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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt.

1910

(d) Location of sample Cooperative 1910.12 Construction work.


Agreement. A sample Agreement is 1910.15 Shipyard employment.
available for inspection at all Regional 1910.16 Longshoring and marine terminals.
Offices of the Occupational Safety and 1910.17 Effective dates.
1910.18 Changes in established Federal
Health Administration of the U.S. De- standards.
partment of Labor. 1910.19 Special provisions for air contami-
(e) Action upon requests. The State nants.
will be notified within a reasonable pe-
riod of time of any decision concerning Subpart C [Reserved]
its request for a Cooperative Agree-
ment. If a request is denied, the State Subpart D—Walking-Working Surfaces
will be informed in writing of the rea- 1910.21 Definitions.
sons supporting the decision. If a Coop- 1910.22 General requirements.
erative Agreement is negotiated, the 1910.23 Guarding floor and wall openings
initial finding will specify the period and holes.
for the Agreement. Additional funds 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs.
may be added at a later time provided 1910.25 Portable wood ladders.
the activity is satisfactorily carried 1910.26 Portable metal ladders.
out and appropriations are available. 1910.27 Fixed ladders.
The State may also be required to 1910.28 Safety requirements for scaffolding.
1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder
amend the Agreement for continued
stands and scaffolds (towers).
support. 1910.30 Other working surfaces.
(f) Termination. Either party may ter-
minate a Cooperative Agreement under Subpart E—Means of Egress
this part upon 30 days’ written notice
to the other party. 1910.33 Table of contents.
1910.34 Coverage and definitions.
(Approved by the Office of Management and 1910.35 Compliance with NFPA 101–2000, Life
Budget under control number 1218–0110) Safety Code.
[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 54 1910.36 Design and construction require-
FR 24333, June 7, 1989] ments for exit routes.
1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and oper-
§ 1908.11 Exclusions. ational features for exit routes.
1910.38 Emergency action plans.
A Cooperative Agreement under this 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.
part will not restrict in any manner APPENDIX TO SUBPART E—EXIT ROUTES,
the authority and responsibility of the EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS, AND FIRE PRE-
Assistant Secretary under sections 8, 9, VENTION PLANS
10, 13, and 17 of the Act, or any cor-
responding State authority. Subpart F—Powered Platforms, Manlifts,
and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms
PART 1910—OCCUPATIONAL 1910.66 Powered platforms for building
SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS maintenance.
1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and ro-
Subpart A—General tating work platforms.
1910.68 Manlifts.
Sec.
1910.1 Purpose and scope. Subpart G—Occupational Health and
1910.2 Definitions. Environmental Control
1910.3 Petitions for the issuance, amend-
ment, or repeal of a standard. 1910.94 Ventilation.
1910.4 Amendments to this part. 1910.95 Occupational noise exposure.
1910.5 Applicability of standards. 1910.97 Nonionizing radiation.
1910.6 Incorporation by reference. 1910.98 Effective dates.
1910.7 Definition and requirements for a na-
tionally recognized testing laboratory. Subpart H—Hazardous Materials
1910.8 OMB control numbers under the Pa-
perwork Reduction Act. 1910.101 Compressed gases (general require-
ments).
Subpart B—Adoption and Extension of 1910.102 Acetylene.
Established Federal Standards 1910.103 Hydrogen.
1910.104 Oxygen.
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1910.11 Scope and purpose. 1910.105 Nitrous oxide.

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Pt. 1910 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
1910.106 Flammable and combustible liq- 1910.156 Fire brigades.
uids.
1910.107 Spray finishing using flammable PORTABLE FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT
and combustible materials. 1910.157 Portable fire extinguishers.
1910.108 [Reserved] 1910.158 Standpipe and hose systems.
1910.109 Explosives and blasting agents.
1910.110 Storage and handling of liquified FIXED FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT
petroleum gases.
1910.111 Storage and handling of anhydrous 1910.159 Automatic sprinkler systems.
ammonia. 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, gen-
1910.112–1910.113 [Reserved] eral.
1910.119 Process safety management of high- 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry
ly hazardous chemicals. chemical.
1910.120 Hazardous waste operations and 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gas-
emergency response. eous agent.
1910.121 [Reserved] 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water
spray and foam.
DIPPING AND COATING OPERATIONS
OTHER FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1910.122 Table of contents.
1910.123 Dipping and coating operations: 1910.164 Fire detection systems.
Coverage and definitions. 1910.165 Employee alarm systems.
1910.124 General requirements for dipping APPENDICES TO SUBPART L OF PART 1910—
and coating operations. NOTE
1910.125 Additional requirements for dipping APPENDIX A TO SUBPART L—FIRE PROTECTION
and coating operations that use flam- APPENDIX B TO SUBPART L—NATIONAL CON-
mable or combustible liquids. SENSUS STANDARDS
1910.126 Additional requirements for special APPENDIX C TO SUBPART L—FIRE PROTECTION
dipping and coating operations. REFERENCES FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
APPENDIX D TO SUBPART L—AVAILABILITY OF
Subpart I—Personal Protective Equipment PUBLICATIONS INCORPORATED BY REF-
ERENCE IN SECTION 1910.156 FIRE BRIGADES
1910.132 General requirements. APPENDIX E TO SUBPART L—TEST METHODS
1910.133 Eye and face protection. FOR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
1910.134 Respiratory protection.
1910.135 Head protection. Subpart M—Compressed Gas and
1910.136 Foot protection.
1910.137 Electrical protective equipment. Compressed Air Equipment
1910.138 Hand protection. 1910.166–1910.168 [Reserved]
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART I—REFERENCES FOR 1910.169 Air receivers.
FURTHER INFORMATION (NON-MANDATORY)
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART I—NON-MANDATORY Subpart N—Materials Handling and
COMPLIANCE GUIDELINES FOR HAZARD AS- Storage
SESSMENT AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT SELECTION 1910.176 Handling materials—general.
1910.177 Servicing multi-piece and single
Subpart J—General Environmental Controls piece rim wheels.
1910.178 Powered industrial trucks.
1910.141 Sanitation. 1910.179 Overhead and gantry cranes.
1910.142 Temporary labor camps. 1910.180 Crawler locomotive and truck
1910.143 Nonwater carriage disposal sys- cranes.
tems. [Reserved] 1910.181 Derricks.
1910.144 Safety color code for marking phys- 1910.183 Helicopters.
ical hazards. 1910.184 Slings.
1910.145 Specifications for accident preven-
tion signs and tags.
Subpart O—Machinery and Machine
1910.146 Permit-required confined spaces.
1910.147 The control of hazardous energy Guarding
(lockout/tagout). 1910.211 Definitions.
1910.212 General requirements for all ma-
Subpart K—Medical and First Aid chines.
1910.151 Medical services and first aid. 1910.213 Woodworking machinery require-
1910.152 [Reserved] ments.
1910.214 Cooperage machinery. [Reserved]
Subpart L—Fire Protection 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery.
1910.216 Mills and calenders in the rubber
1910.155 Scope, application and definitions and plastics industries.
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applicable to this subpart. 1910.217 Mechanical power presses.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1910
1910.218 Forging machines. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL
1910.219 Mechanical power-transmission ap- EQUIPMENT
paratus.
1910.381–1910.398 [Reserved]
Subpart P—Hand and Portable Powered DEFINITIONS
Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment
1910.399 Definitions applicable to this sub-
1910.241 Definitions. part.
1910.242 Hand and portable powered tools APPENDIX A TO SUBPART S—REFERENCE DOC-
and equipment, general. UMENTS
1910.243 Guarding of portable powered tools. APPENDIX B TO SUBPART S—EXPLANATORY
1910.244 Other portable tools and equip- DATA [RESERVED]
ment. APPENDIX C TO SUBPART S—TABLES, NOTES,
AND CHARTS [RESERVED]
Subpart Q—Welding, Cutting and Brazing
Subpart T—Commercial Diving Operations
1910.251 Definitions.
1910.252 General requirements. GENERAL
1910.253 Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cut- 1910.401 Scope and application.
ting. 1910.402 Definitions.
1910.254 Arc welding and cutting.
1910.255 Resistance welding. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

Subpart R—Special Industries 1910.410 Qualifications of dive team.


GENERAL OPERATIONS PROCEDURES
1910.261 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
1910.262 Textiles. 1910.420 Safe practices manual.
1910.263 Bakery equipment. 1910.421 Pre-dive procedures.
1910.264 Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.422 Procedures during dive.
1910.265 Sawmills. 1910.423 Post-dive procedures.
1910.266 Logging operations.
1910.268 Telecommunications. SPECIFIC OPERATIONS PROCEDURES
1910.269 Electric power generation, trans- 1910.424 SCUBA diving.
mission, and distribution. 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving.
1910.272 Grain handling facilities. 1910.426 Mixed-gas diving.
1910.427 Liveboating.
Subpart S—Electrical
EQUIPMENT PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS
GENERAL
1910.430 Equipment.
1910.301 Introduction.
RECORDKEEPING
DESIGN SAFETY STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS 1910.440 Recordkeeping requirements.
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART T OF PART 1910—EX-
1910.302 Electric utilization systems. AMPLES OF CONDITIONS WHICH MAY RE-
1910.303 General requirements. STRICT OR LIMIT EXPOSURE TO
1910.304 Wiring design and protection. HYPERBARIC CONDITIONS
1910.305 Wiring methods, components, and APPENDIX B TO SUBPART T OF PART 1910—
equipment for general use. GUIDELINES FOR SCIENTIFIC DIVING
1910.306 Specific purpose equipment and in- APPENDIX C TO SUBPART T OF PART 1910—AL-
stallations. TERNATIVE CONDITIONS UNDER
1910.307 Hazardous (classified) locations. § 1910.401(a)(3) FOR RECREATIONAL DIVING
1910.308 Special systems. INSTRUCTORS AND DIVING GUIDES (MANDA-
1910.309–1910.330 [Reserved] TORY)

SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES


Subparts U–Y [Reserved]
1910.331 Scope.
1910.332 Training. 1910.901–1910.999 [Reserved]
1910.333 Selection and use of work practices. SOURCE: 39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, unless
1910.334 Use of equipment. otherwise noted.
1910.335 Safeguards for personnel protec-
tion.
1910.336–1910.360 [Reserved] Subpart A—General
SAFETY-RELATED MAINTENANCE
AUTHORITY: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occu-
REQUIREMENTS
pational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29
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1910.361–1910.380 [Reserved] U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s

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§ 1910.1 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR (b) This part carries out the directive
25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), 1–90 (55 FR 9033), 6– to the Secretary of Labor under section
96 (62 FR 111), 3–2000 (65 FR 50017), and 5–2002 6(a) of the Act. It contains occupa-
(67 FR 65008), as applicable.
Sections 1910.7 and 1910.8 also issued under
tional safety and health standards
29 CFR part 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also issued which have been found to be national
under 31 U.S.C. 9701, 29 U.S.C. 9 a, 5 U.S.C. consensus standards or established
553; Public Law 106–113 (113 Stat. 1501A–222); Federal standards.
and OMB Circular A–25 (dated July 8, 1993)
(58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993). § 1910.2 Definitions.
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 72 FR 7190, Feb- As used in this part, unless the con-
ruary 14, 2007, the authority citation for Sub- text clearly requires otherwise:
part A was revised, effective Aug. 13, 2007. (a) Act means the Williams-Steiger
For the convenience of the user, the revised Occupational Safety and Health Act of
text is set forth as follows:
AUTHORITY: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occu-
1970 (84 Stat. 1590).
pational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 (b) Assistant Secretary of Labor means
U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s the Assistant Secretary of Labor for
Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR Occupational Safety and Health;
25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), 1–90 (55 FR 9033), 6– (c) Employer means a person engaged
96 (62 FR 111), 3–2000 (65 FR 50017), or 5–2002 in a business affecting commerce who
(67 FR 65008), as applicable. has employees, but does not include
Sections 1910.6, 1910.7, and 1910.8 also issued
under 29 CFR part 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also
the United States or any State or po-
issued under 31 U.S.C. 9701, 29 U.S.C. 9 a, 5 litical subdivision of a State;
U.S.C. 553; Public Law 106–113 (113 Stat. (d) Employee means an employee of an
1501A–222); and OMB Circular A–25 (dated employer who is employed in a busi-
July 8, 1993) (58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993). ness of his employer which affects com-
merce;
§ 1910.1 Purpose and scope. (e) Commerce means trade, traffic,
(a) Section 6(a) of the Williams- commerce, transportation, or commu-
Steiger Occupational Safety and nication among the several States, or
Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1593) pro- between a State and any place outside
vides that ‘‘without regard to chapter 5 thereof, or within the District of Co-
of title 5, United States Code, or to the lumbia, or a possession of the United
other subsections of this section, the States (other than the Trust Territory
Secretary shall, as soon as practicable of the Pacific Islands), or between
during the period beginning with the points in the same State but through a
effective date of this Act and ending 2 point outside thereof;
years after such date, by rule promul- (f) Standard means a standard which
gate as an occupational safety or requires conditions, or the adoption or
health standard any national con- use of one or more practices, means,
sensus standard, and any established methods, operations, or processes, rea-
Federal standard, unless he determines sonably necessary or appropriate to
that the promulgation of such a stand- provide safe or healthful employment
ard would not result in improved safety and places of employment;
or health for specifically designated (g) National consensus standard means
employees.’’ The legislative purpose of any standard or modification thereof
this provision is to establish, as rapidly which (1) has been adopted and promul-
as possible and without regard to the gated by a nationally recognized stand-
rule-making provisions of the Adminis- ards-producing organization under pro-
trative Procedure Act, standards with cedures whereby it can be determined
which industries are generally famil- by the Secretary of Labor or by the As-
iar, and on whose adoption interested sistant Secretary of Labor that persons
and affected persons have already had interested and affected by the scope or
an opportunity to express their views. provisions of the standard have reached
Such standards are either (1) national substantial agreement on its adoption,
concensus standards on whose adoption (2) was formulated in a manner which
affected persons have reached substan- afforded an opportunity for diverse
tial agreement, or (2) Federal stand- views to be considered, and (3) has been
ards already established by Federal designated as such a standard by the
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statutes or regulations. Secretary or the Assistant Secretary,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.5

after consultation with other appro- § 1910.4 Amendments to this part.


priate Federal agencies; and
(a) The Assistant Secretary of Labor
(h) Established Federal standard means shall have all of the authority of the
any operative standard established by Secretary of Labor under sections 3(9)
any agency of the United States and in and 6(a) of the Act.
effect on April 28, 1971, or contained in (b) The Assistant Secretary of Labor
any Act of Congress in force on the may at any time before April 28, 1973,
date of enactment of the Williams- on his own motion or upon the written
Steiger Occupational Safety and petition of any person, by rule promul-
Health Act. gate as a standard any national con-
sensus standard and any established
§ 1910.3 Petitions for the issuance,
amendment, or repeal of a stand- Federal standard, pursuant to and in
ard. accordance with section 6(a) of the Act,
and, in addition, may modify or revoke
(a) Any interested person may peti- any standard in this part 1910. In the
tion in writing the Assistant Secretary event of conflict among any such
of Labor to promulgate, modify, or re- standards, the Assistant Secretary of
voke a standard. The petition should Labor shall take the action necessary
set forth the terms or the substance of to eliminate the conflict, including the
the rule desired, the effects thereof if revocation or modification of a stand-
promulgated, and the reasons therefor. ard in this part, so as to assure the
(b)(1) The relevant legislative history greatest protection of the safety or
of the Act indicates congressional rec- health of the affected employees.
ognition of the American National
Standards Institute and the National § 1910.5 Applicability of standards.
Fire Protection Association as the (a) Except as provided in paragraph
major sources of national consensus (b) of this section, the standards con-
standards. National consensus stand- tained in this part shall apply with re-
ards adopted on May 29, 1971, pursuant spect to employments performed in a
to section 6(a) of the Act are from workplace in a State, the District of
those two sources. However, any orga- Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puer-
nization which deems itself a producer to Rico, the Virgin Islands, American
of national consensus standards, within Samoa, Guam, Trust Territory of the
the meaning of section 3(9) of the Act, Pacific Islands, Wake Island, Outer
is invited to submit in writing to the Continental Shelf lands defined in the
Assistant Secretary of Labor at any Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act,
time prior to February 1, 1973, all rel- Johnston Island, and the Canal Zone.
evant information which may enable (b) None of the standards in this part
the Assistant Secretary to determine shall apply to working conditions of
whether any of its standards satisfy employees with respect to which Fed-
the requirements of the definition of eral agencies other than the Depart-
‘‘national consensus standard’’ in sec- ment of Labor, or State agencies act-
tion 3(9) of the Act. ing under section 274 of the Atomic En-
(2) Within a reasonable time after the ergy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C.
receipt of a submission pursuant to 2021), exercise statutory authority to
paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the As- prescribe or enforce standards or regu-
sistant Secretary of Labor shall pub- lations affecting occupational safety or
lish or cause to be published in the health.
FEDERAL REGISTER a notice of such (c)(1) If a particular standard is spe-
submission, and shall afford interested cifically applicable to a condition,
persons a reasonable opportunity to practice, means, method, operation, or
present written data, views, or argu- process, it shall prevail over any dif-
ments with regard to the question ferent general standard which might
otherwise be applicable to the same
whether any standards of the organiza-
condition, practice, means, method, op-
tion making the submission are na-
eration, or process. For example,
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tional consensus standards.


§ 1915.23(c)(3) of this title prescribes

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§ 1910.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

personal protective equipment for cer- Safety and Health Administration,


tain ship repairmen working in speci- U.S. Department of Labor, Washington,
fied areas. Such a standard shall apply, DC 20210.
and shall not be deemed modified nor (3) The materials listed in paragraphs
superseded by any different general (b) through (w) of this section are in-
standard whose provisions might other- corporated by reference in the cor-
wise be applicable, to the ship repair- responding sections noted as they exist
men working in the areas specified in on the date of the approval, and a no-
§ 1915.23(c)(3). tice of any change in these materials
(2) On the other hand, any standard will be published in the FEDERAL REG-
shall apply according to its terms to ISTER. These incorporations by ref-
any employment and place of employ- erence were approved by the Director
ment in any industry, even though par- of the Federal Register in accordance
ticular standards are also prescribed with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.
for the industry, as in subpart B or sub-
(4) Copies of the following standards
part R of this part, to the extent that
that are issued by the respective pri-
none of such particular standards ap-
vate standards organizations may be
plies. To illustrate, the general stand-
obtained from the issuing organiza-
ard regarding noise exposure in § 1910.95
applies to employments and places of tions. The materials are available for
employment in pulp, paper, and paper- purchase at the corresponding address-
board mills covered by § 1910.261. es of the private standards organiza-
(d) In the event a standard protects tions noted below. In addition, all are
on its face a class of persons larger available for inspection through the
than employees, the standard shall be OSHA Docket Office, room N2625, U.S.
applicable under this part only to em- Department of Labor, 200 Constitution
ployees and their employment and Ave., Washington, DC 20210, or any of
places of employment. its regional offices or at the National
(e) [Reserved] Archives and Records Administration
(f) An employer who is in compliance (NARA). For information on the avail-
with any standard in this part shall be ability of this material at NARA, call
deemed to be in compliance with the 202–741–6030, or go to: http://
requirement of section 5(a)(1) of the www.archives.gov/federallregister/
Act, but only to the extent of the con- codeloflfederallregulations/
dition, practice, means, method, oper- ibrllocations.html.
ation, or process covered by the stand- (b) The following material is avail-
ard. able for purchase from the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 58
Hygienists (ACGIH), 1014 Broadway,
FR 35308, June 30, 1993]
Cincinnati OH 45202:
§ 1910.6 Incorporation by reference. (1) ‘‘Industrial Ventilation: A Manual
of Recommended Practice’’ (22nd ed.,
(a)(1) The standards of agencies of
1995), incorporation by reference (IBR)
the U.S. Government, and organiza-
approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iii).
tions which are not agencies of the
U.S. Government which are incor- (2) Threshold Limit Values and Bio-
porated by reference in this part, have logical Exposure Indices for 1986–87
the same force and effect as other (1986), IBR approved for § 1910.120, PEL
standards in this part. Only the manda- definition.
tory provisions (i.e., provisions con- (c) The following material is avail-
taining the word ‘‘shall’’ or other man- able for purchase from the American
datory language) of standards incor- Society of Agricultural Engineers
porated by reference are adopted as (ASAE), 2950 Niles Road, Post Office
standards under the Occupational Safe- Box 229, St. Joseph, MI 49085:
ty and Health Act. (1) ASAE Emblem for Identifying
(2) Any changes in the standards in- Slow Moving Vehicles, ASAE S276.2
corporated by reference in this part (1968), IBR approved for § 1910.145(d)(10).
and an official historic file of such (2) [Reserved]
changes are available for inspection at (d) The following material is avail-
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the national office of the Occupational able for purchase from the Agriculture

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.6

Ammonia Institute-Rubber Manufac- plements, A17.2a (1965), A17.2b (1967),


turers (AAI-RMA) Association, 1400 K IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(viii).
St. NW, Washington DC 20005: (12) ANSI A90.1–69 Safety Standard
(1) AAI-RMA Specifications for An- for Manlifts, IBR approved for
hydrous Ammonia Hose, IBR approved § 1910.68(b)(3).
for § 1910.111(b)(8)(i). (13) ANSI A92.2–69 Standard for Vehi-
(2) [Reserved] cle Mounted Elevating and Rotating
(e) The following material is avail- Work Platforms, IBR approved for
able for purchase from the American § 1910.67 (b)(1), (2), (c)(3), and (4) and
National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1910.268(s)(1)(v).
11 West 42nd St., New York, NY 10036: (14) ANSI A120.1–70 Safety Code for
(1) ANSI A10.2–44 Safety Code for Powered Platforms for Exterior Build-
Building Construction, IBR approved ing Maintenance, IBR approved for
for § 1910.144(a)(1)(ii). § 1910.66 app. D (b) through (d).
(2) ANSI A10.3–70 Safety Require- (15) ANSI B7.1–70 Safety Code for the
ments for Explosive-Actuated Fas- Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive
tening Tools, IBR approved for Wheels, IBR approved for
§ 1910.243(d)(1)(i). §§ 1910.94(b)(5)(i)(a); 1910.215(b)(12); and
1910.218(j)(5).
(3) ANSI A11.1–65 (R 70) Practice for
(16) ANSI B15.1–53 (R 58) Safety Code
Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for
for Mechanical Power Transmission
§§ 1910.219(c)(5)(iii); 1910.261 (a)(3)(i),
Apparatus, IBR approved for
(c)(10), and (k)(21); and 1910.265(c)(2).
§§ 1910.68(b)(4) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(ix),
(4) ANSI A11.1–65 Practice for Indus-
(b)(1), (e)(3), (e)(9), (f)(4), (j)(5)(iv),
trial Lighting, IBR approved for
(k)(12), and (l)(3).
§§ 1910.262(c)(6) and 1910.265(d)(2)(i)(a).
(17) ANSI B20.1–57 Safety Code for
(5) ANSI A12.1–67 Safety Require- Conveyors, Cableways, and Related
ments for Floor and Wall Openings, Equipment, IBR approved for
Railings, and Toe Boards, IBR ap- §§ 1910.218(j)(3); 1910.261 (a)(3)(x), (b)(1),
proved for §§ 1910.66 appendix D, (c)(4); (c)(15)(iv), (f)(4), and (j)(2);
1910.68 (b)(4) and (b)(8)(ii); 1910.261 1910.265(c)(18)(i).
(a)(3)(ii), (b)(3), (c)(3)(i), (c)(15)(ii), (18) ANSI B30.2–43 (R 52) Safety Code
(e)(4), (g)(13), (h)(1), (h)(3)(vi), (j)(4) (ii) for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists, IBR
and (iv), (j)(5)(i), (k)(6), (k)(13)(i), and approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xi),
(k)(15). (c)(2)(vi), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).
(6) ANSI A13.1–56 Scheme for the (19) ANSI B30.2.0–67 Safety Code for
Identification of Piping Systems, IBR Overhead and Gantry Cranes, IBR ap-
approved for §§ 1910.253(d)(4)(ii); proved for §§ 1910.179(b)(2); 1910.261
1910.261(a)(3)(iii); 1910.262(c)(7). (a)(3)(xii), (c)(2)(v), and (c)(8) (i) and
(7) ANSI A14.1–68 Safety Code for (iv).
Portable Wood Ladders, Supplemented (20) ANSI B30.5–68 Safety Code for
by ANSI A14.1a–77, IBR approved for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck
§ 1910.261 (a)(3)(iv) and (c)(3)(i). Cranes, IBR approved for
(8) ANSI A14.2–56 Safety Code for §§ 1910.180(b)(2) and 1910.261(a)(3)(xiii).
Portable Metal Ladders, Supplemented (21) ANSI B30.6–69 Safety Code for
by ANSI A14.2a–77, IBR approved for Derricks, IBR approved for
§ 1910.261 (a)(3)(v) and (c)(3)(i). §§ 1910.181(b)(2) and 1910.268(j)(4)(iv) (E)
(9) ANSI A14.3–56 Safety Code for and (H).
Fixed Ladders, IBR approved for (22) ANSI B31.1–55 Code for Pressure
§§ 1910.68(b) (4) and (12); 1910.179(c)(2); Piping, IBR approved for
and 1910.261 (a)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(i). § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).
(10) ANSI A17.1–65 Safety Code for (23) ANSI B31.1–67, IBR approved for
Elevators, Dumbwaiters and Moving § 1910.253(d)(1)(i)(A)
Walks, Including Supplements, A17.1a (24) ANSI B31.1a–63 Addenda to ANSI
(1967); A17.1b (1968); A17.1c (1969); A17.1d B31.1 (1955), IBR approved for
(1970), IBR approved for § 1910.261 § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).
(a)(3)(vii), (g)(11)(i), and (l)(4). (25) ANSI B31.1–67 and Addenda B31.1
(11) ANSI A17.2–60 Practice for the (1969) Code for Pressure Piping, IBR ap-
rfrederick on PROD1PC67 with CFR

Inspection of Elevators, Including Sup- proved for §§ 1910.103(b)(1)(iii)(b);

93

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§ 1910.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

1910.104(b)(5)(ii); 1910.218 (d)(4) and (43) ANSI O1.1–54 (R 61) Safety Code
(e)(1)(iv); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xiv) and for Woodworking Machinery, IBR ap-
(g)(18)(iii). proved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvii), (e)(7),
(26) ANSI B31.2–68 Fuel Gas Piping, and (i)(2).
IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii). (44) ANSI S1.4–71 (R 76) Specification
(27) ANSI B31.3–66 Petroleum Refin- for Sound Level Meters, IBR approved
ery Piping, IBR approved for for § 1910.95 appendixes D and I.
§ 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b). (45) ANSI S1.11–71 (R 76) Specification
(28) ANSI B31.5–66 Addenda B31.5a for Octave, Half-Octave and Third-Oc-
(1968) Refrigeration Piping, IB ap- tave Band Filter Sets, IBR approved
proved for §§ 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b) and for § 1910.95 appendix D.
1910.111(b)(7)(iii). (46) ANSI S3.6–69 Specifications for
(29) ANSI B56.1–69 Safety Standard Audiometers, IBR approved for
for Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR ap- § 1910.95(h)(2) and (5)(ii) and appendix D.
proved for §§ 1910.178(a) (2) and (3) and (47) ANSI Z4.1–68 Requirements for
1910.261 (a)(3)(xv), (b)(6), (m)(2), and Sanitation in Places of Employment,
(m)(5)(iii). IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xviii)
(30) ANSI B57.1–65 Compressed Gas and (g)(15)(vi).
Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Con- (48) [Reserved]
nections, IBR approved for (49) ANSI Z9.1–51 Safety Code for
§ 1910.253(b)(1)(iii). Ventilation and Operation of Open Sur-
(31) [Reserved] face Tanks, IBR approved for
(32) ANSI B175.1–1991, Safety Require- §§ 1910.94(c)(5)(iii)(e) and 1910.261
ments for Gasoline-Powered Chain (a)(3)(xix), (g)(18)(v), and (h)(2)(i).
Saws 1910.266(e)(2)(i). (50) ANSI Z9.1–71 Practices for Ven-
(33) ANSI C1–71 National Electrical tilation and Operation of Open-Surface
Code, IBR approved for § 1910.66 appen- Tanks, IBR approved for
dix D (c)(22) (i) and (vii). § 1910.124(b)(4)(iv).
(34) ANSI C33.2–56 Safety Standard (51) ANSI Z9.2–60 Fundamentals Gov-
for Transformer-Type Arc Welding Ma- erning the Design and Operation of
chines, IBR approved for § 1910.254(b)(1). Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved
(35) [Reserved] for §§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i) introductory text,
(36) ANSI H23.1–70 Seamless Copper (a)(6) introductory text, (b)(3)(ix),
Water Tube Specification, IBR ap- (b)(4)(i) and (ii), (c)(3)(i) introductory
proved for § 1910.110(b) (8)(ii) and text, (c)(5)(iii)(b), and (c)(7)(iv)(a);
(13)(ii)(b)(1). 1910.261(a)(3)(xx), (g)(1)(i) and (iii), and
(37) ANSI H38.7–69 Specification for (h)(2)(ii).
Aluminum Alloy Seamless Pipe and (52) ANSI Z9.2–79 Fundamentals Gov-
Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved erning the Design and Operation of
for § 1910.110(b)(8)(i). Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved
(38) ANSI J6.4–71 Standard Specifica- for § 1910.124(b)(4)(i).
tion for Rubber Insulating Blankets, (53) ANSI Z12.12–68 Standard for the
IBR approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explo-
(n)(11)(v). sions, IBR approved for § 1910.261
(39) ANSI J6.6–71 Standard Specifica- (a)(3)(xxi), (d)(1)(i), (f)(2)(iv), and
tion for Rubber Insulating Gloves, IBR (g)(1)(i).
approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and (54) ANSI Z12.20–62 (R 69) Code for the
(n)(11)(iv). Prevention of Dust Explosions in
(40) ANSI K13.1–67 Identification of Woodworking and Wood Flour Manu-
Gas Mask Canisters, IBR approved for facturing Plants, IBR approved for
§ 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvi) and (h)(2)(iii). § 1910.265(c)(20)(i).
(41) ANSI K61.1–60 Safety Require- (55) ANSI Z21.30–64 Requirements for
ments for the Storage and Handling of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Instal-
Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for lations, IBR approved for
§ 1910.111(b)(11)(i). § 1910.265(c)(15).
(42) ANSI K61.1–66 Safety Require- (56) ANSI Z24.22–57 Method of Meas-
ments for the Storage and Handling of urement of Real-Ear Attenuation of
Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for Ear Protectors at Threshold, IBR ap-
rfrederick on PROD1PC67 with CFR

§ 1910.111(b)(11)(i). proved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxii).

