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S Pal* & K.V. Venkatachary** In the last quarter of 20th century space technology took its roots and by the end, it was applied to the various spheres of the life of mankind. The largest impact, of the space technology, experienced was in the field of communication and remote sensing. Communication satellites were used for fixed terminal communications. The end of the century saw the emergence of satellite mobile communication. In the area of remote sensing the resolutions improved to one meter. The global satellite positioning systems which were earlier giving stand alone 100 meters position accuracy improved to 20 meters by the U.S DoD decisions of removal of the SA from the GPS system. The mobile satellite services became very popular in monitoring the movement of vehicles and man. The integration of all the above services can be (being) utilized for the surface transport management. The use of Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) along with GPS can be used for railways/railway wagons, trucks/buses fleet management. The GPS along with high resolution pictures can be used for roads/railway lines laying planning, alignment and also to find the shortest routes. GPS along with the images can also be used for traffic management. GPS can also be used as an anticollision device in railways. GEO SATCOM coupled with GSM, GPS and Internet can become a Transport Telematics Backbone. The paper deals with the above various applications of space technology and their relevance to India for the overall management of surface transportation.
*Group Director, Communication Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore **Director, DMS, ISRO Headquarters, Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore
The invention of wheel is still considered to be the most significant technological development. The wheel coupled with the animal power increased the efficiency of the transportation almost from zero to infinity. The advent of the steam engine, petrol and diesel engine, a part of the industrial revolution changed the total scenario of the transportation industry which influences country’s economy to a great extent. For any upcoming economy the three basic infrastructures needed are: 1. 2. 3. Energy or Electricity Communication Surface Transportation
All the three sectors are of great importance. One can go on discussing the same. For the present we are restricting ourselves only to Surface Transportation. After the 2nd world war there has been a tremendous growth and improvements in the area of surface transportation. To start with the emphasis was more on making the transportation system comfortable and luxurious rather than fuel efficient. Safety and planning, although always talked about, was never taken seriously particularly in the developing countries like India. The transport industry that includes: (1) road transport-cars, trucks, buses, two wheelers etc., (2) railways – goods trains, passenger trains and (3) waterways – ocean liners etc., in the last decade of the 20th century had experienced almost an exponential growth in India. Many manufacturers came to the country. This has happened without proper planning of roads, towns, highways & traffic law enforcement segment. It has given rise to congestion of traffic, increase in accidents thereby loss of valuable life and property, intentional avoidance of taxes, increase in pollution resulting in a considerable delay in delivering the goods. Until unless the total transportation section is properly planned and managed, all the above factors will act as stumbling blocks in the booming economy. The Management of Surface Transportation has got the following main components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Planning of roads & routing Smooth movement of cargo & passengers with least unwanted stoppages. Automobile & Rail machinery improvement Safety and accident avoidance Emergency assistance Revenue collection
There are various age old ways & methodologies by which all the above are being presently managed in the country. Space technology coupled with mobile communication and with the emergence of internet can lead to a better Surface Transport Management in the country.
USE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY, MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS & INTERNET FOR SURFACE TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT.
The advancement in space technology, mobile communication & growth of internet can help to a large extent in planning & managing the evergrowing transportation system in the country. In present paper more emphasis is given on the space technology segment. Space Technology: Space Technology in the present context is referred only to spacecraft technology & its applications. The spacecrafts for this purpose can be categorized under the following headings: Spacecrafts used for remote sensing applications Spacecrafts used for Meteorological application (Meteosat, GOES, INSAT, NOAA etc.) Communication Satellites (GEO STATIONARY) with bent pipe transponders used for VSAT – applications. Communication Satellites (LEO, GEO or MEO) used for mobile communications. Spacecrafts used for Navigational Applications (GPS, GLONASS etc.) Spacecrafts for Search & Rescue Operations (Eg. SARSAT & COSPAR & INSAT). All the above can play a definite role for the overall planning & Management of Surface Transportation. When we talk about surface transportation we do take into account the ROAD, RAILWAYS & WATER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM. 2.1 2.1.1 Use of Space Technology for Surface Transport Planning Use of Satellite-based Remote Sensing
To start with it is essential that while laying down the road or railway line followings are taken into consideration: Geological & Geodetic survey Proper identification of the shortest routes with minimal geographical obstacles and also alignments. Identification of potential geological weak points like: flood & landslide prone areas etc. Proper location of the river bridges taking into account the changes in river course, land intrusions, bank erosions and their long term impacts. Before planning the roads and railway lines, it is advisable to collect the data based on local geological studies, soil conditions besides collecting the satellite remote sensing data. Satellites like IRS, SPOT, IKONOS can give multispectral pictures for the study of vegetations, forest & geological signatures. The wide & narrow swath pictures with 1 to 2.5 meter resolution (including panchromatic pictures obtained from IRS-1C/1D) can help in the proper routing of the roads and railway lines. The satellite imageries an also help in aligning the roads & railway lines. The imageries can be used for identifying and studying the geological features of the region. The 1 to 2.5 meter resolution pictures can also be used in preparing the city road maps,
planning by pass roads, super highways, overbridges, under bridges & ring roads. These can also be used for planning of ERLTs and Metros. Town planning can be done using these imageries. Rouen city image is shown in Fig.1. Fig.2 shows some typical geological imageries. Fig.3 shows the road map of a part of Bangalore city prepared using IRS imageries. Bangalore and Hyderabad have used Irs imageries extensively for RING ROAD routing and alignment. Geodetic information can be obtained using GPS receivers or satellites having 1.00 meter or Fig. 3. PAN image of Jayanagar, Bangalore and road network better resolutions with stereoscopic image generation capabilities.
