and perfumes.” said Jackie Neville. “Even though these restrictions have been in place for a year.000 passengers at one time. Inc. in conjunction with digital signage provider Pixel Inspiration. account director for Pixel Inspiration. Though not large compared to neighboring Nashville International or Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta.
The screens are mounted above the escalators that take passengers to and from the concourses. McGhee Tyson’s digital signs are pow- ered by RePromotion Enhanced media players. The original billboards were ads for Grand Sierra Resort. The digital signs also were used to alert passengers of any changes in the Homeland Security Advisory threat level. Inc. Here are some examples of other digital signage applications in airports geared at reaching customers as they travel: Reno/Tahoe International Airport: In May 2007. aided by the fact that the airport has huge floor-to-ceiling windows. which allowed the signal to communicate between the two units. Like in the Manchester Airport. the Knoxville Airport Authority wanted to display clear and visible signs for sharing information. and it was the resort that wanted to upgrade its billboards to digital signs. which is in a different building than the security checkpoints. the screens were in view from the office. with most of them suspended from the ceiling with flat-screen mounts. They worked in conjunction with Multi-Media Solutions for the project. which are attached to the back of the Mitsubishi LCD screens. The media players accept content from the central PC wirelessly and can be programmed to play the content back on the screens at chosen time intervals. which acted as the central hub in the adjacent building. and the signs have © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. instructions and special announcements regarding security checks and the procedures required to pass through the checkpoints. The Reno/Tahoe deployment is a good example of the advantages digital signage can provide for advertisers. taken directly from a feed to the airport’s Web site. Luckily. in addition to reaching captive travelers. The content changed every eight seconds. IBI set up the screens so they were controlled by an on-site PC running its I-Screen software.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport eration when Department of Homeland Security standards and guidelines were raised. three static billboards at Reno/Tahoe International Airport were replaced with three 65-inch plasma screens. The antenna was able to easily connect the signs to the PC wirelessly. The content needed to be controlled remotely from a central hub. 13 . The resort worked in conjunction with Image Base International (IBI) on the project. IBI and Grand Sierra installed digital signs in the Grand Sierra hotel lobby that are updated with real-time flight information. The overall goal of the project was to make sure passengers were more prepared to pass through the security checkpoint before they stepped in line. the mounting of the LCD screens was standard. As far as the digital signs themselves.
In Ezeiza. 14 . In the digital signage industry.000 square feet. Grand Sierra Resort has the ability to update the content remotely from the hotel on a real-time basis. boarding. however. Santiago International Airport has more than 7 million passengers that fly in and out of the airport each year. we often talk about reaching captive audiences. it provides huge advantages for reaching customers. Advertising in airports with digital signage Ask any advertising expert about digital signage and he’ll tell you that one thing is for sure. was on a huge scale. which also designed a 4-by-4 plasma video wall for the airport. Uruguay-based Obvio designed and installed two signage projects inside the duty-free shops in the departure terminals. This project. which displays advertising and public information. The content shown on the screens is very similar to that at the Ezeiza Airport. arrival and departure boards — and one for just advertising. Inc. counters. One project was in the back of the shop. More than 280 42-inch Samsung plasma screens were deployed throughout the domestic and international terminals at the airport. where Obvio integrated plasma display monitors into an existing backlit display. Santiago (Chile) International Airport: Chile’s main airport finished a digital signage deployment in May 2007. A news release reported that the Ezeiza screen is the largest frameless plasma screen in Latin America. The deployment was orchestrated by Scala Inc.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport the ability to show different content on each screen. Monte- video. 60 percent of whom are international. Obvio designed two other types of backwall digital signage units in the duty-free shops in Guarulhos Airport in Brazil. Those advantages are enhanced in an airport setting. From an advertising standpoint. The screens were connected to a network that provided six channels of content — counter assignment. Researchers try to find when and where consumers will be most likely to look at © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. It gets attention. baggage claim. give price comparisons and inform customers of special promotions. Best of all for the advertiser. Ezeiza (Argentina) International Airport: Another Scala InfoChannel Network was deployed at the Ezeiza International Airport in Argentina around the same time as Santiago Airport’s. Both the plasma video wall and the back wall signage are used to promote brands sold within the store. The airport has 115 service counters and the facility covers 295. The other is a large video wall composed of frameless plasma displays. in partnership with Chilebased ViewMax.
More digital signage geared toward advertising is being seen in concourses. many of those researchers have found that consumers pay more attention to digital signage content when they are in a situation where they are waiting. Mo. is seeing such an influx of digital signage applications. The Kansas City. or FBOs). Not incidentally. bringing a mix of advertisements and information to c-level executives. It’s an audience powerful enough to make ad buyers drool: JetSet’s typical audience member has a net worth of $10 million and an investment portfolio JetSet Media So far. By doing this. as well as in the small commercial businesses that exist inside the airport. we’ve touched on airport digital signage in the sense that it is deployed in the concourse setting and is designed © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. celebrities and athletes. Inc. all of which increases their marketing and advertising effectiveness. play content at specific times of day and remotely control their displays. where people wait for hours at a time for flights. All of these companies use digital signage as an alternative to the traditional static signage and backlit displays. food courts and media companies that buy advertising all are taking advantage of this outlet when it is available.-based digital signage content provider operates screens in 70 private terminals (known in industry parlance as fixed base operations.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport digital signs and. Rich demographics don’t get much richer than JetSet.” and it occurs when a customer perceives his wait time to be shorter because he is entertained during that period of time. they have the ability to decrease the amount the costs of printing signs. It is another reason why the airport. The term is called “wait warping. when and where they can be most influenced by digital signage to spend money. But one company is focusing its digital signage efforts on a more exclusive and hard-to-reach group: the elite traveler. Retail shops. 15 . most importantly. Retails shops in airport terminals are beginning to see the advantages of digital signage as an alternative to traditional static signage and backlit displays. to appeal to coach and first-class passengers.
“I often say getting the first six was much harder than getting the last 50. Kauffman said many of his customers use the screens as a central source of planning information. “This FBO industry is a very conservative group.” he said. Ads can run on a playlist or can be triggered by external stimuli (for instance. It was an ad that had run in print magazines for years. an advertiser can have different pieces of content for different weather conditions). when they are buying 1. The company was founded in January 2006. proprietor of Fort Lauderdale-based National Jets.” That seems to be the case in other facilities. “Once we saw the screen. Since the network would be subsidized by advertisements. President and founder George Kauffman said landing those first few venues was incredibly difficult. And what’s more. we were sold. or just in desired markets.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport of $6 million.. without gen- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. such as fuel prices and jet sales.” Kauffman said his company started with an extensive interview process. Inc. we knew going in that (we’d need) at least 50 FBOs in order to sell a single ad on this network. a Flash application that pulls data from the FAA to show all inbound flights.” said Russ Boy Jr. and turned on its first screen in May of that year. The screens run on software from Popstar Networks.” Part of the screen’s value proposition for both FBO and passenger is the Flight Tracker. Weather radar gets a slice of the screen real estate. 16 . as well. directing everyone from limo drivers to family members to use them. buys a new luxury car once a year and owns at least two homes. “The screen sure does get a lot of attention in my facility. a delicate balance had to be struck. as does the FBO owner himself — a portion of the screen is devoted to advertising local products and services.500 gallons of jet fuel for $5 a gallon. Ad buyers not only get access to an incredibly exclusive audience. “Losing or disappointing a single customer is something they generally will not risk. they can segment that audience even further and target it geographically. JetSet ran a piece of advertiser content from Cessna that poked fun at turboprop planes (“Friends don’t let friends fly turboprops”). asking FBO owners what kind of information would be useful to their passengers without being intrusive or overpowering. Earlier this year. so asking them to alter their business even in the slightest of manners is taken very seriously. “Gaining the venues was nearly impossible in the early going. ads can run across the entire JetSet network.” he said.