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.6

(57) ANSI Z33.1–61 Installation of 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxvi), (b)(2), (f)(5),


Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, (g)(15)(v), (h)(2) (iii) and (iv), and (i)(4).
Stock, and Vapor Removal or Con- (70) ANSI Z89.1–69 Safety Require-
veying, IBR approved for ments for Industrial Head Protection,
§§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxiii) IBR approved for §§ 1910.135(b)(2); and
and (f)(5); and 1910.265(c)(20)(i). 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxvii), (b)(2), (g)(15)(v),
(58) ANSI Z33.1–66 Installation of and (i)(4).
Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, (71) ANSI Z89.1–86, Protective
Stock, and Vapor Removal or Con- Headwear for Industrial Workers Re-
veying, IBR approved for quirements, IBR approved for
§ 1910.94(a)(2)(ii). § 1910.135(b)(1).
(59) ANSI Z35.1–68 Specifications for (72) ANSI Z89.2–71 Safety Require-
Accident Prevention Signs, IBR ap- ments for Industrial Protective Hel-
proved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxiv) and mets for Electrical Workers, Class B,
(c)(16). IBR approved for § 1910.268(i)(1).
(60) ANSI Z41.1–67 Men’s Safety Toe (f) The following material is avail-
Footwear, IBR approved for able for purchase from the American
§§ 1910.94(a)(5)(v); 1910.136(b)(2) and Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L
1910.261(i)(4). Street NW, Washington DC 20005:
(61) ANSI Z41–91, Personal Protec- (1) [Reserved]
tion-Protective Footwear, IBR ap- (2) API 12B (May 1958) Specification
proved for § 1910.136(b)(1). for Bolted Production Tanks, 11th Ed.,
With Supplement No. 1, Mar. 1962, IBR
(62) ANSI Z48.1–54 Method for Mark-
approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).
ing Portable Compressed Gas Con-
(3) API 12D (Aug. 1957) Specification
tainers to Identify the Material Con-
for Large Welded Production Tanks,
tained, IBR approved for
7th Ed., IBR approved for
§§ 1910.103(b)(1)(i)(c); 1910.110(b)(5)(iii);
§ 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).
and 1910.253(b)(1)(ii).
(4) API 12F (Mar. 1961) Specification
(63) ANSI Z48.1–54 (R 70) Method for
for Small Welded Production Tanks,
Marking Portable Compressed Gas Con-
5th Ed., IBR approved for
tainers To Identify the Material Con-
§ 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).
tained, IBR approved for §§ 1910.111(e)(1)
(5) API 620, Fourth Ed. (1970) Includ-
and 1910.134(d)(4).
ing appendix R, Recommended Rules
(64) ANSI Z49.1–67 Safety in Welding for Design and Construction of Large
and Cutting, IBR approved for Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks,
§ 1910.252(c)(1)(iv) (A) and (B). IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(i)(a);
(65) ANSI Z53.1–67 Safety Color Code 1910.106(b)(1)(iv)(b)(1); and 1910.111(d)(1)
for Marking Physical Hazards and the (ii) and (iii).
Identification of Certain Equipment, (6) API 650 (1966) Welded Steel Tanks
IBR approved for §§ 1910.97(a)(3)(ii); for Oil Storage, 3rd Ed., IBR approved
1910.145(d) (2), (4), and (6). for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(2).
(66) ANSI Z54.1–63 Safety Standard (7) API 1104 (1968) Standard for Weld-
for Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed ing Pipelines and Related Facilities,
Gamma Ray Sources, IBR approved for IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(v).
§ 1910.252(d) (1)(vii) and (2)(ii). (8) API 2000 (1968) Venting Atmos-
(67) ANSI Z87.1–68 Practice of Occu- pheric and Low Pressure Storage
pational and Educational Eye and Face Tanks, IBR approved for
Protection, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(b)(1).
§§ 1910.133(b)(2); 1910.252(b)(2)(ii)(I); and (9) API 2201 (1963) Welding or Hot
1910.261 (a)(3)(xxv), (d)(1)(ii), (f)(5), Tapping on Equipment Containing
(g)(10), (g)(15)(v), (g)(18)(ii), and (i)(4). Flammables, IBR approved for
(68) ANSI Z87.1–89, Practice for Occu- § 1910.252(d)(1)(vi).
pational and Educational Eye and Face (g) The following material is avail-
Protection, IBR approved for able for purchase from the American
§ 1910.133(b)(1). Society of Mechanical Engineers
(69) ANSI Z88.2–69 Practices for Res- (ASME), United Engineering Center,
piratory Protection, IBR approved for 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY
rfrederick on PROD1PC67 with CFR

§§ 1910.94(c)(6)(iii)(a); 1910.134(c); and 10017:

95

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§ 1910.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (7) ASTM B 88–66A Seamless Copper
Code, Sec. VIII, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, Water Tube, IBR approved for
1959, and 1962 Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(i)(A)(2).
§§ 1910.110 (b)(10)(iii) (Table H–26), (d)(2) (8) ASTM B 117–64 Salt Spray (Fog)
(Table H–31); (e)(3)(i) (Table H–32), Test, IBR approved for
(h)(2) (Table H–34); and § 1910.268(g)(2)(i)(A).
1910.111(b)(2)(vi); (9) ASTM B 210–68 Aluminum-Alloy
(2) ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, Drawn Seamless Tubes, IBR approved
1968 Ed., IBR approved for for § 1910.110(b)(8)(ii).
§§ 1910.106(i)(3)(i); 1910.110(g)(2)(iii)(b)(2); (10) ASTM B 241–69, IBR approved for
and 1910.217(b)(12); § 1910.110(b)(8)(i) introductory text.
(3) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (11) ASTM D 5–65 Test for Penetra-
Code, Sec. VIII, 1968, IBR approved for tion by Bituminous Materials, IBR ap-
§§ 1910.103; 1910.104(b)(4)(ii); 1910.106 proved for § 1910.106(a)(17).
(b)(1)(iv)(b)(2) and (i)(3)(ii); 1910.107; (12) ASTM D 56–70 Test for Flash
1910.110(b)(11) (i)(b) and (iii)(a)(1); Point by Tag Closed Tester, IBR ap-
1910.111(b)(2) (i), (ii), and (iv); and proved for § 1910.106(a)(14)(i).
1910.169(a)(2) (i) and (ii); (13) ASTM D 86–62 Test for Distilla-
(4) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel tion of Petroleum Products, IBR ap-
Code, Sec. VIII, Paragraph UG–84, 1968, proved for §§ 1910.106(a)(5) and
IBR approved for § 1910.104 (b)(4)(ii) and 1910.119(b) ‘‘Boiling point.’’
(b)(5)(iii); (14) ASTM D 88–56 Test for Saybolt
(5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Viscosity, IBR approved for
Code, Sec. VIII, Unfired Pressure Ves- § 1910.106(a)(37).
sels, Including Addenda (1969), IBR ap- (15) ASTM D 93–71 Test for Flash
proved for §§ 1910.261; 1910.262; Point by Pensky Martens, IBR ap-
1910.263(i)(24)(ii); proved for § 1910.106(a)(14)(ii).
(6) Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels (16) ASTM D 323–68, IBR approved for
for Petroleum Liquids and Gases of the § 1910.106(a)(30)
API and the ASME, 1951 Ed., IBR ap- (17) ASTM D 445–65 Test for Viscosity
proved for § 1910.110(b)(3)(iii); and of Transparent and Opaque Liquids,
(7) ASME B56.6–1992 (with addenda), IBR approved for § 1910.106(a)(37).
Safety Standard for Rough Terrain (18) ASTM D 1692–68 Test for Flam-
Forklift Trucks, IBR approved for mability of Plastic Sheeting and Cel-
§ 1910.266(f)(4). lular Plastics, IBR approved for
(h) The following material is avail- § 1910.103(c)(1)(v)(d).
able for purchase from the American (19) ASTM D 2161–66 Conversion Ta-
Society for Testing and Materials bles For SUS, IBR approved for
(ASTM), 1916 Race Street, Philadel- § 1910.106(a)(37).
phia, PA 19103: (i) The following material is avail-
(1) ASTM A 47–68 Malleable Iron able for purchase from the American
Castings, IBR approved for Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW,
§ 1910.111(b)(7)(vi). LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami
(2) ASTM A 53–69 Welded and Seam- FL 33135:
less Steel Pipe, IBR approved for (1) AWS A3.0 (1969) Terms and Defini-
§§ 1910.110(b)(8)(i) (a) and (b) and tions, IBR approved for § 1910.251(c).
1910.111(b)(7)(iv). (2) [Reserved]
(3) ASTM A 126–66 Gray Iron Casting (3) AWS B3.0–41 Standard Qualifica-
for Valves, Flanges and Pipe Fitting, tion Procedure, IBR approved for
IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(7)(vi). § 1910.67(c)(5)(i).
(4) ASTM A 391–65 (ANSI G61.1–1968) (4) AWS D1.0–1966 Code for Welding in
Alloy Steel Chain, IBR approved for Building Construction, IBR approved
§ 1910.184(e)(4). for § 1910.27(b)(6).
(5) ASTM A 395–68 Ductile Iron for (5) AWS D2.0–69 Specifications for
Use at Elevated Temperatures, IBR ap- Welding Highway and Railway Bridges,
proved for § 1910.111(b)(7)(vi). IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iv).
(6) ASTM B 88–69 Seamless Copper (6) AWS D8.4–61 Recommended Prac-
Water Tube, IBR approved for tices for Automotive Welding Design,
rfrederick on PROD1PC67 with CFR

§ 1910.110(b) (8)(i)(a) and (13)(ii)(b)(1). IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(ii).

96

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.6

(7) AWS D10.9–69 Standard Qualifica- (12) CGA S–1.3 (1959) Safety Release
tion of Welding Procedures and Weld- Device Standards-Compressed Gas
ers for Piping and Tubing, IBR ap- Storage Containers, IBR approved for
proved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iii). §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2);
(j) The following material is avail- 1910.104(b)(6)(iii); and
able for purchase from the Department 1910.111(d)(4)(ii)(b).
of Commerce: (13) CGA 1957 Standard Hose Connec-
(1) Commercial Standard, CS 202–56 tion Standard, IBR approved for
(1961) ‘‘Industrial Lifts and Hinged § 1910.253(e) (4)(v) and (5)(iii).
Loading Ramps,’’ IBR approved for (14) CGA and RMA (Rubber Manufac-
§ 1910.30(a)(3). turer’s Association) Specification for
(2) Publication ‘‘Model Performance Rubber Welding Hose (1958), IBR ap-
Criteria for Structural Fire Fighters’ proved for § 1910.253(e)(5)(i).
Helmets,’’ IBR approved for (15) CGA 1958 Regulator Connection
§ 1910.156(e)(5)(i). Standard, IBR approved for § 1910.253(e)
(k) The following material is avail- (4)(iv) and (6).
able for purchase from the Compressed (l) The following material is avail-
Gas Association (CGA), 1235 Jefferson able for purchase from the Crane Man-
Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202: ufacturer’s Association of America,
(1) CGA C–6 (1968) Standards for Vis- Inc. (CMAA), 1 Thomas Circle NW,
ual Inspection of Compressed Gas Cyl- Washington DC 20005:
inders, IBR approved for § 1910.101(a). (1) CMAA Specification 1B61, Speci-
(2) CGA C–8 (1962) Standard for Re- fications for Electric Overhead Trav-
qualification of ICC–3HT Cylinders, eling Cranes, IBR approved for
IBR approved for § 1910.101(a). § 1910.179(b)(6)(i).
(2) [Reserved]
(3) CGA G–1 (1966) Acetylene, IBR ap-
(m) The following material is avail-
proved for § 1910.102(a).
able for purchase from the General
(4) CGA G–1.3 (1959) Acetylene Trans-
Services Administration:
mission for Chemical Synthesis, IBR
(1) GSA Pub. GG-B–0067b, Air Com-
approved for § 1910.102(b).
pressed for Breathing Purposes, or In-
(5) CGA G–1.4 (1966) Standard for terim Federal Specifications, Apr. 1965,
Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(4).
IBR approved for § 1910.102(b). (2) [Reserved]
(6) CGA G–7.1 (1966) Commodity Spec- (n) The following material is avail-
ification, IBR approved for able for purchase from the Department
§ 1910.134(d)(1). of Health and Human Services:
(7) CGA G–8.1 (1964) Standard for the (1) Publication No. 76–120 (1975), List
Installation of Nitrous Oxide Systems of Personal Hearing Protectors and At-
at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for tenuation Data, IBR approved for
§ 1910.105. § 1910.95 App. B.
(8) CGA P–1 (1965) Safe Handling of (2) [Reserved]
Compressed Gases, IBR approved for (o) The following material is avail-
§ 1910.101(b). able for purchase from the Institute of
(9) CGA P–3 (1963) Specifications, Makers of Explosives (IME), 420 Lex-
Properties, and Recommendations for ington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:
Packaging, Transportation, Storage (1) IME Pamphlet No. 17, 1960, Safety
and Use of Ammonium Nitrate, IBR ap- in the Handling and Use of Explosives,
proved for § 1910.109(i)(1)(ii)(b). IBR approved for §§ 1910.261 (a)(4)(iii)
(10) CGA S–1.1 (1963) and 1965 Ad- and (c)(14)(ii).
denda. Safety Release Device Stand- (2) [Reserved]
ards—Cylinders for Compressed Gases, (p) The following material is avail-
IBR approved for §§ 1910.101(c); able for purchase from the National
1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2). Electrical Manufacturer’s Association
(11) CGA S–1.2 (1963) Safety Release (NEMA):
Device Standards, Cargo and Portable (1) NEMA EW–1 (1962) Requirements
Tanks for Compressed Gases, IBR ap- for Electric Arc Welding Apparatus,
proved for §§ 1910.101(c); IBR approved for §§ 1910.254(b)(1).
rfrederick on PROD1PC67 with CFR

1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2). (2) [Reserved]

97

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§ 1910.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(q) The following material is avail- Production, Packaging, and Handling


able for purchase from the National of Pulverized Sugar and Cocoa, IBR ap-
Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 proved for § 1910.263(k)(2)(i).
Tracy Drive, Avon, MA 02322: (15) NFPA 68–1954 Guide for Explosion
(1) NFPA 30 (1969) Flammable and Venting, IBR approved for
Combustible Liquids Code, IBR ap- § 1910.94(a)(2)(iii).
proved for § 1910.178(f)(1). (16) NFPA 70–1971 National Electrical
(2) NFPA 32–1970 Standard for Dry Code, IBR approved for § 1910.66 App.
Cleaning Plants, IBR approved for D(c)(2).
§ 1910.106(j)(6)(i). (17) NFPA 78–1968 Lightning Protec-
(3) NFPA 33–1969 Standard for Spray tion Code, IBR approved for
Finishing Using Flammable and Com- § 1910.109(i)(6)(ii).
bustible Material, IBR approved for (18) NFPA 80–1968 Standard for Fire
§§ 1910.94(c) (1)(ii), (2), (3) (i) and (iii), Doors and Windows, IBR approved for
and (5). § 1910.106(d)(4)(i).
(4) NFPA 34–1966 Standard for Dip (19) NFPA 80–1970 Standard for the
Tanks Containing Flammable or Com- Installation of Fire Doors and Win-
bustible Liquids, IBR approved for dows, IBR approved for
§ 1910.124(b)(4)(iv). § 1910.253(f)(6)(i)(I).
(5) NFPA 34–1995 Standard for Dip (20) NFPA 86A–1969 Standard for Oven
Tanks Containing Flammable or Com- and Furnaces Design, Location and
bustible Liquids, IBR approved for Equipment, IBR approved for §§ 1910.107
§ 1910.124(b)(4)(ii). (j)(1) and (l)(3) and 1910.108 (b)(2) and
(6) NFPA 35–1970 Standard for the (d)(2).
Manufacture of Organic Coatings, IBR (21) NFPA 91–1961 Standard for the
approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(ii). Installation of Blower and Exhaust
(7) NFPA 36–1967 Standard for Sol- Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor
vent Extraction Plants, IBR approved Removal or Conveying (ANSI Z33.1–61),
for § 1910.106(j)(6)(iii). IBR approved for § 1910.107(d)(1).
(8) NFPA 37–1970 Standard for the In- (22) NFPA 91–1969 Standards for
stallation and Use of Stationary Com- Blower and Exhaust Systems, IBR ap-
bustion Engines and Gas Turbines, IBR proved for § 1910.108(b)(1).
approved for §§ 1910.106(j)(6)(iv) and (23) NFPA 96–1970 Standard for the
1910.110 (b)(20)(iv)(c) and (e)(11). Installation of Equipment for the Re-
(9) NFPA 51B–1962 Standard for Fire moval of Smoke and Grease Laden Va-
Protection in Use of Cutting and Weld- pors from Commercial Cooking Equip-
ing Processes, IBR approved for ment, IBR approved for
§ 1910.252(a)(1) introductory text. § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(d).
(10) NFPA 54–1969 Standard for the (24) NFPA 101–1970 Code for Life Safe-
Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas ty From Fire in Buildings and Struc-
Piping, IBR approved for tures, IBR approved for
§ 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(a). § 1910.261(a)(4)(ii).
(11) NFPA 54A–1969 Standard for the (25) NFPA 203M–1970 Manual on Roof
Installation of Gas Piping and Gas Coverings, IBR approved for
Equipment on Industrial Premises and § 1910.109(i)(1)(iii)(c).
Certain Other Premises, IBR approved (26) NFPA 251–1969 Standard Methods
for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(b). of Fire Tests of Building Construction
(12) NFPA 58–1969 Standard for the and Materials, IBR approved for
Storage and Handling of Liquefied Pe- §§ 1910.106 (d)(3)(ii) introductory text
troleum Gases (ANSI Z106.1–1970), IBR and (d)(4)(i).
approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (27) NFPA 302–1968 Fire Protection
(i)(3) (i) and (ii); and 1910.178(f)(2). Standard for Motor-Craft (Pleasure and
(13) NFPA 59–1968 Standard for the Commercial), IBR approved for
Storage and Handling of Liquefied Pe- § 1910.265(d)(2)(iv) introductory text.
troleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, (28) NFPA 385–1966 Recommended
IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) Regulatory Standard for Tank Vehicles
and (i)(2)(iv). for Flammable and Combustible Liq-
(14) NFPA 62–1967 Standard for the uids, IBR approved for
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Prevention of Dust Explosions in the § 1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(1).

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.6

(29) NFPA 496–1967 Standard for Automotive Engineers (SAE), 485 Lex-
Purged Enclosures for Electrical ington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:
Equipment in Hazardous Locations, (1) SAE J185, June 1988, Rec-
IBR approved for ommended Practice for Access Systems
§ 1910.103(c)(1)(ix)(e)(1). for Off-Road Machines, IBR approved
(30) NFPA 505–1969 Standard for Type for § 1910.266(f)(5)(i).
Designations, Areas of Use, (2) SAE J231, January 1981, Minimum
Maintenence, and Operation of Pow- Performance Criteria for Falling Ob-
ered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved ject Protective Structure (FOPS), IBR
for § 1910.110(e)(2)(iv). approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).
(31) NFPA 566–1965 Standard for the (3) SAE J386, June 1985, Operator Re-
Installation of Bulk Oxygen Systems straint Systems for Off-Road Work Ma-
at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for chines, IBR approved for
§§ 1910.253 (b)(4)(iv) and (c)(2)(v). § 1910.266(d)(3)(iv).
(32) NFPA 656–1959 Code for the Pre- (4) SAE J397, April 1988, Deflection
vention of Dust Ignition in Spice Limiting Volume-ROPS/FOPS Labora-
Grinding Plants, IBR approved for tory Evaluation, IBR approved for
§ 1910.263(k)(2)(i). § 1910.266(f)(3)(iv).
(33) NFPA 1971–1975 Protective Cloth- (5) SAE 765 (1961) SAE Recommended
ing for Structural Fire Fighting, IBR Practice: Crane Loading Stability Test
approved for § 1910.156(e)(3)(ii) introduc- Code, IBR approved for § 1910.180
tory text. (c)(1)(iii) and (e)(2)(iii)(a).
(6) SAE J1040, April 1988, Perform-
(r) The following material is avail-
ance Criteria for Rollover Protective
able for purchase from the National
Structures (ROPS) for Construction,
Food Plant Institute, 1700 K St. NW.,
Earthmoving, Forestry and Mining Ma-
Washington, DC 20006:
chines, IBR approved for
(1) Definition and Test Procedures for
§ 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).
Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer (Nov.
(v) The following material is avail-
1964), IBR approved for § 1910.109 Table
able for purchase from the Fertilizer
H–22, ftn. 3.
Institute, 1015 18th Street NW, Wash-
(2) [Reserved] ington, DC 20036:
(s) The following material is avail- (1) Standard M–1 (1953, 1955, 1957, 1960,
able for purchase from the National In- 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968), Super-
stitute for Occupational Safety and seded by ANSI K61.1–1972, IBR approved
Health (NIOSH): for § 1910.111(b)(1) (i) and (iii).
(1) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chem- (2) [Reserved]
ical Substances, 1978, IBR approved for (w) The following material is avail-
§ 1910.20(c)(13)(i) and appendix B. able for purchase from Underwriters
(2) Development of Criteria for Fire Laboratories (UL), 207 East Ohio
Fighters Gloves; Vol. II, Part II; Test Street, Chicago, IL 60611:
Methods, 1976, IBR approved for (1) UL 58–61 Steel Underground Tanks
§ 1910.156(e)(4)(i) introductory text. for Flammable and Combustible Liq-
(3) NIOSH Recommendations for Oc- uids, 5th Ed., IBR approved for
cupational Safety and Health Stand- § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).
ards (Sept. 1987), IBR approved for (2) UL 80–63 Steel Inside Tanks for
§ 1910.120 PEL definition. Oil-Burner Fuel, IBR approved for
(t) The following material is avail- § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).
able for purchase from the Public (3) UL 142–68 Steel Above Ground
Health Service: Tanks for Flammable and Combustible
(1) U.S. Pharmacopeia, IBR approved Liquids, IBR approved for
for § 1910.134(d)(1). § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).
(2) Publication No. 934 (1962), Food [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49
Service Sanitation Ordinance and FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9231, Mar. 7, 1996;
Code, Part V of the Food Service Sani- 64 FR 13908, Mar. 23, 1999; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9,
tation Manual, IBR approved for 2004; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005]
§ 1910.142(i)(1). EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 72 FR 7190, Feb.
(u) The following material is avail- 14, 2007, § 1910.6 was amended by revising the
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able for purchase from the Society of introductory text to paragraph (e), removing

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§ 1910.7 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
and reserving paragraph (e)(33), revising the accepted, the following controls or
introductory text to paragraph (q), and re- services:
moving and reserving paragraph (q)(16), ef-
(i) Implements control procedures for
fective Aug. 13, 2007. For the convenience of
the user, the revised text is set forth as fol- identifying the listed and labeled
lows: equipment or materials;
(ii) Inspects the run of production of
§ 1910.6 Incorporation by reference. such items at factories for product
evaluation purposes to assure conform-
* * * * * ance with the test standards; and
(e) The following material is available for (iii) Conducts field inspections to
purchase from the American National Stand- monitor and to assure the proper use of
ards Institute (ANSI), 25 West 43rd Street, its identifying mark or labels on prod-
Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036: ucts;
(3) The NRTL is completely inde-
* * * * * pendent of employers subject to the
(q) The following material is available for tested equipment requirements, and of
purchase from the National Fire Protection any manufacturers or vendors of equip-
Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, ment or materials being tested for
Quincy, MA 02269: these purposes; and,
(4) The NRTL maintains effective
* * * * * procedures for:
(i) Producing creditable findings or
§ 1910.7 Definition and requirements reports that are objective and without
for a nationally recognized testing
laboratory. bias; and
(ii) Handling complaints and disputes
(a) Application. This section shall under a fair and reasonable system.
apply only when the term nationally
(c) Test standards. An appropriate test
recognized testing laboratory is used in
standard referred to in § 1910.7(b)(1) (i)
other sections of this part.
and (ii) is a document which specifies
(b) Laboratory requirements. The term
the safety requirements for specific
nationally recognized testing laboratory
equipment or class of equipment and is:
(NRTL) means an organization which
is recognized by OSHA in accordance (1) Recognized in the United States
with appendix A of this section and as a safety standard providing an ade-
which tests for safety, and lists or la- quate level of safety, and
bels or accepts, equipment or materials (2) Compatible with and maintained
and which meets all of the following current with periodic revisions of ap-
criteria: plicable national codes and installation
(1) For each specified item of equip- standards, and
ment or material to be listed, labeled (3) Developed by a standards devel-
or accepted, the NRTL has the capa- oping organization under a method pro-
bility (including proper testing equip- viding for input and consideration of
ment and facilities, trained staff, writ- views of industry groups, experts,
ten testing procedures, and calibration users, consumers, governmental au-
and quality control programs) to per- thorities, and others having broad ex-
form: perience in the safety field involved, or
(i) Testing and examining of equip- (4) In lieu of paragraphs (c) (1), (2),
ment and materials for workplace safe- and (3), the standard is currently des-
ty purposes to determine conformance ignated as an American National
with appropriate test standards; or Standards Institute (ANSI) safety-des-
(ii) Experimental testing and exam- ignated product standard or an Amer-
ining of equipment and materials for ican Society for Testing and Materials
workplace safety purposes to deter- (ASTM) test standard used for evalua-
mine conformance with appropriate tion of products or materials.
test standards or performance in a (d) Alternative test standard. If a test-
specified manner. ing laboratory desires to use a test
(2) The NRTL shall provide, to the standard other than one allowed under
extent needed for the particular equip- paragraph (c) of this section, then the
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.7

evaluate the proposed standard to de- or administer the activities covered by


termine that it provides an adequate the fees); and the average or actual
level of safety before it is used. costs for travel when on-site reviews
(e) Implementation. A testing organi- are involved. The formula for the fee
zation desiring recognition by OSHA as calculation is as follows:
an NRTL shall request that OSHA
Activity Fee = [Average (or Actual)
evaluate its testing and control pro-
Hours to Complete the Activity ×
grams against the requirements in this
Staff Costs per Hour] + Average (or
section for any equipment or material
Actual) Travel Costs
it may specify. The recognition proce-
dure shall be conducted in accordance (3) (i) OSHA will review costs annu-
with appendix A to this section. ally and will propose a revised fee
(f) Fees. (1) Each applicant for NRTL schedule, if warranted. In its review,
recognition and each NRTL must pay OSHA will apply the formula estab-
fees for services provided by OSHA. lished in paragraph (f)(2) of this section
OSHA will assess fees for the following to the current estimated costs for the
services: NRTL Program. If a change is war-
(i) Processing of applications for ini- ranted, OSHA will follow the imple-
tial recognition, expansion of recogni- mentation table in paragraph (f)(4) of
tion, or renewal of recognition, includ- this section.
ing on-site reviews; review and evalua- (ii) OSHA will publish all fee sched-
tion of the applications; and prepara- ules in the FEDERAL REGISTER. Once
tion of reports, evaluations and FED- published, a fee schedule remains in ef-
ERAL REGISTER notices; and fect until it is superseded by a new fee
(ii) Audits of sites. schedule. Any member of the public
(2) The fee schedule established by may request a change to the fees in-
OSHA reflects the cost of performing cluded in the current fee schedule.
the activities for each service listed in Such a request must include appro-
paragraph (f)(1) of this section. OSHA priate documentation in support of the
calculates the fees based on either the suggested change. OSHA will consider
average or actual time required to per- such requests during its annual review
form the work necessary; the staff of the fee schedule.
costs per hour (which include wages, (4) OSHA will implement fee assess-
fringe benefits, and expenses other ment, collection, and payment as fol-
than travel for personnel that perform lows:
Approximate dates Action required

I. Annual Review of Fee Schedule

November 1 .............................. OSHA will publish any proposed new Fee Schedule in the Federal Register, if OSHA deter-
mines changes in the schedule are warranted.
November 16 ............................ Comments due on the proposed new Fee Schedule.
December 15 ............................ OSHA will publish the final Fee Schedule in the Federal Register, making it effective.

II. Application Processing Fees

Time of application ................... Applicant must pay the applicable fees shown in the Fee Schedule when submitting the appli-
cation; OSHA will not begin processing until fees are received.
Publication of preliminary notice Applicant must pay remainder of fees; OSHA cancels application if fees are not paid when
due.

III. Audit Fees


After audit performed ................ OSHA will bill each existing NRTL for the audit fees in effect at the time of audit, but will re-
flect actual travel costs and staff time in the bill.
30 days after bill date ............... NRTLs must pay audit fees; OSHA will assess late fee if audit fees are not paid.
45 days after bill date ............... OSHA will send a letter to the NRTL requesting immediate payment of the audit fees and late
fee
60 days after bill date ............... OSHA will publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing its intent to revoke recognition
for NRTLs that have not paid these audit fees.

(5) OSHA will provide details about priate OSHA Program Directives,
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§ 1910.7 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

which will be available on the OSHA the applicant wishes to be recognized. This
web site. will include identifying the testing methods
it will use to test or judge the specific equip-
APPENDIX A TO § 1910.7—OSHA RECOGNITION ment and materials for which recognition is
PROCESS FOR NATIONALLY RECOGNIZED being requested, unless such test methods
TESTING LABORATORIES are already specified in the test standard. If
requested to do so by OSHA, the applicant
INTRODUCTION shall provide documentation of the efficacy
This appendix provides requirements and of these testing methods.
criteria which OSHA will use to evaluate and c. The applicant may include whatever en-
recognize a Nationally Recognized Testing closures, attachments, or exhibits the appli-
Laboratory (NRTL). This process will in- cant deems appropriate. The application
clude the evaluation of the product evalua- need not be submitted on a Federal form.
tion and control programs being operated by 3. Filing office location. The application
the NRTL, as well as the NRTL’s testing fa- shall be filed with: NRTL Recognition Pro-
cilities being used in its program. In the gram, Occupational Safety and Health Ad-
evaluation of the NRTLs, OSHA will use ei- ministration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200
ther consensus-based standards currently in Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC
use nationally, or other standards or criteria 20210.
which may be considered appropriate. This 4. Amendments and withdrawals. a. An appli-
appendix implements the definition of NRTL cation may be revised by an applicant at any
in 29 CFR 1910.7 which sets out the criteria time prior to the completion of activity
that a laboratory must meet to be recog- under paragraph I.B.4. of this appendix.
nized by OSHA (initially and on a continuing b. An application may be withdrawn by an
basis). The appendix is broader in scope, pro- applicant, without prejudice, at any time
viding procedures for renewal, expansion and prior to the final decision by the Assistant
revocation of OSHA recognition. Except as Secretary in paragraph I.B.7.c. of this appen-
otherwise provided, the burden is on the ap- dix.
plicant to establish by a preponderance of
the evidence that it is entitled to recogni- B. Review and Decision Process; Issuance or
tion as an NRTL. If further detailing of these Renewal.
requirements and criteria will assist the
1. Acceptance and on-site review. a. Applica-
NRTLs or OSHA in this activity, this detail-
tions submitted by eligible testing agencies
ing will be done through appropriate OSHA
will be accepted by OSHA, and their receipt
Program Directives.
acknowledged in writing. After receipt of an
I. Procedures for Initial OSHA Recognition application, OSHA may request additional
information if it believes information rel-
A. Applications. evant to the requirements for recognition
1. Eligibility. a. Any testing agency or orga- has been omitted.
nization considering itself to meet the defi- b. OSHA shall, as necessary, conduct an
nition of nationally recognized testing lab- on-site review of the testing facilities of the
oratory as specified in § 1910.7 may apply for applicant, as well as the applicant’s adminis-
OSHA recognition as an NRTL. trative and technical practices, and, if nec-
b. However, in determining eligibility for a essary, review any additional documentation
foreign-based testing agency or organization, underlying the application.
OSHA shall take into consideration the pol- c. These on-site reviews will be conducted
icy of the foreign government regarding both by qualified individuals technically expert in
the acceptance in that country of testing these matters, including, as appropriate,
data, equipment acceptances, and listings, non-Federal consultants/contractors accept-
and labeling, which are provided through na- able to OSHA. The protocol for each review
tionally recognized testing laboratories rec- will be based on appropriate national con-
ognized by the Assistant Secretary, and the sensus standards or international guides,
accessibility to government recognition or a with such additions, changes, or deletions as
similar system in that country by U.S.-based may be considered necessary and appropriate
safety-related testing agencies, whether rec- in each case by OSHA. A written report shall
ognized by the Assistant Secretary or not, if be made of each on-site review and a copy
such recognition or a similar system is re- shall be provided to the applicant.
quired by that country. 2. Positive finding by staff. If, after review of
2. Content of application. a. The applicant the application, and additional information,
shall provide sufficient information and de- and the on-site review report, the applicant
tail demonstrating that it meets the require- appears to have met the requirements for
ments set forth in § 1910.7, in order for an in- recognition, a written recommendation shall
formed decision concerning recognition to be be submitted by the responsible OSHA per-
made by the Assistant Secretary. sonnel to the Assistant Secretary that the
b. The applicant also shall identify the application be approved, accompanied by a
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.7
3. Negative finding by staff.—a. Notification sistant Secretary’s preliminary finding con-
to applicant. If, after review of the applica- cerning the application, i.e., absent any seri-
tion, any additional information and the on- ous objections or substantive claims con-
site review report, the applicant does not ap- trary to the preliminary finding having been
pear to have met the requirements for rec- received in writing from the public during
ognition, the responsible OSHA personnel the comment period, the Assistant Secretary
shall notify the applicant in writing, listing will proceed to final written decision on the
the specific requirements of § 1910.7 and this application. The reasons supporting this de-
appendix which the applicant has not met, cision shall be derived from the evidence
and allow a reasonable period for response. available as a result of the full application,
b. Revision of application. (i) After receipt of the supporting documentation, the staff find-
a notification of negative finding (i.e., for in- ing, and the written comments and evidence
tended disapproval of the application), and presented during the public review and com-
within the response period provided, the ap- ment period.
plicant may: b. Public announcement. A copy of the As-
(a) Submit a revised application for further sistant Secretary’s final decision will be pro-
review, which could result in a positive find- vided to the applicant. Subsequently, a noti-
ing by the responsible OSHA personnel pur- fication of the final decision shall be pub-
suant to subsection I.B.2. of this appendix; or lished in the FEDERAL REGISTER. The publi-
(b) Request that the original application be cation date will be the effective date of the
submitted to the Assistant Secretary with recognition.
an attached statement of reasons, supplied c. Review of final decision. There will be no
by the applicant of why the application further review activity available within the
should be approved. Department of Labor from the final decision
(ii) This procedure for applicant notifica- of the Assistant Secretary.
tion and potential revision shall be used only 7. Action after public objection—a. Review of
once during each recognition process. negative information. At the discretion of the
4. Preliminary finding by Assistant Secretary. Assistant Secretary or his designee, OSHA
a. The Assistant Secretary, or a special des- may authorize Federal or contract personnel
ignee for this purpose, will make a prelimi- to initiate a special review of any informa-
nary finding as to whether the applicant has tion provided in the public comment record
or has not met the requirements for recogni- which appears to require resolution, before a
tion, based on the completed application file, final decision can be made.
the written staff recommendation, and the b. Supplementation of record. The contents
statement of reasons supplied by the appli- and results of special reviews will be made
cant if there remains a staff recommenda- part of this record by the Assistant Sec-
tion of disapproval. retary by either:
b. Notification of this preliminary finding (i) Reopening the written comment period
will be sent to the applicant and subse- for public comments on these reviews; or
quently published in the FEDERAL REGISTER. (ii) Convening an informal hearing to ac-
c. This preliminary finding shall not be cept public comments on these reviews, con-
considered an official decision by the Assist- ducted under applicable OSHA procedures for
ant Secretary or OSHA, and does not confer similar hearings.
any change in status or any interim or tem- c. Final decision by the Assistant Secretary.
porary recognition for the applicant. The Assistant Secretary shall issue a deci-
5. Public review and comment period—a. The sion as to whether it has been demonstrated,
FEDERAL REGISTER notice of preliminary based on a preponderance of the evidence,
finding will provide a period of not less than that the applicant meets the requirements
30 calendar days for written comments on for recognition. The reasons supporting this
the applicant’s fulfillment of the require- decision shall be derived from the evidence
ments for recognition. The application, sup- available as a result of the full application,
porting documents, staff recommendation, the supporting documentation, the staff find-
statement of applicant’s reasons, and any ing, the comments and evidence presented
comments received, will be available for pub- during the public review and comment pe-
lic inspection in the OSHA Docket Office. riod, and written to transcribed evidence re-
b. Any member of the public, including the ceived during any subsequent reopening of
applicant, may supply detailed reasons and the written comment period or informal pub-
evidence supporting or challenging the suffi- lic hearing held.
ciency of the applicant’s having met the re- d. Public announcement. A copy of the As-
quirements of the definition in 29 CFR sistant Secretary’s final decision will be pro-
§ 1910.7 and this appendix. Submission of per- vided to the applicant, and a notification
tinent documents and exhibits shall be made will be published in the FEDERAL REGISTER
in writing by the close of the comment pe- subsequently announcing the decision.
riod. e. Review of final decision. There will be no
6. Action after public comment—a. Final deci- further review activity available within the
sion by Assistant Secretary. Where the public Department of Labor from the final decision
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review and comment record supports the As- of the Assistant Secretary.