In case there are rivers or the area is flood prone and the river course changes also occur, the satellite imagery comes as a boon in planning of the roads, bridges and rail lines. Satellite imagery study for couple of years can reveal and give data about bank erosion, river shifts. Not only these can help in estimating the damages caused but also in future planning for avoiding such damages. Figs.4 to 7 show the impact of floods, damage caused by the bank erosions of Brahmaputra river and river migrations. These type of imageries can help in planning of roads and in taking advance measures to minimise the losses.
Fig. 1. PAN image showing parts of ROUEN, France.
Fig. 2. Geological features of parts of Cuddapah basin, A.P.
Fig. 4. Impact assessment of erosion and deposition in the river bed.
Fig. 5. IRS 1C image showing damage to roads and villages
Fig.6 Pre and post flood PAN data merge
PAN data Pre flood and during the flood conditions
Use of GPS for Surface Transport
During the initial road or railway planning or even for the existing networks accurate Geographical Information Service (GIS) database provide sufficient details and accuracy for distance computations in the total network analysis. However, while travel distances depend only on the route, travel times depend on speed limits, traffic signals, congestion, road conditions & time of the day. Collecting data on actual travel times has been quite expensive. However the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) consisting of GPS-Rx and a simple recorder can provide location & time data, they can serve as automated travel time data recorder. A typical application could be where a GPS unit is mounted on a truck collects information which is loaded with the route GIS and used to study a road network for truck routing applications. The procedure is advantageous because no additional efforts are needed and data is collected during normal working schedules. An added benefit is that the data can be used to verify the spatial accuracy of the road network, identifying omitted or misaligned road segments. This process gives realistic travel time & results in reliable network analysis. The data collected on various type of vehicles at different times of the day particularly vehicles having round trips would reflect local traffic conditions, time of day and any alternate route chosen. By compiling and analyzing data from several days of multiple round trips a realistic sample of travel times and speed can be obtained. GPS position data can be collected say at every second with a 10,000 point storage capacity where data can be stored for nearly 14 hours and with the S/A removed the data can be fairly accurate. However for a better accuracy differential correction can be applied. GPS software also allows recording & uploading of actual velocity data. However a small programme can calculate speed for each point, distance, time and velocity data can be corrected by judicious approach for wild GPS data points and brought to the actual road points. This data can then be reliably used for: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2.1 Classification of highways & roads Speed limit fixing with respect to time of the day Alternate routings Improvement & alligning of roads Turn around time calculations of goods, passenger & cars. Minimum & Maximum travel time calculations can also be done. The total exercise can help in time motion study, traffic analysis, efficiency studies & route planning. Use of GPS, GSM, Mobile Satellite Communication and Internet for Surface Transportation
The amalgamation of GPS, GSM or Mobile Satellite Communications & Internet has been termed as Global Transport Telematics: GPS + GSM + MOBILE SATCOM + INTERNET = GTTS The Transport Telematics means the large scale integration & implementation of telecommunication & informatics technology in the transport industry in a way which penetrates all areas of modes of transport, the vehicle, the infrastructure, the organization & management of transport & the interfaces between all the above mentioned elements as well as
between these elements & the transport users & society on the whole. This will integrate man, cars, trucks, buses and roads to achieve increased travel safety, a better environment, a more efficient and reliable transport system and a higher exploitation of existing infrastructure. This will help all over the world in the immitent increased inter-regional trade as a result of the globalization of the economy, the lowering of traffic barriers and the restructuring of the manufacturing industry. This can help in addressing & managing the congestion & environmental problem which are of great concern with regard to economic development in general. In an European study, economic losses, through traffic delays are estimated to be 150 billion ECU annually. In India no such study is done. Some politician or a bureaucrate will belch out some number of several crores depending upon the numeric figure which comes to his mind and that instant. Besides the delay roads are considered as death machines. The accidents causes losses to life and property. Transport Telematics can be seen as an important contributor to solve these problems and even considered as a potential low cost solution to transport problems. The implementation of the Transport Telematics will ask for: GTTS compatible vehicle construction & design Improved telecom infrastructure which will have WILL, GSM & Space as a part of it. Effective transport organization & management technologies The various technologies which need to be developed or adapted for the GTTS are: Radio channels Telephones Computers Screen displays & printers Digital road maps GPS receivers VSAT & GSM systems Vehicle based interrogating Transponders Smart cards Bar code readers Electronic & RF Tags Various sensors to monitor the vehicle performance A small databus to integrate various components of the vehicle to the interrogating transponders. INFRASTRUCTURE EQUIPMENT