” create a captive audience. private airport settings is a great way for marketers to influence high-end purchases. and users have the ability to control what type of content is displayed on the screen by touch. The content was developed by professionals in Accenture’s Technol- Chicago O’Hare International Airport One of the limitations of airport signage of any kind is that it often can be overlooked by passengers as they rush to get to the ticket counter or to their flights. 17 . An emerging tactic from advertising companies has been to use interactivity as a way to draw people in and One of the limitations of airport signage of any kind is that it often can be overlooked by passengers as they rush to get to the ticket counter or to their flights. and simply pulled down that tag line. “Marketers looking to increase their brand awareness among this elite audience need to reassess their media plans.” Kauffman said his company is on target to have screens in 130 to 150 FBOs by the end of 2008. entertainment and sports content. The high-definition screen measures 10 feet by seven feet and displays news. “Cessna was thrilled. in a news release.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport erating a single complaint. “Reaching this affluent demographic group between destinations in comfortable. with most of the growth due to word-of-mouth referrals. especially among those travelers who have to wait in terminals for flights. but the underlying point is that the ad was being seen and eliciting an immediate response. The display is made up of nine separate DLP screens combined to make one large display. The screen is touchenabled. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Within three days of the ad going up on the JetSet screens. “Typically.” Kauffman said.” said Laura Davis. Inc. Accenture. the company had received 37 complaints from customers who feared the ad would insult their valued flyers. digital media consultant to retailers. As part of this initiative. which means that multiple users can control content at the same time. weather. a Chicago-based management consulting and technology services company created a high-definition interactive display in the Chicago O’Hare International Airport. I wouldn’t tout such an event. It also has multitouch capability.
But these signs. which are used for advertising. has signed a two-year agreement with Monster Media for the immersive advertisements. Alliance Airport Advertising. Monster Media is using the signs for immersion-based advertising. Las Vegas McCarran Airport The Las Vegas Strip is a virtual blur of digital signage in its most extravagant form.based Monster Media. The first advertiser to take advantage of Monster’s program was TravelZoo. but Monster Media insists that since the data is not recorded in any way. it costs $3. The company also noted that by entering a public space. In addition to the freestanding Accenture digital displays. it is completely legal. has plans to install a large digital billboard indoors. where passers-by are filmed by a small camera and their images show up on the screen as part of the advertisement. For example. At its inception. Elsewhere in one of the Midwest’s largest airports. Although not as flashy and large. According to Alliance. which sells the indoor ads for McCarran Airport. irritating waits at the airport. 18 . Clear Channel Outdoor. some questions were raised as to the legality of taking someone’s picture and putting it on the screens without his permission. you automatically give up that right. The board will feature eight 6-by-8 foot LED screens. and he hopes it will take their minds off long. And Alliance likes the concept. digital signs have been placed in McCarran by Orlando. an online travel publisher. aren’t just standard examples of digital signage. One of TravelZoo’s first ads featured an interactive slot machine where customers could virtually pull down the handle and win travel-related prizes. mainly because it brings in more money than traditional static advertising.000 per month to advertise on a static sign. while Monster yields $12. the largest outdoor advertising company. Viewers can interact with aspects of the advertisement by moving their hands or bodies around. such as an airport or transit system. like appearing in a tourist photo. viewers can make Skittles candy scatter on the screen by waving their hands across a © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. so it only makes sense that Vegas’ McCarran Airport follows suit.000 per month for each advertiser using the interactive digital signage. Fla. pile of them in the ad. and all of the screens can be updated remotely from that location. programmed to run eight-second advertising spots continuously.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport ogy Labs. O’Hare International is seeing more digital signage used for advertising going up on its walls. Inc. Monster Media CEO Chris Beauchamp says customers are entertaining themselves with the digital signs. anyway.
serve two purposes: Some Nuance Group is the largest global of them are mounted in store duty-free retailer in the world. you do not have much time to influence their purchasing decision. therefore. while the rest are situatAmerican branch decided to install ed strategically inside the store. and also allow the nage provider ADFLOW flexibility of updating and changing Networks. the company’s North traffic in.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport Case Study: ADFLOW Nuance Duty-free Shops To travelers. 19 .” said “The screens allow for vivid. connected to ADattention and trying to influence FLOW’s media player hardware and their buying decisions is tough. “The airport communications almost instantly. “The screens allow for vivid. animated Wayne Ruttle. where most of the traffic is hurried. The system. The Nuance Group with customers on the fly.” said Mona Lee-Tam. animated visuals to be changed in a very short period of time. facing outward to bring In 2004. windows. in an forts and allowing the retailer to attempt to catch the attention of tap co-op advertising dollars. Nuance’s North American director of marketing and promotions. nothing is more important than getting where they need to be on time.” Web-based content management With 320 stores in airports. vice visuals to be changed in a very short president of digital sigperiod of time. “It is also more cost-effective than updating traditional print media. Inc. seven digital displays at its stores strengthening merchandising efin Toronto Pearson Airport. some of the estimated 25 million people per year who pass through. North American director of marketing retail environment and promotions.” is a hustle-and-bustle — Mona Lee-Tam. This presents a challenge to those companies that choose to market their products in airports. and attracting their The screens. Continued on the next page © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics.” “Travelers do not have much time to browse and. and also allow the flexibility of updating and changing communications almost instantly.
It created a one-minute video clip and purchased a month’s worth of time on the instore displays. Web-based content management Toronto International is in the system provides the company middle of a 10-year. 2010.” to meet specific retail objectives. Inc. was one of the main reasons Nuall networked and controlled by ance chose ADFLOW. Nuance will have expanded its signage program to 36 display Ruttle said the Web-based system screens throughout the airport. its stores in Toronto Pearson Airport in an attempt to catch the attention of some of the estimated 25 milSince Nuance has supplilion people per year who pass through. our strategic in nature and designed Web-hosted solution was ideal. multibillionwith an always-open pipeline dollar expansion and developfor incoming content. managing its media assets Growth is on the way for both is no small task. 20 . But the ADFLOW the airport and for Nuance. By the end of where in the world.retailer in the world — has installed digital displays at ficiencies for the retailer.” he said. ers all over the world. from anyment program. the other the ADFLOW system. The result? A sales record for that product during the promotion. “Digiinfrastructure was off-limits to tal signage works best when it is any digital-signage initiative.CHAPTER 2 Digital signage at the airport Case in point: A key liquor supplier wanted to run a national promotion on one of its products within Nuance stores. “Millions of people every month will see the screens and react “Since their corporate network accordingly. duty-free significant operational ef. The screens also provide The Nuance Group — the largest global. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics.” Ruttle said. was the fact that the company offered an IT-free solution.