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§ 1910.7 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
c. Terms and conditions of recognition. The which the developing organization has sub-
following terms and conditions shall be part mitted to OSHA. If, upon review, the Assist-
of every recognition: ant Secretary or his designee determines
1. Letter of recognition. The recognition by that the proposed revised standard is not
OSHA of any NRTL will be evidenced by a ‘‘substantially equivalent’’ to the previous
letter of recognition from OSHA. The letter version with regard to the level of safety ob-
will provide the specific details of the scope tained, OSHA will not accept the proposed
of the OSHA recognition, including the spe- testing standard by the recognized NRTL,
cific equipment or materials for which OSHA and will initiate discontinuance of that as-
recognition has been granted, as well as any pect of OSHA-recognized activity by the
specific conditions imposed by OSHA. NRTL by modification of the official letter
2. Period of recognition. The recognition by of recognition. OSHA will publicly announce
OSHA of each NRTL will be valid for five this action and the NRTL will be required to
years, unless terminated before the expira- communicate this OSHA decision directly to
tion of the period. The dates of the period of affected manufacturers.
recognition will be stated in the recognition
letter. B. Expansion of current recognition
3. Constancy in operations. The recognized
1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may apply
NRTL shall continue to satisfy all the re-
to OSHA for an expansion of its current rec-
quirements or limitations in the letter of
ognition to cover other categories of NRTL
recognition during the period of recognition.
testing in addition to those included in the
4. Accurate publicity. The OSHA-recognized
current recognition.
NRTL shall not engage in or permit others
2. Procedure. a. OSHA will act upon and
to engage in misrepresentation of the scope
or conditions of its recognition. process the application for expansion in ac-
5. Temporary Recognition of Certain NRTLs. cordance with subsection I.B. of this appen-
a. Notwithstanding all other requirements dix, except that the period for written com-
and provisions of § 1910.7 and this appendix, ments, specified in paragraph 5.a of sub-
the following two organizations are recog- section I.B. of this appendix, will be not less
nized temporarily as nationally recognized than 15 calendar days.
testing laboratories by the Assistant Sec- b. In that process, OSHA may decide not to
retary for a period of five years beginning conduct an on-site review, where the sub-
June 13, 1988 and ending on July 13, 1993: stantive scope of the request to expand rec-
(i) Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 ognition is closely related to the current
Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062. area of recognition.
(ii) Factory Mutual Research Corporation, c. The expiration date for each expansion
1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike, Norwood, of recognition shall coincide with the expira-
Massachusetts 02062. tion date of the current basic recognition pe-
b. At the end of the five-year period, the riod.
two temporarily recognized laboratories
C. Renewal of OSHA recognition
shall apply for renewal of OSHA recognition
utilizing the following procedures estab- 1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may
lished for renewal of OSHA recognition. renew its recognition by filing a renewal re-
quest at the address in paragraph I.A.3. of
II. Supplementary Procedures. this appendix not less than nine months, nor
more than one year, before the expiration
A. Test standard changes.
date of its current recognition.
A recognized NRTL may change a testing 2. Procedure. a. OSHA will process the re-
standard or elements incorporated in the newal request in accordance with subsection
standard such as testing methods or pass-fail I.B. of this appendix, except that the period
criteria by notifying the Assistant Secretary for written comments, specified in paragraph
of the change, certifying that the revised 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be
standard will be at least as effective as the not less than 15 calendar days.
prior standard, and providing the supporting b. In that process, OSHA may determine
data upon which its conclusions are based. not to conduct the on-site reviews in I.B.1.a.
The NRTL need not inform the Assistant where appropriate.
Secretary of minor deviations from a test c. When a recognized NRTL has filed a
standard such as the use of new instrumenta- timely and sufficient renewal request, its
tion that is more accurate or sensitive than current recognition will not expire until a
originally called for in the standard. The final decision has been made by OSHA on the
NRTL also need not inform the Assistant request.
Secretary of its adoption of revisions to d. After the first renewal has been granted
third-party testing standards meeting the re- to the NRTL, the NRTL shall apply for a
quirements of § 1910.7(c)(4), if such revisions continuation of its recognition status every
have been developed by the standards devel- five years by submitting a renewal request.
oping organization, or of its adoption of revi- In lieu of submitting a renewal request after
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.8
its continuing compliance with the terms of mane to the proceeding and not cause undue
its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7. delay.
3. Alternative procedure. After the initial f. The burden of proof shall be on OSHA to
recognition and before the expiration there- demonstrate by a preponderance of the evi-
of, OSHA may (for good cause) determine dence that the recognition should be revoked
that there is a sufficient basis to dispense because the NRTL is not meeting the re-
with the renewal requirement for a given quirements for recognition, has not been rea-
laboratory and will so notify the laboratory sonably performing the product testing func-
of such a determination in writing. In lieu of tions as required by § 1910.7, this appendix A,
submitting a renewal request, any labora- or the letter of recognition, or has materi-
tory so notified shall certify its continuing ally misrepresented itself in its applications
compliance with the terms of its letter of or publicity.
recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7. 3. Final decision. a. After the hearing, the
Administrative Law Judge shall issue a deci-
D. Voluntary termination of recognition. sion stating the reasons based on the record
At any time, a recognized NRTL may vol- as to whether it has been demonstrated,
untarily terminate its recognition, either in based on a preponderance of evidence, that
its entirety or with respect to any area cov- the applicant does not continue to meet the
ered in its recognition, by giving written no- requirements for its current recognition.
tice to OSHA. The written notice shall state b. Upon issuance of the decision, any party
the date as of which the termination is to to the hearing may file exceptions within 20
take effect. The Assistant Secretary shall in- days pursuant to 29 CFR 1905.28. If no excep-
form the public of any voluntary termi- tions are filed, this decision is the final deci-
nation by FEDERAL REGISTER notice. sion of the Assistant Secretary. If objections
are filed, the Administrative Law Judge
E. Revocation of recognition by OSHA. shall forward the decision, exceptions and
record to the Assistant Secretary for the
1. Potential causes. If an NRTL either has
final decision on the proposed revocation.
failed to continue to substantially satisfy
c. The Assistant Secretary will review the
the requirements of § 1910.7 or this appendix,
record, the decision by the Administrative
or has not been reasonably performing the
Law Judge, and the exceptions filed. Based
NRTL testing requirements encompassed
on this, the Assistant Secretary shall issue
within its letter of recognition, or has mate-
the final decision as to whether it has been
rially misrepresented itself in its applica-
demonstrated, by a preponderance of evi-
tions or misrepresented the scope or condi-
dence, that the recognized NRTL has not
tions of its recognition, the Assistant Sec-
continued to meet the requirements for
retary may revoke the recognition of a rec-
OSHA recognition. If the Assistant Sec-
ognized NRTL, in whole or in part. OSHA
retary finds that the NRTL does not meet
may initiate revocation procedures on the
the NRTL recognition requirements, the rec-
basis of information provided by any inter-
ognition will be revoked.
ested person. 4. Public announcement. A copy of the As-
2. Procedure. a. Before proposing to revoke sistant Secretary’s final decision will be pro-
recognition, the Agency will notify the rec- vided to the applicant, and a notification
ognized NRTL in writing, giving it the op- will be published in the FEDERAL REGISTER
portunity to rebut or correct the alleged de- announcing the decision, and the availability
ficiencies which would form the basis of the of the complete record of this proceeding at
proposed revocation, within a reasonable pe- OSHA. The effective date of any revocation
riod. will be the date the final decision copy is
b. If the alleged deficiencies are not cor- sent to the NRTL.
rected or reconciled within a reasonable pe- 5. Review of final decision. There will be no
riod, OSHA will propose, in writing to the further review activity available within the
recognized NRTL, to revoke recognition. If Department of Labor from the final decision
deemed appropriate, no other announcement of the Assistant Secretary.
need be made by OSHA.
c. The revocation shall be effective in 60 [53 FR 12120, Apr. 12, 1988; 53 FR 16838, May
days unless within that period the recog- 11, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7,
nized NRTL corrects the deficiencies or re- 1989; 65 FR 46818, 46819, July 31, 2000]
quests a hearing in writing.
d. If a hearing is requested, it shall be held § 1910.8 OMB control numbers under
before an administrative law judge of the De- the Paperwork Reduction Act.
partment of Labor pursuant to the rules The following sections or paragraphs
specified in 29 CFR part 1905, subpart C.
each contain a collection of informa-
e. The parties shall be OSHA and the rec-
ognized NRTL. The Assistant Secretary may tion requirement which has been ap-
allow other interested persons to participate proved by the Office of Management
in these hearings if such participation would and Budget under the control number
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contribute to the resolution of issues ger- listed.

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§ 1910.11 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

OMB con- OMB con-


29 CFR citation 29 CFR citation
trol No. trol No.

1910.7 .................................................................. 1218–0147 1910.1200 ............................................................ 1218–0072


1910.23 ................................................................ 1218–0199 1910.1450 ............................................................ 1218–0131
1910.66 ................................................................ 1218–0121
1910.67(b) ........................................................... 1218–0230
1910.68 ................................................................ 1218–0226 [61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 62
1910.95 ................................................................ 1218–0048 FR 29668, June 2, 1997; 62 FR 42666, Aug. 8,
1910.111 .............................................................. 1218–0208 1997; 62 FR 43581, Aug. 14, 1997; 62 FR 65203,
1910.119 .............................................................. 1218–0200 Dec. 11, 1997; 63 FR 13340, Mar. 19, 1998; 63 FR
1910.120 .............................................................. 1218–0202
1910.132 .............................................................. 1218–0205
17093, Apr. 8, 1998; 71 FR 38086, July 5, 2006]
1910.134 .............................................................. 1218–0099
1910.137 ..............................................................
1910.142 ..............................................................
1218–0190
1218–0096
Subpart B—Adoption and Exten-
1910.145 .............................................................. 1218–0132 sion of Established Federal
1910.146 .............................................................. 1218–0203 Standards
1910.147 .............................................................. 1218–0150
1910.156 .............................................................. 1218–0075
1910.157(e)(3) ..................................................... 1218–0210 AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupa-
1910.157(f)(16) .................................................... 1218–0218 tional Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. 653,
1910.177(d)(3)(iv) ................................................ 1218–0219 655, 657; Walsh-Healey Act, 41 U.S.C. 35 et
1910.179(j)(2)(iii) and (iv) .................................... 1218–0224
1910.179(m)(1) and (m)(2) .................................. 1218–0224
seq.; Service Contract Act of 1965, 41 U.S.C.
1910.180(d)(6) ..................................................... 1218–0221 351 et seq.; Sec.107, Contract Work Hours and
1910.180(g)(1) and (g)(2)(ii) ................................ 1218–0221 Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety
1910.181(g)(1) and (g)(3) .................................... 1218–0222 Act), 40 U.S.C. 333; Sec. 41, Longshore and
1910.184(e)(4), (f)(4) and (i)(8)(ii) ....................... 1218–0223 Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, 33
1910.217(e)(1)(i) and (ii) ..................................... 1218–0229 U.S.C. 941; National Foundation of Arts and
1910.217(g) ......................................................... 1218–0070 Humanities Act, 20 U.S.C. 951 et seq.; Sec-
1910.217(h) ......................................................... 1218–0143
1910.218(a)(2)(i) and (ii) ..................................... 1218–0228
retary of Labor’s Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754),
1910.252(a)(2)(xiii)(c) .......................................... 1218–0207 8–76 (41 FR 1911), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), 1–90 (55
1910.255(e) ......................................................... 1218–0207 FR 9033), or 6-96 (62 FR 111), as applicable.
1910.266 .............................................................. 1218–0198
1910.268 .............................................................. 1218–0225 § 1910.11 Scope and purpose.
1910.269 .............................................................. 1218–0190
1910.272 .............................................................. 1218–0206 (a) The provisions of this subpart B
1910.420 .............................................................. 1218–0069 adopt and extend the applicability of,
1910.421 .............................................................. 1218–0069 established Federal standards in effect
1910.423 .............................................................. 1218–0069
1910.430 .............................................................. 1218–0069 on April 28, 1971, with respect to every
1910.440 .............................................................. 1218–0069 employer, employee, and employment
1910.1001 ............................................................ 1218–0133 covered by the Act.
1910.1003 ............................................................ 1218–0085 (b) It bears emphasis that only stand-
1910.1004 ............................................................ 1218–0084
1910.1006 ............................................................ 1218–0086 ards (i.e., substantive rules) relating to
1910.1007 ............................................................ 1218–0083 safety or health are adopted by any
1910.1008 ............................................................ 1218–0087 incorporations by reference of stand-
1910.1009 ............................................................ 1218–0089
1910.1010 ............................................................ 1218–0082
ards prescribed elsewhere in this chap-
1910.1011 ............................................................ 1218–0090 ter or this title. Other materials con-
1910.1012 ............................................................ 1218–0080 tained in the referenced parties are not
1910.1013 ............................................................ 1218–0079 adopted. Illustrations of the types of
1910.1014 ............................................................ 1218–0088
1910.1015 ............................................................ 1218–0044 materials which are not adopted are
1910.1016 ............................................................ 1218–0081 these. The incorporations by reference
1910.1017 ............................................................ 1218–0010 of parts 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 in §§ 1910.13,
1910.1018 ............................................................ 1218–0104
1910.1020 ............................................................ 1218–0065
1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16 are not in-
1910.1025 ............................................................ 1218–0092 tended to include the discussion in
1910.1026 ............................................................ 1218–0252 those parts of the coverage of the
1910.1027 ............................................................ 1218–0185 Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’
1910.1028 ............................................................ 1218–0129
1910.1029 ............................................................ 1218–0128 Compensation Act or the penalty pro-
1910.1030 ............................................................ 1218–0180 visions of the Act. Similarly, the incor-
1910.1043 ............................................................ 1218–0061 poration by reference of part 1926 in
1910.1044 ............................................................ 1218–0101
1910.1045 ............................................................ 1218–0126
§ 1910.12 is not intended to include ref-
1910.1047 ............................................................ 1218–0108 erences to interpretative rules having
1910.1048 ............................................................ 1218–0145 relevance to the application of the
1910.1050 ............................................................ 1218–0184 Construction Safety Act, but having no
1910.1051 ............................................................ 1218–0170
relevance to the application to the Oc-
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1910.1052 ............................................................ 1218–0179


1910.1096 ............................................................ 1218–0103 cupational Safety and Health Act.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.15

§ 1910.12 Construction work. provement of the existing transmission


and distribution lines and equipment.
(a) Standards. The standards pre-
scribed in part 1926 of this chapter are § 1910.15 Shipyard employment.
adopted as occupational safety and
health standards under section 6 of the (a) Adoption and extension of estab-
Act and shall apply, according to the lished safety and health standards for
provisions thereof, to every employ- shipyard employment. The standards
ment and place of employment of every prescribed by part 1915 (formerly parts
employee engaged in construction 1501–1503) of this title and in effect on
work. Each employer shall protect the April 28, 1971 (as revised), are adopted
employment and places of employment as occupational safety or health stand-
of each of his employees engaged in ards under section 6(a) of the Act and
construction work by complying with shall apply, according to the provisions
the appropriate standards prescribed in thereof, to every employment and
this paragraph. place of employment of every employee
(b) Definition. For purposes of this engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking,
section, Construction work means work and shipbuilding, or a related employ-
for construction, alteration, and/or re- ment. Each employer shall protect the
pair, including painting and deco- employment and places of employment
rating. See discussion of these terms in of each of his employees engaged in
§ 1926.13 of this title. ship repair, shipbreaking, and ship-
(c) Construction Safety Act distin- building, or a related employment, by
guished. This section adopts as occupa- complying with the appropriate stand-
tional safety and health standards ards prescribed by this paragraph.
under section 6 of the Act the stand- (b) Definitions. For purposes of this
ards which are prescribed in part 1926 section:
of this chapter. Thus, the standards
(1) Ship repair means any repair of a
(substantive rules) published in subpart
vessel, including, but not restricted to,
C and the following subparts of part
1926 of this chapter are applied. This alterations, conversions, installations,
section does not incorporate subparts cleaning, painting, and maintenance
A and B of part 1926 of this chapter. work;
Subparts A and B have pertinence only (2) Shipbreaking means any breaking
to the application of section 107 of the down of a vessel’s structure for the
Contract Work Hours and Safety purpose of scrapping the vessel, includ-
Standards Act (the Construction Safe- ing the removal of gear, equipment, or
ty Act). For example, the interpreta- any component of a vessel;
tion of the term ‘‘subcontractor’’ in (3) Shipbuilding means the construc-
paragraph (c) of § 1926.13 of this chapter tion of a vessel, including the installa-
is significant in discerning the cov- tion of machinery and equipment;
erage of the Construction Safety Act (4) Related employment means any em-
and duties thereunder. However, the ployment performed as an incident to,
term ‘‘subcontractor’’ has no signifi- or in conjunction with, ship repair,
cance in the application of the Act, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding work,
which was enacted under the Com- including, but not restricted to, inspec-
merce Clause and which establishes du- tion, testing, and employment as a
ties for ‘‘employers’’ which are not de-
watchman; and
pendent for their application upon any
(5) Vessel includes every description
contractual relationship with the Fed-
eral Government or upon any form of of watercraft or other artificial con-
Federal financial assistance. trivance used, or capable of being used,
(d) For the purposes of this part, to as a means of transportation on water,
the extent that it may not already be including special purpose floating
included in paragraph (b) of this sec- structures not primarily designed for,
tion, ‘‘construction work’’ includes the or used as a means of, transportation
erection of new electric transmission on water.
and distribution lines and equipment,
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[58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993]


and the alteration, conversion, and im-

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§ 1910.16 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

§ 1910.16 Longshoring and marine ter- (C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See
minals. § 1918.94 (a)); and
(a) Safety and health standards for (D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See
longshoring. (1) Part 1918 of this chapter § 1918.94 (f)).
shall apply exclusively, according to (x) Powered industrial truck operator
the provisions thereof, to all employ- training, Subpart N, § 1910.178(l).
ment of every employee engaged in (b) Safety and health standards for ma-
longshoring operations or related em- rine terminals. Part 1917 of this chapter
ployment aboard any vessel. All cargo shall apply exclusively, according to
transfer accomplished with the use of the provisions thereof, to employment
shore-based material handling devices within a marine terminal, except as
shall be governed by part 1917 of this follows:
chapter. (1) The provisions of part 1917 of this
(2) Part 1910 does not apply to chapter do not apply to the following:
longshoring operations except for the (i) Facilities used solely for the bulk
following provisions: storage, handling, and transfer of flam-
(i) Access to employee exposure and mable and combustible liquids and
medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020; gases.
(ii) Commercial diving operations. Sub- (ii) Facilities subject to the regula-
part T; tions of the Office of Pipeline Safety of
(iii) Electrical. Subpart S when shore- the Research and Special Programs Ad-
based electrical installations provide ministration, Department of Transpor-
power for use aboard vessels; tation (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter
(iv) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, D), to the extent such regulations
§ 1910.1200; apply to specific working conditions.
(v) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, (iii) Fully automated bulk coal han-
§ 1910.1096; dling facilities contiguous to electrical
(vi) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95; power generating plants.
(vii) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, (2) Part 1910 does not apply to marine
§ 1910.97; terminals except for the following:
(i) Abrasive blasting. Subpart G,
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (a)(2)(vii): Exposures
to nonionizing radiation emissions from § 1910.94(a);
commercial vessel transmitters are consid- (ii) Access to employee exposure and
ered hazardous under the following condi- medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020;
tions: (1) where the radar is transmitting, (iii) Commercial diving operations. Sub-
the scanner is stationary, and the exposure part T;
distance is 18.7 feet (6 m.) or less; or (2) (iv) Electrical. Subpart S;
where the radar is transmitting, the scanner (v) Grain handling facilities. Subpart
is rotating, and the exposure distance is 5.2
R, § 1910.272;
feet (1.8 m.) or less.
(vi) Hazard communication. Subpart Z,
(viii) Respiratory protection. Subpart
§ 1910.1200;
I, § 1910.134;
(ix) Toxic and hazardous substances. (vii) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z,
Subpart Z applies to marine cargo han- § 1910.1096;
dling activities except for the fol- (viii) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95;
lowing: (ix) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G,
(A) When a substance or cargo is con- § 1910.97.
tained within a sealed, intact means of (x) Respiratory protection. Subpart I,
packaging or containment complying § 1910.134.
with Department of Transportation or (xi) Safety requirements for scaffolding.
International Maritime Organization Subpart D, § 1910.28;
requirements;1 (xii) Servicing multi-piece and single
(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030; piece rim wheels. Subpart N, § 1910.177;
(xiii) Toxic and hazardous substances.
1 The International Maritime Organization
Subpart Z applies to marine cargo han-
publishes the International Maritime Dan-
dling activities except for the fol-
gerous Goods Code to aid compliance with lowing:
the international legal requirements of the (A) When a substance or cargo is con-
International Convention for the Safety of tained within a sealed, intact means of
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Life at Sea, 1960. packaging or containment complying

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.19

with Department of Transportation or ated with those production or manufac-


International Maritime Organization turing areas.
requirements; 2 [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 48
(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030; FR 30908, July 5, 1983; 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25,
(C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See 1987; 62 FR 40195, July 25, 1997; 63 FR 66270,
§ 1917.24(a)); and Dec. 1, 1998]
(D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See
§ 1910.17 Effective dates.
§ 1917.73(a)(2)); and
(xiv) Powered industrial truck oper- (a)–(b) [Reserved]
ator training, Subpart N, § 1910.178(l). (c) Except whenever any employment
(c) Definitions. For purposes of this or place of employment is, or becomes,
section: subject to any safety and health stand-
(1) Longshoring operation means the ard prescribed in part 1915, 1916, 1917,
loading, unloading, moving, or han- 1918, or 1926 of this title on a date be-
dling of, cargo, ship’s stores, gear, etc., fore August 27, 1971, by virtue of the
Construction Safety Act or the Long-
into, in, on, or out of any vessel;
shoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Com-
(2) Related employment means any em- pensation Act, that occupational safe-
ployment performed as an incident to ty and health standard as incorporated
or in conjunction with, longshoring op- by reference in this subpart shall also
erations including, but not restricted become effective under the Williams-
to, securing cargo, rigging, and em- Steiger Occupational Safety and
ployment as a porter, checker, or Health Act of 1970 on that date.
watchman; and
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61
(3) Vessel includes every description
FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]
of watercraft or other artificial con-
trivance used, or capable of being used, § 1910.18 Changes in established Fed-
as a means of transportation on water, eral standards.
including special purpose floating Whenever an occupational safety and
structures not primarily designed for, health standard adopted and incor-
or used as a means of, transportation porated by reference in this subpart B
on water. is changed pursuant to section 6(b) of
(4) Marine terminal means wharves, the Act and the statute under which
bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and the standard was originally promul-
other berthing locations and adjacent gated, and in accordance with part 1911
storage or adjacent areas and struc- of this chapter, the standard shall be
tures associated with the primary deemed changed for purposes of that
movement of cargo or materials from statute and this subpart B, and shall
vessel to shore or shore to vessel in- apply under this subpart B. For the
cluding structures which are devoted purposes of this section, a change in a
to receiving, handling, holding, con- standard includes any amendment, ad-
solidation and loading or delivery of dition, or repeal, in whole or in part, of
waterborne shipments or passengers, any standard.
including areas devoted to the mainte-
§ 1910.19 Special provisions for air
nance of the terminal or equipment. contaminants.
The term does not include production
or manufacturing areas having their (a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite,
own docking facilities and located at a and actinolite dust. Section 1910.1001
shall apply to the exposure of every
marine terminal nor does the term in-
employee to asbestos, tremolite,
clude storage facilities directly associ-
anthophyllite, and actinolite dust in
every employment and place of em-
2 The International Maritime Organization ployment covered by § 1910.16, in lieu of
publishes the International Maritime Dan- any different standard on exposure to
gerous Goods Code to aid compliance with asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and
the international legal requirements of the actinolite dust which would otherwise
International Convention for the Safety of be applicable by virtue of any of those
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Life at Sea, 1960. sections.

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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(b) Vinyl chloride. Section 1910.1017 employee to formaldehyde in every em-


shall apply to the exposure of every ployment and place of employment
employee to vinyl chloride in every covered by § 1910.12, 1910.13, 1910.14,
employment and place of employment 1910.15 or 1910.16 in lieu of any different
covered by §§ 1910.12, 1910.13, 1910.14, standard on exposure to formaldehyde
1910.15, or 1910.16, in lieu of any dif- which would otherwise be applicable by
ferent standard on exposure to vinyl virtue of those sections.
chloride which would otherwise be ap- (k) Cadmium. Section 1910.1027 shall
plicable by virtue of any of those sec- apply to the exposure of every em-
tions. ployee to cadmium in every employ-
(c) Acrylonitrile. Section 1910.1045 ment and place of employment covered
shall apply to the exposure of every by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different
employee to acrylonitrile in every em- standard on exposures to cadmium that
ployment and place of employment would otherwise be applicable by virtue
covered by §§ 1910.12, 1910.13, 1910.14, of those sections.
1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any dif- (l) 1,3-Butadiene (BD). Section
ferent standard on exposure to acrylo- 1910.1051 shall apply to the exposure of
nitrile which would otherwise be appli- every employee to BD in every employ-
cable by virtue of any of those sec- ment and place of employment covered
tions. by §§ 1910.12, 1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, or
(d) [Reserved] 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard
(e) Inorganic arsenic. Section 1910.1018 on exposure to BD which would other-
shall apply to the exposure of every wise be applicable by virtue of those
employee to inorganic arsenic in every sections.
employment covered by §§ 1910.12,
(m) Methylene chloride (MC). Section
1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in
1910.1052 shall apply to the exposure of
lieu of any different standard on expo-
every employee to MC in every employ-
sure to inorganic arsenic which would
ment and place of employment covered
otherwise be applicable by virtue of
by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different
any of those sections.
standard on exposure to MC which
(f) [Reserved]
would otherwise be applicable by virtue
(g) Lead. Section 1910.1025 shall apply
of that section when it is not present
to the exposure of every employee to
in sealed, intact containers.
lead in every employment and place of
employment covered by §§ 1910.13, [43 FR 28473, June 30, 1978, as amended at 43
1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16, in lieu of FR 45809, Oct. 3, 1978; 43 FR 53007, Nov. 14,
any different standard on exposure to 1978; 44 FR 5447, Jan. 26, 1979; 46 FR 32022,
lead which would otherwise be applica- June 19, 1981; 49 FR 25796, June 22, 1984; 50 FR
51173, Dec. 13, 1985; 52 FR 46291, Dec. 4, 1987;
ble by virtue of those sections.
57 FR 35666, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 42388, Sept.
(h) Ethylene oxide. Section 1910.1047 14, 1992; 59 FR 41057, Aug. 10, 1994; 61 FR 56831,
shall apply to the exposure of every Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997]
employee to ethylene oxide in every
employment and place of employment
covered by §§ 1910.12, 1910.13, 1910.14,
Subpart C [Reserved]
1910.15, or 1910.16, in lieu of any dif-
ferent standard on exposure to ethyl- Subpart D—Walking-Working
ene oxide which would otherwise be ap- Surfaces
plicable by virtue of those sections.
(i) 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA). Sec- AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupa-
tion 1910.1050 shall apply to the expo- tional Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29
sure of every employee to MDA in U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s
every employment and place of em- Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR
ployment covered by §§ 1910.13, 1910.14, 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), or 1–90 (55 FR 9033),
1910.15, or 1910.16, in lieu of any dif- as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.
ferent standard on exposure to MDA
which would otherwise be applicable by § 1910.21 Definitions.
virtue of those sections. (a) As used in § 1910.23, unless the con-
(j) Formaldehyde. Section 1910.1048 text requires otherwise, floor and wall
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shall apply to the exposure of every opening, railing and toe board terms

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

shall have the meanings ascribed in persons may fall; such as a yard-arm
this paragraph. doorway or chute opening.
(1) Floor hole. An opening measuring (b) As used in § 1910.24, unless the con-
less than 12 inches but more than 1 text requires otherwise, fixed indus-
inch in its least dimension, in any trial stair terms shall have the mean-
floor, platform, pavement, or yard, ing ascribed in this paragraph.
through which materials but not per- (1) Handrail. A single bar or pipe sup-
sons may fall; such as a belt hole, pipe ported on brackets from a wall or par-
opening, or slot opening. tition to provide a continuous hand-
(2) Floor opening. An opening meas- hold for persons using a stair.
uring 12 inches or more in its least di- (2) Nose, nosing. That portion of a
mension, in any floor, platform, pave- tread projecting beyond the face of the
ment, or yard through which persons riser immediately below.
may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or (3) Open riser. The air space between
ladder opening, pit, or large manhole. the treads of stairways without upright
Floor openings occupied by elevators, members (risers).
dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, (4) Platform. An extended step or
or containers are excluded from this landing breaking a continuous run of
subpart. stairs.
(3) Handrail. A single bar or pipe sup- (5) Railing. A vertical barrier erected
ported on brackets from a wall or par- along exposed sides of stairways and
tition, as on a stairway or ramp, to fur- platforms to prevent falls of persons.
nish persons with a handhold in case of The top member of railing usually
tripping. serves as a handrail.
(4) Platform. A working space for per- (6) Rise. The vertical distance from
sons, elevated above the surrounding the top of a tread to the top of the next
floor or ground; such as a balcony or higher tread.
platform for the operation of machin- (7) Riser. The upright member of a
ery and equipment. step situated at the back of a lower
tread and near the leading edge of the
(5) Runway. A passageway for per-
next higher tread.
sons, elevated above the surrounding
(8) Stairs, stairway. A series of steps
floor or ground level, such as a
leading from one level or floor to an-
footwalk along shafting or a walkway
other, or leading to platforms, pits,
between buildings.
boiler rooms, crossovers, or around ma-
(6) Standard railing. A vertical barrier
chinery, tanks, and other equipment
erected along exposed edges of a floor
that are used more or less continuously
opening, wall opening, ramp, platform,
or routinely by employees, or only oc-
or runway to prevent falls of persons.
casionally by specific individuals. A se-
(7) Standard strength and construction. ries of steps and landings having three
Any construction of railings, covers, or or more risers constitutes stairs or
other guards that meets the require- stairway.
ments of § 1910.23. (9) Tread. The horizontal member of a
(8) Stair railing. A vertical barrier step.
erected along exposed sides of a stair- (10) Tread run. The horizontal dis-
way to prevent falls of persons. tance from the leading edge of a tread
(9) Toeboard. A vertical barrier at to the leading edge of an adjacent
floor level erected along exposed edges tread.
of a floor opening, wall opening, plat- (11) Tread width. The horizontal dis-
form, runway, or ramp to prevent falls tance from front to back of tread in-
of materials. cluding nosing when used.
(10) Wall hole. An opening less than 30 (c) As used in § 1910.25, unless the con-
inches but more than 1 inch high, of text requires otherwise, portable wood
unrestricted width, in any wall or par- ladders terms shall have the meanings
tition; such as a ventilation hole or ascribed in this paragraph.
drainage scupper. (1) Ladders. A ladder is an appliance
(11) Wall opening. An opening at least usually consisting of two side rails
30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in joined at regular intervals by cross-
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any wall or partition, through which pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on

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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

which a person may step in ascending being at right angles to the plane of
or descending. motion.
(2) Stepladder. A stepladder is a (10) Side-rolling ladder. A side-rolling
selfsupporting portable ladder, non- ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjust-
adjustable in length, having flat steps able in length, supported by attach-
and a hinged back. Its size is des- ments to a guide rail, which is gen-
ignated by the overall length of the erally fastened to shelving, the plane of
ladder measured along the front edge of the ladder being also its plane of mo-
the side rails. tion.
(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a (11) Wood characteristics. Wood char-
non-self-supporting portable ladder, acteristics are distinguishing features
nonadjustable in length, consisting of which by their extent and number de-
but one section. Its size is designated termine the quality of a piece of wood.
by the overall length of the side rail. (12) Wood irregularities. Wood irreg-
(4) Extension ladder. An extension lad- ularities are natural characteristics in
der is a non-self-supporting portable or on wood that may lower its dura-
ladder adjustable in length. It consists bility, strength, or utility.
of two or more sections traveling in (13) Cross grain. Cross grain (slope of
guides or brackets so arranged as to grain) is a deviation of the fiber direc-
permit length adjustment. Its size is tion from a line parallel to the sides of
the piece.
designated by the sum of the lengths of
(14) Knot. A knot is a branch or limb,
the sections measured along the side
imbedded in the tree and cut through
rails.
in the process of lumber manufacture,
(5) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder classified according to size, quality,
is a non-self-supporting portable lad- and occurrence. The size of the knot is
der, nonadjustable in length, consisting determined as the average diameter on
of two or more sections of ladder so the surface of the piece.
constructed that the sections may be (15) Pitch and bark pockets. A pitch
combined to function as a single lad- pocket is an opening extending parallel
der. Its size is designated by the overall to the annual growth rings containing,
length of the assembled sections. or that has contained, pitch, either
(6) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a solid or liquid. A bark pocket is an
self-supporting portable ladder, non- opening between annual growth rings
adjustable in length, consisting of two that contains bark.
sections hinged at the top to form (16) Shake. A shake is a separation
equal angles with the base. The size is along the grain, most of which occurs
designated by the length of the side between the rings of annual growth.
rails measured along the front edge. (17) Check. A check is a lengthwise
(7) Extension trestle ladder. An exten- separation of the wood, most of which
sion trestle ladder is a self-supporting occurs across the rings of annual
portable ladder, adjustable in length, growth.
consisting of a trestle ladder base and (18) Wane. Wane is bark, or the lack
a vertically adjustable single ladder, of wood from any cause, on the corner
with suitable means for locking the of a piece.
ladders together. The size is designated (19) Decay. Decay is disintegration of
by the length of the trestle ladder base. wood substance due to action of wood-
(8) Special-purpose ladder. A special- destroying fungi. It is also known as
purpose ladder is a portable ladder dote and rot.
which represents either a modification (20) Compression failure. A compres-
or a combination of design or construc- sion failure is a deformation (buckling)
tion features in one of the general-pur- of the fibers due to excessive compres-
pose types of ladders previously de- sion along the grain.
fined, in order to adapt the ladder to (21) Compression wood. Compression
special or specific uses. wood is an aberrant (abnormal) and
(9) Trolley ladder. A trolley ladder is a highly variable type of wood structure
semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in occurring in softwood species. The
length, supported by attachments to an wood commonly has density somewhat
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overhead track, the plane of the ladder higher than does normal wood, but

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

somewhat lower stiffness and tensile (8) Extension trestle ladder. An exten-
strength for its weight in addition to sion trestle ladder is a self-supporting
high longitudinal shrinkage. portable ladder, adjustable in length,
(22) Low density. Low-density wood is consisting of a trestle ladder base and
that which is exceptionally light in a vertically adjustable single ladder,
weight and usually deficient in with suitable means for locking the
strength properties for the species. ladders together. The size is designated
(d) As used in § 1910.26, unless the con- by the length of the trestle ladder base.
text requires otherwise, portable metal (9) Special-purpose ladder. A special-
ladder terms shall have the meanings purpose ladder is a portable ladder
ascribed in this paragraph. which represents either a modification
(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance or a combination of design or construc-
usually consisting of two side rails tion features in one of the general-pur-
joined at regular intervals by cross- pose types of ladders previously de-
pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on fined, in order to adapt the ladder to
which a person may step in ascending special or specific uses.
or descending. (e) As used in § 1910.27, unless the con-
(2) Step ladder. A step ladder is a self- text requires otherwise, fixed ladder
supporting portable ladder, nonadjust- terms shall have the meanings ascribed
able in length, having flat steps and a in this paragraph.
hinged back. Its size is designated by (1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance
the overall length of the ladder meas- usually consisting of two side rails
ured along the front edge of the side joined at regular intervals by cross-
rails. pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on
(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a which a person may step in ascending
non-self-supporting portable ladder, or descending.
nonadjustable in length, consisting of
(2) Fixed ladder. A fixed ladder is a
but one section. Its size is designated
ladder permanently attached to a
by the overall length of the side rail.
structure, building, or equipment.
(4) Extension ladder. An extension lad-
der is a non-self-supporting portable (3) Individual-rung ladder. An indi-
ladder adjustable in length. It consists vidual-rung ladder is a fixed ladder
of two or more sections traveling in each rung of which is individually at-
guides or brackets so arranged as to tached to a structure, building, or
permit length adjustment. Its size is equipment.
designated by the sum of the lengths of (4) Rail ladder. A rail ladder is a fixed
the sections measured along the side ladder consisting of side rails joined at
rails. regular intervals by rungs or cleats and
(5) Platform ladder. A self-supporting fastened in full length or in sections to
ladder of fixed size with a platform pro- a building, structure, or equipment.
vided at the working level. The size is (5) Railings. A railing is any one or a
determined by the distance along the combination of those railings con-
front rail from the platform to the base structed in accordance with § 1910.23. A
of the ladder. standard railing is a vertical barrier
(6) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder erected along exposed edges of floor
is a non-self-supporting portable lad- openings, wall openings, ramps, plat-
der, non-adjustable in length, con- forms, and runways to prevent falls of
sisting of two or more sections so con- persons.
structed that the sections may be com- (6) Pitch. Pitch is the included angle
bined to function as a single ladder. Its between the horizontal and the ladder,
size is designated by the overall length measured on the opposite side of the
of the assembled sections. ladder from the climbing side.
(7) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a (7) Fastenings. A fastening is a device
self-supporting portable ladder, non-ad- to attach a ladder to a structure, build-
justable in length, consisting of two ing, or equipment.
sections, hinged at the top to form (8) Rungs. Rungs are ladder cross-
equal angles with the base. The size is pieces of circular or oval cross-section
designated by the length of the side on which a person may step in ascend-
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rails measured along the front edge. ing or descending.