Equipments to monitor road and traffic conditions, receive & send information to vehicle as well as traffic information centre and control vehicle safety and weight. A communication cable along the road, beacon by the side of the road, variable message signs and sensors in the
road surface are the main instruments. Long distance communication is transmitted by the cable, short distance communication – to passing vehicles is transmitted by wireless. A beacon is an information communication device which enables the instantaneous transmission of the exact location and a large volume of data to vehicle passing by. Beacons and sensors are used for road condition monitoring (traffic density, pollution, weather, accidents) and issuing of warnings, others for automatic toll collection, it checks whether a vehicle has passed between interchanging, calculate the toll & automatically deduct the amount from the driver’s smart card. Weigh-in-motion & speed checks can also be done with drivers knowledge. 4.0 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
While the information interaction between all infrastructure subsystems can be by cable but with the vehicles it will be by both short-range vehicle to roadside & wide area wireless. Long distance communication with moving vehicles can take place by (1) satellites (2) vehicleroadside information exchange (3) Mobile Telephone (GSM). Europe has chosen a separate Radio Data System – Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) which broadcasts coded traffic messages to in-vehicle receivers in the drivers’ chosen language. The general telecommunication system EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) is to a high degree used for electronic transmission between customers and shippers/forwarders. Such a system will be quite suitable for INDIA. All the information can be put on the Internet for the operators and other users to see. Satellite communication plays a decisive role in transport telematics for two way communication as well as in providing accurate position information for the individual vehicle. The EUTELTRAC system of Europe consisting of two satellites, OmniTrack of USA & INMARSAT-C Global Positioning System consisting of FOUR Satellites does this job. The satellites communicate via terrestrial stations, linked together by the so-called X.25 network. The same can be done by Internet. With satellite communication a message can be sent from the home base to the vehicle or vice versa. Dispatchers can also obtain the position of a vehicle using the INMARSAT system. By sending a form of coded message the computer in the vehicle automatically reports the position of the truck, without requiring any action by the driver. This position message make use of the GPS. The EUTEL TRACK system provides a position accuracy within 80 meter in 95% of the case. Smart card can be a low cost solution to recording information about trips & loads and toll tax payments which are not needed in real time. Near valleys, tunnels & shadow regions Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication Posts can be used while these posts can directly communicate with satellites using VSATs and then to the base stations. 5.0 TRAFFIC INFORMATION & MANAGEMENT
All the data collected from vehicles, the infrastructure and other source, (parking facilities, public data base etc) are collected for traffic analysis and management at the traffic information centre. After centralized processing, this information is transmitted to drivers in real time so as to assist them in safe driving. The messages can include information as traffic congestion, road
maintenance work. Lane closures, accidents, route guidance, parking conditions and travelling time. The integration of all the above systems creates a comprehensive traffic management system. For eg: when digital road maps in the vehicle are combined with traffic reports from Radio Data System – Traffic Message channel (RDS-TMC) the information can be converted into route recommendations. Given the location of truck, provided by GPS and a destination, the computer selects the fastest route, considering preferences such as avoiding traffic facilities, height/weight restrictions & restrictions on hazardous goods transportation. Such an integrated system is shown in Figs. 8 & 9. The pictorial view shows an amalgamation of all the above systems. The vehicles have an interrogating transponders which can be interrogated by the RoadSide Beacons, the toll gate where toll tax is collected automatically using the vehicle based transponder & smart card. Defaulters can be quickly photographed using the video cameras. The system uses terrestrial cable, wireless as well as space based mobile, VSAT & GPS systems. The system shown is a typical example of GTTS. All the information, messages and data collected can be put on Internet for proper dissemination.
USE OF GTTS FOR RAILWAYS
GPS can be used for collision avoidance and GPS based guiding can be utilized for railway track laying and route planning. Typical concept of GPS based collision avoidance and Positive Train Seperation (PTS) systems are shown in Figs. 10 & 11.