Inc. One reason that advertising has seen such success in these areas is that. president of the Out-of-Home Video Advertising Bureau. such as TransitTV.” said Kim Norris. 21 . Some Tube stations require riders to take an elevator to the ground level. James Brenner. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. where a message is displayed successively from sign to sign as the rider moves up the escalator. Sometimes these signs show the same advertisement while some are of the “Burma-Shave” nature. Static signage long has been prevalent in public transportation venues. showing ads for off-Broadway shows. the average exposure for a consumer to a network. and are looking for a way to kill time. one of digital signage’s biggest advantages is that it has the ability to attract attention from consumers in such a way that it draws that attention away from static signage. such as bus stops. or as Londoners call it. and on the walls of the escalator are small signs that run from top to bottom. But one British digital signage company — Esprit Digital — has gone one step further. is about one hour and 40 minutes. makeup and shoes.C. One characteristic of the Tube is that riders generally use escalators to reach the ground level. Studies have shown that people waiting in these areas are more susceptible to receiving information. At London’s Tottenham Court Underground station. advertisements line the inside of the walls. people are going to have to wait. Take the London Underground system. the traditional paper signs on either side of the escalators have been replaced with screens.” Almost every square inch of tile space in these subterranean stops is covered with wall advertisements placed by companies such as J. Decaux and CBS Outdoor. president of Esprit Advertising and informational signage have long been prevalent in public transportation venues.Chapter 3 Digital signage on public transportation A s discussed in Chapter 2. as with any kind of public transportation. “the Tube. Once on the trains themselves. and those elevators mirror the rest of the Tube walls. train stations and ferry docks. with a Tube map intermittently placed between them. “On buses and trains. Studies have shown that people waiting in these areas are more susceptible to receiving information. and are looking for a way to kill time.
prepared for the release of the film “Rocky Balboa. (For more information about escalator digital signage in the London Underground network. 22 . Cayin’s back-end technology. the CMS Content Management Server. At the snack bar. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Esprit had a demo of footage of “Rocky Balboa” running alongside passengers as they went up the escalator. which placed the 29 flat screens on the ship. allowing those signs to stand out in the sea of ads that are on the walls. see the case study at the end of this chapter. was outfitted with a digital signage solution that was placed throughout the ship.” Brenner said Esprit has a contract to install the system at other Tube stations. The solution was designed by Electrosonic Lightinen and Cayin Technology. the screens are used as digital menu boards. Tallink Cruise Lines operates cruise Cruise lines. which allow them to maximize that precious and expensive advertising space by allowing more than one ad to run throughout the day. The dynamic. Estonia. Finland.) Cruise lines. the M/S Star. like many available in this market. At Screen Expo Europe 2007 in London. Inc. The company’s newest cruise liner. and Helsinki. The software allows different content to be played at different sites. Companies like CBS Outdoor have begun to transform their movie posterlike signs into digital signs. Also. being dynamic. pizzeria. Digital signs are placed over the ice-cream bar. digital signage easily found a home in the Tube stations and is becoming a regular occurrence in London public transportation. runs the network and is controlled by a Webbased user interface. entrance and the shopping area. which display pictures of menu items and price tickers. can operate all of the screens from a central location and allows remote management of the content.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation Digital said his company has patented software that allows ads to move alongside riders from one screen to the next as they ride up the elevator. The Cayin CMS server. have been keen to adopt digital signage and applications that provide information and advertisements. ships that run between Tallinn. have been keen to adopt digital signage and applications that provide information and advertisements. which are used to offering luxurious accommodations for guests on their liners. As in most places in central London. informational content that runs on the screens is powered by a networked SMP-PRO2 media player. the digital signs are catching more people’s attentions. with a strong presence in the food court area. snack bar. which are used to offering luxurious accommodations for guests on their liners.
fitness equipment and facilities in high definition.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation messages to be prescheduled and streaming video to be broadcast live from the Web. of course — layered into the content. according to D2 and AKQA. Here are some examples of how advertisers targeting passengers have capitalized on this technology: Nokia interactive digital signage: Above the Tube in Central London. 23 . The screen serves as a way to keep Tube passengers busy while waiting as well as an advertisement for Nokia’s N95 cell phone. There is even footage of a woman — in HD. D2 replaced one wall with an orange ad for the Treo 680 — though the actual device in the ad was a 42-inch Panasonic flat screen programmed to display the 680’s Web-site browsing abilities. The bus shelters were chosen based on targeted demographic audiences. where users can play a “matching game” on the large phone’s screen. at © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. is an example of interactive digital signage. the entrance to the Tottenham Court station.600-passenger cruise liners. AKQA leaned on D2 for the design of interactive bus-shelter kiosks that used interactive digital signs that simulated interaction with the new Treos. guiding users through the system and making recommendations on spa treatments and other services. The screens let guests preview the spa treatments. Upon launching several 3. Yahoo!. The result was a virtual concierge service. which included billboards and street teams riding on Segways. Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines installed digital signage to promote its spa and fitness facilities. RCCL wanted a highimpact screen that included sound. a media and technology advertising agency. As part of its campaign. Displaying advertisements We have discussed how digital signage provides excellent opportunities for advertisers. also has had involvement in placing digital signage on cruise ships. In each shelter. Interactive bus station signage for the Palm Treo 680: The D2 Palm Treo 680 digital-signage deployment made significant waves when it hit Times Square in November 2006. The project included a $25 million marketing campaign headed up by AKQA. D2 and AKQA joined forces with Google. a digital signage and kiosk software provider. Inc. done through two 65-inch high-definition screens equipped with touch capability and placed outside of the spa and fitness center. eBay and Fandango — brands known and trusted by Palm’s targeted demographic. Nokia recently put up an interactive touchscreen. Nanonation. In keeping with its luxurious high-end facilities.
a long-awaited approval from the New York Taxi & Limousine commission went through. When passers-by walked by the orange Treo wall. said Brian Hubbard. a member of the installation crew. The network features short form content that is exclusive to NBC.” said Sandy Nix. The hardware was developed by Creative Mobile Technologies and is known as the FREEdom Solution. allowing the installation of in-taxi digital signage. president of D2 Sales. communication between taxis and improve service for passengers. The computers were built by D2 to withstand extreme heat and cold. ABC and Clear Channel to move ahead with installation of in-taxi digital signage. The screens. Inc. the network allows Taxi digital signage gets the green light In summer 2007. In summer 2007. Nix said the texting feature gives advertisers a gauge for judging a campaign’s success. a long-awaited approval from the New York Taxi & Limousine commission went through. they were prompted to use text messaging to control content displayed on the sign. Clear Channel and NBC Universal are working together to run NY10. The project had been piloted in the spring by the commission in an effort to boost © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. He said passers-by began texting the sign before the installation was finished. allowing companies such as NBC Universal. are used for advertising and can be GPS controlled to run advertisements depending on what part of town the cab happens to be in. In addition to running content. Each sign offered wireless connectivity to the media network. as well as content from NBC News. NBCU and some network programming.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation A computer stored behind each Treo sign powered the digital sign. in New York City cabs. “The benefit of this is that it works as a beautiful promotional device on a driveby basis. Clear Channel Taxi’s entertainment network. The results of the project were immediate. MSNBC. 24 . or to passers-by. D2 promoted the Treo in Times Square through an orange vinyl wrap that covered the side of a Times Square building. some of them with interactive capability.