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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(9) Cleats. Cleats are ladder cross- (5) Carpenters’ bracket scaffold. A scaf-
pieces of rectangular cross-section fold consisting of wood or metal brack-
placed on edge on which a person may ets supporting a platform.
step in ascending or descending. (6) Coupler. A device for locking to-
(10) Steps. Steps are the flat cross- gether the component parts of a tubu-
pieces of a ladder on which a person lar metal scaffold. The material used
may step in ascending or descending. for the couplers shall be of a structural
(11) Cage. A cage is a guard that may type, such as a drop-forged steel, mal-
be referred to as a cage or basket guard leable iron, or structural grade alu-
which is an enclosure that is fastened minum. The use of gray cast iron is
to the side rails of the fixed ladder or prohibited.
to the structure to encircle the climb- (7) Crawling board or chicken ladder. A
ing space of the ladder for the safety of plank with cleats spaced and secured at
the person who must climb the ladder. equal intervals, for use by a worker on
(12) Well. A well is a permanent com- roofs, not designed to carry any mate-
plete enclosure around a fixed ladder, rial.
which is attached to the walls of the (8) Double pole or independent pole
well. Proper clearances for a well will scaffold. A scaffold supported from the
give the person who must climb the base by a double row of uprights, inde-
ladder the same protection as a cage. pendent of support from the walls and
(13) Ladder safety device. A ladder constructed of uprights, ledgers, hori-
safety device is any device, other than zontal platform bearers, and diagonal
a cage or well, designed to eliminate or bracing.
reduce the possibility of accidental (9) Float or ship scaffold. A scaffold
falls and which may incorporate such hung from overhead supports by means
features as life belts, friction brakes, of ropes and consisting of a substantial
and sliding attachments. platform having diagonal bracing un-
(14) Grab bars. Grab bars are indi- derneath, resting upon and securely
vidual handholds placed adjacent to or fastened to two parallel plank bearers
as an extension above ladders for the at right angles to the span.
purpose of providing access beyond the
(10) Guardrail. A rail secured to
limits of the ladder.
uprights and erected along the exposed
(15) Through ladder. A through ladder
sides and ends of platforms.
is one from which a man getting off at
(11) Heavy duty scaffold. A scaffold de-
the top must step through the ladder in
signed and constructed to carry a
order to reach the landing.
working load not to exceed 75 pounds
(16) Side-step ladder. A side-step lad-
per square foot.
der is one from which a man getting off
at the top must step sideways from the (12) Horse scaffold. A scaffold for light
ladder in order to reach the landing. or medium duty, composed of horses
(f) As used in § 1910.28, unless the con- supporting a work platform.
text requires otherwise, scaffolding (13) Interior hung scaffold. A scaffold
terms shall have the meaning ascribed suspended from the ceiling or roof
in this paragraph. structure.
(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a (14) Ladder jack scaffold. A light duty
scaffold upon which the platform rests scaffold supported by brackets at-
and which may be supported by ledg- tached to ladders.
ers. (15) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal
(2) Boatswain’s chair. A seat sup- scaffold member which extends from
ported by slings attached to a sus- post to post and which supports the
pended rope, designed to accommodate putlogs or bearer forming a tie between
one workman in a sitting position. the posts.
(3) Brace. A tie that holds one scaf- (16) Light duty scaffold. A scaffold de-
fold member in a fixed position with signed and constructed to carry a
respect to another member. working load not to exceed 25 pounds
(4) Bricklayers’ square scaffold. A scaf- per square foot.
fold composed of framed wood squares (17) Manually propelled mobile scaffold.
which support a platform limited to A portable rolling scaffold supported
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light and medium duty. by casters.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

(18) Masons’ adjustable multiple-point (30) Stone setters’ adjustable multiple-


suspension scaffold. A scaffold having a point suspension scaffold. A swinging-
continuous platform supported by bear- type scaffold having a platform sup-
ers suspended by wire rope from over- ported by hangers suspended at four
head supports, so arranged and oper- points so as to permit the raising or
ated as to permit the raising or low- lowering of the platform to the desired
ering of the platform to desired work- working position by the use of hoisting
ing positions. machines.
(19) Maximum intended load. The total (31) Toeboard. A barrier secured along
of all loads including the working load, the sides and ends of a platform, to
the weight of the scaffold, and such guard against the falling of material.
other loads as may be reasonably an- (32) Tube and coupler scaffold. An as-
ticipated. sembly consisting of tubing which
(20) Medium duty scaffold. A scaffold serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties,
designed and constructed to carry a and runners, a base supporting the
working load not to exceed 50 pounds posts, and special couplers which serve
per square foot. to connect the uprights and to join the
(21) Mid-rail. A rail approximately various members.
midway between the guardrail and (33) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A
platform, used when required, and se- sectional, panel, or frame metal scaf-
cured to the uprights erected along the fold substantially built up of prefab-
exposed sides and ends of platforms. ricated welded sections which consist
(22) Needle beam scaffold. A light duty of posts and horizontal bearer with in-
scaffold consisting of needle beams termediate members. Panels or frames
supporting a platform. shall be braced with diagonal or cross
(23) Outrigger scaffold. A scaffold sup- braces.
ported by outriggers or thrustouts pro- (34) Two-point suspension scaffold
jecting beyond the wall or face of the (swinging scaffold). A scaffold, the plat-
building or structure, the inboard ends form of which is supported by hangers
of which are secured inside of such a (stirrups) at two points, suspended
building or structure. from overhead supports so as to permit
(24) Putlog. A scaffold member upon the raising or lowering of the platform
which the platform rests. to the desired working position by
(25) Roofing bracket. A bracket used in tackle or hoisting machines.
sloped roof construction, having provi- (35) Window jack scaffold. A scaffold,
sions for fastening to the roof or sup- the platform of which is supported by a
ported by ropes fastened over the ridge bracket or jack which projects through
and secured to some suitable object. a window opening.
(26) Runner. The lengthwise hori- (36) Working load. Load imposed by
zontal bracing or bearing members or men, materials, and equipment.
both. (g) As used in § 1910.29, unless the con-
(27) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated text requires otherwise, manually pro-
platform and its supporting structure pelled mobile ladder stand and scaffold
used for supporting workmen or mate- (tower) terms shall have the meaning
rials or both. ascribed in this paragraph.
(28) Single-point adjustable suspension (1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a
scaffold. A manually or power-operated scaffold upon which the platform rests
unit designed for light duty use, sup- and which may be supported by ledg-
ported by a single wire rope from an ers.
overhead support so arranged and oper- (2) Brace. A tie that holds one scaf-
ated as to permit the raising or low- fold member in a fixed position with
ering of the platform to desired work- respect to another member.
ing positions. (3) Climbing ladder. A separate ladder
(29) Single pole scaffold. Platforms with equally spaced rungs usually at-
resting on putlogs or crossbeams, the tached to the scaffold structure for
outside ends of which are supported on climbing and descending.
ledgers secured to a single row of posts (4) Coupler. A device for locking to-
or uprights and the inner ends of which gether the components of a tubular
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are supported on or in a wall. metal scaffold which shall be designed

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§ 1910.22 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

and used to safely support the max- (19) Tubular welded sectional folding
imum intended loads. scaffold. A sectional, folding metal
(5) Design working load. The max- scaffold either of ladder frame or inside
imum intended load, being the total of stairway design, substantially built of
all loads including the weight of the prefabricated welded sections, which
men, materials, equipment, and plat- consist of end frames, platform frame,
form. inside inclined stairway frame and
(6) Equivalent. Alternative design or braces, or hinged connected diagonal
features, which will provide an equal and horizontal braces, capable of being
degree or factor of safety. folded into a flat package when the
(7) Guardrail. A barrier secured to scaffold is not in use.
uprights and erected along the exposed (20) Work level. The elevated plat-
sides and ends of platforms to prevent form, used for supporting workmen and
falls of persons. their materials, comprising the nec-
(8) Handrail. A rail connected to a essary vertical, horizontal, and diago-
ladder stand running parallel to the nal braces, guardrails, and ladder for
slope and/or top step. access to the work platform.
(9) Ladder stand. A mobile fixed size
self-supporting ladder consisting of a § 1910.22 General requirements.
wide flat tread ladder in the form of
This section applies to all permanent
stairs. The assembly may include hand-
places of employment, except where
rails.
domestic, mining, or agricultural work
(10) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal
only is performed. Measures for the
scaffold member which extends from
control of toxic materials are consid-
post to post and which supports the
ered to be outside the scope of this sec-
bearer forming a tie between the posts.
tion.
(11) Mobile scaffold (tower). A light,
(a) Housekeeping. (1) All places of em-
medium, or heavy duty scaffold mount-
ployment, passageways, storerooms,
ed on casters or wheels.
and service rooms shall be kept clean
(12) Mobile. ‘‘Manually propelled.’’
and orderly and in a sanitary condi-
(13) Mobile work platform. Generally a
tion.
fixed work level one frame high on
casters or wheels, with bracing diago- (2) The floor of every workroom shall
nally from platform to vertical frame. be maintained in a clean and, so far as
(14) Runner. The lengthwise hori- possible, a dry condition. Where wet
zontal bracing and/or bearing members. processes are used, drainage shall be
(15) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated maintained, and false floors, platforms,
platform and its necessary vertical, di- mats, or other dry standing places
agonal, and horizontal members used should be provided where practicable.
for supporting workmen and materials. (3) To facilitate cleaning, every floor,
(Also known as a scaffold tower.) working place, and passageway shall be
(16) Toeboard. A barrier at platform kept free from protruding nails, splin-
level erected along the exposed sides ters, holes, or loose boards.
and ends of a scaffold platform to pre- (b) Aisles and passageways. (1) Where
vent falls of materials. mechanical handling equipment is
(17) Tube and coupler scaffold. An as- used, sufficient safe clearances shall be
sembly consisting of tubing which allowed for aisles, at loading docks,
serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, through doorways and wherever turns
and runners, a base supporting the or passage must be made. Aisles and
posts, and uprights, and serves to join passageways shall be kept clear and in
the various members, usually used in good repairs, with no obstruction
fixed locations. across or in aisles that could create a
(18) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A hazard.
sectional, panel, or frame metal scaf- (2) Permanent aisles and passageways
fold substantially built up of prefab- shall be appropriately marked.
ricated welded sections, which consist (c) Covers and guardrails. Covers and/
of posts and bearers with intermediate or guardrails shall be provided to pro-
connecting members and braced with tect personnel from the hazards of open
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diagonal or cross braces. pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.23

(d) Floor loading protection. (1) In positions by removable standard rail-


every building or other structure, or ings.
part thereof, used for mercantile, busi- (ii) A removable railing with
ness, industrial, or storage purposes, toeboard on not more than two sides of
the loads approved by the building offi- the opening and fixed standard railings
cial shall be marked on plates of ap- with toeboards on all other exposed
proved design which shall be supplied sides. The removable railings shall be
and securely affixed by the owner of kept in place when the opening is not
the building, or his duly authorized in use.
agent, in a conspicuous place in each Where operating conditions necessitate
space to which they relate. Such plates the feeding of material into any hatch-
shall not be removed or defaced but, if way or chute opening, protection shall
lost, removed, or defaced, shall be re- be provided to prevent a person from
placed by the owner or his agent. falling through the opening.
(2) It shall be unlawful to place, or (4) Every skylight floor opening and
cause, or permit to be placed, on any hole shall be guarded by a standard
floor or roof of a building or other skylight screen or a fixed standard
structure a load greater than that for railing on all exposed sides.
which such floor or roof is approved by (5) Every pit and trapdoor floor open-
the building official. ing, infrequently used, shall be guarded
by a floor opening cover of standard
§ 1910.23 Guarding floor and wall strength and construction. While the
openings and holes. cover is not in place, the pit or trap
(a) Protection for floor openings. (1) opening shall be constantly attended
Every stairway floor opening shall be by someone or shall be protected on all
guarded by a standard railing con- exposed sides by removable standard
structed in accordance with paragraph railings.
(e) of this section. The railing shall be (6) Every manhole floor opening shall
provided on all exposed sides (except at be guarded by a standard manhole
entrance to stairway). For infrequently cover which need not be hinged in
used stairways where traffic across the place. While the cover is not in place,
opening prevents the use of fixed stand- the manhole opening shall be con-
ard railing (as when located in aisle stantly attended by someone or shall
be protected by removable standard
spaces, etc.), the guard shall consist of
railings.
a hinged floor opening cover of stand-
(7) Every temporary floor opening
ard strength and construction and re-
shall have standard railings, or shall be
movable standard railings on all ex-
constantly attended by someone.
posed sides (except at entrance to
(8) Every floor hole into which per-
stairway).
sons can accidentally walk shall be
(2) Every ladderway floor opening or guarded by either:
platform shall be guarded by a stand- (i) A standard railing with standard
ard railing with standard toeboard on toeboard on all exposed sides, or
all exposed sides (except at entrance to (ii) A floor hole cover of standard
opening), with the passage through the strength and construction. While the
railing either provided with a swinging cover is not in place, the floor hole
gate or so offset that a person cannot shall be constantly attended by some-
walk directly into the opening. one or shall be protected by a remov-
(3) Every hatchway and chute floor able standard railing.
opening shall be guarded by one of the (9) Every floor hole into which per-
following: sons cannot accidentally walk (on ac-
(i) Hinged floor opening cover of count of fixed machinery, equipment,
standard strength and construction or walls) shall be protected by a cover
equipped with standard railings or per- that leaves no openings more than 1
manently attached thereto so as to inch wide. The cover shall be securely
leave only one exposed side. When the held in place to prevent tools or mate-
opening is not in use, the cover shall be rials from falling through.
closed or the exposed side shall be (10) Where doors or gates open di-
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guarded at both top and intermediate rectly on a stairway, a platform shall

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§ 1910.23 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

be provided, and the swing of the door sided floor or platform 4 feet or more
shall not reduce the effective width to above adjacent floor or ground level
less than 20 inches. shall be guarded by a standard railing
(b) Protection for wall openings and (or the equivalent as specified in para-
holes. (1) Every wall opening from graph (e)(3) of this section) on all open
which there is a drop of more than 4 sides except where there is entrance to
feet shall be guarded by one of the fol- a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The
lowing: railing shall be provided with a
(i) Rail, roller, picket fence, half toeboard wherever, beneath the open
door, or equivalent barrier. Where sides,
there is exposure below to falling ma- (i) Persons can pass,
terials, a removable toe board or the (ii) There is moving machinery, or
equivalent shall also be provided. When (iii) There is equipment with which
the opening is not in use for handling falling materials could create a hazard.
materials, the guard shall be kept in (2) Every runway shall be guarded by
position regardless of a door on the a standard railing (or the equivalent as
opening. In addition, a grab handle specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this sec-
shall be provided on each side of the tion) on all open sides 4 feet or more
opening with its center approximately above floor or ground level. Wherever
4 feet above floor level and of standard tools, machine parts, or materials are
strength and mounting. likely to be used on the runway, a
(ii) Extension platform onto which toeboard shall also be provided on each
materials can be hoisted for handling, exposed side.
and which shall have side rails or Runways used exclusively for special
equivalent guards of standard speci- purposes (such as oiling, shafting, or
fications. filling tank cars) may have the railing
(2) Every chute wall opening from on one side omitted where operating
which there is a drop of more than 4 conditions necessitate such omission,
feet shall be guarded by one or more of providing the falling hazard is mini-
the barriers specified in paragraph mized by using a runway of not less
(b)(1) of this section or as required by than 18 inches wide. Where persons en-
the conditions. tering upon runways become thereby
(3) Every window wall opening at a exposed to machinery, electrical equip-
stairway landing, floor, platform, or ment, or other danger not a falling haz-
balcony, from which there is a drop of ard, additional guarding than is here
more than 4 feet, and where the bottom specified may be essential for protec-
of the opening is less than 3 feet above tion.
the platform or landing, shall be guard- (3) Regardless of height, open-sided
ed by standard slats, standard grill floors, walkways, platforms, or run-
work (as specified in paragraph (e)(11) ways above or adjacent to dangerous
of this section), or standard railing. equipment, pickling or galvanizing
Where the window opening is below the tanks, degreasing units, and similar
landing, or platform, a standard toe hazards shall be guarded with a stand-
board shall be provided. ard railing and toe board.
(4) Every temporary wall opening (d) Stairway railings and guards. (1)
shall have adequate guards but these Every flight of stairs having four or
need not be of standard construction. more risers shall be equipped with
(5) Where there is a hazard of mate- standard stair railings or standard
rials falling through a wall hole, and handrails as specified in paragraphs
the lower edge of the near side of the (d)(1) (i) through (v) of this section, the
hole is less than 4 inches above the width of the stair to be measured clear
floor, and the far side of the hole more of all obstructions except handrails:
than 5 feet above the next lower level, (i) On stairways less than 44 inches
the hole shall be protected by a stand- wide having both sides enclosed, at
ard toeboard, or an enclosing screen ei- least one handrail, preferably on the
ther of solid construction, or as speci- right side descending.
fied in paragraph (e)(11) of this section. (ii) On stairways less than 44 inches
(c) Protection of open-sided floors, plat- wide having one side open, at least one
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forms, and runways. (1) Every open- stair railing on open side.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.23

(iii) On stairways less than 44 inches lent bending strength with posts
wide having both sides open, one stair spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.
railing on each side. (iv) The anchoring of posts and fram-
(iv) On stairways more than 44 inches ing of members for railings of all types
wide but less than 88 inches wide, one shall be of such construction that the
handrail on each enclosed side and one completed structure shall be capable of
stair railing on each open side. withstanding a load of at least 200
(v) On stairways 88 or more inches pounds applied in any direction at any
wide, one handrail on each enclosed point on the top rail.
side, one stair railing on each open (v) Other types, sizes, and arrange-
side, and one intermediate stair railing ments of railing construction are ac-
located approximately midway of the ceptable provided they meet the fol-
width. lowing conditions:
(2) Winding stairs shall be equipped (a) A smooth-surfaced top rail at a
with a handrail offset to prevent walk- height above floor, platform, runway,
ing on all portions of the treads having or ramp level of 42 inches nominal;
width less than 6 inches. (b) A strength to withstand at least
(e) Railing, toe boards, and cover speci- the minimum requirement of 200
fications. (1) A standard railing shall pounds top rail pressure;
consist of top rail, intermediate rail, (c) Protection between top rail and
and posts, and shall have a vertical floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair
height of 42 inches nominal from upper treads, equivalent at least to that af-
surface of top rail to floor, platform, forded by a standard intermediate rail;
runway, or ramp level. The top rail (4) A standard toeboard shall be 4
shall be smooth-surfaced throughout inches nominal in vertical height from
the length of the railing. The inter- its top edge to the level of the floor,
mediate rail shall be approximately platform, runway, or ramp. It shall be
halfway between the top rail and the securely fastened in place and with not
floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The more than 1⁄4-inch clearance above
ends of the rails shall not overhang the floor level. It may be made of any sub-
terminal posts except where such over- stantial material either solid or with
hang does not constitute a projection openings not over 1 inch in greatest di-
hazard. mension.
(2) A stair railing shall be of con- Where material is piled to such height
struction similar to a standard railing that a standard toeboard does not pro-
but the vertical height shall be not vide protection, paneling from floor to
more than 34 inches nor less than 30 intermediate rail, or to top rail shall
inches from upper surface of top rail to be provided.
surface of tread in line with face of (5)(i) A handrail shall consist of a
riser at forward edge of tread. lengthwise member mounted directly
(3) [Reserved] on a wall or partition by means of
(i) For wood railings, the posts shall brackets attached to the lower side of
be of at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock the handrail so as to offer no obstruc-
spaced not to exceed 6 feet; the top and tion to a smooth surface along the top
intermediate rails shall be of at least 2- and both sides of the handrail. The
inch by 4-inch stock. If top rail is made handrail shall be of rounded or other
of two right-angle pieces of 1-inch by 4- section that will furnish an adequate
inch stock, posts may be spaced on 8- handhold for anyone grasping it to
foot centers, with 2-inch by 4-inch in- avoid falling. The ends of the handrail
termediate rail. should be turned in to the supporting
(ii) For pipe railings, posts and top wall or otherwise arranged so as not to
and intermediate railings shall be at constitute a projection hazard.
least 11⁄2 inches nominal diameter with (ii) The height of handrails shall be
posts spaced not more than 8 feet on not more than 34 inches nor less than
centers. 30 inches from upper surface of hand-
(iii) For structural steel railings, rail to surface of tread in line with face
posts and top and intermediate rails of riser or to surface of ramp.
shall be of 2-inch by 2-inch by 3⁄8-inch (iii) The size of handrails shall be:
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angles or other metal shapes of equiva- When of hardwood, at least 2 inches in

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§ 1910.24 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

diameter; when of metal pipe, at least load of at least 200 pounds applied in
11⁄2 inches in diameter. The length of any direction (except upward) at any
brackets shall be such as will give a point on the top rail or corresponding
clearance between handrail and wall or member.
any projection thereon of at least 3 (10) Wall opening grab handles shall
inches. The spacing of brackets shall be not less than 12 inches in length and
not exceed 8 feet. shall be so mounted as to give 3 inches
(iv) The mounting of handrails shall clearance from the side framing of the
be such that the completed structure is wall opening. The size, material, and
capable of withstanding a load of at anchoring of the grab handle shall be
least 200 pounds applied in any direc- such that the completed structure is
tion at any point on the rail. capable of withstanding a load of at
(6) All handrails and railings shall be least 200 pounds applied in any direc-
provided with a clearance of not less tion at any point of the handle.
than 3 inches between the handrail or (11) Wall opening screens shall be of
railing and any other object. such construction and mounting that
(7) Floor opening covers may be of they are capable of withstanding a load
any material that meets the following of at least 200 pounds applied hori-
strength requirements: zontally at any point on the near side
(i) Trench or conduit covers and their of the screen. They may be of solid con-
supports, when located in plant road- struction, of grillwork with openings
ways, shall be designed to carry a not more than 8 inches long, or of
truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 slatwork with openings not more than
pounds. 4 inches wide with length unrestricted.
(ii) Manhole covers and their sup- [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
ports, when located in plant roadways, FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
shall comply with local standard high- 1984]
way requirements if any; otherwise,
they shall be designed to carry a truck § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs.
rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds. (a) Application of requirements. This
(iii) The construction of floor open- section contains specifications for the
ing covers may be of any material that safe design and construction of fixed
meets the strength requirements. Cov- general industrial stairs. This classi-
ers projecting not more than 1 inch fication includes interior and exterior
above the floor level may be used pro- stairs around machinery, tanks, and
viding all edges are chamfered to an other equipment, and stairs leading to
angle with the horizontal of not over 30 or from floors, platforms, or pits. This
degrees. All hinges, handles, bolts, or section does not apply to stairs used
other parts shall set flush with the for fire exit purposes, to construction
floor or cover surface. operations to private residences, or to
(8) Skylight screens shall be of such articulated stairs, such as may be in-
construction and mounting that they stalled on floating roof tanks or on
are capable of withstanding a load of at dock facilities, the angle of which
least 200 pounds applied perpendicu- changes with the rise and fall of the
larly at any one area on the screen. base support.
They shall also be of such construction (b) Where fixed stairs are required.
and mounting that under ordinary Fixed stairs shall be provided for ac-
loads or impacts, they will not deflect cess from one structure level to an-
downward sufficiently to break the other where operations necessitate reg-
glass below them. The construction ular travel between levels, and for ac-
shall be of grillwork with openings not cess to operating platforms at any
more than 4 inches long or of slatwork equipment which requires attention
with openings not more than 2 inches routinely during operations. Fixed
wide with length unrestricted. stairs shall also be provided where ac-
(9) Wall opening barriers (rails, roll- cess to elevations is daily or at each
ers, picket fences, and half doors) shall shift for such purposes as gauging, in-
be of such construction and mounting spection, regular maintenance, etc.,
that, when in place at the opening, the where such work may expose employ-
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barrier is capable of withstanding a ees to acids, caustics, gases, or other

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.25

harmful substances, or for which pur- ceptable providing the leading edge can
poses the carrying of tools or equip- be readily identified by personnel de-
ment by hand is normally required. (It scending the stairway and provided the
is not the intent of this section to pre- tread is serrated or is of definite non-
clude the use of fixed ladders for access slip design. Rise height and tread width
to elevated tanks, towers, and similar shall be uniform throughout any flight
structures, overhead traveling cranes, of stairs including any foundation
etc., where the use of fixed ladders is structure used as one or more treads of
common practice.) Spiral stairways the stairs.
shall not be permitted except for spe- (g) Stairway platforms. Stairway plat-
cial limited usage and secondary access forms shall be no less than the width of
situations where it is not practical to a stairway and a minimum of 30 inches
provide a conventional stairway. Wind- in length measured in the direction of
ing stairways may be installed on travel.
tanks and similar round structures (h) Railings and handrails. Standard
where the diameter of the structure is railings shall be provided on the open
not less than five (5) feet. sides of all exposed stairways and stair
(c) Stair strength. Fixed stairways platforms. Handrails shall be provided
shall be designed and constructed to on at least one side of closed stairways
carry a load of five times the normal preferably on the right side descending.
live load anticipated but never of less Stair railings and handrails shall be in-
strength than to carry safely a moving stalled in accordance with the provi-
concentrated load of 1,000 pounds. sions of § 1910.23.
(d) Stair width. Fixed stairways shall (i) Vertical clearance. Vertical clear-
have a minimum width of 22 inches. ance above any stair tread to an over-
(e) Angle of stairway rise. Fixed stairs head obstruction shall be at least 7 feet
shall be installed at angles to the hori- measured from the leading edge of the
zontal of between 30° and 50°. Any uni- tread.
form combination of rise/tread dimen-
sions may be used that will result in a [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
stairway at an angle to the horizontal FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
1984]
within the permissible range. Table D–
1 gives rise/tread dimensions which will § 1910.25 Portable wood ladders.
produce a stairway within the permis-
sible range, stating the angle to the (a) Application of requirements. This
horizontal produced by each combina- section is intended to prescribe rules
tion. However, the rise/tread combina- and establish minimum requirements
tions are not limited to those given in for the construction, care, and use of
Table D–1. the common types of portable wood
ladders, in order to insure safety under
TABLE D–1 normal conditions of usage. Other
types of special ladders, fruitpicker’s
Tread
Rise (in ladders, combination step and exten-
Angle to horizontal run (in
inches) inches) sion ladders, stockroom step ladders,
30°35′ .................................................... 61⁄2 11 aisle-way step ladders, shelf ladders,
32°08′ .................................................... 63⁄4 103⁄4 and library ladders are not specifically
33°41′ .................................................... 7 101⁄2 covered by this section.
35°16′ .................................................... 71⁄4 101⁄4
36°52′ .................................................... 71⁄2 10 (b) Materials—(1) Requirements appli-
38°29′ .................................................... 73⁄4 93⁄4 cable to all wood parts. (i) All wood
40°08′ .................................................... 8 91⁄2 parts shall be free from sharp edges and
41°44′ .................................................... 81⁄4 91⁄4
43°22′ .................................................... 81⁄2 9 splinters; sound and free from accepted
45°00′ .................................................... 83⁄4 83⁄4 visual inspection from shake, wane,
46°38′ .................................................... 9 8 ⁄2
1
compression failures, decay, or other
48°16′ .................................................... 91⁄4 81⁄4
49°54′ .................................................... 91⁄2 8 irregularities. Low density wood shall
not be used.
(f) Stair treads. All treads shall be rea- (ii) [Reserved]
sonably slip-resistant and the nosings (2) [Reserved]
shall be of nonslip finish. Welded bar (c) Construction requirements.
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grating treads without nosings are ac- (1) [Reserved]

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§ 1910.25 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(2) Portable stepladders. Stepladders tle ladders longer than 20 feet shall not
longer than 20 feet shall not be sup- be supplied.
plied. Stepladders as hereinafter speci- (b) [Reserved]
fied shall be of three types: (4) Special-purpose ladders.
Type I—Industrial stepladder, 3 to 20 feet for
(i) [Reserved]
heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors, (ii) Painter’s stepladder. (a) Painter’s
and industrial use. stepladders longer than 12 feet shall
Type II—Commercial stepladder, 3 to 12 feet not be supplied.
for medium duty, such as painters, offices, (b) [Reserved]
and light industrial use. (iii) Mason’s ladder. A mason’s ladder
Type III—Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet is a special type of single ladder in-
for light duty, such as light household use. tended for use in heavy construction
(i) General requirements. work.
(a) [Reserved] (a) Mason’s ladders longer than 40
(b) A uniform step spacing shall be feet shall not be supplied.
employed which shall be not more than (b) [Reserved]
12 inches. Steps shall be parallel and (5) Trolley and side-rolling ladders—(i)
level when the ladder is in position for Length. Trolley ladders and side-rolling
use. ladders longer than 20 feet should not
(c) The minimum width between side be supplied.
rails at the top, inside to inside, shall (ii) [Reserved]
be not less than 111⁄2 inches. From top (d) Care and use of ladders—(1) Care.
to bottom, the side rails shall spread at To insure safety and serviceability the
least 1 inch for each foot of length of following precautions on the care of
stepladder. ladders shall be observed:
(d)–(e) [Reserved] (i) Ladders shall be maintained in
(f) A metal spreader or locking device good condition at all times, the joint
of sufficient size and strength to se- between the steps and side rails shall
curely hold the front and back sections be tight, all hardware and fittings se-
in open positions shall be a component curely attached, and the movable parts
of each stepladder. The spreader shall shall operate freely without binding or
have all sharp points covered or re- undue play.
moved to protect the user. For Type III (ii) Metal bearings of locks, wheels,
ladder, the pail shelf and spreader may pulleys, etc., shall be frequently lubri-
be combined in one unit (the so-called cated.
shelf-lock ladder). (iii) Frayed or badly worn rope shall
(3) Portable rung ladders. be replaced.
(i) [Reserved] (iv) Safety feet and other auxiliary
(ii) Single ladder. (a) Single ladders equipment shall be kept in good condi-
longer than 30 feet shall not be sup- tion to insure proper performance.
plied. (v)–(ix) [Reserved]
(b) [Reserved] (x) Ladders shall be inspected fre-
(iii) Two-section ladder. (a) Two-sec- quently and those which have devel-
tion extension ladders longer than 60 oped defects shall be withdrawn from
feet shall not be supplied. All ladders of service for repair or destruction and
this type shall consist of two sections, tagged or marked as ‘‘Dangerous, Do
one to fit within the side rails of the Not Use.’’
other, and arranged in such a manner (xi) Rungs should be kept free of
that the upper section can be raised grease and oil.
and lowered. (2) Use. The following safety pre-
(b) [Reserved] cautions shall be observed in connec-
(iv) Sectional ladder. (a) Assembled tion with the use of ladders:
combinations of sectional ladders (i) Portable rung and cleat ladders
longer than lengths specified in this shall, where possible, be used at such a
subdivision shall not be used. pitch that the horizontal distance from
(b) [Reserved] the top support to the foot of the lad-
(v) Trestle and extension trestle ladder. der is one-quarter of the working
(a) Trestle ladders, or extension sec- length of the ladder (the length along
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tions or base sections of extension tres- the ladder between the foot and the top

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.26

support). The ladder shall be so placed the point of support, at eave, gutter, or
as to prevent slipping, or it shall be roofline;
lashed, or held in position. Ladders (xvi) [Reserved]
shall not be used in a horizontal posi- (xvii) Middle and top sections of sec-
tion as platforms, runways, or scaf- tional or window cleaner’s ladders
folds; should not be used for bottom section
(ii) Ladders for which dimensions are unless the user equips them with safety
specified should not be used by more shoes;
than one man at a time nor with ladder (xviii) [Reserved]
jacks and scaffold planks where use by (xix) The user should equip all port-
more than one man is anticipated. In able rung ladders with nonslip bases
such cases, specially designed ladders when there is a hazard of slipping. Non-
with larger dimensions of the parts slip bases are not intended as a sub-
should be procured; stitute for care in safely placing, lash-
(iii) Portable ladders shall be so ing, or holding a ladder that is being
placed that the side rails have a secure used upon oily, metal, concrete, or slip-
footing. The top rest for portable rung pery surfaces;
and cleat ladders shall be reasonably (xx) The bracing on the back legs of
rigid and shall have ample strength to step ladders is designed solely for in-
support the applied load; creasing stability and not for climbing.
(iv) Ladders shall not be placed in
front of doors opening toward the lad- [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
der unless the door is blocked upon, FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
1984]
locked, or guarded;
(v) Ladders shall not be placed on § 1910.26 Portable metal ladders.
boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases
to obtain additional height; (a) Requirements—(1) General. Specific
(vi)–(vii) [Reserved] design and construction requirements
(viii) Ladders with broken or missing are not part of this section because of
steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side the wide variety of metals and design
rails, or other faulty equipment shall possibilities. However, the design shall
not be used; improvised repairs shall be such as to produce a ladder without
not be made; structural defects or accident hazards
(ix) Short ladders shall not be spliced such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. The
together to provide long sections; metal selected shall be of sufficient
(x) Ladders made by fastening cleats strength to meet the test require-
across a single rail shall not be used; ments, and shall be protected against
(xi) Ladders shall not be used as corrosion unless inherently corrosion-
guys, braces, or skids, or for other than resistant.
their intended purposes; (i)–(ii) [Reserved]
(xii) Tops of the ordinary types of (iii) The spacing of rungs or steps
stepladders shall not be used as steps; shall be on 12-inch centers.
(xiii) On two-section extension lad- (iv) [Reserved]
ders the minimum overlap for the two (v) Rungs and steps shall be cor-
sections in use shall be as follows: rugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with
skid-resistant material, or otherwise
Overlap
Size of ladder (feet) treated to minimize the possibility of
(feet)
slipping.
Up to and including 36 ........................................ 3
Over 36 up to and including 48 ........................... 4
(2) General specifications—straight and
Over 48 up to and including 60 ........................... 5 extension ladders. (i) The minimum
width between side rails of a straight
(xiv) Portable rung ladders with rein- ladder or any section of an extension
forced rails (see paragraphs (c)(3) (ii)(c) ladder shall be 12 inches.
and (iii)(d) this section) shall be used (ii) The length of single ladders or in-
only with the metal reinforcement on dividual sections of ladders shall not
the under side; exceed 30 feet. Two-section ladders
(xv) No ladder should be used to gain shall not exceed 48 feet in length and
access to a roof unless the top of the over two-section ladders shall not ex-
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ladder shall extend at least 3 feet above ceed 60 feet in length.