Such systems have been successfully tried in USA and Europe. A system similar to GTTS for roads can be used even for railways in tracking the bogies, engines & trains in real time for a proper utilization & resources management. Here each bogie and train can fitted with a GPS Receiver, interrogating transponder and an RF Tag.
Fig. 10. PTS for prevention of collision for Railways
SPACE TECHNOLOGY FOR WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEM
GPS & Mobile Communication Terminals (like INMARSAT-C Terminal or MSS Terminal of INSAT system) can play a major role for water transport management. Using satellite based remote sensing one can find the deep river & sea routes and identify sedimentations or hidden rocks. The position can be determined using GPS and INMARSAT-C terminal while search and rescue can be attempted using SARSAT, COSPAR & INSAT Search & Rescue systems. The GTTS can be modified to take care of water transport system.
As far as space technology is concerned India does have a operational spacecraft based communication and remote sensing system which can fulfil all the space based telecommunication & remote sensing requirements. IRS series of spacecraft can provide 1 to 2.5 Meter resolution imagery. CARTOSAT-2 spacecraft will give better than 1 meter resolution imagery. All these can be used for: Geodetic Study Route planning Town planning River course change study Floods Glacier study Forestry study
These can also provide all the data needed for road, railway track planning, alignment and shortest route identification INSAT series of spacecraft can provide; VSAT communication links INSAT MSS - `A’ terminal can provide the short messaging service MSS terminal coupled with GPS receiver can give accurate velocity and location of vehicles & railways and can provide services similar to INMARSAT-C or European EUTELTRAC systems. The Meteorological component gives information about weather The broadcasting component can help in information broadcasting and providing services similar to European RDS-TMC 9.0 WHAT THE TRANSPORT TELEMATICS CAN DO for India?
Transport Telematics with its ground and space components can provide: a) An efficient transport system with
• • • • • b) • • • • • •
Fewer entry driven kilometers Fewer detour kilometers More cost effective driving Lower communication cost Less planning & turnover time Travel safety due to: Congestion management Traffic control Onboard sensors monitoring driver alertness & vehicle Functioning & shift in cargo Fewer accidents High degree of compliance with the speed limits
This will also help in reduced emissions and better environment
PROBLEMS ONE MAY FACE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SUCH A SYSTEM
The main obstacles to a large scale deployment of Transport Management System in India may come from: Economics Lack of Governmental & Political will Lack of institutional & regulatory frame work Lack of availability of cheap & standard equipment Corruption in public, government & commercial sectors.
The system in concept is doable and can be a significant addition to the country’s infrastructure. 11.0 SYSTEMS AVAILABLE ELSEWHERE
USA, Mexico & Canada depend on Omnitrack system along with the ground based systems Europe’s Euteltrack, RDS-TMC, ERTRICO, Advance transport Telematics (ATT), DRIVE-I, DRIVE-II & PROMETHEUS are the systems which are being put into service for a better Surface Transportation Management. All of them working towards implementation of GTTS & its use for safer, quicker & efficient transport management.
Space Technology can play very important role in surface transport management system of India. India does have all the components available. Only there is a need to integrate all of them to put in to use.
ABBREVIATIONS: GPS INSAT GEO GSM DRIVE S/A VSAT LEO MEO IRS MSS Rx Txp GTTS WILL RDS-TMC Sources:
Global Positioning System Indian National Satellite System Geo Stationary Orbit Global System for Mobile Communication Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle Safety in Europe Selective Availability Very Small Aperture Terminals Low Earth Orbit Middle Earth Orbit Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Mobile Satellite Service Receiver Transponder Global Transport Telematics System Wireless in Local Loop Radio Data Systems – Traffic Message Channel
1.Satellite Based Mobile Communications – A Perspective S Pal, IETE Technical Review, Vol 16, No.3&4, May-Aug 1999 – pp 349-361 2. Impact Assessment of 1998 Brahmaputra Floods – Some case studies on Sand Intrusion, Bank Erosion & Damage to Kaziranga National Park K V Venkatachary, DMS-Office, ISRO-HQ, Bangalore – 94 3. Study of Brahmputra Bank Erosion (1990 – 1998) (Based on Multi-temporal Satellite Data) DMS Task Force Team DMS Office, ISRO-HQ Bangalore 560 094 4. IRS & INSAT Systems Reports 5. Towards an Intelligent Transport System. Proceedings of the First World Congress on Application of Transport Telematics & Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, Paris - 1994 6. Traffic Management on the Trans-European Road Network by the EC-Directorate General for Transport, Brussels 1994 7. Report on EC-Integrated Inter-Urban Traffic Management
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