Especially useful for improving customer experience in areas such as train stations or airports where waiting or queuing is involved. Then display screens in the hallways of the airport reinforce those messages right through luggage pick-up. featuring shows such as Eyewitness News. but the ability to design that screen so that it can run multiple pieces of content and information at one time. New York’s WABC-TV runs content supported by advertisers on the network. shopping. AccuWeather.” Incorporation of RSS feeds Digital signage gives deployers the ability to not only run constantly changing dynamic content. yet not make it cluttered and hard to read. A common concern among deployers is how to design the screen layout of their digital signs to maximize space for information. Inc. “We also see the day when in-flight digital signage screens cater to travelers about restaurants. nightlife and lodging information from the Zagat Survey. ABC is partnering with Verifone for a project called TAXI-TV. However. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. they also allow the deployer much more space in which to work. With screen sizes up to 103 inches these days. 2007. 1. hotels and events taking place in the city they are traveling to just before landing. not all is well with the cab drivers who are being forced to install these digital signs in their cabs.” said Wayne Ruttle. Real-time information generally includes feeds from the Internet that show up-to- Building the perfect screen layout Not only do large digital signs increase customer impressions. real-time information encourages wait warping. deployers in the travel industry have been opened up to a new set of opportunities. By Aug. news ticker.) “We are seeing two types of screen layouts. ESPN and restaurant. “One includes entertainment content on a zoned screen to broadcast live TV. The second one is very large format display screens grouped in bunches that broadcast advertising in a very impactful and impressive way. One way that this is accomplished is through real-time information provision. (See sidebar for details on the New York cabbie strike. etc. 25 . all New York City taxi cab medallion owners were required to sign up for the integrated payment and content management program. vice president of ADFLOW Networks. Advertisers will indeed take advantage.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation passengers to see GPS maps of where they are and supports electronic funds transfer so passengers can pay the cab fare with a credit or debit card.
The footage is delivered to the digital signs through the digital media network. and even more impressed with digital signage that provides them with accurate. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. and even more impressed with digital signage that Also. overall customer experience is improved by means of wait warping. the deployers reap many benefits. explains how to legally run TV content. relevant and up-todate news and weather reports. The updated information is collected and sent using an aggregator program. Also. But travelers may not immediately consider this digital signage. Lastly. RSS is used to inform users of blog entries. in most cases. a lawyer in Dallas.0). The Internet supplies tools that allow updates to be sent automatically to specified addresses. provides them with accurate. deployers double the effectiveness of their digital signage networks by combining the RSS feeds supplying news and weather info with their existing advertisements and promotional content. 26 . In addition to news and weather. Inc. In addition. One of the most popular Web feed formats is called RSS. The combination has the potential to draw more eyes to the screen and use the news and weather feature to expose customers to promotional content who normally wouldn’t take the time to watch. All of the delivering can be done at every level without human assistance. Customers who choose to include live RSS news and weather updates leverage their digital signage networks to provide even more benefits for their customers. The truth is. In the next section. which receives the information at its central hub via the Internet. without the user having to visit each Web site to access that information. which means customers are more apt to return for future business. The content is not being broadcast. RSS is used to publish content that is updated frequently. which in its current format means Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2. Content and live TV implications Oftentimes in airport terminals and train stations we see flat screens running normal TV programming such as CNN or MSNBC. customers generally are impressed with digital signage. As we said earlier. Running live TV and television programming in airports or stations can be tricky due to the legal ramifications involved. rather it is being narrowcasted to the screens through a digital media network. that is digital signage by definition. customers generally are impressed with digital signage. podcasts or sports scores. relevant and up-to-date news and weather reports. Robert Scott.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation the-minute news and weather updates.
digital signage offers the ultimate capability: Retailers can deliver targeted messages as dictated by customers’ interests. Common uses and copyright obligations The concept of using television display in consumer environments has been around a long time. bring the retail environment to life and generally enhance the customers’ overall in-store experience. Retailers are incorporating LCD or plasma display panels into store design. Before you run out and buy a set of monitors to display digital signage around cable television content. When using a signage provider to access and deliver cable television content. the subscriber — in this case. fast-food restaurants and gas stations are benefiting from the electronic medium. However. Displaying cable television in a digital signage medium without express written permission probably would constitute prohibited commercial use and the subscriber would have breached its Embedded. One popular method of display lets retailers display digital advertising around cable television content. promote products and specials. Even if commercial use is allowed. While an effective and burgeoning market for advertising. product information. high-definition content combined with television feeds from popular networks such as CNN.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation Digital signage. even public © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. announcements. it is important to be aware of the parameters of the contract between your provider and the cable companies. Inc. Promotions. 27 . retail spots and brand loyalty messages permeate the consumer environment while cable television feeds offer entertainment. but it is only with the recent proliferation of affordable flatpanel monitors that digital signage has become a marketing stronghold. Content is king. ESPN or MTV enable retailers to draw customers in. good planning and investigation into any legal ramifications should be your first step. live television and the law By Robert Scott spaces such as transit hubs. the format is not without its potential legal implications. banks and financial institutions are incorporating televisions into lobby areas. As a communications tool. The signage provider’s contract with the cable provider often includes a provision limiting use to “noncommercial” settings. requirements and spending habits. with this amount of television content being pulled from numerous sources and providers across varying networks come considerable copyright considerations for the content user. the retail outlet — must obtain permission from the cable provider before such use is possible.