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§ 1910.26 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(iii) Based on the nominal length of The following rules and regulations
the ladder, each section of a multisec- are essential to the life of the equip-
tion ladder shall overlap the adjacent ment and the safety of the user.
section by at least the number of feet (2) Care of ladders.
stated in the following: (i)–(iii) [Reserved]
Overlap (iv) Ladders must be maintained in
Normal length of ladder (feet) (feet) good usable condition at all times.
Up to and including 36 ........................................ 3
(v) [Reserved]
Over 36, up to and including 48 .......................... 4 (vi) If a ladder is involved in any of
Over 48, up to 60 ................................................ 5 the following, immediate inspection is
necessary:
(iv) Extension ladders shall be (a) If ladders tip over, inspect ladder
equipped with positive stops which will for side rails dents or bends, or exces-
insure the overlap specified in the sively dented rungs; check all rung-to-
table above.
side-rail connections; check hardware
(3) General specifications—step ladders.
connections; check rivets for shear.
(i)–(ii) [Reserved]
(b)–(c) [Reserved]
(iii) The length of a stepladder is
(d) If ladders are exposed to oil and
measured by the length of the front
rail. To be classified as a standard grease, equipment should be cleaned of
length ladder, the measured length oil, grease, or slippery materials. This
shall be within plus or minus one-half can easily be done with a solvent or
inch of the specified length. Step- steam cleaning.
ladders shall not exceed 20 feet in (vii) Ladders having defects are to be
length. marked and taken out of service until
(iv)–(vi) [Reserved] repaired by either maintenance depart-
(vii) The bottoms of the four rails are ment or the manufacturer.
to be supplied with insulating nonslip (3) Use of ladders. (i). A simple rule
material for the safety of the user. for setting up a ladder at the proper
(viii) A metal spreader or locking de- angle is to place the base a distance
vice of sufficient size and strength to from the vertical wall equal to one-
securely hold the front and back sec- fourth the working length of the lad-
tions in the open position shall be a der.
component of each stepladder. The (ii) Portable ladders are designed as a
spreader shall have all sharp points or one-man working ladder based on a 200-
edges covered or removed to protect pound load.
the user. (iii) The ladder base section must be
(4) General specifications—trestles and placed with a secure footing.
extension trestle ladders. (i) Trestle lad-
(iv) The top of the ladder must be
ders or extension sections or base sec-
placed with the two rails supported,
tions of extension trestle ladders shall
be not more than 20 feet in length. unless equipped with a single support
(ii) [Reserved] attachment.
(5) General specifications—platform lad- (v) When ascending or descending,
ders. (i) The length of a platform ladder the climber must face the ladder.
shall not exceed 20 feet. The length of (vi) Ladders must not be tied or fas-
a platform ladder shall be measured tened together to provide longer sec-
along the front rail from the floor to tions. They must be equipped with the
the platform. hardware fittings necessary if the man-
(ii) [Reserved] ufacturer endorses extended uses.
(b) [Reserved] (vii) Ladders should not be used as a
(c) Care and maintenance of ladders— brace, skid, guy or gin pole, gangway,
(1) General. To get maximum service- or for other uses than that for which
ability, safety, and to eliminate unnec- they were intended, unless specifically
essary damage of equipment, good safe recommended for use by the manufac-
practices in the use and care of ladder turer.
equipment must be employed by the
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users.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

(viii) See § 1910.333(c) for work prac- (v) The rungs of an individual-rung
tices to be used when work is per- ladder shall be so designed that the
formed on or near electric circuits. foot cannot slide off the end. A sug-
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
gested design is shown in figure D–1.
FR 49745, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
1984; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990]

§ 1910.27 Fixed ladders.


(a) Design requirements—(1) Design
considerations. All ladders, appur-
tenances, and fastenings shall be de-
signed to meet the following load re-
quirements:
(i) The minimum design live load
shall be a single concentrated load of
200 pounds.
(ii) The number and position of addi-
tional concentrated live-load units of
200 pounds each as determined from an-
ticipated usage of the ladder shall be
considered in the design.
(iii) The live loads imposed by per-
sons occupying the ladder shall be con- FIGURE D–1—SUGGESTED DESIGN FOR RUNGS
sidered to be concentrated at such ON INDIVIDUAL-RUNG LADDERS.
points as will cause the maximum (2) Side rails. Side rails which might
stress in the structural member being be used as a climbing aid shall be of
considered. such cross sections as to afford ade-
(iv) The weight of the ladder and at- quate gripping surface without sharp
tached appurtenances together with edges, splinters, or burrs.
the live load shall be considered in the (3) Fastenings. Fastenings shall be an
design of rails and fastenings. integral part of fixed ladder design.
(2) Design stresses. Design stresses for (4) Splices. All splices made by what-
wood components of ladders shall not ever means shall meet design require-
exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All ments as noted in paragraph (a) of this
wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet section. All splices and connections
the requirements of § 1910.25(b). shall have smooth transition with
For fixed ladders consisting of wood original members and with no sharp or
side rails and wood rungs or cleats, extensive projections.
used at a pitch in the range 75 degrees (5) Electrolytic action. Adequate means
to 90 degrees, and intended for use by shall be employed to protect dissimilar
no more than one person per section, metals from electrolytic action when
single ladders as described in such metals are joined.
§ 1910.25(c)(3)(ii) are acceptable. (6) Welding. All welding shall be in
(b) Specific features—(1) Rungs and accordance with the ‘‘Code for Welding
cleats. (i) All rungs shall have a min- in Building Construction’’ (AWSD1.0–
imum diameter of three-fourths inch 1966).
for metal ladders, except as covered in (7) Protection from deterioration. (i)
paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section and a Metal ladders and appurtenances shall
minimum diameter of 11⁄8 inches for be painted or otherwise treated to re-
wood ladders. sist corrosion and rusting when loca-
(ii) The distance between rungs, tion demands. Ladders formed by indi-
cleats, and steps shall not exceed 12 vidual metal rungs imbedded in con-
inches and shall be uniform throughout crete, which serve as access to pits and
the length of the ladder. to other areas under floors, are fre-
(iii) The minimum clear length of quently located in an atmosphere that
rungs or cleats shall be 16 inches. causes corrosion and rusting. To in-
(iv) Rungs, cleats, and steps shall be crease rung life in such atmosphere, in-
free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or dividual metal rungs shall have a min-
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§ 1910.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

painted or otherwise treated to resist space, except when cages or wells are
corrosion and rusting. necessary.
(ii) Wood ladders, when used under (3) Ladders with cages or baskets. Lad-
conditions where decay may occur, ders equipped with cage or basket are
shall be treated with a nonirritating excepted from the provisions of sub-
preservative, and the details shall be paragraphs (1) and (2) of this para-
such as to prevent or minimize the ac- graph, but shall conform to the provi-
cumulation of water on wood parts. sions of paragraph (d)(1)(v) of this sec-
(iii) When different types of mate- tion. Fixed ladders in smooth-walled
rials are used in the construction of a wells are excepted from the provisions
ladder, the materials used shall be so of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph,
treated as to have no deleterious effect but shall conform to the provisions of
one upon the other. paragraph (d)(1)(vi) of this section.
(4) Clearance in back of ladder. The
distance from the centerline of rungs,
cleats, or steps to the nearest perma-
nent object in back of the ladder shall
be not less than 7 inches, except that
when unavoidable obstructions are en-
countered, minimum clearances as
shown in figure D–3 shall be provided.

MINIMUM LADDER CLEARANCES

FIGURE D–2—RAIL LADDER WITH BAR STEEL


RAILS AND ROUND STEEL RUNGS
(c) Clearance—(1) Climbing side. On
fixed ladders, the perpendicular dis-
tance from the centerline of the rungs
to the nearest permanent object on the FIGURE D–3—CLEARANCE FOR UNAVOIDABLE
climbing side of the ladder shall be 36 OBSTRUCTION AT REAR OF FIXED LADDER
inches for a pitch of 76 degrees, and 30 (5) Clearance in back of grab bar. The
inches for a pitch of 90 degrees (fig. D– distance from the centerline of the
2 of this section), with minimum clear- grab bar to the nearest permanent ob-
ances for intermediate pitches varying ject in back of the grab bars shall be
between these two limits in proportion not less than 4 inches. Grab bars shall
to the slope, except as provided in sub- not protrude on the climbing side be-
paragraphs (3) and (5) of this para- yond the rungs of the ladder which
graph. they serve.
(2) Ladders without cages or wells. A (6) Step-across distance. The step-
clear width of at least 15 inches shall across distance from the nearest edge
be provided each way from the center- of ladder to the nearest edge of equip-
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line of the ladder in the climbing ment or structure shall be not more
EC27OC91.003

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

than 12 inches, or less than 21⁄2 inches


(fig. D–4).

FIGURE D–5—DEFLECTOR PLATES FOR HEAD


HAZARDS

FIGURE D–4—LADDER FAR FROM WALL


(7) Hatch cover. Counterweighted
hatch covers shall open a minimum of
60 degrees from the horizontal. The dis-
tance from the centerline of rungs or FIGURE D–6—RELATIONSHIP OF FIXED LADDER
cleats to the edge of the hatch opening TO A SAFE ACCESS HATCH
on the climbing side shall be not less (iii) Cages shall extend a minimum of
than 24 inches for offset wells or 30 42 inches above the top of landing, un-
inches for straight wells. There shall be less other acceptable protection is pro-
not protruding potential hazards with- vided.
in 24 inches of the centerline of rungs (iv) Cages shall extend down the lad-
or cleats; any such hazards within 30 der to a point not less than 7 feet nor
inches of the centerline of the rungs or more than 8 feet above the base of the
cleats shall be fitted with deflector ladder, with bottom flared not less
plates placed at an angle of 60 degrees than 4 inches, or portion of cage oppo-
from the horizontal as indicated in fig- site ladder shall be carried to the base.
ure D–5. The relationship of a fixed lad- (v) Cages shall not extend less than
der to an acceptable counterweighted 27 nor more than 28 inches from the
hatch cover is illustrated in figure D–6. centerline of the rungs of the ladder.
(d) Special requirements—(1) Cages or Cage shall not be less than 27 inches in
wells. (i) Cages or wells (except on width. The inside shall be clear of pro-
chimney ladders) shall be built, as jections. Vertical bars shall be located
shown on the applicable drawings, cov- at a maximum spacing of 40 degrees
ered in detail in figures D–7, D–8, and around the circumference of the cage;
D–9, or of equivalent construction. this will give a maximum spacing of
(ii) Cages or wells (except as provided approximately 91⁄2 inches, center to
in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph) center.
conforming to the dimensions shown in (vi) Ladder wells shall have a clear
EC27OC91.006

figures D–7, D–8, and D–9 shall be pro- width of at least 15 inches measured
vided on ladders of more than 20 feet to each way from the centerline of the
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a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet. ladder. Smooth-walled wells shall be a


EC27OC91.005

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§ 1910.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

minimum of 27 inches from the center-


line of rungs to the well wall on the
climbing side of the ladder. Where
other obstructions on the climbing side
of the ladder exist, there shall be a
minimum of 30 inches from the center-
line of the rungs.

FIGURE D–7—CAGES FOR LADDERS MORE THAN


20 FEET HIGH

FIGURE D–8—CLEARANCE DIAGRAM FOR FIXED LADDER IN WELL


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EC27OC91.008

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

(3) Ladder extensions. The side rails of


through or side-step ladder extensions
shall extend 31⁄2 feet above parapets and
landings. For through ladder exten-
sions, the rungs shall be omitted from
the extension and shall have not less
than 18 nor more than 24 inches clear-
ance between rails. For side-step or off-
set fixed ladder sections, at landings,
the side rails and rungs shall be carried
to the next regular rung beyond or
above the 31⁄2 feet minimum (fig. D–10).

FIGURE D–9—CAGES—SPECIAL APPLICATIONS.


(2) Landing platforms. When ladders
are used to ascend to heights exceeding
20 feet (except on chimneys), landing
platforms shall be provided for each 30
feet of height or fraction thereof, ex-
cept that, where no cage, well, or lad-
der safety device is provided, landing
platforms shall be provided for each 20
feet of height or fraction thereof. Each
ladder section shall be offset from adja-
cent sections. Where installation con-
ditions (even for a short, unbroken
length) require that adjacent sections
be offset, landing platforms shall be
provided at each offset.
(i) Where a man has to step a dis-
tance greater than 12 inches from the
centerline of the rung of a ladder to the
nearest edge of structure or equipment,
a landing platform shall be provided. FIGURE D–10—OFFSET FIXED LADDER
The minimum step-across distance SECTIONS
shall be 21⁄2 inches. (4) Grab bars. Grab bars shall be
(ii) All landing platforms shall be spaced by a continuation of the rung
equipped with standard railings and spacing when they are located in the
toeboards, so arranged as to give safe horizontal position. Vertical grab bars
access to the ladder. Platforms shall be shall have the same spacing as the lad-
not less than 24 inches in width and 30 der side rails. Grab-bar diameters shall
inches in length. be the equivalent of the round-rung di-
(iii) One rung of any section of ladder ameters.
shall be located at the level of the (5) Ladder safety devices. Ladder safe-
landing laterally served by the ladder. ty devices may be used on tower, water
Where access to the landing is through tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet
the ladder, the same rung spacing as in unbroken length in lieu of cage pro-
used on the ladder shall be used from tection. No landing platform is re-
the landing platform to the first rung quired in these cases. All ladder safety
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below the landing. devices such as those that incorporate


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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding § 1910.28 Safety requirements for scaf-
attachments shall meet the design re- folding.
quirements of the ladders which they (a) General requirements for all scaf-
serve. folds. (1) Scaffolds shall be furnished
(e) Pitch—(1) Preferred pitch. The pre- and erected in accordance with this
ferred pitch of fixed ladders shall be standard for persons engaged in work
considered to come in the range of 75 that cannot be done safely from the
degrees and 90 degrees with the hori- ground or from solid construction, ex-
zontal (fig. D–11). cept that ladders used for such work
shall conform to § 1910.25 and § 1910.26.
(2) The footing or anchorage for scaf-
folds shall be sound, rigid, and capable
of carrying the maximum intended
load without settling or displacement.
Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes,
loose brick, or concrete blocks shall
not be used to support scaffolds or
planks.
(3) [Reserved]
(4) Scaffolds and their components
shall be capable of supporting without
failure at least four times the max-
imum intended load.
(5) Scaffolds and other devices men-
tioned or described in this section shall
be maintained in safe condition. Scaf-
folds shall not be altered or moved
horizontally while they are in use or
occupied.
(6) Any scaffold damaged or weak-
ened from any cause shall be imme-
diately repaired and shall not be used
FIGURE D–11—PITCH OF FIXED LADDERS until repairs have been completed.
(2) Substandard pitch. Fixed ladders (7) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in
shall be considered as substandard if excess of the working load for which
they are installed within the sub- they are intended.
standard pitch range of 60 and 75 de- (8) All load-carrying timber members
grees with the horizontal. Substandard of scaffold framing shall be a minimum
fixed ladders are permitted only where of 1,500 f. (Stress Grade) construction
it is found necessary to meet condi- grade lumber. All dimensions are nomi-
tions of installation. This substandard nal sizes as provided in the American
pitch range shall be considered as a Lumber Standards, except that where
critical range to be avoided, if possible. rough sizes are noted, only rough or
(3) Scope of coverage in this section. undressed lumber of the size specified
will satisfy minimum requirements.
This section covers only fixed ladders
(NOTE: Where nominal sizes of lumber
within the pitch range of 60 degrees
are used in place of rough sizes, the
and 90 degrees with the horizontal.
nominal size lumber shall be such as to
(4) Pitch greater than 90 degrees. Lad- provide equivalent strength to that
ders having a pitch in excess of 90 de- specified in tables D–7 through D–12
grees with the horizontal are prohib- and D–16.)
ited. (9) All planking shall be Scaffold
(f) Maintenance. All ladders shall be Grade as recognized by grading rules
maintained in a safe condition. All lad- for the species of wood used. The max-
ders shall be inspected regularly, with imum permissible spans for 2- × 9-inch
the intervals between inspections being or wider planks are shown in the fol-
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determined by use and exposure. lowing table:

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

Material involving the use of corrosive sub-


Nominal
stances or chemicals.
Full thickness un- (22) Wire or fiber rope used for scaf-
thickness
dressed lumber lumber fold suspension shall be capable of sup-
porting at least six times the intended
load.
Working load
(p.s.f.) ............... 25 50 75 25 50
(23) When acid solutions are used for
Permissible span cleaning buildings over 50 feet in
(ft.) ................... 10 8 6 8 9 height, wire rope supported scaffolds
shall be used.
The maximum permissible span for (24) The use of shore scaffolds or
11⁄4×9-inch or wider plank of full thick- lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.
ness is 4 feet with medium loading of 50 (25) Lumber sizes, when used in this
p.s.f. section, refer to nominal sizes except
(10) Nails or bolts used in the con- where otherwise stated.
struction of scaffolds shall be of ade- (26) Scaffolds shall be secured to per-
quate size and in sufficient numbers at manent structures, through use of an-
each connection to develop the de- chor bolts, reveal bolts, or other equiv-
signed strength of the scaffold. Nails alent means. Window cleaners’ anchor
shall not be subjected to a straight pull bolts shall not be used.
and shall be driven full length. (27) Special precautions shall be
(11) All planking or platforms shall taken to protect scaffold members, in-
be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or cluding any wire or fiber ropes, when
secured from movement. using a heat-producing process.
(12) An access ladder or equivalent (b) General requirements for wood pole
safe access shall be provided. scaffolds. (1) Scaffold poles shall bear
(13) Scaffold planks shall extend over on a foundation of sufficient size and
their end supports not less than 6 strength to spread the load from the
inches nor more than 18 inches. poles over a sufficient area to prevent
settlement. All poles shall be set
(14) The poles, legs, or uprights of
plumb.
scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely
(2) Where wood poles are spliced, the
and rigidly braced to prevent swaying
ends shall be squared and the upper
and displacement.
section shall rest squarely on the lower
(15) Materials being hoisted onto a section. Wood splice plates shall be
scaffold shall have a tag line. provided on at least two adjacent sides
(16) Overhead protection shall be pro- and shall not be less than 4 feet 0
vided for men on a scaffold exposed to inches in length, overlapping the abut-
overhead hazards. ted ends equally, and have the same
(17) Scaffolds shall be provided with a width and not less than the cross-sec-
screen between the toeboard and the tional area of the pole. Splice plates of
guardrail, extending along the entire other materials of equivalent strength
opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. may be used.
Standard Wire one-half-inch mesh or (3) Independent pole scaffolds shall be
the equivalent, where persons are re- set as near to the wall of the building
quired to work or pass under the scaf- as practicable.
folds. (4) All pole scaffolds shall be securely
(18) Employees shall not work on guyed or tied to the building or struc-
scaffolds during storms or high winds. ture. Where the height or length ex-
(19) Employees shall not work on ceeds 25 feet, the scaffold shall be se-
scaffolds which are covered with ice or cured at intervals not greater than 25
snow, unless all ice or snow is removed feet vertically and horizontally.
and planking sanded to prevent slip- (5) Putlogs or bearers shall be set
ping. with their greater dimensions vertical,
(20) Tools, materials, and debris shall long enough to project over the ledgers
not be allowed to accumulate in quan- of the inner and outer rows of poles at
tities to cause a hazard. least 3 inches for proper support.
(21) Only treated or protected fiber (6) Every wooden putlog on single
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rope shall be used for or near any work pole scaffolds shall be reinforced with a

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
3⁄16×2-inch steel strip or equivalent se- prevent tipping. The planks that meet
cured to its lower edge throughout its the corner putlog at an angle shall be
entire length. laid first, extending over the diago-
(7) Ledgers shall be long enough to nally placed putlog far enough to have
extend over two pole spaces. Ledgers a good safe bearing, but not far enough
shall not be spliced between the poles. to involve any danger from tipping.
Ledgers shall be reinforced by bearing The planking running in the opposite
blocks securely nailed to the side of direction at right angles shall be laid
the pole to form a support for the ledg- so as to extend over and rest on the
er. first layer of planking.
(8) Diagonal bracing shall be provided (14) When moving platforms to the
to prevent the poles from moving in a next level, the old platform shall be
direction parallel with the wall of the left undisturbed until the new putlogs
building, or from buckling. or bearers have been set in place, ready
(9) Cross bracing shall be provided be- to receive the platform planks.
tween the inner and outer sets of poles
(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
in independent pole scaffolds. The free
inches or the equivalent and not less
ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
braced.
(10) Full diagonal face bracing shall high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
be erected across the entire face of pole 1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
scaffolds in both directions. The braces toeboards, shall be installed at all open
shall be spliced at the poles. sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
(11) Platform planks shall be laid above the ground or floor. Toeboards
with their edges close together so the shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
platform will be tight with no spaces height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
through which tools or fragments of accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
material can fall. this section.
(12) Where planking is lapped, each (16) All wood pole scaffolds 60 feet or
plank shall lap its end supports at least less in height shall be constructed and
12 inches. Where the ends of planks erected in accordance with tables D–7
abut each other to form a flush floor, through D–12 of this section. If they are
the butt joint shall be at the centerline over 60 feet in height they shall be de-
of a pole. The abutted ends shall rest signed by a registered professional en-
on separate bearers. Intermediate gineer and constructed and erected in
beams shall be provided where nec- accordance with such design. A copy of
essary to prevent dislodgment of the typical drawings and specifications
planks due to deflection, and the ends shall be made available to the em-
shall be nailed or cleated to prevent ployer and for inspection purposes.
their dislodgment. (17) Wood-pole scaffolds shall not be
(13) When a scaffold turns a corner, erected beyond the reach of effective
the platform planks shall be laid to firefighting apparatus.
TABLE D–7—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Uniformly distributed load ................................................ Not to exceed 25 pounds per


square foot..
Poles or uprights .............................................................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ............................................... 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold .............................................. 5 ft. 0 in ........................................ 5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 3 ft. 0 in. width .............................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 5 ft. 0 in. width .............................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in .................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in.(rough).
Ledgers ............................................................................ 1 by 4 in ....................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in.
Planking ........................................................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in. (rough) ...................... 2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members .......................... 7 ft. 0 in ........................................ 7 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal ..................................... 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
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Tie-ins .............................................................................. 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.


Toeboards ........................................................................ 4 in. high (minimum) .................... 4 in. high (minimum).

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

TABLE D–7—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY—Continued
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Guardrail .......................................................................... 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.


All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–8—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAX- TABLE D–9—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAX-
IMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE IMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 pounds Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 pounds
per square foot. per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft.
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in. Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold ........... 5 ft. 0 in. Maximum width of scaffold ........... 5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs ........................ 2 by 9 in. or 3 by 4 in. Bearers or putlogs ........................ 2 by 9 in. or 3 by 5 in.
Spacing of bearers or putlogs ...... 8 ft. 0 in. (rough).
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. Spacing of bearers or putlogs ...... 6 ft. 0 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal 9 ft. 0 in. Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in.
members. Vertical spacing of horizontal 6 ft. 6 in.
Bracing, horizontal ........................ 1 by 6 in. or 11⁄4 by 4 in. members.
Bracing, diagonal .......................... 1 by 4 in. Bracing, horizontal and diagonal .. 2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in. Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in. Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in.
Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum). Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in. Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
All members except planking are used on edge. All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–10—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDEPENDENT POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Uniformly distributed load ................................................ Not to exceed 25 pounds per


square foot..
Poles or uprights .............................................................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ............................................... 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse) ................................................ 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers ............................................................................ 11⁄4 by 4 in ................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in.
Bearers to 3 ft. 0 in. span ................................................ 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Bearers to 10 ft. 0 in. span .............................................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in .................. 2 by 9 (rough) or 3 by 8 in.
Planking ........................................................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in ................................... 2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members .......................... 7 ft. 0 in ........................................ 7 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal ..................................... 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins .............................................................................. 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Toeboards ........................................................................ 4 in. high ...................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail .......................................................................... 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–11—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND TABLE D–11—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND
MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE- MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE-
PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY—
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 pounds
Continued
per square foot. Bracing, diagonal .......................... 1 by 4 in.
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in.
Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse) ............. 8 ft. 0 in. Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal 6 ft. 0 in. All members except planking are used on edge.
members.
Spacing of bearers ....................... 8 ft. 0 in.
Bearers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. (rough) or 2 by
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10 in.
Bracing, horizontal ........................ 1 by 6 in. or 11⁄4 by 4 in.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

TABLE D–12—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND (2) A medium-duty tube and coupler
MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE- scaffold shall have all posts, runners,
PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D.
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 pounds steel tubing. Posts spaced not more
per square foot. than 6 feet apart by 8 feet along the
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. length of the scaffold shall have bear-
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 0 in. ers of nominal 21⁄2-inch O.D. steel tub-
Pole spacing (transverse) ............. 8 ft. 0 in. ing. Posts spaced not more than 5 feet
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. apart by 8 feet along the length of the
Vertical spacing of horizontal 4 ft. 6 in.
members. scaffold shall have bearers of nominal
Bearers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. (rough). 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Other struc-
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal .. 2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
tural metals when used must be de-
Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in. signed to carry an equivalent load.
Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum). (3) A heavy-duty tube and coupler
Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
scaffold shall have all posts, runners,
All members except planking are used on edge. and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D.
TABLE D–13—TUBE AND COUPLER steel tubing, with the posts spaced not
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY more than 6 feet apart by 6 feet 6
inches along the length of the scaffold.
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 25 p.s.f. Other structural metals when used
post spacing (longitudinal) ............ 10 ft. 0 in.
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in. must be designed to carry an equiva-
lent load.
Working levels Additional planked Maximum height
(4) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall
levels be limited in heights and working lev-
1 8 125 ft. els to those permitted in tables D–13,
2 4 125 ft. 14, and 15, of this section. Drawings and
3 0 91 ft. 0 in.
specifications of all tube and coupler
scaffolds above the limitations in ta-
TABLE D–14—TUBE AND COUPLER bles D–13, 14, and 15 of this section
SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY shall be designed by a registered pro-
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. fessional engineer and copies made
Post spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in. available to the employer and for in-
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in.
spection purposes.
Additional planked
(5) All tube and coupler scaffolds
Working levels Maximum height shall be constructed and erected to
levels
support four times the maximum in-
1 6 125 ft.
2 0 78 ft. 0 in. tended loads as set forth in tables D–13,
14, and 15 of this section, or as set forth
TABLE D–15—TUBE AND COUPLER in the specifications by a registered
SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY professional engineer, copies which
shall be made available to the em-
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. ployer and for inspection purposes.
Post spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 6 in.
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in. (6) All tube and coupler scaffolds
shall be erected by competent and ex-
Additional planked perienced personnel.
Working levels Maximum height
levels (7) Posts shall be accurately spaced,
1 6 125 ft. erected on suitable bases, and main-
tained plumb.
(c) Tube and coupler scaffolds. (1) A (8) Runners shall be erected along the
light-duty tube and coupler scaffold length of the scaffold located on both
shall have all posts, bearers, runners, the inside and the outside posts at even
and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. height. Runners shall be interlocked to
steel tubing. The posts shall be spaced form continuous lengths and coupled to
no more than 6 feet apart by 10 feet each post. The bottom runners shall be
along the length of the scaffold. Other located as close to the base as possible.
structural metals when used must be Runners shall be placed not more than
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designed to carry an equivalent load. 6 feet 6 inches on centers.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(9) Bearers shall be installed trans- (2) Spacing of panels or frames shall
versely between posts and shall be se- be consistent with the loads imposed.
curely coupled to the posts bearing on (3) Scaffolds shall be properly braced
the runner coupler. When coupled di- by cross bracing or diagonal braces, or
rectly to the runners, the coupler must both, for securing vertical members to-
be kept as close to the posts as pos- gether laterally, and the cross braces
sible. shall be of such length as will auto-
(10) Bearers shall be at least 4 inches matically square and aline vertical
but not more than 12 inches longer members so that the erected scaffold is
than the post spacing or runner spac- always plumb, square, and rigid. All
ing. Bearers may be cantilevered for brace connections shall be made se-
use as brackets to carry not more than cure.
two planks. (4) Scaffold legs shall be set on ad-
(11) Cross bracing shall be installed justable bases or plain bases placed on
across the width of the scaffold at least mud sills or other foundations ade-
every third set of posts horizontally quate to support the maximum in-
and every fourth runner vertically. tended load.
Such bracing shall extend diagonally (5) The frames shall be placed one on
from the inner and outer runners up- top of the other with coupling or stack-
ward to the next outer and inner run- ing pins to provide proper vertical
ners. alinement of the legs.
(12) Longitudinal diagonal bracing
(6) Where uplift may occur, panels
shall be installed at approximately a
shall be locked together vertically by
45-degree angle from near the base of
pins or other equivalent suitable
the first outer post upward to the ex-
means.
treme top of the scaffold. Where the
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
longitudinal length of the scaffold per-
inches or the equivalent and not less
mits, such bracing shall be duplicated
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
beginning at every fifth post. In a simi-
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
lar manner, longitudinal diagonal brac-
1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
ing shall also be installed from the last
toeboards, shall be installed at all open
post extending back and upward to-
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
ward the first post. Where conditions
above the ground or floor. Toeboards
preclude the attachment of this brac-
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
ing to the posts, it may be attached to
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
the runners.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
(13) The entire scaffold shall be tied
this section.
to and securely braced against the
building at intervals not to exceed 30 (8) All tubular metal scaffolds shall
feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically. be constructed and erected to support
(14) Guardrails not less than 2×4 four times the maximum intended
inches or the equivalent and not less loads.
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches (9) To prevent movement, the scaf-
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of fold shall be secured to the building or
1×4-inch lumber or equivalent, and structure at intervals not to exceed 30
toeboards, shall be installed at all open feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet (10) Maximum permissible spans of
above the ground or floor. Toeboards planking shall be in conformity with
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in paragraph (a)(9) of this section.
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in (11) Drawings and specifications for
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of all frame scaffolds over 125 feet in
this section. height above the base plates shall be
(d) Tubular welded frame scaffolds. (1) designed by a registered professional
Metal tubular frame scaffolds, includ- engineer and copies made available to
ing accessories such as braces, brack- the employer and for inspection pur-
ets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., poses.
shall be designed and proved to safely (12) All tubular welded frame scaf-
support four times the maximum in- folds shall be erected by competent and
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tended load. experienced personnel.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(13) Frames and accessories for scaf- building wall. Planking shall be nailed
folds shall be maintained in good re- or bolted to outriggers.
pair and every defect, unsafe condition, (5) Where there is danger of material
or noncompliance with this section falling from the scaffold, a wire mesh
shall be immediately corrected before or other enclosure shall be provided be-
further use of the scaffold. Any broken, tween the guardrail and the toeboard.
bent, excessively rusted, altered, or (6) Where additional working levels
otherwise structurally damaged frames are required to be supported by the
or accessories shall not be used. outrigger method, the plans and speci-
(14) Periodic inspections shall be fications of the outrigger and scaf-
made of all welded frames and acces- folding structure shall be designed by a
sories, and any maintenance, including registered professional engineer.
painting, or minor corrections author- (f) Masons’ adjustable multiple-point
ized by the manufacturer, shall be suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaffold
made before further use. shall be capable of sustaining a work-
(e) Outrigger scaffolds. (1) Outrigger ing load of 50 pounds per square foot
beams shall extend not more than 6 and shall not be loaded in excess of
feet beyond the face of the building. that figure.
The inboard end of outrigger beams, (2) The scaffold shall be provided
measured from the fulcrum point to with hoisting machines that meet the
the extreme point of support, shall be requirements of a nationally recog-
not less than one and one-half times nized testing laboratory. Refer to
the outboard end in length. The beams § 1910.7 for definition of nationally rec-
shall rest on edge, the sides shall be ognized testing laboratory.
plumb, and the edges shall be hori-
zontal. The fulcrum point of the beam TABLE D–16—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND
shall rest on a secure bearing at least MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF OUT-
RIGGER SCAFFOLDS
6 inches in each horizontal dimension.
The beam shall be secured in place Medium
Light duty
against movement and shall be se- duty
curely braced at the fulcrum point Maximum scaffold load ............... 25 p.s.f. ..... 50 p.s.f.
against tipping. Outrigger size ............................. 2×10 in ...... 3×10 in.
(2) The inboard ends of outrigger Maximum outrigger spacing ....... 10 ft 0 in .... 6 ft 0 in.
beams shall be securely supported ei- Planking ...................................... 2×9 in ........ 2×9 in.
Guardrail ..................................... 2×4 in ........ 2×4 in.
ther by means of struts bearing against Guardrail uprights ....................... 2×4 in ........ 2×4 in.
sills in contact with the overhead Toeboards (minimum) ................ 4 in ............ 4 in.
beams or ceiling, or by means of ten-
sion members secured to the floor (3) The platform shall be supported
joists underfoot, or by both if nec- by wire ropes in conformity with para-
essary. The inboard ends of outrigger graph (a)(22) of this section, suspended
beams shall be secured against tipping from overhead outrigger beams.
and the entire supporting structure (4) The scaffold outrigger beams shall
shall be securely braced in both direc- consist of structural metal securely
tions to prevent any horizontal move- fastened or anchored to the frame or
ment. floor system of the building or struc-
(3) Unless outrigger scaffolds are de- ture.
signed by a licensed professional engi- (5) Each outrigger beam shall be
neer, they shall be constructed and equivalent in strength to at least a
erected in accordance with table D–16. standard 7-inch, 15.3-pound steel I-
Outrigger scaffolds designed by a reg- beam, be at least 15 feet long, and shall
istered professional engineer shall be not project more than 6 feet 6 inches
constructed and erected in accordance beyond the bearing point.
with such design. A copy of the de- (6) Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet
tailed drawings and specifications 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be com-
showing the sizes and spacing of mem- posed of stronger beams or multiple
bers shall be kept on the job. beams and be installed in accordance
(4) Planking shall be laid tight and with approved designs and instruc-
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shall extend to within 3 inches of the tions.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(7) If channel iron outrigger beams sional engineer, and supervised by a