The retailer’s digital sign is duplicating the cable provider’s service. This means that if the digital signage network in any way changes the original appearance or delivery of the cable content — for example. And the same applies to music. to prevent further infringements by the digital signage user. 28 . by dividing the television screen into parts and displaying advertising around the cable content — the signage provider would be liable. and the infringer is required to prove his or her deductible expenses and the elements of profit attributable to factors other than Potential pitfalls to avoid Altering content: According to copyright laws. family-owned bars for copyright infringement actions. remedies may include the impounding or destruction of the offending articles and charges of criminal liability. ASCAP has been known to pursue even small. Licensing: If secondary transmission of cable signals. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. any user other than the owner of the cable transmission does not have the right to alter the transmission in any way. In this case. In addition to potential contractual violations the content user may have made. how do bars transmit sports events for patrons? Licensing. In such cases. called an injunction. More often than not. In other words. Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). the copyright owner will seek monetary damages and an order. it is imperative that the content user can deliver accurate records. statutory damages and injunctions. Actual damages include profits earned by the user as a direct result of the digital signage displays. Bars and other venues license the right to play cable television for a fee. the Copyright Act may be implicated.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation contract with the cable provider. however. a secondary transmission is the transmission of cable television broadcasts by the digital signage network simultaneously with the primary transmission from the cable channel itself. This is where contractual and copyright issues come into play. In extreme cases. remedies could include actual damages. modified or not. Inc. The copyright owner is required to present proof only of the infringer’s gross revenue. the digital signage network retransmits a cable signal simultaneously with the cable provider. is illegal. Potential damages If copyright infringement claims are brought and upheld. One such licensing organization is The American Society of Composers. Ignoring an available license program and transmitting content without permission could result in fines or a lawsuit. The content in cable television is copyrighted in its entirety and the replaying of it in a digital signage medium constitutes what is known as a secondary transmission.
the advice of an attorney with expertise in licensing and copyrights can be an invaluable resource. businesses can take simple steps to mitigate these risks. Retailers should examine their subscriber agreements carefully to determine the extent of their transmission rights. depending on the complexity of the case and the amount of work involved. could reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. and one well worth the cost to avoid costly mistakes down the road. Remember that with new technology and ingenuity also come new considerations and obligations for both providers and users. Robert Scott is managing partner of Dallas-based Scott & Scott LLP. a legal firm specializing in IT compliance management. 29 . Statutory damages are determined by the judge. When reviewing these or any legal documen- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. which. Courts use a number of factors in determining whether to assess costs and fees against the infringer. The defendant in a copyright infringement case may be forced to pay the plaintiff’s court costs and attorney’s fees.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation the copyrighted work. though if the court finds the content user acted willfully. The guidelines dictate that damages may range from $750 to $30. tation.000 per infringement. Protecting your businesses Though there are some potentially costly consequences when discussing copyright infringement. that ceiling is raised to $150. Conducting early research into the benefits and pitfalls of digital signage is the first step in preparing a plan to ensure your business is protected.000 per infringement. Inc.
entertainment content and two-way messaging to speed the retrieval of lost items. Allan Fromberg. But under the terms of the TLC program.” said Bhairavi Desai. “The taxi cab is a quintessential New York symbol. electronic trip sheets that automatically record the information drivers currently capture with pen and paper.Y. New York drivers will take part in a strike. 30 . “We think it could be every taxi on the street. two-way text messaging to help garages communicate more quickly with drivers about lost items.” she said. GPS tracking at the heart of disagreement The TLC’s Technology Enhancement program is built around four key requirements: universal credit/debit card acceptance. particularly in the form of card acceptance. At issue is the Taxi & Limousine Commission’s Taxi Technology Enhancement program.and debit-card payments.087 cabs. But a number of cabbies say the devices not only will invade their privacy. which is estimated to carry a total price tag of about $20 million for the city’s 13. she anticipates most. which would place displays in the back seats of all of the city’s cabs by February 2008. Desai said those fees would amount to about $1. co-founder of the New York Taxi Workers’ Alliance. cabbies threaten strike over digital signs in cabs A large number of New York City taxi drivers are upset about a technology upgrade that is being implemented in their cars. City officials say the goal is strictly to improve customer service. is the primary push for the program. said customer service. and have threatened a two-day strike that could bring much of the city’s cab service to a halt. and a passenger-facing screen that displays real-time maps of the trip. Inc. deputy commissioner for public affairs for the TLC. Transaction fees. they will eat away at their take-home pay.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation N.000 per year © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. it is the drivers that will be required to pay the transaction fees whenever a card is used. not only through card acceptance but in-car mapping. public service announcements and news and entertainment content. Desai said that even though the NYTWA’s membership represents only about a fourth of the drivers working in the city. and we don’t take it lightly when changes are made to the cab. along with card-swipe units to facilitate credit. Taxi owners have a choice of four approved vendors for the technology. if not all.
and I am confident that the vast majority of our 44.000 professional drivers will continue to serve the public as they do so well every day. Already. since it is connected to the car’s meter. taxicab drivers continue to be a top priority — with the last two fare increases delivering a living wage of over $17 per hour. “They put it on the meter — you don’t need it on the meter if it’s only tracking where the vehicle is moving.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation for a driver who took a single card transaction per day.” The card acceptance mechanism is connected to the car’s meter. Desai said that if either of these crucial components malfunctions. just keep driving around until you get a signal. were promised technology enhancements in return — and they deserve to have that promise kept. “The advice the drivers are getting from the garage is. In 2005 rates were raised again. What will the passengers think? New Yorkers are a notoriously opinion- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. “There have been a lot of signal fail- ures. Drivers are independent contractors. Daus: “Under the Bloomberg Administration. Desai said.” she said. The TLC estimates that drivers have collected an extra $1 billion in increased fares since 2004. has trouble finding a signal or goes offline for any reason. about 3. “It’s actually being used to capture drivers’ economic data. disputing the TLC assertion that GPS is used only for mapping and the location of lost property. So far. not employees. Why should they give up their private financial information? It’s like if a company owner got an employee’s bank statement each month.” In 2004. and 75 percent of that raise went to drivers. ‘Oh. Desai said she is getting reports of cars that can’t get a strong enough signal to connect for either the on-screen data or a transaction. with 100 percent of the increase going to drivers — the first time that has happened in the history of the organization. New York’s taxi system raised fares for the first time since 1996. Inc. but issued a statement from commissioner and chairman Matthew W. 31 . Riders have paid an additional $1 billion directly to drivers’ pockets. The GPS system that powers the onscreen maps is another point of contention — particularly. about 1.” she said. The taxicab industry has never been healthier and safer.’” TLC representatives would not comment on the potential strike.300 have the full package of technology.000 of the city’s taxis have the card swipes installed. the meter will shut off automatically and the driver won’t be able to accept fares until the problems are solved.
” As for the transaction fee for card payments. especially from the airport. and the incremental loss of privacy for both driver and passenger it seems to represent. “As a passenger. a publishing executive who considers herself a frequent cab passenger. less profitable route.” she said. and they pay the fee. “So this is being done for tourists? That’s a big quality of life issue that’s being inflicted on us when it doesn’t seem like it would be any real gain for us. a freelance events manager who also frequents the taxi system. “Small business owners — including my parents — take credit cards for all amounts small and large. “I do tend to wonder if the reason that the drivers don’t want this is because they could be forced to take a different. I have felt the frustra- tion on more than one occasion of a taxi driver not knowing where he is going or taking advantage of me when I don’t know. it’s never given back.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation ated bunch. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics.” she said. and how it might help make drivers more accountable. Inc. 32 . “I don’t like to see cabbies charged a percentage of the transaction.” she said. “New Yorkers generally don’t need a GPS system to give them directions. said she would welcome the information such a system would provide. and those opinions seem divided as to the fairness and value of the technology enhancements.” But Soledad Roybal.” She also takes extreme exception to the GPS technology. Roybal said that’s part of the cost of doing business. Diane Roback. likes the idea of being able to use the company credit card but doesn’t think the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. “They have a hard enough time making a decent wage. and once this is given up.” she said. I hate giving up any level of privacy.
cold. wind and vandalism. 33 . The escalator system is composed of 66 monitors with 23-inch LCD displays with SXGA resolution (1280 by 1024). the location is highly demanding. as more then 3 million passengers per day mean a huge amount of impressions per day. For advertisers. Digital View SV-1600 controllers and the RemoteTransfer Linux-based media and network management system to maximize uptime. In terms of engineering and maintenance. Inc. which brought digital signage hardware and services to the table. needed a new solution for their transportation digital signage. as well as a digital media network capable of remote management and content distribution to the screens. The goal for the two companies © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Digital View DN3 solid-state media players. known to locals as the Tube. as those passengers mean a huge amount of impressions per day. The solution was through Digital View. Viacom and its partner for digital media. Screens are on 24/7 and are susceptible to heat. EDL. As advertisements continue to flood the Tube in digital form. carries more than 3 million passengers a day to and from their destinations. Digital View countered those elements with high-quality IP-65 enclosures. the London Underground rail system has become a hotbed for advertising.CHAPTER 3 Digital signage on public transportation Case study: London Underground London’s underground rail system. For advertisers. Tube stations have become a hotbed for advertising. was to design a high-impact experience for Tube passengers that would maximize the space the location had to offer.
000 billboards across the American landscape. only about 500 are full-color digital signs. 34 .S. when suddenly it changes. State and local officials also have given their opinions. have gone as far as to ban digital billboards. five U. capable of changing their message every few seconds. “Drive down a road with an electronic billboard on it and you’ll know right away that they attract attention. He frequently travels a stretch of I-95 near the Fort Lauderdale Airport where “the electronic billboard is so bright compared to everything else © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. But that number is projected to rise into the thousands in the next 10 years. the city of Eagan. however. but the quality of the screens themselves continues to improve. saying the “impact of electronic digital and video signs on aesthetics. which has legislators and safety advocates concerned.” said Bill Gerba. That same worry will impact the future of digital technology in outdoor advertising. Brightness is being regulated.. followed suit. You’re driving down the road. but concern still is spawning debate. Iowa. Minn. president of WireSpring Technologies. As the technology moves to mid-markets. Inc. land use values and highway safety was not considered” when the city’s zoning ordinance was drawn up. Some governments feel that the dynamic signs are a distraction to drivers and. in some cities. this progress isn’t without controversy. Not only have digital billboards begun to expand into mid-markets. but allowing them to be illuminated at night. a few weeks later. Des Moines. but the quality of the screens themselves continues to improve. The controversy over digital billboards Of the 450. states ban cell phone use while driving. dynamic content and change intervals. more residents are complaining about the brightness factor. It’s surprising at the time. making the signs look like static ones during the day. Public worry over distracted drivers is nothing new.Chapter 4 Digital signage on the road A lmost all of us have done it. Iowa. Not only have digital billboards begun to expand into mid-markets. Currently 43 states allow digital billboards. research and legislative activity. What might seem normal to New York City residents may not have the same effect to those in Des Moines. placed a temporary moratorium on digital billboards. and another 15 have partial restrictions in place. reading a seemingly normal billboard. This progress isn’t without controversy. In January 2007. however. Other governments have placed regulation on brightness levels.
” he said. “When the screen (on I-95) is displaying something with a lot of white or light colors at nighttime. “It’s important to point out that in the past. analyst.” The burden. “However. The Federal Highway Administration recently commissioned a study on what digital billboards mean to driver safety. But the placement of it in a new environment may cause growing pains. to varying degrees. Accuvia © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. research analyst and president of Decision Point Media. as being a major safety problem. 35 . said digital billboards will present risks and safety hazards. especially initially. They also will have to take new factors — such as brightness control and how it interacts with dayparting — into account at the design stage. “I believe legislation will eventually strike a balance and dictate a correlation between video and traffic speed. Inc.000 to study the issue. that it’s impossible not to notice. my pupils constrict to the point where I do have to slow down and let my eyes adjust. Bill Collins. the Outdoor Advertising Association of America estimates there are 500 of them. the technology behind digital billboards is not inherently hazardous — Times Square and Las Vegas are ample evidence of that. CBS Outdoor and Lamar Advertising — are all experimenting with digital. David Little of Key West Technology agrees. I am not aware of any reputable traffic safety experts that see billboards. The three largest outdoor advertising companies in America — Clear Channel Outdoor. many people have made unsupported claims that billboards in general are a traffic safety problem.” he said. especially at night. in general.” “I believe legislation will eventually strike a balance and dictate a correlation between video and traffic speed.CHAPTER 4 Digital signage on the road around. points out that advertising by its very nature aims to capture the viewer’s attention. John McDermot. to date. “They are not an everyday occurrence for most drivers. but projects that number to increase to 4.” Even so. it seems. “I believe digital billboards with motion are distracting to drivers. “They shouldn’t be used.” Digital billboards represent a small fraction of the market. will fall on ad agencies and content creators: They are going to have to resist the urge to pull out every flashy tool in their bag of tricks.” — John McDermot.000 in the next 10 years.” he said.” Gerba said. The federal government also committed $150. analyst with technology consultancy Accuvia. and that the complaints being leveled against digital billboards are nothing new. Clearly.
the challenge then becomes squeezing more revenue out of existing ones. is hungry for new innovation. Sales executives can offer targeted packages that deliver content to boards in strategically chosen locations at strategically chosen times of the day — an impossibility with paper signs. Keywest Technology “I believe legislation will eventually strike a balance and dictate a correlation between video and traffic speed. 12. versus 54 percent for static ones. said 94 percent of people who saw a moving billboard recalled the product being advertised. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics.” — Rocky Gunderson. Federal and local regulations make it difficult to put up new billboards.” — John McDermot. The billboards also open the door for a larger number of ad sales. Libertino said the average cost per thousand impressions on a traditional billboard is around $2. analyst with Accuvia Consulting. the girl was found the next day. the CPM for a digital billboard can be almost 20 times as much.” — Bill Collins. Decision Point Media to be priceless. Typically. I am not aware of any reputable traffic safety experts that see billboards. and they are investing. Several digital billboards in the area ran a multimedia Amber Alert. which already has proven Ask the expert: What is your opinion on digital billboards? “It appears they are very distracting. as being a major safety problem. And then there is the very real public safety benefit. That led to a sales increase of 107 percent for products shown on moving billboards. They can charge more. They shouldn’t be used. 36 . versus 43 percent for traditional billboards. Inc. ads on a digital billboard are sold in eightsecond increments.CHAPTER 4 Digital signage on the road Digital billboards and advertising on the road The billboard industry. ADFLOW “We believe digital billboards are one of the best values for advertisers and a great service for potential customers. Accuvia “To date. 2007. a 14-year-old Minnesota girl disappeared.” — Wayne Ruttle. SeeSaw Networks “I believe digital billboards with motion are distracting to drivers. as well. Digital billboards that are installed seem to be doing very well. On Feb.” — David Little. Tracy Libertino. which makes the value for advertisers attractive for sure. in general. a mature one.