are used in place of I-beams, they shall competent, designated person.
be securely fastened together with the (g) Two-point suspension scaffolds
flanges turned out. (swinging scaffolds). (1) Two-point sus-
(8) All outrigger beams shall be set pension scaffold platforms shall be not
and maintained with their webs into less than 20 inches no more than 36
vertical position. inches wide overall. The platform shall
(9) A stop bolt shall be placed at each be securely fastened to the hangers by
end of every outrigger beam. U-bolts or by other equivalent means.
(10) The outrigger beam shall rest on (2) The hangers of two-point suspen-
suitable wood-bearing blocks. sion scaffolds shall be made of wrought
(11) All parts of the scaffold such as iron, mild steel, or other equivalent
bolts, nuts, fittings, clamps, wire rope, material having a cross-sectional area
and outrigger beams and their fas- capable of sustaining four times the
tenings, shall be maintained in sound maximum intended load, and shall be
and good working condition and shall designed with a support for guardrail,
be inspected before each installation intermediate rail, and toeboard.
and periodically thereafter. (3) When hoisting machines are used
(12) The free end of the suspension on two-point suspension scaffolds, such
wire ropes shall be equipped with prop- machines shall be of a design tested
er size thimbles and be secured by and approved by a nationally recog-
splicing or other equivalent means. nized testing laboratory. Refer to
The running ends shall be securely at- § 1910.7 for definition of nationally rec-
tached to the hoisting drum and at ognized testing laboratory.
least four turns of rope shall at all
(4) The roof irons or hooks shall be of
times remain on the drum.
wrought iron, mild steel, or other
(13) Where a single outrigger beam is
equivalent material of proper size and
used, the steel shackles or clevises
design, securely installed and an-
with which the wire ropes are attached
chored. Tie-backs of three-fourth inch
to the outrigger beams shall be placed
manila rope or the equivalent shall
directly over the hoisting drums.
serve as a secondary means of anchor-
(14) The scaffold platform shall be
age, installed at right angles to the
equivalent in strength to at least 2-
face of the building whenever possible
inch planking. (For maximum planking
spans see paragraph (a)(9) of this sec- and secured to a structurally sound
tion.) portion of the building.
(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 (5) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
inches or the equivalent and not less inches or the equivalent and not less
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and 1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
toeboards, shall be installed at all open toeboards, shall be installed at all open
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
above the ground or floor. Toeboards above the ground or floor. Toeboards
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
this section. this section.
(16) Overhead protection shall be pro- (6) Two-point suspension scaffolds
vided on the scaffold, not more than 9 shall be suspended by wire or fiber
feet above the platform, consisting of ropes. Wire and fiber ropes shall con-
2-inch planking or material of equiva- form to paragraph (a)(22) of this sec-
lent strength laid tight, when men are tion.
at work on the scaffold and an over- (7) The blocks for fiber ropes shall be
head hazard exists. of standard 6-inch size, consisting of at
(17) Each scaffold shall be installed least one double and one single block.
or relocated in accordance with designs The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the
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and instructions, of a registered profes- size of rope used.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(8) All wire ropes, fiber ropes, slings, eighth inch. The stringers shall be tied
hangers, platforms, and other sup- together with the tie rods not less than
porting parts shall be inspected before one-quarter inch in diameter, passing
every installation. Periodic inspections through the stringers and riveted up
shall be made while the scaffold is in tight against washers on both ends.
use. The flooring strips shall be spaced not
(9) On suspension scaffolds designed more than five-eighth inch apart ex-
for a working load of 500 pounds no cept at the side rails where the space
more than two men shall be permitted may be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms
to work at one time. On suspension shall be constructed in accordance with
scaffolds with a working load of 750 table D–17.
pounds, no more than three men shall (ii) Plank-type platforms shall be
be permitted to work at one time. Each composed of not less than nominal 2×8-
workman shall be protected by a safety inch unspliced planks, properly cleated
lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The life- together on the underside starting 6
line shall be securely attached to sub-
inches from each end; intervals in be-
stantial members of the structure (not
tween shall not exceed 4 feet. The
scaffold), or to securely rigged lines,
plank-type platform shall not extend
which will safely suspend the workman
beyond the hangers more than 18
in case of a fall.
(10) Where acid solutions are used, inches. A bar or other effective means
fiber ropes are not permitted unless shall be securely fastened to the plat-
acid-proof. form at each end to prevent its slipping
(11) Two-point suspension scaffolds off the hanger. The span between hang-
shall be securely lashed to the building ers for plank-type platforms shall not
or structure to prevent them from exceed 10 feet.
swaying. Window cleaners’ anchors (iii) Beam platforms shall have side
shall not be used for this purpose. stringers of lumber not less than 2×6
(12) The platform of every two-point inches set on edge. The span between
suspension scaffold shall be one of the hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when
following types: beam platforms are used. The flooring
(i) The side stringer of ladder-type shall be supported on 2- and 6-inch
platforms shall be clear straight- crossbeams, laid flat and set into the
grained spruce or materials of equiva- upper edge of the stringers with a snug
lent strength and durability. The rungs fit, at intervals of not more than 4 feet,
shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or securely nailed in place. The flooring
hickory, at least 11⁄8 inch in diameter, shall be of 1×6inch material properly
with seven-eighth inch tenons mortised nailed. Floorboards shall not be spaced
into the side stringers at least seven- more than one-half inch apart.
TABLE D–17—SCHEDULE FOR LADDER-TYPE PLATFORMS
Length of platform (feet)

12 14 & 16 18 & 20 22 & 24 28 & 30

Side stringers, minimum cross section (finished sizes):


At ends (in.) ...................................................................... 13⁄4×23⁄4 13⁄4×23⁄4 13⁄4×3 13⁄4×3 13⁄4×31⁄2
At middle (in.) ................................................................... 13⁄4×33⁄4 13⁄4×33⁄4 13⁄4×4 13⁄4×41⁄4 13⁄4×5
Reinforcing strip (minimum) 1 ................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................
Rungs 2 ..................................................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................
Tie rods:
Number (minimum) ........................................................... 3 4 4 5 6
Diameter (minimum) ......................................................... 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in 14 ⁄ in 1⁄4 in.

Flooring, minimum finished size (in.) ....................................... 12⁄ ×23⁄4 12⁄ ×23⁄4 12⁄ ×23⁄4 ⁄ × ⁄
12 34 12⁄ ×23⁄4
1 A 1⁄8x7⁄8-in. steel reinforcing strip or its equivalent shall be attached to the side or underside full length.
2 Rungs shall be 11⁄8-in. minimum, diameter with at least 7⁄8-in. diameter tenons, and the maximum spacing shall be 12 in. cen-
ter to center.

(h) Stone setters’ adjustable multiple- working load of 25 pounds per square
point suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaf-
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

foot and shall not be overloaded. Scaf- power units or manually operated
folds shall not be used for storage of winches, shall be a type tested and list-
stone or other heavy materials. ed by a nationally recognized testing
(2) The hoisting machine and its sup- laboratory. Refer to § 1910.399(a)(77) for
ports shall be of a type tested and list- definition of listed, and § 1910.7 for na-
ed by a nationally recognized testing tionally recognized testing laboratory.
laboratory. Refer to § 1910.399(a)(77) for (2) [Reserved]
definition of listed, and § 1910.7 for na- (3) All power-operated gears and
tionally recognized testing laboratory. brakes shall be enclosed.
(3) The platform shall be securely fas-
(4) In addition to the normal oper-
tened to the hangers by U-bolts or
other equivalent means. ating brake, all-power driven units
(4) The scaffold unit shall be sus- must have an emergency brake which
pended from metal outriggers, iron engages automatically when the nor-
brackets, wire rope slings, or iron mal speed of descent is exceeded.
hooks which will safely support the (5) Guards, mid-rails, and toeboards
maximum intended load. shall completely enclose the cage or
(5) Outriggers when used shall be set basket. Guardrails shall be no less than
with their webs in a vertical position, 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent in-
securely anchored to the building or stalled no less than 36 inches nor more
structure and provided with stop bolts than 42 inches above the platform. Mid-
at each end. rails shall be 1 by 6 inches or the equiv-
(6) The scaffold shall be supported by alent, installed equidistant between
wire rope conforming with paragraph the guardrail and the platform.
(a)(22) of this section, suspended from Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4
overhead supports. inches in height.
(7) The free ends of the suspension (6) The hoisting machines, cables,
wire ropes shall be equipped with prop- and equipment shall be regularly serv-
er size thimbles, secured by splicing or iced and inspected after each installa-
other equivalent means. The running
tion and every 30 days thereafter.
ends shall be securely attached to the
hoisting drum and at least four turns (7) The units may be combined to
of rope shall remain on the drum at all form a two-point suspension scaffold.
times. Such scaffold shall comply with para-
(8) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 graph (g) of this section.
inches or the equivalent and not less (8) The supporting cable shall be
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches straight for its entire length, and the
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of operator shall not sway the basket and
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and fix the cable to any intermediate
toeboards, shall be installed at all open points to change his original path of
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet travel.
above the ground or floor. Toeboards (9) Equipment shall be maintained
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in and used in accordance with the manu-
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in facturers’ instructions.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of (10) Suspension methods shall con-
this section. form to applicable provisions of para-
(9) When two or more scaffolds are graphs (f) and (g) of this section.
used on a building or structure they (j) Boatswain’s chairs. (1) The chair
shall not be bridged one to the other
seat shall be not less than 12 by 24
but shall be maintained at even height
inches, and of 1-inch thickness. The
with platforms butting closely.
(10) Each scaffold shall be installed seat shall be reinforced on the under-
or relocated in accordance with designs side to prevent the board from split-
and instructions of a registered profes- ting.
sional engineer, and such installation (2) The two fiber rope seat slings
or relocation shall be supervised by a shall be of 5⁄8-inch diameter, reeved
competent designated person. through the four seat holes so as to
(i) Single-point adjustable suspension cross each other on the underside of
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scaffolds. (1) The scaffolding, including the seat.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(3) Seat slings shall be of at least 3⁄8- height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
inch wire rope when a workman is con- accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
ducting a heat producing process such this section.
as gas or arc welding. (l) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds. (1) The
(4) The workman shall be protected squares shall not exceed 5 feet in width
by a safety life belt attached to a life- and 5 feet in height.
line. The lifeline shall be securely at- (2) Members shall be not less than
tached to substantial members of the those specified in Table D–18.
structure (not scaffold), or to securely (3) The squares shall be reinforced on
rigged lines, which will safely suspend both sides of each corner with 1- by 6-
the worker in case of a fall. inch gusset pieces. They shall also have
(5) The tackle shall consist of correct braces 1 by 8 inches on both sides run-
size ball bearing or bushed blocks and ning from center to center of each
properly spliced 5⁄8-inch diameter first- member, or other means to secure
grade manila rope. equivalent strength and rigidity.
(6) The roof irons, hooks, or the ob- (4) The squares shall be set not more
ject to which the tackle is anchored than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaf-
shall be securely installed. Tiebacks folds, and not more than 8 feet apart
when used shall be installed at right for light duty scaffolds. Bracing 1×8
angles to the face of the building and inches, extending from the bottom of
securely fastened to a chimney. each square to the top of the next
(k) Carpenters’ bracket scaffolds. (1) square, shall be provided on both front
The brackets shall consist of a tri- and rear sides of the scaffold.
angular wood frame not less than 2 by
TABLE D–18—MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR
3 inches in cross section, or of metal of
BRICKLAYERS’ SQUARE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS
equivalent strength. Each member
shall be properly fitted and securely Members Dimensions
joined. (inches)
(2) Each bracket shall be attached to Bearers or horizontal members ....................... 2 by 6.
the structure by means of one of the Legs ................................................................. 2 by 6.
following: Braces at corners ............................................. 1 by 6.
Braces diagonally from center frame ............... 1 by 8.
(i) A bolt no less than five-eighths
inch in diameter which shall extend (5) Platform planks shall be at least
through the inside of the building wall. 2- by 9-inch nominal size. The ends of
(ii) A metal stud attachment device. the planks shall overlap the bearers of
(iii) Welding to steel tanks. the squares and each plank shall be
(iv) Hooking over a well-secured and supported by not less than three
adequately strong supporting member. squares.
The brackets shall be spaced no more (6) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds shall
than 10 feet apart. not exceed three tiers in height and
(3) No more than two persons shall shall be so constructed and arranged
occupy any given 10 feet of a bracket that one square shall rest directly
scaffold at any one time. Tools and ma- above the other. The upper tiers shall
terials shall not exceed 75 pounds in ad- stand on a continuous row of planks
dition to the occupancy. laid across the next lower tier and be
(4) The platform shall consist of not nailed down or otherwise secured to
less than two 2- by 9-inch nominal size prevent displacement.
planks extending not more than 18 (7) Scaffolds shall be level and set
inches or less than 6 inches beyond upon a firm foundation.
each end support. (m) Horse scaffolds. (1) Horse scaffolds
(5) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 shall not be constructed or arranged
inches or the equivalent and not less more than two tiers or 10 feet in
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches height.
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of (2) The members of the horses shall
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and be not less than those specified in
toeboards, shall be installed at all open Table D–19.
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet (3) Horses shall be spaced not more
above the ground or floor. Toeboards than 5 feet for medium duty and not
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shall be a minimum of 4 inches in more than 8 feet for light duty.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(4) When arranged in tiers, each horse shall be designed based on design re-
shall be placed directly over the horse quirements for the special span. The
in the tier below. overhang of each end of the platform
(5) On all scaffolds arranged in tiers, planks shall be not less than 1 foot and
the legs shall be nailed down to the not more than 18 inches.
planks to prevent displacement or (5) When one needle beam is higher
thrust and each tier shall be substan- than the other or when the platform is
tially cross braced. not level the platform shall be secured
against slipping.
TABLE D–19—MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR
(6) All unattached tools, bolts, and
HORSE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS
nuts used on needle beam scaffolds
Members Dimensions shall be kept in suitable containers.
(inches)
(7) One end of a needle beam scaffold
Horizontal members or bearers ....................... 3 by 4. may be supported by a permanent
Legs ................................................................. 11⁄4 by 41⁄2. structural member conforming to para-
Longitudinal brace between legs ..................... 1 by 6.
Gusset brace at top of legs ............................. 1 by 8. graphs (a) (4) and (8) of this section.
Half diagonal braces ........................................ 11⁄4 by 41⁄2. (8) Each man working on a needle
beam scaffold 20 feet or more above the
(6) Horses or parts which have be- ground or floor and working with both
come weak or defective shall not be hands, shall be protected by a safety
used. life belt attached to a lifeline. The life-
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 line shall be securely attached to sub-
inches or the equivalent and not less stantial members of the structure (not
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches scaffold), or to securely rigged lines,
high with a mid-rail, when required, of which will safely suspend the workman
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent and in case of a fall.
toeboards, shall be installed at all open (o) Plasterers’, decorators’, and large
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet area scaffolds. (1) Plasterers’, decora-
above the ground or floor. Toeboards tors’, lathers’, and ceiling workers’ in-
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in side scaffolds shall be constructed in
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with the general require-
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of ments set forth for independent wood
this section. pole scaffolds.
(n) Needle beam scaffold. (1) Wood nee-
(2) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4
dle beams shall be in accordance with
inches or the equivalent and not less
paragraph (a) (5) and (9) of this section,
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
and shall be not less than 4 by 6 inches
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
in size, with the greater dimension
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
placed in a vertical direction. Metal
toeboards, shall be installed at all open
beams or the equivalent conforming to
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
paragraph (a) (4) and (8) of this section
above the ground or floor. Toeboards
may be used.
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
(2) Ropes or hangers shall be provided
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
for supports. The span between sup-
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
ports on the needle beam shall not ex-
this section.
ceed 10 feet for 4- by 6-inch timbers.
Rope supports shall be equivalent in (3) All platform planks shall be laid
strength to 1-inch diameter first-grade with the edges close together.
manila rope. (4) When independent pole scaffold
(3) The ropes shall be attached to the platforms are erected in sections, such
needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a sections shall be provided with con-
properly made eye splice. The loose end necting runways equipped with sub-
of the rope shall be tied by a bowline stantial guardrails.
knot or by a round turn and one-half (p) Interior hung scaffolds.
hitch. (1) [Reserved]
(4) The platform span between the (2) The suspended steel wire rope
needle beams shall not exceed 8 feet shall conform to paragraph (a)(22) of
when using 2-inch scaffold plank. For this section. Wire may be used pro-
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spans greater than 8 feet, platforms viding the strength requirements of

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

paragraph (a)(22) of this section are tened, held, or equipped with devices so
met. as to prevent slipping.
(3) For hanging wood scaffolds, the (5) The wood platform planks shall be
following minimum nominal size mate- not less than 2 inches nominal in
rial is recommended: thickness. Both metal and wood plat-
(i) Supporting bearers 2 by 9 inches form planks shall overlap the bearing
on edge. surface not less than 12 inches. The
(ii) Planking 2 by 9 inches or 2 by 10 span between supports for wood shall
inches, with maximum span 7 feet for not exceed 8 feet. Platform width shall
heavy duty and 10 feet for light duty or be not less than 18 inches.
medium duty. (6) Not more than two persons shall
(4) Steel tube and coupler members occupy any given 8 feet of any ladder-
may be used for hanging scaffolds with jack scaffold at any one time.
both types of scaffold designed to sus- (r) Window-jack scaffolds. (1) Window-
tain a uniform distributed working jack scaffolds shall be used only for the
load up to heavy duty scaffold loads purpose of working at the window
with a safety factor of four. opening through which the jack is
placed.
(5) When a hanging scaffold is sup-
(2) Window jacks shall not be used to
ported by means of wire rope, such wire
support planks placed between one win-
rope shall be wrapped at least twice
dow jack and another or for other ele-
around the supporting members and
ments of scaffolding.
twice around the bearers of the scaf-
(3) Window-jack scaffolds shall be
fold, with each end of the wire rope se-
provided with suitable guardrails un-
cured by at least three standard wire-
less safety belts with lifelines are at-
rope clips.
tached and provided for the workman.
(6) All overhead supporting members Window-jack scaffolds shall be used by
shall be inspected and checked for one man only.
strength before the scaffold is erected. (s) Roofing brackets. (1) Roofing
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 brackets shall be constructed to fit the
inches or the equivalent and not less pitch of the roof.
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches (2) Brackets shall be secured in place
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of by nailing in addition to the pointed
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and metal projections. The nails shall be
toeboards, shall be installed at all open driven full length into the roof. When
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet rope supports are used, they shall con-
above the ground or floor. Toeboards sist of first-grade manila of at least
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in three-quarter-inch diameter, or equiva-
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in lent.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of (3) A substantial catch platform shall
this section. be installed below the working area of
(q) Ladder-jack scaffolds. (1) All lad- roofs more than 20 feet from the
der-jack scaffolds shall be limited to ground to eaves with a slope greater
light duty and shall not exceed a than 3 inches in 12 inches without a
height of 20 feet above the floor or parapet. In width the platform shall ex-
ground. tend 2 feet beyond the projection of the
(2) All ladders used in connection eaves and shall be provided with a safe-
with ladder-jack scaffolds shall be ty rail, mid-rail, and toeboard. This
heavy-duty ladders and shall be de- provision shall not apply where em-
signed and constructed in accordance ployees engaged in work upon such
with § 1910.25 and § 1910.26. roofs are protected by a safety belt at-
(3) The ladder jack shall be so de- tached to a lifeline.
signed and constructed that it will bear (t) Crawling boards or chicken ladders.
on the side rails in addition to the lad- (1) Crawling boards shall be not less
der rungs, or if bearing on rungs only, than 10 inches wide and 1 inch thick,
the bearing area shall be at least 10 having cleats 1×11⁄2 inches. The cleats
inches on each rung. shall be equal in length to the width of
(4) Ladders used in conjunction with the board and spaced at equal intervals
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ladder jacks shall be so placed, fas- not to exceed 24 inches. Nails shall be

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.29

driven through and clinched on the un- rigged lines, which will safely suspend
derside. The crawling board shall ex- the workman in case of a fall.
tend from the ridge pole to the eaves (v) Scope. This section establishes
when used in connection with roof con- safety requirements for the construc-
struction, repair, or maintenance. tion, operation, maintenance, and use
(2) A firmly fastened lifeline of at of scaffolds used in the maintenance of
least three-quarter-inch rope shall be buildings and structures.
strung beside each crawling board for a [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
handhold. FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
(3) Crawling boards shall be secured 1984; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988]
to the roof by means of adequate ridge
hooks or equivalent effective means. § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile
(u) Float or ship scaffolds. (1) Float or ladder stands and scaffolds (tow-
ship scaffolds shall support not more ers).
than three men and a few light tools, (a) General requirements—(1) Applica-
such as those needed for riveting, bolt- tion. This section is intended to pre-
ing, and welding. They shall be con- scribe rules and requirements for the
structed in accordance with paragraphs design, construction, and use of mobile
(u) (2) through (6) of this section, un- work platforms (including ladder
less substitute designs and materials stands but not including aerial ladders)
provide equivalent strength, stability, and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers).
and safety. This standard is promulgated to aid in
(2) The platform shall be not less providing for the safety of life, limb,
than 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, made and property, by establishing minimum
of three-quarter-inch plywood, equiva- standards for structural design require-
lent to American Plywood Association ments and for the use of mobile work
Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior. platforms and towers.
(3) Under the platform, there shall be (2) Working loads. (i) Work platforms
two supporting bearers made from 2×4- and scaffolds shall be capable of car-
inch, or 1×10-inch rough, selected lum- rying the design load under varying
ber, or better. They shall be free of circumstances depending upon the con-
knots or other flaws and project 6 ditions of use. Therefore, all parts and
inches beyond the platform on both appurtenances necessary for their safe
sides. The ends of the platform shall and efficient utilization must be inte-
extend about 6 inches beyond the outer gral parts of the design.
edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall (ii) Specific design and construction
be securely fastened to the platform. requirements are not a part of this sec-
(4) An edging of wood not less than tion because of the wide variety of ma-
3⁄4×11⁄2 inches, or equivalent, shall be
terials and design possibilities. How-
placed around all sides of the platform ever, the design shall be such as to
to prevent tools from rolling off. produce a mobile ladder stand or scaf-
(5) Supporting ropes shall be 1-inch fold that will safely sustain the speci-
diameter manila rope or equivalent, fied loads. The material selected shall
free from deterioration, chemical dam- be of sufficient strength to meet the
age, flaws, or other imperfections. test requirements and shall be pro-
Rope connections shall be such that tected against corrosion or deteriora-
the platform cannot shift or slip. If two tion.
ropes are used with each float, each of (a) The design working load of ladder
the two supporting ropes shall be stands shall be calculated on the basis
hitched around one end of a bearer and of one or more 200-pound persons to-
pass under the platforms to the other gether with 50 pounds of equipment
end of the bearer where it is hitched each.
again, leaving sufficient rope at each (b) The design load of all scaffolds
end for the supporting ties. shall be calculated on the basis of:
(6) Each workman shall be protected
Light—Designed and constructed to carry a
by a safety lifebelt attached to a life- working load of 25 pounds per square foot.
line. The lifeline shall be securely at- Medium—Designed and constructed to carry
tached to substantial members of the a working load of 50 pounds per square
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structure (not scaffold), or to securely foot.

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§ 1910.29 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
Heavy—Designed and constructed to carry a have a standard (4-inch nominal)
working load of 75 pounds per square foot. toeboard.
All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be (vii) All work levels 10 feet or higher
capable of supporting at least four above the ground or floor shall have a
times the design working load. guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the
(iii) The materials used in mobile equivalent installed no less than 36
ladder stands and scaffolds shall be of inches or more than 42 inches high,
standard manufacture and conform to with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by
standard specifications of strength, di- 4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.
mensions, and weights, and shall be se- (viii) A climbing ladder or stairway
lected to safely support the design shall be provided for proper access and
working load. egress, and shall be affixed or built into
(iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners the scaffold and so located that its use
used in the construction of ladders, will not have a tendency to tip the
scaffolds, and towers shall be of ade- scaffold. A landing platform shall be
quate size and in sufficient numbers at provided at intervals not to exceed 30
each connection to develop the de- feet.
signed strength of the unit. Nails shall (4) Wheels or casters. (i) Wheels or
be driven full length. (All nails should casters shall be properly designed for
be immediately withdrawn from dis- strength and dimensions to support
mantled lumber.) four (4) times the design working load.
(v) All exposed surfaces shall be free
(ii) All scaffold casters shall be pro-
from sharp edges, burrs or other safety
vided with a positive wheel and/or
hazards.
swivel lock to prevent movement. Lad-
(3) Work levels. (i) The maximum
der stands shall have at least two (2) of
work level height shall not exceed four
(4) times the minimum or least base di- the four (4) casters and shall be of the
mensions of any mobile ladder stand or swivel type.
scaffold. Where the basic mobile unit (iii) Where leveling of the elevated
does not meet this requirement, suit- work platform is required, screw jacks
able outrigger frames shall be em- or other suitable means for adjusting
ployed to achieve this least base di- the height shall be provided in the base
mension, or provisions shall be made to section of each mobile unit.
guy or brace the unit against tipping. (b) Mobile tubular welded frame scaf-
(ii) The minimum platform width for folds—(1) General. Units shall be de-
any work level shall not be less than 20 signed to comply with the require-
inches for mobile scaffolds (towers). ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
Ladder stands shall have a minimum (2) Bracing. Scaffolds shall be prop-
step width of 16 inches. erly braced by cross braces and/or di-
(iii) The supporting structure for the agonal braces for securing vertical
work level shall be rigidly braced, members together laterally. The cross
using adequate cross bracing or diago- braces shall be of a length that will
nal bracing with rigid platforms at automatically square and align
each work level. vertical members so the erected scaf-
(iv) The steps of ladder stands shall fold is always plumb, square, and rigid.
be fabricated from slip resistant treads. (3) Spacing. Spacing of panels or
(v) The work level platform of scaf- frames shall be consistent with the
folds (towers) shall be of wood, alu-
loads imposed. The frames shall be
minum, or plywood planking, steel or
placed one on top of the other with
expanded metal, for the full width of
coupling or stacking pins to provide
the scaffold, except for necessary open-
ings. Work platforms shall be secured proper vertical alignment of the legs.
in place. All planking shall be 2-inch (4) Locking. Where uplift may occur,
(nominal) scaffold grade minimum 1,500 panels shall be locked together
f. (stress grade) construction grade vertically by pins or other equivalent
lumber or equivalent. means.
(vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet or (5) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.29

agent shall be permitted to erect or su- shall be designed so that the horizontal
pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed- bearers provide supports for multiple
ing 50 feet in height above the base, un- planking levels.
less such structure is approved in writ- (7) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
ing by a registered professional engi- the scaffold or his qualified designated
neer, or erected in accordance with in- agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
structions furnished by the manufac- pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
turer. ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
(c) Mobile tubular welded sectional less such structure is approved in writ-
folding scaffolds—(1) General. Units in- ing by a licensed professional engineer,
cluding sectional stairway and sec- or erected in accordance with instruc-
tional ladder scaffolds shall be de- tions furnished by the manufacturer.
signed to comply with the require- (d) Mobile tube and coupler scaffolds—
ments of paragraph (a) of this section. (1) Design. Units shall be designed to
(2) Stairway. An integral stairway comply with the applicable require-
and work platform shall be incor- ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
porated into the structure of each sec- (2) Material. The material used for
tional folding stairway scaffold. the couplers shall be of a structural
(3) Bracing. An integral set of piv- type, such as a drop-forged steel, mal-
oting and hinged folding diagonal and leable iron or structural grade alu-
horizontal braces and a detachable minum. The use of gray cast iron is
work platform shall be incorporated prohibited.
into the structure of each sectional (3) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
folding ladder scaffold. the scaffold or his qualified designated
(4) Sectional folding stairway scaffolds. agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
Sectional folding stairway scaffolds pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
shall be designed as medium duty scaf- ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
folds except for high clearance. These less such structure is approved in writ-
special base sections shall be designed ing by a licensed professional engineer,
as light duty scaffolds. When upper sec- or erected in accordance with instruc-
tional folding stairway scaffolds are tions furnished by the manufacturer.
used with a special high clearance base, (e) Mobile work platforms—(1) Design.
the load capacity of the entire scaffold Units shall be designed for the use in-
shall be reduced accordingly. The tended and shall comply with the re-
width of a sectional folding stairway quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
scaffold shall not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The tion.
maximum length of a sectional folding (2) Base width. The minimum width of
stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6 the base of mobile work platforms shall
feet. not be less than 20 inches.
(5) Sectional folding ladder scaffolds. (3) Bracing. Adequate rigid diagonal
Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall bracing to vertical members shall be
be designed as light duty scaffolds in- provided.
cluding special base (open end) sections (f) Mobile ladder stands—(1) Design.
which are designed for high clearance. Units shall comply with applicable re-
For certain special applications the quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
six-foot (6′) folding ladder scaffolds, ex- tion.
cept for special high clearance base (2) Base width. The minimum base
sections, shall be designed for use as width shall conform to paragraph
medium duty scaffolds. The width of a (a)(3)(i) of this section. The maximum
sectional folding ladder scaffold shall length of the base section shall be the
not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The maximum total length of combined steps and top
length of a sectional folding ladder assembly, measured horizontally, plus
scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet 6 inches five-eighths inch per step of rise.
for a six-foot (6′) long unit, 8 feet 6 (3) Steps. Steps shall be uniformly
inches for an eight-foot (8′) unit or 10 spaced, and sloped, with a rise of not
feet 6 inches for a ten-foot (10′) long less than nine (9) inches, nor more than
unit. ten (10) inches, and a depth of not less
(6) End frames. The end frames of sec- seven (7) inches. The slope of the steps
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tional ladder and stairway scaffolds section shall be a minimum of fifty-

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§ 1910.30 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

five (55) degrees and a maximum of (3) Wood platforms used on the floor
sixty (60) degrees measured from the in front of machines shall be substan-
horizontal. tially constructed.
(4) Handrails. (i) Units having more (c) Veneer machinery. (1) Sides of
than five (5) steps or 60 inches vertical steam vats shall extend to a height of
height to the top step shall be equipped not less than 36 inches above the floor,
with handrails. working platform, or ground.
(ii) Handrails shall be a minimum of (2) Large steam vats divided into sec-
29 inches high. Measurements shall be tions shall be provided with substantial
taken vertically from the center of the walkways between sections. Each
step. walkway shall be provided with a
(5) Loading. The load (see paragraph standard handrail on each exposed side.
(a)(2)(ii)(a) of this section) shall be ap- These handrails may be removable, if
plied uniformly to a 31⁄2 inches wide necessary.
area front to back at the center of the (3) Covers shall be removed only from
width span with a safety factor of four that portion of steaming vats on which
(4). men are working and a portable railing
shall be placed at this point to protect
§ 1910.30 Other working surfaces. the operators.
(a) Dockboards (bridge plates). (1) Port- (4) Workmen shall not ride or step on
able and powered dockboards shall be logs in steam vats.
strong enough to carry the load im- [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49
posed on them. FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]
(2) Portable dockboards shall be se-
cured in position, either by being an- Subpart E—Means of Egress
chored or equipped with devices which
will prevent their slipping.
AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational Safe-
(3) Powered dockboards shall be de-
ty and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655,
signed and constructed in accordance 657); Secretary of Labor’s Order Nos. 12–71 (36
with Commercial Standard CS202–56 FR 8754), (8–76 41 FR 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736)
(1961) ‘‘Industrial Lifts and Hinged or 1–90 (55 FR 9033), 6–96 (62 FR 111), or 3–2000
Loading Ramps published by the U.S. (65 FR 50017), as applicable.
Department of Commerce, which is in-
corporated by reference as specified in § 1910.33 Table of contents.
§ 1910.6. This section lists the sections and
(4) Handholds, or other effective paragraph headings contained in
means, shall be provided on portable §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39.
dockboards to permit safe handling.
(5) Positive protection shall be pro- § 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.
vided to prevent railroad cars from
(a) Every employer is covered.
being moved while dockboards or
(b) Exit routes are covered.
bridge plates are in position.
(c) Definitions.
(b) Forging machine area. (1) Machines
shall be so located as to give (i) enough § 1910.35 Compliance with NFPA 101–2000, Life
clearance between machines so that Safety Code.
the movement of one operator will not
§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements
interfere with the work of another, (ii) for exit routes.
ample room for cleaning machines and
handling the work, including material (a) Basic requirements.
and scrap. The arrangement of ma- (b) The number of exit routes must be ade-
chines shall be such that operators will quate.
(c) Exit discharge.
not stand in aisles.
(d) An exit door must be unlocked.
(2) Aisles shall be provided of suffi- (e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.
cient width to permit the free move- (f) The capacity of an exit route must be ade-
ment of employees bringing and remov- quate.
ing material. This aisle space is to be (g) An exit route must meet minimum height
independent of working and storage and width requirements.
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.34
§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and leads from the fifth floor of an office
operational features for exit routes. building to the outside of the building.
(a) The danger to employees must be mini- Exit access means that portion of an
mized. exit route that leads to an exit. An ex-
(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate ample of an exit access is a corridor on
and appropriate. the fifth floor of an office building that
(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or leads to a two-hour fire resistance-
solutions must be maintained. rated enclosed stairway (the Exit).
(d) Exit routes must be maintained during
Exit discharge means the part of the
construction, repairs, or alterations.
(e) An employee alarm system must be oper-
exit route that leads directly outside
able. or to a street, walkway, refuge area,
public way, or open space with access
§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans. to the outside. An example of an exit
(a) Application. discharge is a door at the bottom of a
(b) Written and oral emergency action plans. two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed
(c) Minimum elements of an emergency ac- stairway that discharges to a place of
tion plan. safety outside the building.
(d) Employee alarm system. Exit route means a continuous and
(e) Training. unobstructed path of exit travel from
(f) Review of emergency action plan. any point within a workplace to a
§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans. place of safety (including refuge areas).
An exit route consists of three parts:
(a) Application. The exit access; the exit; and, the exit
(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans. discharge. (An exit route includes all
(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention
plan.
vertical and horizontal areas along the
(d) Employee information. route.)
High hazard area means an area in-
[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002] side a workplace in which operations
include high hazard materials, proc-
§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.
esses, or contents.
(a) Every employer is covered. Sections Occupant load means the total num-
1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to work- ber of persons that may occupy a work-
places in general industry except mo- place or portion of a workplace at any
bile workplaces such as vehicles or ves- one time. The occupant load of a work-
sels. place is calculated by dividing the
(b) Exits routes are covered. The rules gross floor area of the workplace or
in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39 cover the portion of a workplace by the occupant
minimum requirements for exit routes load factor for that particular type of
that employers must provide in their workplace occupancy. Information re-
workplace so that employees may garding ‘‘Occupant load’’ is located in
evacuate the workplace safely during NFPA 101–2000, Life Safety Code.
an emergency. Sections 1910.34 through Refuge area means either:
1910.39 also cover the minimum re- (1) A space along an exit route that is
quirements for emergency action plans protected from the effects of fire by
and fire prevention plans. separation from other spaces within
(c) Definitions. the building by a barrier with at least
Electroluminescent means a light- a one-hour fire resistance-rating; or
emitting capacitor. Alternating cur- (2) A floor with at least two spaces,
rent excites phosphor atoms when separated from each other by smoke-
placed between the electrically conduc- resistant partitions, in a building pro-
tive surfaces to produce light. This tected throughout by an automatic
light source is typically contained in- sprinkler system that complies with
side the device. § 1910.159 of this part.
Exit means that portion of an exit Self-luminous means a light source
route that is generally separated from that is illuminated by a self-contained
other areas to provide a protected way power source (e.g., tritium) and that
of travel to the exit discharge. An ex- operates independently from external
ample of an exit is a two-hour fire re- power sources. Batteries are not ac-
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sistance-rated enclosed stairway that ceptable self-contained power sources.