compared to the higher profits made on items sold in the store. Dallas and Houston.CHAPTER 4 Digital signage on the road In Huntsville. © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. The screens are provided to the c-store owner at no charge. the storeowner gets 75 percent of the screen’s loop time. GSTV pays the bills by selling ad space to national accounts such as Chevrolet. In 1994.m. today. said the idea for his company came to him in 1999. Dodge. Pay-at-the-pump has meant a drastic decrease in c-store traffic. Progressive Insurance. 37 .” he said. Inc.. he said twothirds of his gasoline customers never set foot in his stores. mixed in with original GSTV content that takes aim at local interests. uses a similar business model and value proposition. Lamar Advertising Co. Pump-top displays come of age As pay-at-the-pump technology turns 20 years old in 2007. So far. president of PumpMedia. Andre van der Velk owns four c-stores in California.. ran it by the local Crimestoppers organization for approval and put it on the regional billboard network at 5 p. Founded in 2006. Ala.000 screens at c-stores in Atlanta. police recently commenced a manhunt for a registered sex offender. “There is a constant drive for the operator to get people to come into the store and buy. 1-800-Flowers and Quicken Loans. Peter Tawil. 13 percent of c-stores offered the timesaver. the suspect was captured. GSTV chief executive David Leider said the screens feature national content from ABC. that number has risen to 93 percent. two independent and two Shell. At 9:45 p. The network is managed by GSTV and runs Scala’s InfoChannel software.m. Under the ad-subsidized model. he heard audio advertisements for in-store products and services being played over the station’s loudspeaker. But perhaps it has worked a little too well. PumpMedia. Michigan-based Gas Station TV (GSTV) quickly landed a contract to be the exclusive screen provider for Murphy Oil. which won the exclusive contract for Chevron’s video-at-the-pump program. the concept has been a tremendous success. put together artwork that resembled the suspect. the company has placed about 1. when he was working in television advertising. with one difference: C-store operators can opt to pay for the screens and eliminate the outside advertising. That drive has been the motivation for traditional pump-toppers — static signs advertising in-store specials — and is the force behind a number of companies building digital signage networks at gas station islands. While fueling his car one day. and PumpMedia sells ads on the other 25 percent. Margins on gasoline are razor-thin.
“One of the ads was a preacher talking about a local church — they certainly don’t want religious messages coming out of the pumps. and Westinghouse recently announced an exclusive arrangement with AdtekMedia to provide technology for that company’s PumpTop TV program.” he said. a small restaurant. but if you can do it with audio.CHAPTER 4 Digital signage on the road “The guy had a shoe shine inside. Billy Bob and cheap pizza. a magazine rack. “The content that (the clients) saw was not in line with what they wanted their customer to see. The only reason it is taking so long is that the oil industry is very protective of what they put above their logo. too. supplies the technology for PumpMedia). that’s smart. ‘OK. they spied an ad for the pizza restaurant down the street — a direct competitor from the pizzeria inside the c-store. Pump-top digital signage is in its infancy. “They will take any ad that they can. “And there are a lot of them. but widespread adoption — particularly by large chains associated with big-name brands — will require a uniformity of experience and a heightened understanding of how to handle brand assets.” All of which hints at a market that is ripe for consolidation. 38 . said he recently took some c-store clients on a road trip to survey the competitor’s landscape. Clearly. Ken Goldberg. “He had it all going. When I heard that.” On one of the screens. You might put 10 bucks in your gas tank and you’ll see three ads. Daktronics is part owner of Fuelcast Network.” Goldberg said. “This is just a technology advancement of the old pump-topper. chief executive of Real Digital Media (which.” he said. a joint effort with VST International to get digital signage onto self-service gas pumps. still at the stage where any number of small players are trying to eke out an existence selling screens and ad space on them. wouldn’t it be more powerful with video attached to it?’” Larger companies are getting in on the action.” © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. along with Avocent. including Rev. I thought. “In an old-fashioned way. each with their own proprietary hardware set-up and content strategy. They found three different regional pump-top networks. Inc. and he was smart — he was promoting all of his products inside the store. there is great potential in using digital signage at the pump. this is what the industry has been doing with pump-toppers since the 1970s.” said van der Velk.
To complement and enhance the architecture of the terminal building.Appendix Additional reading Manchester Airport gets 72-screen digital signage installation This article originally appeared on Digital Signage Today on Jan. giving operators a presence within the terminal. Pixel designed. 30. This means we are able to reduce the amount of paper-based information within the check-in hall. head of product development at Manchester Airport. 39 . The animated content is broadcast on the digital displays. 2008. The cantilever design provides the terminal with a high-tech appearance. creating a better experience. MANCHESTER. This branding approach is designed to allow Manchester Airport to maximize the use of its check-in desks. Inc. coupled with 72 Panasonic PTD 5700 dual-bulb projectors positioned above the check-in desks. which remain flexible rather than being assigned to a single operator. Pixel Inspiration completed the hardware installation in Terminal 1. The screens also provide a great opportunity to target passengers whilst they are queuing with essential airport information. making the process of finding check-in desks far simpler. while making it easy for passengers to find the appropriate check-in desks. Pixel Inspiration worked with the airport and airline operators to develop animated airline branding. “The scale and quality of airline content has created a new navigational tool.” said Jackie Neville. England — Pixel Inspiration has completed the hardware installation of a 72-screen digital signage network in Terminal 2 of Manchester Airport. Last year. The screens above those desks that are not in use are used to display the airport’s own branding and content. which consisted of 97 screens.” © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. while providing the necessary support and access to the digital signage hardware. “The results are excellent and the system of branding flexibly (is) proving very popular with the airline community. promotional material and passenger safety information for display on the screens. The installation comprises a 116-meter run of 72 individual 84-inch diagonal rear-projection screens. fabricated and installed a completely new hanging support system for the screens and projectors.
and that same team should be involved in meetings to decide how to allocate screen space. and extends into more esoteric matters such as the size of design elements. Here are six “best practices” for dividing screen real estate: 1. It doesn’t matter whether your content is created in-house or by an external agency. it sometimes is wise to segment screens into different “regions” or “zones. as well as a concerted focus on what is in the best interest of the viewer. If a recipe is sharing screen time with an ad for a specific food product featured in that recipe.APPENDIX Additional reading Managing digital signage content By James Bickers Editor. Otherwise. brightest item in any given field — use this as a way to guide the viewer around the screen. color and size. this is accomplished by making the content that is of greatest value to the viewer the largest. Minimize the attention given to information that people will seek out when they need it. don’t make that text larger or brighter than the message that needs to get the primary focus. But aside from those very specific models. 2. captive audience networks such as those in elevators or airports that sell ad space around and alongside streaming media content such as news and entertainment. 40 . such as weather condi- © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. the consumer will subconsciously register the entire screen as an ad. On-screen content should be consistent with all other messaging in the enterprise. Digital Signage Today This article is excerpted from “Content and Content Management for Digital Signage. viewers should be able to tell intuitively where they should look first. The screen as a whole should suggest a logical “flow” — that is. and is more likely to ignore it. what they should look at next. Doing so wisely requires more than a little restraint. Opinions are sharply divided on whether it is a good idea to divide the screen real estate on a digital signage network. instore digital media needs to be added to the list of products managed by your creative team. Go with the flow. Make smart use of contrast. the recipe itself should get the majority of the screen space. This begins with simple things such as color schemes and fonts. Generally.” each with a specific purpose.” a how-to guide on Digital Signage Today. there are those networks whose entire business model is built on the segmented screen — for instance. etc. Of course. Human eyes always will land on the largest. Keep it consistent with your brand. If you are using scrolling text for ancillary messaging. Inc. relative positioning of type and images and visual styles. 3.
Now. Understand motion and how it affects viewers. but just because you can put something on your screens does not mean you should. Inc. because there is so much of it out there. tickers that move too quickly and blinking text all should be avoided. and when those expectations are met. the situation calls for a much simpler approach — perhaps just a single large window with a video demonstration. If something is moving or changing. and remind yourself what it is you are trying to communicate. 41 . make sure they are most prominent in the area of the screen that deserves primary focus. Understand the level of depth of your content. what content do you truly need to convey that message? Give the people what they want: building a content strategy based on customer expectations Human beings enter into virtually everything they do with one or more expectations. If you are trying to tell your viewers about the movements of the NASDAQ. with lots of sidebars and graphs and scrolling numbers. And again. updated by the minute? Headline news? Latest blog posts on any given topic? Viral videos? User-generated content? It’s all there for the taking. updated every 10 minutes. if not cause the viewer to give up in frustration and look away. our eyes are naturally drawn to it.” “I’m trying to increase sales of house brands. Take a step back from the entire endeavor. use color schemes that reflect the rest of your branding — if your brochures and static signage have trained people to know that your headline text is in beige type on a light yellow background. Eschew gratuitous information. Sports scores. Weather tickers? You bet. If you’re trying to tell your viewers how to make delicious chicken skewers that the family will love in just a few minutes. 6.”). And keep in mind that viewers hate unnecessary or gimmicky movement and effects — overly cute transitions. 4. Too much movement elsewhere on the screen will distract from the message. 5. You can use this to your advantage.APPENDIX Additional reading tions or news updates. and plan a visual strategy accordingly. It’s a great time to be in the business of delivering content. or you can allow it to become a liability.” “I’m trying to get people to go to the bank counter at the front of the store. Keep it simple — but only if it needs to be. If animation or motion are going to be used. you’re going to presenting a visually sophisticated message. use the same pairing on-screen to create a psychological connection with other messages. they feel happiness. When their © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Phrase it in the simplest terms possible (“I’m trying to tell people about XYZ new product.
saying “Something is wrong here. if you have shopping carts. It does not. betrayal.” they had better give good customer service. they feel any number of negative emotions — disappointment. not just advertised to. etc. and a moment later you take another sip. it had better be good coffee. They more likely would appreciate weather information. Critical to the success of a digital signage network is delivering the information customers expect.” said Anke Gill. and this one tastes much better. “Don’t broadcast advertising for 40 or 50 minutes at a time — break it up with other non-advertising content. in fact.” © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. and your subconscious threw an alert at you.” said Tony Turiello. your expectations did. as if the drink tastes bad. The immediate visceral reaction is a negative one. Imagine picking up a glass filled with iced tea and taking a drink — only to find out that it actually contains soda. since they are about to step out into the world where weather will directly affect them. news. product promotions. While the audience is captive. If you serve coffee. The liquid did not change. 42 .” In fact. community events. if you hire “customer service representatives. Inc. group manager for Panasonic System Solutions Company.) and information that is not (weather. you like soda. When customers look at a digital sign in your place of business. taste bad — it’s just not what you were expecting. when and where they expect it.). The content emphasis here should be on longer content segments with high entertainment value. however. “These customers want quick and relevant information that can be digested in a short period of time. Customers entering your space will have expectations about the experience they think they are about to have. etc. do subway commuters looking at a screen want to see information about what is on sale at the nearby grocery store? Probably not. For instance.” “Shoppers want to be entertained and informed. the same is true of each individual aspect of the experience as a whole. they likely are expecting one of two things: information that is directly related to their relationship with you (marketing-driven messages. director of marketing for 1-2-1VIEW Corporation. the wheels had better not stick. “Customers walking in a shopping mall will not stop or even slow down to watch an advertorial. frustration. even though they might find that information valuable at a later time.APPENDIX Additional reading expectations are not met. anger. don’t penalize them for it — creatively engage them. expect something very different from digital signage — they want to be entertained so that their waiting time is perceived to be shortened. Customers sitting in a doctor’s waiting room or in a bank.
in an auto parts store. “Consumers want to be engaged. upcoming events. If you aim at nothing you’re going to hit nothing smack dab on the head. to make the customer glad he is there Goals for information-driven messages include: News content — headlines.g. upcoming building events Wayfinding Public relations messages Most digital signage networks will benefit from a selection that draws from both lists. usually woven together (e. sports Community events Corporate communications — welcome messages in a lobby. 918 046 085 Crta. 918 046 085 Fax. “micro-sales” (“For the next 15 minutes.com www. Torre de los Morenos. weather.” Cortesía de : Calle del Viento nº 10 E Tres Cantos 28760 . overstocks. lifestyle messaging.” said Richard Fassio. 968 842 084 Fax.APPENDIX Additional reading Some possible goals for marketing-driven messages include: Improved customer experience — making the customer happy through entertainment clips. 43 . intersperse community information and ambience between promotions to eliminate the subconscious notion that “this screen just shows ads”).com ventavisual © 2008 NetWorld Alliance Media | Sponsored by LG Electronics. Inc. video on how to change your own oil) Special promotions — weekly sales.200 c. cafeteria menus. Santa Catalina Km.venta-visual.. 968 842 006 www. 1. “Engaging can encompass everything from entertainment to informational content. 128 30012 .Madrid Tel.venta-visual. financial news. Defining what experience you want someone to have … this is the first step. get 10 percent off XYZ!”) Ambiance — nebulous content that might not create a top-of-mind impression on viewers but instead aims to create a general feeling of wellbeing. but creative use of video to demonstrate product value (recipes in a grocery store. Every situation will have a different definition of what is engaging. founder and president of creative content agency Modern Digital. don’t stack all of the sales information up next to one another. or positive affirmation (“Thank you for your business!”) Product information — not just where things are.Murcia Tel. tax-time tips in a bank. This is why it so important to define what the user experience will be in order to create a compelling media strategy.
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