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§ 1910.35 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

The light source is typically contained can evacuate using the second exit
inside the device. route.
[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]
(2) More than two exit routes. More
than two exit routes must be available
§ 1910.35 Compliance with NFPA 101– in a workplace if the number of em-
2000, Life Safety Code. ployees, the size of the building, its oc-
An employer who demonstrates com- cupancy, or the arrangement of the
pliance with the exit route provisions workplace is such that all employees
of NFPA 101–2000, the Life Safety Code, would not be able to evacuate safely
will be deemed to be in compliance during an emergency.
with the corresponding requirements in (3) A single exit route. A single exit
§§ 1910.34, 1910.36, and 1910.37. route is permitted where the number of
employees, the size of the building, its
[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002] occupancy, or the arrangement of the
workplace is such that all employees
§ 1910.36 Design and construction re- would be able to evacuate safely during
quirements for exit routes.
an emergency.
(a) Basic requirements. Exit routes
must meet the following design and NOTE TO PARAGRAPH 1910.36(b): For assist-
ance in determining the number of exit
construction requirements: routes necessary for your workplace, consult
(1) An exit route must be permanent. NFPA 101–2000, Life Safety Code.
Each exit route must be a permanent
part of the workplace. (c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit dis-
(2) An exit must be separated by fire re- charge must lead directly outside or to
sistant materials. Construction mate- a street, walkway, refuge area, public
rials used to separate an exit from way, or open space with access to the
other parts of the workplace must have outside.
a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the (2) The street, walkway, refuge area,
exit connects three or fewer stories and public way, or open space to which an
a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit discharge leads must be large
exit connects four or more stories. enough to accommodate the building
(3) Openings into an exit must be lim- occupants likely to use the exit route.
ited. An exit is permitted to have only (3) Exit stairs that continue beyond
those openings necessary to allow ac- the level on which the exit discharge is
cess to the exit from occupied areas of located must be interrupted at that
the workplace, or to the exit discharge. level by doors, partitions, or other ef-
An opening into an exit must be pro- fective means that clearly indicate the
tected by a self-closing fire door that direction of travel leading to the exit
remains closed or automatically closes discharge.
in an emergency upon the sounding of (d) An exit door must be unlocked. (1)
a fire alarm or employee alarm system. Employees must be able to open an exit
Each fire door, including its frame and route door from the inside at all times
hardware, must be listed or approved without keys, tools, or special knowl-
by a nationally recognized testing lab- edge. A device such as a panic bar that
oratory. Section 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) of locks only from the outside is per-
this part defines ‘‘listed’’ and § 1910.7 of mitted on exit discharge doors.
this part defines a ‘‘nationally recog- (2) Exit route doors must be free of
nized testing laboratory.’’ any device or alarm that could restrict
(b) The number of exit routes must be emergency use of the exit route if the
adequate—(1) Two exit routes. At least device or alarm fails.
two exit routes must be available in a (3) An exit route door may be locked
workplace to permit prompt evacu- from the inside only in mental, penal,
ation of employees and other building or correctional facilities and then only
occupants during an emergency, except if supervisory personnel are continu-
as allowed in paragraph (b)(3) of this ously on duty and the employer has a
section. The exit routes must be lo- plan to remove occupants from the fa-
cated as far away as practical from cility during an emergency.
each other so that if one exit route is (e) A side-hinged exit door must be
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.37

used to connect any room to an exit solid, substantially level walkways;


route. and
(2) The door that connects any room (4) The outdoor exit route must not
to an exit route must swing out in the have a dead-end that is longer than 20
direction of exit travel if the room is feet (6.2 m).
designed to be occupied by more than [67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]
50 people or if the room is a high haz-
ard area (i.e., contains contents that § 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and
are likely to burn with extreme rapid- operational features for exit routes.
ity or explode). (a) The danger to employees must be
(f) The capacity of an exit route must be minimized. (1) Exit routes must be kept
adequate. (1) Exit routes must support free of explosive or highly flammable
the maximum permitted occupant load furnishings or other decorations.
for each floor served. (2) Exit routes must be arranged so
(2) The capacity of an exit route may that employees will not have to travel
not decrease in the direction of exit toward a high hazard area, unless the
route travel to the exit discharge. path of travel is effectively shielded
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH 1910.36(f): Information from the high hazard area by suitable
regarding ‘‘Occupant load’’ is located in partitions or other physical barriers.
NFPA 101–2000, Life Safety Code. (3) Exit routes must be free and unob-
structed. No materials or equipment
(g) An exit route must meet minimum may be placed, either permanently or
height and width requirements. (1) The temporarily, within the exit route. The
ceiling of an exit route must be at least exit access must not go through a room
seven feet six inches (2.3 m) high. Any that can be locked, such as a bath-
projection from the ceiling must not room, to reach an exit or exit dis-
reach a point less than six feet eight charge, nor may it lead into a dead-end
inches (2.0 m) from the floor. corridor. Stairs or a ramp must be pro-
(2) An exit access must be at least 28 vided where the exit route is not sub-
inches (71.1 cm) wide at all points. stantially level.
Where there is only one exit access (4) Safeguards designed to protect
leading to an exit or exit discharge, the employees during an emergency (e.g.,
width of the exit and exit discharge sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire
must be at least equal to the width of doors, exit lighting) must be in proper
the exit access. working order at all times.
(3) The width of an exit route must (b) Lighting and marking must be ade-
be sufficient to accommodate the max- quate and appropriate. (1) Each exit
imum permitted occupant load of each route must be adequately lighted so
floor served by the exit route. that an employee with normal vision
(4) Objects that project into the exit can see along the exit route.
route must not reduce the width of the (2) Each exit must be clearly visible
exit route to less than the minimum and marked by a sign reading ‘‘Exit.’’
width requirements for exit routes. (3) Each exit route door must be free
(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted. of decorations or signs that obscure the
Each outdoor exit route must meet the visibility of the exit route door.
minimum height and width require- (4) If the direction of travel to the
ments for indoor exit routes and must exit or exit discharge is not imme-
also meet the following requirements: diately apparent, signs must be posted
(1) The outdoor exit route must have along the exit access indicating the di-
guardrails to protect unenclosed sides rection of travel to the nearest exit
if a fall hazard exists; and exit discharge. Additionally, the
(2) The outdoor exit route must be line-of-sight to an exit sign must clear-
covered if snow or ice is likely to accu- ly be visible at all times.
mulate along the route, unless the em- (5) Each doorway or passage along an
ployer can demonstrate that any snow exit access that could be mistaken for
or ice accumulation will be removed an exit must be marked ‘‘Not an Exit’’
before it presents a slipping hazard; or similar designation, or be identified
(3) The outdoor exit route must be by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g.,
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reasonably straight and have smooth, closet).

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§ 1910.38 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(6) Each exit sign must be illumi- quires one. The requirements in this
nated to a surface value of at least five section apply to each such emergency
foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light action plan.
source and be distinctive in color. Self- (b) Written and oral emergency action
luminous or electroluminescent signs plans. An emergency action plan must
that have a minimum luminance sur- be in writing, kept in the workplace,
face value of at least .06 footlamberts and available to employees for review.
(0.21 cd/m2) are permitted. However, an employer with 10 or fewer
(7) Each exit sign must have the word employees may communicate the plan
‘‘Exit’’ in plainly legible letters not orally to employees.
less than six inches (15.2 cm) high, with (c) Minimum elements of an emergency
the principal strokes of the letters in action plan. An emergency action plan
the word ‘‘Exit’’ not less than three- must include at a minimum:
fourths of an inch (1.9 cm) wide. (1) Procedures for reporting a fire or
(c) The fire retardant properties of other emergency;
paints or solutions must be maintained. (2) Procedures for emergency evacu-
Fire retardant paints or solutions must ation, including type of evacuation and
be renewed as often as necessary to exit route assignments;
maintain their fire retardant prop- (3) Procedures to be followed by em-
erties. ployees who remain to operate critical
(d) Exit routes must be maintained dur- plant operations before they evacuate;
ing construction, repairs, or alterations.
(4) Procedures to account for all em-
(1) During new construction, employees
ployees after evacuation;
must not occupy a workplace until the
(5) Procedures to be followed by em-
exit routes required by this subpart are
ployees performing rescue or medical
completed and ready for employee use
duties; and
for the portion of the workplace they
occupy. (6) The name or job title of every em-
(2) During repairs or alterations, em- ployee who may be contacted by em-
ployees must not occupy a workplace ployees who need more information
unless the exit routes required by this about the plan or an explanation of
subpart are available and existing fire their duties under the plan.
protections are maintained, or until al- (d) Employee alarm system. An em-
ternate fire protection is furnished ployer must have and maintain an em-
that provides an equivalent level of ployee alarm system. The employee
safety. alarm system must use a distinctive
(3) Employees must not be exposed to signal for each purpose and comply
hazards of flammable or explosive sub- with the requirements in § 1910.165.
stances or equipment used during con- (e) Training. An employer must des-
struction, repairs, or alterations, that ignate and train employees to assist in
are beyond the normal permissible con- a safe and orderly evacuation of other
ditions in the workplace, or that would employees.
impede exiting the workplace. (f) Review of emergency action plan. An
(e) An employee alarm system must be employer must review the emergency
operable. Employers must install and action plan with each employee cov-
maintain an operable employee alarm ered by the plan:
system that has a distinctive signal to (1) When the plan is developed or the
warn employees of fire or other emer- employee is assigned initially to a job;
gencies, unless employees can prompt- (2) When the employee’s responsibil-
ly see or smell a fire or other hazard in ities under the plan change; and
time to provide adequate warning to (3) When the plan is changed.
them. The employee alarm system [67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]
must comply with § 1910.165.
[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002] § 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.
(a) Application. An employer must
§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans. have a fire prevention plan when an
(a) Application. An employer must OSHA standard in this part requires
have an emergency action plan when- one. The requirements in this section
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ever an OSHA standard in this part re- apply to each such fire prevention plan.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1910, Subpt. E, App.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention emergency. The employer should list in de-
plans. A fire prevention plan must be in tail the procedures to be taken by those em-
writing, be kept in the workplace, and ployees who have been selected to remain be-
hind to care for essential plant operations
be made available to employees for re- until their evacuation becomes absolutely
view. However, an employer with 10 or necessary. Essential plant operations may
fewer employees may communicate the include the monitoring of plant power sup-
plan orally to employees. plies, water supplies, and other essential
(c) Minimum elements of a fire preven- services which cannot be shut down for every
tion plan. A fire prevention plan must emergency alarm. Essential plant operations
include: may also include chemical or manufacturing
(1) A list of all major fire hazards, processes which must be shut down in stages
or steps where certain employees must be
proper handling and storage procedures present to assure that safe shut down proce-
for hazardous materials, potential igni- dures are completed.
tion sources and their control, and the The use of floor plans or workplace maps
type of fire protection equipment nec- which clearly show the emergency escape
essary to control each major hazard; routes should be included in the emergency
(2) Procedures to control accumula- action plan. Color coding will aid employees
tions of flammable and combustible in determining their route assignments.
The employer should also develop and ex-
waste materials; plain in detail what rescue and medical first
(3) Procedures for regular mainte- aid duties are to be performed and by whom.
nance of safeguards installed on heat- All employees are to be told what actions
producing equipment to prevent the ac- they are to take in these emergency situa-
cidental ignition of combustible mate- tions that the employer anticipates may
rials; occur in the workplace.
(4) The name or job title of employ- 2. Emergency evacuation. At the time of an
ees responsible for maintaining equip- emergency, employees should know what
type of evacuation is necessary and what
ment to prevent or control sources of their role is in carrying out the plan. In
ignition or fires; and some cases where the emergency is very
(5) The name or job title of employ- grave, total and immediate evacuation of all
ees responsible for the control of fuel employees is necessary. In other emer-
source hazards. gencies, a partial evacuation of nonessential
(d) Employee information. An employer employees with a delayed evacuation of oth-
must inform employees upon initial as- ers may be necessary for continued plant op-
eration. In some cases, only those employees
signment to a job of the fire hazards to in the immediate area of the fire may be ex-
which they are exposed. An employer pected to evacuate or move to a safe area
must also review with each employee such as when a local application fire suppres-
those parts of the fire prevention plan sion system discharge employee alarm is
necessary for self-protection. sounded. Employees must be sure that they
know what is expected of them in all such
[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002] emergency possibilities which have been
planned in order to provide assurance of
APPENDIX TO SUBPART E OF PART 1910— their safety from fire or other emergency.
EXIT ROUTES, EMERGENCY ACTION The designation of refuge or safe areas for
PLANS, AND FIRE PREVENTION evacuation should be determined and identi-
PLANS fied in the plan. In a building divided into
fire zones by fire walls, the refuge area may
This appendix serves as a nonmandatory still be within the same building but in a dif-
guideline to assist employers in complying ferent zone from where the emergency oc-
with the appropriate requirements of subpart curs.
E. Exterior refuge or safe areas may include
parking lots, open fields or streets which are
§ 1910.38 Employee emergency plans.
located away from the site of the emergency
1. Emergency action plan elements. The and which provide sufficient space to accom-
emergency action plan should address emer- modate the employees. Employees should be
gencies that the employer may reasonably instructed to move away from the exit dis-
expect in the workplace. Examples are: fire; charge doors of the building, and to avoid
toxic chemical releases; hurricanes; torna- congregating close to the building where
does; blizzards; floods; and others. The ele- they may hamper emergency operations.
ments of the emergency action plan pre- 3. Emergency action plan training. The em-
sented in paragraph 1910.38(c) can be supple- ployer should assure that an adequate num-
mented by the following to more effectively ber of employees are available at all times
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achieve employee safety and health in an during working hours to act as evacuation

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§ 1910.66 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)
wardens so that employees can be swiftly standard is concerned. Such combustible ma-
moved from the danger location to the safe terials may be easily ignited by matches,
areas. Generally, one warden for each twenty welder’s sparks, cigarettes and similar low
employees in the workplace should be able to level energy ignition sources.
provide adequate guidance and instruction at 5. Maintenance of equipment under the fire
the time of a fire emergency. The employees prevention plan. Certain equipment is often
selected or who volunteer to serve as war- installed in workplaces to control heat
dens should be trained in the complete work- sources or to detect fuel leaks. An example is
place layout and the various alternative es- a temperature limit switch often found on
cape routes from the workplace. All wardens deep-fat food fryers found in restaurants.
and fellow employees should be made aware There may be similar switches for high tem-
of handicapped employees who may need perature dip tanks, or flame failure and
extra assistance, such as using the buddy flashback arrester devices on furnaces and
system, and of hazardous areas to be avoided similar heat producing equipment. If these
during emergencies. Before leaving, wardens
devices are not properly maintained or if
should check rooms and other enclosed
they become inoperative, a definite fire haz-
spaces in the workplace for employees who
ard exists. Again employees and supervisors
may be trapped or otherwise unable to evac-
should be aware of the specific type of con-
uate the area.
After the desired degree of evacuation is trol devices on equipment involved with
completed, the wardens should be able to ac- combustible materials in the workplace and
count for or otherwise verify that all em- should make sure, through periodic inspec-
ployees are in the safe areas. tion or testing, that these controls are oper-
In buildings with several places of employ- able. Manufacturers’ recommendations
ment, employers are encouraged to coordi- should be followed to assure proper mainte-
nate their plans with the other employers in nance procedures.
the building. A building-wide or standardized [45 FR 60714, Sept. 12, 1980]
plan for the whole building is acceptable pro-
vided that the employers inform their re-
spective employees of their duties and re- Subpart F—Powered Platforms,
sponsibilities under the plan. The standard- Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mount-
ized plan need not be kept by each employer
in the multi-employer building, provided
ed Work Platforms
there is an accessible location within the
building where the plan can be reviewed by AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupa-
affected employees. When multi-employer tional Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29
building-wide plans are not feasible, employ- U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s
ers should coordinate their plans with the Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR
other employers within the building to as- 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), or 1–90 (55 FR 9033),
sure that conflicts and confusion are avoided as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.
during times of emergencies. In multi-story
buildings where more than one employer is EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 72 FR 7190, Feb.
on a single floor, it is essential that these 14, 2007, the authority citation to Subpart F
employers coordinate their plans with each was revised, effective Aug. 13, 2007. For the
other to avoid conflicts and confusion. convenience of the user, the revised text is
4. Fire prevention housekeeping. The stand- set forth as follows:
ard calls for the control of accumulations of AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupa-
flammable and combustible waste materials. tional Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29
It is the intent of this standard to assure U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s
that hazardous accumulations of combus- Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR
tible waste materials are controlled so that 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), 1–90 (55 FR 9033), or
a fast developing fire, rapid spread of toxic 5–2002 (67 FR 65008), as applicable; and 29 CFR
smoke, or an explosion will not occur. This part 1911.
does not necessarily mean that each room
has to be swept each day. Employers and em- § 1910.66 Powered platforms for build-
ployees should be aware of the hazardous ing maintenance.
properties of materials in their workplaces,
and the degree of hazard each poses. Cer- (a) Scope. This section covers powered
tainly oil soaked rags have to be treated dif- platform installations permanently
ferently than general paper trash in office dedicated to interior or exterior build-
areas. However, large accumulations of ing maintenance of a specific structure
waste paper or corrugated boxes, etc., can
or group of structures. This section
pose a significant fire hazard. Accumulations
of materials which can cause large fires or does not apply to suspended scaffolds
generate dense smoke that are easily ignited (swinging scaffolds) used to service
or may start from spontaneous combustion, buildings on a temporary basis and
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are the types of materials with which this covered under subpart D of this part,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.66

nor to suspended scaffolds used for con- stallation has been inspected, tested
struction work and covered under sub- and maintained in compliance with the
part L of 29 CFR part 1926. Building requirements of paragraphs (g) and (h)
maintenance includes, but is not lim- of this section and that all protection
ited to, such tasks as window cleaning, anchorages meet the requirements of
caulking, metal polishing and re- paragraph (I)(c)(10) of appendix C.
glazing. (4) The employer shall not permit
(b) Application—(1) New installations. employees to use the installation prior
This section applies to all permanent to receiving assurance from the build-
installations completed after July 23, ing owner that the installation meets
1990. Major modifications to existing the requirements contained in para-
installations completed after that date graphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) of this section.
are also considered new installations (d) Definitions.
under this section. Anemometer means an instrument for
(2) Existing installations. (i) Perma- measuring wind velocity.
nent installations in existence and/or Angulated roping means a suspension
completed before July 23, 1990 shall method where the upper point of sus-
comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) pension is inboard from the attach-
and appendix C of this section. ments on the suspended unit, thus
(ii) In addition, permanent installa- causing the suspended unit to bear
tions completed after August 27, 1971, against the face of the building.
and in existence and/or completed be-
Building face roller means a rotating
fore July 23, 1990, shall comply with ap-
cylindrical member designed to ride on
pendix D of this section.
the face of the building wall to prevent
(c) Assurance. (1) Building owners of
the platform from abrading the face of
new installations shall inform the em-
the building and to assist in stabilizing
ployer before each use in writing that
the platform.
the installation meets the require-
Building maintenance means oper-
ments of paragraphs (e)(1) and (f)(1) of
ations such as window cleaning, caulk-
this section and the additional design
ing, metal polishing, reglazing, and
criteria contained in other provisions
general maintenance on building sur-
of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section
faces.
relating to: required load sustaining
capabilities of platforms, building com- Cable means a conductor, or group of
ponents, hoisting and supporting equip- conductors, enclosed in a weatherproof
ment; stability factors for carriages, sheath, that may be used to supply
platforms and supporting equipment; electrical power and/or control current
maximum horizontal force for move- for equipment or to provide voice com-
ment of carriages and davits; design of munication circuits.
carriages, hoisting machines, wire rope Carriage means a wheeled vehicle
and stabilization systems; and design used for the horizontal movement and
criteria for electrical wiring and equip- support of other equipment.
ment. Certification means a written, signed
(2) Building owners shall base the in- and dated statement confirming the
formation required in paragraph (c)(1) performance of a requirement of this
of this section on the results of a field section.
test of the installation before being Combination cable means a cable hav-
placed into service and following any ing both steel structural members ca-
major alteration to an existing instal- pable of supporting the platform, and
lation, as required in paragraph (g)(1) copper or other electrical conductors
of this section. The assurance shall insulated from each other and the
also be based on all other relevant structural members by nonconductive
available information, including, but barriers.
not limited to, test data, equipment Competent person means a person who,
specifications and verification by a because of training and experience, is
registered professional engineer. capable of identifying hazardous or
(3) Building owners of all installa- dangerous conditions in powered plat-
tions, new and existing, shall inform form installations and of training em-
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the employer in writing that the in- ployees to identify such conditions.

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§ 1910.66 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

Continuous pressure means the need Lanyard means a flexible line of rope,
for constant manual actuation for a wire rope or strap which is used to se-
control to function. cure the body belt or body harness to a
Control means a mechanism used to deceleration device, lifeline or anchor-
regulate or guide the operation of the age.
equipment. Lifeline means a component con-
Davit means a device, used singly or sisting of a flexible line for connection
in pairs, for suspending a powered plat- to an anchorage at one end to hang
form from work, storage and rigging vertically (vertical lifeline), or for con-
locations on the building being serv- nection to anchorages at both ends to
iced. Unlike outriggers, a davit reacts stretch horizontally (horizontal life-
its operating load into a single roof line), and which serves as a means for
socket or carriage attachment. connecting other components of a per-
Equivalent means alternative designs, sonal fall arrest system to the anchor-
materials or methods which the em- age.
ployer can demonstrate will provide an Live load means the total static
equal or greater degree of safety for weight of workers, tools, parts, and
employees than the methods, materials supplies that the equipment is designed
or designs specified in the standard. to support.
Ground rigging means a method of Obstruction detector means a control
suspending a working platform start- that will stop the suspended or sup-
ing from a safe surface to a point of ported unit in the direction of travel if
suspension above the safe surface. an obstruction is encountered, and will
Ground rigged davit means a davit allow the unit to move only in a direc-
which cannot be used to raise a sus- tion away from the obstruction.
pended working platform above the Operating control means a mechanism
building face being serviced. regulating or guiding the operation of
Guide button means a building face equipment that ensures a specific oper-
anchor designed to engage a guide ating mode.
track mounted on a platform. Operating device means a device actu-
Guide roller means a rotating cylin- ated manually to activate a control.
drical member, operating separately or Outrigger means a device, used singly
as part of a guide assembly, designed to or in pairs, for suspending a working
provide continuous engagement be- platform from work, storage, and rig-
tween the platform and the building ging locations on the building being
guides or guideways. serviced. Unlike davits, an outrigger
Guide shoe means a device attached reacts its operating moment load as at
to the platform designed to provide a least two opposing vertical components
sliding contact between the platform acting into two or more distinct roof
and the building guides. points and/or attachments.
Hoisting machine means a device in- Platform rated load means the com-
tended to raise and lower a suspended bined weight of workers, tools, equip-
or supported unit. ment and other material which is per-
Hoist rated load means the hoist man- mitted to be carried by the working
ufacturer’s maximum allowable oper- platform at the installation, as stated
ating load. on the load rating plate.
Installation means all the equipment Poured socket means the method of
and all affected parts of a building providing wire rope terminations in
which are associated with the perform- which the ends of the rope are held in
ance of building maintenance using a tapered socket by means of poured
powered platforms. spelter or resins.
Interlock means a device designed to Primary brake means a brake designed
ensure that operations or motions to be applied automatically whenever
occur in proper sequence. power to the prime mover is inter-
Intermittent stabilization means a rupted or discontinued.
method of platform stabilization in Prime mover means the source of me-
which the angulated suspension wire chanical power for a machine.
rope(s) are secured to regularly spaced Rated load means the manufacturer’s
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Rated strength means the strength of working position by means of ropes or


wire rope, as designated by its manu- combination cables attached to some
facturer or vendor, based on standard anchorage above the equipment.
testing procedures or acceptable engi- Suspended scaffold (swinging scaffold)
neering design practices. means a scaffold supported on wire or
Rated working load means the com- other ropes, used for work on, or for
bined static weight of men, materials, providing access to, vertical sides of
and suspended or supported equipment. structures on a temporary basis. Such
Registered professional engineer means scaffold is not designed for use on a
a person who has been duly and cur- specific structure or group of struc-
rently registered and licensed by an au- tures.
thority within the United States or its Tail line means the nonsupporting
territories to practice the profession of end of the wire rope used to suspend
engineering. the platform.
Roof powered platform means a work- Tie-in guides means the portion of a
ing platform where the hoist(s) used to building that provides continuous posi-
raise or lower the platform is located tive engagement between the building
on the roof. and a suspended or supported unit dur-
Roof rigged davit means a davit used ing its vertical travel on the face of the
to raise the suspended working plat- building.
form above the building face being Traction hoist means a type of hoist-
serviced. This type of davit can also be ing machine that does not accumulate
used to raise a suspended working plat- the suspension wire rope on the hoist-
form which has been ground-rigged. ing drum or sheave, and is designed to
Rope means the equipment used to raise and lower a suspended load by the
suspend a component of an equipment application of friction forces between
installation, i.e., wire rope. the suspension wire rope and the drum
Safe surface means a horizontal sur- or sheave.
face intended to be occupied by per- Transportable outriggers means out-
sonnel, which is so protected by a fall riggers designed to be moved from one
protection system that it can be rea- work location to another.
sonably assured that said occupants
Trolley carriage means a carriage sus-
will be protected against falls.
pended from an overhead track struc-
Secondary brake means a brake de-
ture.
signed to arrest the descent of the sus-
pended or supported equipment in the Verified means accepted by design,
event of an overspeed condition. evaluation, or inspection by a reg-
Self powered platform means a work- istered professional engineer.
ing platform where the hoist(s) used to Weatherproof means so constructed
raise or lower the platform is mounted that exposure to adverse weather con-
on the platform. ditions will not affect or interfere with
Speed reducer means a positive type the proper use or functions of the
speed reducing machine. equipment or component.
Stability factor means the ratio of the Winding drum hoist means a type of
stabilizing moment to the overturning hoisting machine that accumulates the
moment. suspension wire rope on the hoisting
Stabilizer tie means a flexible line drum.
connecting the building anchor and the Working platform means suspended or
suspension wire rope supporting the supported equipment intended to pro-
platform. vide access to the face of a building and
Supported equipment means building manned by persons engaged in building
maintenance equipment that is held or maintenance.
moved to its working position by Wrap means one complete turn of the
means of attachment directly to the suspension wire rope around the sur-
building or extensions of the building face of a hoist drum.
being maintained. (e) Powered platform installations—Af-
Suspended equipment means building fected parts of buildings—(1) General re-
maintenance equipment that is sus- quirements. The following requirements
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pended and raised or lowered to its apply to affected parts of buildings

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§ 1910.66 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

which utilize working platforms for same building, provided the require-
building maintenance. ments for each system are met.
(i) Structural supports, tie-downs, (1) The maximum vertical interval
tie-in guides, anchoring devices and between building anchors shall be three
any affected parts of the building in- floors or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is
cluded in the installation shall be de- less.
signed by or under the direction of a (2) Building anchors shall be located
registered professional engineer experi- vertically so that attachment of the
enced in such design; stabilizer ties will not cause the plat-
(ii) Exterior installations shall be ca- form suspension ropes to angulate the
pable of withstanding prevailing cli- platform horizontally across the face of
matic conditions; the building. The anchors shall be posi-
(iii) The building installation shall tioned horizontally on the building
provide safe access to, and egress from, face so as to be symmetrical about the
the equipment and sufficient space to platform suspension ropes.
conduct necessary maintenance of the (3) Building anchors shall be easily
equipment; visible to employees and shall allow a
(iv) The affected parts of the building stabilizer tie attachment for each of
shall have the capability of sustaining the platform suspension ropes at each
all the loads imposed by the equip- vertical interval. If more than two sus-
ment; and, pension ropes are used on a platform,
(v) The affected parts of the building only the two building-side suspension
shall be designed so as to allow the ropes at the platform ends shall require
equipment to be used without exposing a stabilizer attachment.
employees to a hazardous condition. (4) Building anchors which extend be-
(2) Tie-in guides. (i) The exterior of yond the face of the building shall be
each building shall be provided with free of sharp edges or points. Where ca-
tie-in guides unless the conditions in bles, suspension wire ropes and lifelines
paragraph (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this may be in contact with the building
section are met. face, external building anchors shall
NOTE: See Figure 1 in appendix B of this not interfere with their handling or op-
section for a description of a typical contin- eration.
uous stabilization system utilizing tie-in (5) The intermittent stabilization
guides. system building anchors and compo-
(ii) If angulated roping is employed, nents shall be capable of sustaining
tie-in guides required in paragraph without failure at least four times the
(e)(2)(i) of this section may be elimi- maximum anticipated load applied or
nated for not more than 75 feet (22.9 m) transmitted to the components and an-
of the uppermost elevation of the chors. The minimum design wind load
building, if infeasible due to exterior for each anchor shall be 300 (1334 n)
building design, provided an angulation pounds, if two anchors share the wind
force of at least 10 pounds (44.4 n) is load.
maintained under all conditions of (6) The building anchors and sta-
loading. bilizer ties shall be capable of sus-
(iii) Tie-in guides required in para- taining anticipated horizontal and
graph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be vertical loads from winds specified for
eliminated if one of the guide systems roof storage design which may act on
in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A), (e)(2)(iii)(B) the platform and wire ropes if the plat-
or (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section is pro- form is stranded on a building face. If
vided, or an equivalent. the building anchors have different
(A) Intermittent stabilization sys- spacing than the suspension wire rope
tem. The system shall keep the equip- or if the building requires different sus-
ment in continuous contact with the pension spacings on one platform, one
building facade, and shall prevent sud- building anchor and stabilizer tie shall
den horizontal movement of the plat- be capable of sustaining the wind loads.
form. The system may be used together NOTE: See Figure 2 in appendix B of this
with continuous positive building guide section for a description of a typical inter-
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.66

(B) Button guide stabilization sys- paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (A), (B) and (C), or
tem. a platform tie-off at each work station
(1) Guide buttons shall be coordi- will provide equivalent safety.
nated with platform mounted equip- (3) Roof guarding. (i) Employees
ment of paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this sec- working on roofs while performing
tion. building maintenance shall be pro-
(2) Guide buttons shall be located tected by a perimeter guarding system
horizontally on the building face so as which meets the requirements of para-
to allow engagement of each of the graph (c)(1) of § 1910.23 of this part.
guide tracks mounted on the platform.
(ii) The perimeter guard shall not be
(3) Guide buttons shall be located in
vertical rows on the building face for more than six inches (152 mm) inboard
proper engagement of the guide tracks of the inside face of a barrier, i.e. the
mounted on the platform. parapet wall, or roof edge curb of the
(4) Two guide buttons shall engage building being serviced; however, the
each guide track at all times except for perimeter guard location shall not ex-
the initial engagement. ceed an 18 inch (457 mm) setback from
(5) Guide buttons which extend be- the exterior building face.
yond the face of the building shall be (4) Equipment stops. Operational areas
free of sharp edges or points. Where ca- for trackless type equipment shall be
bles, ropes and lifelines may be in con- provided with structural stops, such as
tact with the building face, guide but- curbs, to prevent equipment from trav-
tons shall not interfere with their han- eling outside its intended travel areas
dling or operation. and to prevent a crushing or shearing
(6) Guide buttons, connections and hazard.
seals shall be capable of sustaining (5) Maintenance access. Means shall be
without damage at least the weight of provided to traverse all carriages and
the platform, or provision shall be their suspended equipment to a safe
made in the guide tracks or guide area for maintenance and storage.
track connectors to prevent the plat-
(6) Elevated track. (i) An elevated
form and its attachments from trans-
track system which is located four feet
mitting the weight of the platform to
(1.2 m) or more above a safe surface,
the guide buttons, connections and
and traversed by carriage supported
seals. In either case, the minimum de-
equipment, shall be provided with a
sign load shall be 300 pounds (1334 n)
per building anchor. walkway and guardrail system; or
(ii) The working platform shall be ca-
NOTE: See paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this sec- pable of being lowered, as part of its
tion for relevant equipment provisions.
normal operation, to the lower safe
NOTE: See Figure 3 in appendix B of this
section for a description of a typical button surface for access and egress of the per-
guide stabilization system. sonnel and shall be provided with a safe
means of access and egress to the lower
(C) System utilizing angulated roping safe surface.
and building face rollers. The system
(7) Tie-down anchors. Imbedded tie-
shall keep the equipment in continuous
down anchors, fasteners, and affected
contact with the building facade, and
shall prevent sudden horizontal move- structures shall be resistant to corro-
ment of the platform. This system is sion.
acceptable only where the suspended (8) Cable stabilization. (i) Hanging life-
portion of the equipment in use does lines and all cables not in tension shall
not exceed 130 feet (39.6 m) above a safe be stabilized at each 200 foot (61 m) in-
surface or ground level, and where the terval of vertical travel of the working
platform maintains no less than 10 platform beyond an initial 200 foot (61
pounds (44.4 n) angulation force on the m) distance.
building facade. (ii) Hanging cables, other than sus-
(iv) Tie-in guides for building inte- pended wire ropes, which are in con-
riors (atriums) may be eliminated stant tension shall be stabilized when
when a registered professional engineer the vertical travel exceeds an initial
determines that an alternative sta- 600 foot (183 m) distance, and at further
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bilization system, including systems in intervals of 600 feet (183 m) or less.

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§ 1910.66 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

(9) Emergency planning. A written to allow the operators of the equip-


emergency action plan shall be devel- ment access to the switch;
oped and implemented for each kind of (v) The disconnect switch for the
working platform operation. This plan power circuit shall be locked in the
shall explain the emergency procedures ‘‘ON’’ position when the equipment is
which are to be followed in the event of in use; and
a power failure, equipment failure or (vi) An effective two-way voice com-
other emergencies which may be en- munication system shall be provided
countered. The plan shall also explain between the equipment operators and
that employees inform themselves
persons stationed within the building
about the building emergency escape
being serviced. The communications
routes, procedures and alarm systems
before operating a platform. Upon ini- facility shall be operable and shall be
tial assignment and whenever the plan manned at all times by persons sta-
is changed the employer shall review tioned within the building whenever
with each employee those parts of the the platform is being used.
plan which the employee must know to (f) Powered platform installations—
protect himself or herself in the event Equipment—(1) General requirements.
of an emergency. The following requirements apply to
(10) Building maintenance. Repairs or equipment which are part of a powered
major maintenance of those building platform installation, such as plat-
portions that provide primary support forms, stabilizing components, car-
for the suspended equipment shall not riages, outriggers, davits, hoisting ma-
affect the capability of the building to chines, wire ropes and electrical com-
meet the requirements of this stand- ponents.
ard. (i) Equipment installations shall be
(11) Electrical requirements. The fol- designed by or under the direction of a
lowing electrical requirements apply to registered professional engineer experi-
buildings which utilize working plat- enced in such design;
forms for building maintenance.
(ii) The design shall provide for a
(i) General building electrical instal-
minimum live load of 250 pounds (113.6
lations shall comply with §§ 1910.302
through 1910.308 of this part, unless kg) for each occupant of a suspended or
otherwise specified in this section; supported platform;
(ii) Building electrical wiring shall be (iii) Equipment that is exposed to
of such capacity that when full load is wind when not in service shall be de-
applied to the equipment power circuit signed to withstand forces generated
not more than a five percent drop from by winds of at least 100 miles per hour
building service-vault voltage shall (44.7 m/s) at 30 feet (9.2 m) above grade;
occur at any power circuit outlet used and
by equipment regulated by this sec- (iv) Equipment that is exposed to
tion; wind when in service shall be designed
(iii) The equipment power circuit to withstand forces generated by winds
shall be an independent electrical cir- of at least 50 miles per hour (22.4 m/s)
cuit that shall remain separate from for all elevations.
all other equipment within or on the (2) Construction requirements. Bolted
building, other than power circuits connections shall be self-locking or
used for hand tools that will be used in shall otherwise be secured to prevent
conjunction with the equipment. If the loss of the connections by vibration.
building is provided with an emergency
(3) Suspension methods. Elevated
power system, the equipment power
building maintenance equipment shall
circuit may also be connected to this
system; be suspended by a carriage, outriggers,
(iv) The power circuit shall be pro- davits or an equivalent method.
vided with a disconnect switch that (i) Carriages. Carriages used for sus-
can be locked in the ‘‘OFF’’ and ‘‘ON’’ pension of elevated building mainte-
positions. The switch shall be conven- nance equipment shall comply with the
iently located with respect to the pri- following:
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mary operating area of the equipment

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(A) The horizontal movement of a parts of the installation shall be capa-


carriage shall be controlled so as to en- ble of withstanding without damage to
sure its safe movement and allow accu- any part of the installation the forces
rate positioning of the platform for resulting from the stall load of the
vertical travel or storage; hoist and one half the wind load.
(B) Powered carriages shall not ex- (3) Roof carriages which rely on hav-
ceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per ing tie-down devices secured to the
minute (0.3 m/s); building to develop the required sta-
(C) The initiation of a traversing bility against overturning shall be pro-
movement for a manually propelled vided with an interlock which will pre-
carriage on a smooth level surface vent vertical platform movement un-
shall not require a person to exert a less the tie-down is engaged;
horizontal force greater than 40 pounds (H) An automatically applied braking
(444.8 n); or locking system, or equivalent, shall
(D) Structural stops and curbs shall be provided that will prevent uninten-
be provided to prevent the traversing tional traversing of power traversed or
of the carriage beyond its designed lim- power assisted carriages;
its of travel; (I) A manual or automatic braking or
(E) Traversing controls for a powered locking system or equivalent, shall be
carriage shall be of a continuous pres- provided that will prevent uninten-
sure weatherproof type. Multiple con- tional traversing of manually propelled
trols when provided shall be arranged carriages;
to permit operation from only one con-
(J) A means to lock out the power
trol station at a time. An emergency
supply for the carriage shall be pro-
stop device shall be provided on each
vided;
end of a powered carriage for inter-
(K) Safe access to and egress from
rupting power to the carriage drive mo-
the carriage shall be provided from a
tors;
safe surface. If the carriage traverses
(F) The operating controls(s) shall be
an elevated area, any operating area on
so connected that in the case of sus-
the carriage shall be protected by a
pended equipment, traversing of a car-
guardrail system in compliance with
riage is not possible until the sus-
the provisions of paragraph (f)(5)(i)(F)
pended portion of the equipment is lo-
of this section. Any access gate shall
cated at its uppermost designed posi-
be self-closing and self-latching, or pro-
tion for traversing; and is free of con-
vided with an interlock;
tact with the face of the building or
building guides. In addition, all protec- (L) Each carriage work station posi-
tive devices and interlocks are to be in tion shall be identified by location
the proper position to allow traversing markings and/or position indicators;
of the carriage; and
(G) Stability for underfoot supported (M) The motors shall stall if the load
carriages shall be obtained by gravity, on the hoist motors is at any time in
by an attachment to a structural sup- excess of three times that necessary for
port, or by a combination of gravity lifting the working platform with its
and a structural support. The use of rated load.
flowing counterweights to achieve sta- (ii) Transportable outriggers. (A)
bility is prohibited. Transportable outriggers may be used
(1) The stability factor against over- as a method of suspension for ground
turning shall not be less than two for rigged working platforms where the
horizontal traversing of the carriage, point of suspension does not exceed 300
including the effects of impact and feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Tie-
wind. in guide system(s) shall be provided
(2) The carriages and their anchor- which meet the requirements of para-
ages shall be capable of resisting acci- graph (e)(2) of this section.
dental over-tensioning of the wire (B) Transportable outriggers shall be
ropes suspending the working platform, used only with self-powered, ground
and this calculated value shall include rigged working platforms.
the effect of one and one-half times the (C) Each transportable outrigger
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§ 1910.66 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–07 Edition)

verified anchorage on the building dur- safe surface below the point of suspen-
ing the entire period of its use. The an- sion.
chorage shall be designed to have a sta- (D) A rotating davit shall not require
bility factor of not less than four a horizontal force in excess of 40
against overturning or upsetting of the pounds (177.9 n) per person to initiate a
outrigger. rotating movement.
(D) Access to and egress from the (E) The following requirements shall
working platform shall be from and to apply to transportable davits:
a safe surface below the point of sus- (1) A davit or part of a davit weighing
pension. more than 80 pounds (36 kg) shall be
(E) Each transportable outrigger provided with a means for its trans-
shall be designed for lateral stability port, which shall keep the center of
to prevent roll-over in the event an ac- gravity of the davit at or below 36
cidental lateral load is applied to the inches (914 mm) above the safe surface
outrigger. The accidental lateral load during transport;
to be considered in this design shall be (2) A davit shall be provided with a
not less than 70 percent of the rated pivoting socket or with a base that will
load of the hoist. allow the insertion or removal of a
(F) Each transportable outrigger davit at a position of not more than 35
shall be designed to support an ulti- degrees above the horizontal, with the
mate load of not less than four times complete davit inboard of the building
the rated load of the hoist. face being serviced; and
(G) Each transportable outrigger (3) Means shall be provided to lock
shall be so located that the suspension the davit to its socket or base before it
wire ropes for two point suspended is used to suspend the platform.
working platforms are hung parallel. (4) Hoisting machines. (i) Raising and
(H) A transportable outrigger shall lowering of suspended or supported
be tied-back to a verified anchorage on equipment shall be performed only by a
the building with a rope equivalent in hoisting machine.
strength to the suspension rope. (ii) Each hoisting machine shall be
capable of arresting any overspeed de-
(I) The tie-back rope shall be in-
scent of the load.
stalled parallel to the centerline of the
(iii) Each hoisting machine shall be
outrigger.
powered only by air, electric or hy-
(iii) Davits. (A) Every davit installa-
draulic sources.
tion, fixed or transportable, rotatable
(iv) Flammable liquids shall not be
or non-rotatable shall be designed and
carried on the working platform.
installed to insure that it has a sta-
(v) Each hoisting machine shall be
bility factor against overturning of not
capable of raising or lowering 125 per-
less than four.
cent of the rated load of the hoist.
(B) The following requirements apply (vi) Moving parts of a hoisting ma-
to roof rigged davit systems: chine shall be enclosed or guarded in
(1) Access to and egress from the compliance with paragraphs (a)(1) and
working platform shall be from a safe (2) of § 1910.212 of this part.
surface. Access or egress shall not re- (vii) Winding drums, traction drums
quire persons to climb over a building’s and sheaves and directional sheaves
parapet or guard railing; and used in conjunction with hoisting ma-
(2) The working platform shall be chines shall be compatible with, and
provided with wheels, casters or a car- sized for, the wire rope used.
riage for traversing horizontally. (viii) Each winding drum shall be
(C) The following requirements apply provided with a positive means of at-
to ground rigged davit systems: taching the wire rope to the drum. The
(1) The point of suspension shall not attachment shall be capable of devel-
exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe oping at least four times the rated load
surface. Guide system(s) shall be pro- of the hoist.
vided which meet the requirements of (ix) Each hoisting machine shall be
paragraph (e)(2) of this section; provided with a primary brake and at
(2) Access and egress to and from the least one independent secondary brake,
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working platform shall only be from a each capable of stopping and holding

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not less than 125 percent of the lifting following methods, or by an equivalent
capacity of the hoist. method:
(A) The primary brake shall be di- (1) Continuous engagement to build-
rectly connected to the drive train of ing anchors as provided in paragraph
the hoisting machine, and shall not be (e)(2)(i) of this section;
connected through belts, chains, (2) Intermittent engagement to build-
clutches, or set screw type devices. The ing anchors as provided in paragraph
brake shall automatically set when (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section;
power to the prime mover is inter- (3) Button guide engagement as pro-
rupted. vided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this
(B)(1) The secondary brake shall be section; or
an automatic emergency type of brake (4) Angulated roping and building
that, if actuated during each stopping face rollers as provided in paragraph
cycle, shall not engage before the hoist (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section.
is stopped by the primary brake. (G) Each working platform of a sus-
(2) When a secondary brake is actu- pended unit shall be provided with a
ated, it shall stop and hold the plat- guardrail system on all sides which
form within a vertical distance of 24 shall meet the following requirements:
inches (609.6 mm). (1) The system shall consist of a top
(x) Any component of a hoisting ma- guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;
chine which requires lubrication for its (2) The top guardrail shall not be less
protection and proper functioning shall than 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall
be provided with a means for that lu- be able to withstand at least a 100-
brication to be applied. pound (444 n) force in any downward or
(5) Suspended equipment—(i) General outward direction;
requirements. (A) Each suspended unit (3) The midrail shall be able to with-
component, except suspension ropes stand at least a 75-pound (333 n) force
and guardrail systems, shall be capable in any downward or outward direction;
of supporting, without failure, at least and
four times the maximum intended live (4) The areas between the guardrail
load applied or transmitted to that and toeboard on the ends and outboard
component. side, and the area between the midrail
(B) Each suspended unit component and toeboard on the inboard side, shall
shall be constructed of materials that be closed with a material that is capa-
will withstand anticipated weather ble of withstanding a load of 100 pounds
conditions. (45.4 KG.) applied horizontally over any
(C) Each suspended unit shall be pro- area of one square foot (.09 m2). The
vided with a load rating plate, con- material shall have all openings small
spicuously located, stating the unit enough to reject passage of life lines
weight and rated load of the suspended and potential falling objects which
unit. may be hazardous to persons below.
(D) When the suspension points on a (5) Toeboards shall be capable of
suspended unit are not at the unit withstanding, without failure, a force
ends, the unit shall be capable of re- of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in
maining continuously stable under all any downward or horizontal direction
conditions of use and position of the at any point along the toeboard.
live load, and shall maintain at least a (6) Toeboards shall be three and one-
1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit half inches (9 cm) minimum in length
upset. from their top edge to the level of the
(E) Guide rollers, guide shoes or platform floor.
building face rollers shall be provided, (7) Toeboards shall be securely fas-
and shall compensate for variations in tened in place at the outermost edge of
building dimensions and for minor hor- the platform and have no more than
izontal out-of-level variations of each one-half inch (1.3 cm) clearance above
suspended unit. the platform floor.
(F) Each working platform of a sus- (8) Toeboards shall be solid or with
pended unit shall be secured to the an opening not over one inch (2.5 cm)
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building facade by one or more of the in the greatest dimension.

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(ii) Two and four-point suspended of subpart D of this part. Access gates
working platforms. (A) The working shall be self-closing and self-latching.
platform shall be not less than 24 (K) Means of access to or egress from
inches (610 mm) wide and shall be pro- a working platform which is 48 inches
vided with a minimum of a 12 inch (305 (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface
mm) wide passage at or past any ob- shall be provided with a guardrail sys-
struction on the platform. tem or ladder handrails that conform
(B) The flooring shall be of a slip-re- to the provisions of subpart D of this
sistant type and shall contain no open- part.
ing that would allow the passage of life (L) The platform shall be provided
lines, cables and other potential falling with a secondary wire rope suspension
objects. If a larger opening is provided, system if the platform contains over-
it shall be protected by placing a mate- head structures which restrict the
rial under the opening which shall pre- emergency egress of employees. A hori-
vent the passage of life lines, cables zontal lifeline or a direct connection
and potential falling objects. anchorage shall be provided, as part of
(C) The working platfrom shall be a fall arrest system which meets the
provided with a means of suspension requirements of appendix C, for each
that will restrict the platform’s in- employee on such a platform.
board to outboard roll about its longi- (M) A vertical lifeline shall be pro-
tudinal axis to a maximum of 15 de- vided as part of a fall arrest system
grees from a horizontal plane when which meets the requirements of ap-
moving the live load from the inboard pendix C, for each employee on a work-
to the outboard side of the platform. ing platform suspended by two or more
(D) Any cable suspended from above wire ropes, if the failure of one wire
the platform shall be provided with a rope or suspension attachment will
means for storage to prevent accumu- cause the platform to upset. If a sec-
lation of the cable on the floor of the ondary wire rope suspension is used,
platform. vertical lifelines are not required for
(E) All operating controls for the the fall arrest system, provided that
vertical travel of the platform shall be each employee is attached to a hori-
of the continuous-pressure type, and zontal lifeline anchored to the plat-
shall be located on the platform. form.
(F) Each operating station of every (N) An emergency electric operating
working platform shall be provided device shall be provided on roof pow-
with a means of interrupting the power ered platforms near the hoisting ma-
supply to all hoist motors to stop any chine for use in the event of failure of
further powered ascent or descent of the normal operating device located on
the platform. the working platform, or failure of the
(G) The maximum rated speed of the cable connected to the platform. The
platform shall not exceed 50 feet per emergency electric operating device
minute (0.3 ms) with single speed shall be mounted in a secured compart-
hoists, nor 75 feet per minute (0.4 ms) ment, and the compartment shall be la-
with multi-speed hoists. beled with instructions for use. A
(H) Provisions shall be made for se- means for opening the compartment
curing all tools, water tanks, and other shall be mounted in a break-glass
accessories to prevent their movement receptable located near the emergency
or accumulation on the floor of the electric operating device or in an
platform. equivalent secure and accessible loca-
(I) Portable fire extinguishers con- tion.
forming to the provisions of § 1910.155 (iii) Single point suspended working
and § 1910.157 of this part shall be pro- platforms. (A) The requirements of
vided and securely attached on all paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (K) of
working platforms. this section shall also apply to a single
(J) Access to and egress from a work- point working platform.
ing platfrom, except for those that land (B) Each single point suspended
directly on a safe surface, shall be pro- working platform shall be provided
vided by stairs, ladders, platforms and with a secondary wire rope suspension
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runways conforming to the provisions system, which will prevent the working

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platform from falling should there be a ed equipment and wire ropes shall be
failure of the primary means of sup- able to withstand a load that is at least
port, or if the platform contains over- twice the ultimate strength of the sta-
head structures which restrict the bilizer tie.
egress of the employees. A horizontal NOTE: See Figure II in appendix B of this
life line or a direct connection anchor- section for a description of a typical inter-
age shall be provided, as part of a fall mittent stabilization system.
arrest system which meets the require-
ments of appendix C, for each employee (vi) Button-guide stabilized platforms.
(A) The platform shall comply with
on the platform.
paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of
(iv) Ground-rigged working platforms.
this section.
(A) Groundrigged working platforms
(B) Each guide track on the platform
shall comply with all the requirements
shall engage a minimum of two guide
of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M)
buttons during any vertical travel of
of this section.
the platform following the initial but-
(B) After each day’s use, the power
ton engagement.
supply within the building shall be dis-
(C) Each guide track on a platform
connected from a ground-rigged work-
that is part of a roof rigged system
ing platform, and the platform shall be
shall be provided with a storage posi-
either disengaged from its suspension
tion on the platform.
points or secured and stored at grade.
(D) Each guide track on the platform
(v) Intermittently stabilized platforms.
shall be sufficiently maneuverable by
(A) The platform shall comply with
platform occupants to permit easy en-
paragraphs (F)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of
gagement of the guide buttons, and
this section.
easy movement into and out of its stor-
(B) Each stabilizer tie shall be
age position on the platform.
equipped with a ‘‘quick connect-quick (E) Two guide tracks shall be mount-
disconnect’’ device which cannot be ed on the platform and shall provide
accidently disengaged, for attachment continuous contact with the building
to the building anchor, and shall be re- face.
sistant to adverse environmental con- (F) The load carrying components of
ditions. the button guide stabilization system
(C) The platform shall be provided which transmit the load into the plat-
with a stopping device that will inter- form shall be capable of supporting the
rupt the hoist power supply in the weight of the platform, or provision
event the platform contacts a sta- shall be made in the guide track con-
bilizer tie during its ascent. nectors or platform attachments to
(D) Building face rollers shall not be prevent the weight of the platform
placed at the anchor setting if exterior from being transmitted to the platform
anchors are used on the building face. attachments.
(E) Stabilizer ties used on intermit-
tently stabilized platforms shall allow NOTE: See Figure III in appendix B of this
for the specific attachment length section for a description of a typical button
needed to effect the predetermined an- guide stabilization system.
gulation of the suspended wire rope. (6) Supported equipment. (i) Supported
The specific attachment length shall equipment shall maintain a vertical
be maintained at all building anchor position in respect to the face of the
locations. building by means other than friction.
(F) The platform shall be in contin- (ii) Cog wheels or equivalent means
uous contact with the face of the build- shall be incorporated to provide climb-
ing during ascent and descent. ing traction between the supported
(G) The attachment and removal of equipment and the building guides. Ad-
stabilizer ties shall not require the hor- ditional guide wheels or shoes shall be
izontal movement of the platform. incorporated as may be necessary to
(H) The platform-mounted equipment ensure that the drive wheels are con-
and its suspension wire ropes shall not tinuously held in positive engagement
be physically damaged by the loads with the building guides.
from the stabilizer tie or its building (iii) Launch guide mullions indexed
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alignment with the building guides (E) The manufacturer’s rated


shall be used to align drive wheels en- strength;
tering the building guides. (F) The manufacturer’s name;
(iv) Manned platforms used on sup- (G) The month and year the ropes
ported equipment shall comply with were installed; and
the requirements of paragraphs (H) The name of the person or com-
(f)(5)(ii)(A), (f)(5)(ii)(B), and (f)(5)(ii) (D) pany which installed the ropes.
through (K) of this section covering (vii) A new tag shall be installed at
suspended equipment. each rope renewal.
(7) Suspension wire ropes and rope con- (viii) The original tag shall be
nections. (i) Each specific installation stamped with the date of the
shall use suspension wire ropes or com- resocketing, or the original tag shall
bination cable and connections meet- be retained and a supplemental tag
ing the specification recommended by shall be provided when ropes are
the manufacturer of the hoisting ma- resocketed. The supplemental tag shall
chine used. Connections shall be capa- show the date of resocketing and the
ble of developing at least 80 percent of name of the person or company that
the rated breaking strength of the wire resocketed the rope.
rope. (ix) Winding drum type hoists shall
(ii) Each suspension rope shall have a contain at least three wraps of the sus-
‘‘Design Factor’’ of at least 10. The pension wire rope on the drum when
‘‘Design Factor’’ is the ratio of the the suspended unit has reached the
rated strength of the suspension wire lowest possible point of its vertical
rope to the rated working load, and travel.
shall be calculated using the following (x) Traction drum and sheave type
formula: hoists shall be provided with a wire
rope of sufficient length to reach the
S ( N) lowest possible point of vertical travel
F= of the suspended unit, and an addi-
W tional length of the wire rope of at
least four feet (1.2 m).
Where:
(xi) The lengthening or repairing of
F = Design factor suspension wire ropes is prohibited.
S = Manufacturer’s rated strength of one
(xii) Babbitted fastenings for suspen-
suspension rope
N = Number of suspension ropes under load sion wire rope are prohibited.
W = Rated working load on all ropes at any (8) Control circuits, power circuits and
point of travel their components. (i) Electrical wiring
and equipment shall comply with sub-
(iii) Suspension wire rope grade shall part S of this part, except as otherwise
be at least improved plow steel or required by this section.
equivalent. (ii) Electrical runway conductor sys-
(iv) Suspension wire ropes shall be tems shall be of a type designed for use
sized to conform with the required de- in exterior locations, and shall be lo-
sign factor, but shall not be less than 5/ cated so that they do not come into
16 inch (7.94 mm) in diameter. contact with accumulated snow or
(v) No more than one reverse bend in water.
six wire rope lays shall be permitted. (iii) Cables shall be protected against
(vi) A corrosion-resistant tag shall be damage resulting from overtensioning
securely attached to one of the wire or from other causes.
rope fastenings when a suspension wire (iv) Devices shall be included in the
rope is to be used at a specific location control system for the equipment
and will remain in that location. This which will provide protection against
tag shall bear the following wire rope electrical overloads, three phase rever-
data: sal and phase failure. The control sys-
(A) The diameter (inches and/or mm); tem shall have a separate method,
(B) Construction classification; independent of the direction control
(C) Whether non-preformed or circuit, for breaking the power circuit
preformed; in case of an emergency or malfunc-
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.66

(v) Suspended or supported equip- stallations shall be inspected and test-


ment shall have a control system ed in the field before being placed in
which will require the operator of the initial service to determine that all
equipment to follow predetermined parts of the installation conform to ap-
procedures. plicable requirements of this standard,
(vi) The following requirements shall and that all safety and operating
apply to electrical protection devices: equipment is functioning as required. A
(A) On installations where the car- similar inspection and test shall be
riage does not have a stability factor of made following any major alteration to
at least four against overturning, elec- an existing installation. No hoist in an
trical contact(s) shall be provided and installation shall be subjected to a load
so connected that the operating devices in excess of 125 percent of its rated
for the suspended or supported equip- load.
ment shall be operative only when the (2) Periodic inspections and tests. (i)
carriage is located and mechanically Related building supporting structures
retained at an established operating shall undergo periodic inspection by a
point. competent person at intervals not ex-
(B) Overload protection shall be pro- ceeding 12 months.
vided in the hoisting or suspension sys- (ii) All parts of the equipment includ-
tem to protect against the equipment ing control systems shall be inspected,
operating in the ‘‘up’’ direction with a and, where necessary, tested by a com-
load in excess of 125 percent of the petent person at intervals specified by
rated load of the platform; and the manufacturer/supplier, but not to
(C) An automatic detector shall be exceed 12 months, to determine that
provided for each suspension point that they are in safe operating condition.
will interrupt power to all hoisting mo- Parts subject to wear, such as wire
tors for travel in the ‘‘down’’ direction, ropes, bearings, gears, and governors
and apply the primary brakes if any shall be inspected and/or tested to de-
suspension wire rope becomes slack. A termine that they have not worn to
continuous-pressure rigging-bypass such an extent as to affect the safe op-
switch designed for use during rigging eration of the installation.
is permitted. This switch shall only be (iii) The building owner shall keep a
used during rigging. certification record of each inspection
(vii) Upper and lower directional and test required under paragraphs
switches designed to prevent the travel (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The cer-
of suspended units beyond safe upward tification record shall include the date
and downward levels shall be provided. of the inspection, the signature of the
(viii) Emergency stop switches shall person who performed the inspection,
be provided on remote controlled, roof- and the number, or other identifier, of
powered manned platforms adjacent to the building support structure and
each control station on the platform. equipment which was inspected. This
(ix) Cables which are in constant ten- certification record shall be kept read-
sion shall have overload devices which ily available for review by the Assist-
will prevent the tension in the cable ant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant
from interfering with the load limiting Secretary’s representative and by the
device required in paragraph employer.
(f)(8)(vi)(B) of this section, or with the (iv) Working platforms and their
platform roll limiting device required components shall be inspected by the
in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(C) of this section. employer for visible defects before
The setting of these devices shall be co- every use and after each occurrence
ordinated with other overload settings which could affect the platform’s struc-
at the time of design of the system, tural integrity.
and shall be clearly indicated on or (3) Maintenance inspections and tests.
near the device. The device shall inter- (i) A maintenance inspection and,
rupt the equipment travel in the where necessary, a test shall be made
‘‘down’’ direction. of each platform installation every 30
(g) Inspection and tests—(1) Installa- days, or where the work cycle is less
tions and alterations. All completed than 30 days such inspection and/or
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building maintenance equipment in- test shall be made prior to each work

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cycle. This inspection and test shall (iii) A thorough inspection of suspen-
follow procedures recommended by the sion wire ropes in service shall be made
manufacturer, and shall be made by a once a month. Suspension wire ropes
competent person. that have been inactive for 30 days or
(ii) The building owner shall keep a longer shall have a thorough inspection
certification record of each inspection before they are placed into service.
and test performed under paragraph These thorough inspections of suspen-
(g)(3)(i) of this section. The certifi- sion wire ropes shall be performed by a
cation record shall include the date of competent person.
the inspection and test, the signature (iv) The need for replacement of a
of the person who performed the in- suspension wire rope shall be deter-
spection and/or test, and an identifier mined by inspection and shall be based
for the platform installation which was on the condition of the wire rope. Any
inspected. The certification record of the following conditions or combina-
shall be kept readily available for re- tion of conditions will be cause for re-
view by the Assistant Secretary of moval of the wire rope:
Labor or the Assistant Secretary’s rep- (A) Broken wires exceeding three
resentative and by the employer. wires in one strand or six wires in one
(4) Special inspection of governors and rope lay;
secondary brakes. (i) Governors and sec- (B) Distortion of rope structure such
ondary brakes shall be inspected and as would result from crushing or
tested at intervals specified by the kinking;
manufacturer/supplier but not to ex- (C) Evidence of heat damage;
ceed every 12 months. (D) Evidence of rope deterioration
(ii) The results of the inspection and from corrosion;
test shall confirm that the initiating (E) A broken wire within 18 inches
device for the secondary braking sys- (460.8 mm) of the end attachments;
tem operates at the proper overspeed. (F) Noticeable rusting and pitting;
(iii) The results of the inspection and (G) Evidence of core failure (a length-
test shall confirm that the secondary ening of rope lay, protrusion of the
brake is functioning properly. rope core and a reduction in rope di-
(iv) If any hoisting machine or initi- ameter suggests core failure); or
ating device for the secondary brake (H) More than one valley break (bro-
system is removed from the equipment ken wire).
for testing, all reinstalled and directly (I) Outer wire wear exceeds one-third
related components shall be rein- of the original outer wire diameter.
spected prior to returning the equip- (J) Any other condition which the
ment installation to service. competent person determines has sig-
(v) Inspection of governors and sec- nificantly affected the integrity of the
ondary brakes shall be performed by a rope.
competent person. (v) The building owner shall keep a
(vi) The secondary brake governor certification record of each monthly
and actuation device shall be tested be- inspection of a suspension wire rope as
fore each day’s use. Where testing is required in paragraph (g)(5)(iii) of this
not feasible, a visual inspection of the section. The record shall include the
brake shall be made instead to ensure date of the inspection, the signature of
that it is free to operate. the person who performed the inspec-
(5) Suspension wire rope maintenance, tion, and a number, or other identifier,
inspection and replacement. (i) Suspen- of the wire rope which was inspected.
sion wire rope shall be maintained and This record of inspection shall be made
used in accordance with procedures available for review by the Assistant
recommended by the wire rope manu- Secretary of Labor or the Assistant
facturer. Secretary’s representative and by the
(ii) Suspension wire rope shall be in- employer.
spected by a competent person for visi- (6) Hoist inspection. Before lowering
ble defects and gross damage to the personnel below the top elevation of
rope before every use and after each oc- the building, the hoist shall be tested
currence which might affect the wire each day in the lifting direction with
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.66

has sufficient capacity to raise the per- Immediately upon completion of such
sonnel back to the boarding level. tests, inspections and maintenance, the
(h) Maintenance—(1) General mainte- device shall be restored to its normal
nance. All parts of the equipment af- operating condition.
fecting safe operation shall be main- (i) Operations—(1) Training. (i) Work-
tained in proper working order so that ing platforms shall be operated only by
they may perform the functions for persons who are proficient in the oper-
which they were intended. The equip- ation, safe use and inspection of the
ment shall be taken out of service particular working platform to be oper-
when it is not in proper working order. ated.
(2) Cleaning. (i) Control or power (ii) All employees who operate work-
contactors and relays shall be kept ing platforms shall be trained in the
clean. following:
(ii) All other parts shall be kept (A) Recognition of, and preventive
clean if their proper functioning would measures for, the safety hazards associ-
be affected by the presence of dirt or ated with their individual work tasks.
other contaminants. (B) General recognition and preven-
(3) Periodic resocketing of wire rope fas- tion of safety hazards associated with
tenings. (i) Hoisting ropes utilizing the use of working platforms, including
poured socket fastenings shall be the provisions in the section relating
resocketed at the non-drum ends at in- to the particular working platform to
tervals not exceeding 24 months. In be operated.
resocketing the ropes, a sufficient (C) Emergency action plan proce-
length shall be cut from the end of the dures required in paragraph (e)(9) of
rope to remove damaged or fatigued this section.
portions. (D) Work procedures required in
(ii) Resocketed ropes shall conform paragraph (i)(1)(iv) of this section.
to the requirements of paragraph (f)(7) (E) Personal fall arrest system in-
of this section. spection, care, use and system perform-
(iii) Limit switches affected by the ance.
resocketed ropes shall be reset, if nec- (iii) Training of employees in the op-
essary. eration and inspection of working plat-
(4) Periodic reshackling of suspension forms shall be done by a competent
wire ropes. The hoisting ropes shall be person.
reshackled at the nondrum ends at in- (iv) Written work procedures for the
tervals not exceeding 24 months. When operation, safe use and inspection of
reshackling the ropes, a sufficient working platforms shall be provided for
length shall be cut from the end of the employee training. Pictorial methods
rope to remove damaged or fatigued of instruction, may be used, in lieu of
portions. written work procedures, if employee
(5) Roof systems. Roof track systems, communication is improved using this
tie-downs, or similar equipment shall method. The operating manuals sup-
be maintained in proper working order plied by manufacturers for platform
so that they perform the function for system components can serve as the
which they were intended. basis for these procedures.
(6) Building face guiding members. T- (v) The employer shall certify that
rails, indented mullions, or equivalent employees have been trained in oper-
guides located in the face of a building ating and inspecting a working plat-
shall be maintained in proper working form by preparing a certification
order so that they perform the func- record which includes the identity of
tions for which they were intended. the person trained, the signature of the
Brackets for cable stabilizers shall employer or the person who conducted
similarly be maintained in proper the training and the date that training
working order. was completed. The certification
(7) Inoperative safety devices. No per- record shall be prepared at the comple-
son shall render a required safety de- tion of the training required in para-
vice or electrical protective device in- graph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, and shall
operative, except as necessary for be maintained in a file for the duration
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tests, inspections, and maintenance. of the employee’s employment. The

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certification record shall be kept read- become entangled in rollers, hoists or


ily available for review by the Assist- other machinery.
ant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant (j) Personal fall