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of businesses and corporations committed to further the goals of the business. These acts were not regulated by criminal law but by regulatory laws of various kinds. These acts included false advertising, anti-trust violations, environmental pollution or dumping product on the market below cost. Criminologists now call this corporate crime or organizational crime and reserve the term white-collar crime for those illegal acts committed by people in positions of trust (usually in white-collar jobs) for personal gain. For example, making personal long distance calls on an employer's account. 1. Nick Leeson was sentenced to £827 million in damages and interests for bringing down the Barings Bank. Leeson had hidden the losses in an obscure account called Error Account 88888, which went to different managers from the house accounts. These were done in order to obliterate the losses of more £800m, almost the entire assets of the bank that he had done. 2. A trader for French securities firm Société Générale that was charged with losing more than $7 billion in company assets by conducting a series of unauthorized and false trades between 2006 and early 2008. When company managers discovered that Jerome Kerviel had conducted tens of billions of dollars' worth of unauthorized trades, they rushed to close out the open positions (most of which were specialized equity arbitrage trades) and contain the extent of the fraud. Several of the trades were closed out with heavy losses due to a falling market at the time of sale. He gets five years in prison and owes 4.9 billion euro (£4.2 billion) in damages and interests to the victim - the bank. Blue-collar job The term blue collar job typically refers to a job that involves manual labour and receives an hourly rate of pay rather than an annual salary. The automotive manufacturing and repair industries as well as the construction industry have been referred to as blue collar for decades. Though a blue collar job was once thought to be reserved for people with no education or skill who were seemingly only qualified to perform manual labour, the defining qualities of a blue collar job no longer fit in some industries. For example, many computer and high tech jobs pay by the hour and some construction industry positions pay an annual salary. In modern times, a blue collar job may also require education for a number of positions, which are categorized as skilled trades. A blue collar job is often within an industry governed by a labour union. Automotive, construction, electrical, and food industries all have labour unions who bargain for worker s collective rights. Fiddle Fiddling is the act of dishonest in order to get something for yourself, or to change something dishonestly, especially to your advantage. Usually, it is used to describe how an employee avoid his/her assigned duties and commit fraud and steal from the employer. Fiddling can be exemplified based on GlobalExpense surveys conducted by YouGov in Great Britain on 2007 and 2008, 32 percent of people surveyed admit to meeting friends or colleagues for a social lunch or drink, which was probably or likely to consequently be claimed as a business expense. Faby0987 AS Sociology
THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE Deviant It describes a person or behaviour that is not usual and is generally considered to be unacceptable. While deviance commonly refers to violations of social norms including legal norms (for example, laughing out loud during funeral or wearing sexually-provocative clothes to go to the church) but many sociologists reject this behavioural or normative definition of deviance and see deviance instead as simply a label. Deviance in this view is that which we react to, through social control responses, as deviance. For example: 1. As white cultures are often interpreted as the accepted and the shared culture by the society, the blacks are often being seen as the deviant ones as they keep following their own culture, especially when the rap music was introduced. Rap music can be defined as the style of rhythm-spoken words across a musical terrain (Chuck, 1999). It was originally part of the African American culture, which refers to the man's purpose of winning the sexual affections of a woman (Smitherman, 1997). However, rap is seen as an icon of resentment to the white status quo. As in any situation where an icon such as rap or hip-hop is attacked, there is always the potential that the attention will grant the music even further symbolic power, and increase the number of listeners. Thus, the white culture is challenged and causing the blacks to be accused as being deviant. 2. The same goes to marijuana smokers. According to Jock Young (1971), in his study of hippie marijuana users in Notting Hill, the police (agent of social control) see these hippies as dirty, scruffy, idle, scrounging, promiscuous, depraved, unstable, immature, good-for-nothing drug addicts. All these attributes are a complete opposite to the society s values and norms as a whole. Therefore, these people have been classified as deviant. Peer group Peer group is all those people of about the same age, status, etc in a society, which are regarded as forming a sociological group with a homogeneous system of values. Peers are people of roughly the same age (same stage of development and maturity), similar social identity, and close social proximity. They're friends, buddies, pals, troops, etc. Typically, children encounter peer group influence around age three or so. Usually these are neighbours, family members, or day care mates. With peers, the child begins to broaden his or her circle of influence to people outside of the immediate family. These peer groups are usually available once the child has entered secondary socialisation. Psychopaths Although there is considerable debate about whether psychopath is an authentic psychiatric disorder it is typically classified under personality disorder . Psychopaths tend to be lacking in what is considered conscience, are unable to form emotional attachments (even to friends or family), are quite impulsive, and are only self-interested. There is also considerable debate about whether this group can be changed. The majority of psychopaths victimize others via non-lethal means, manipulating, deceiving, and swindling the unsuspecting (Hare 1999, Millon 1998). Examples of psychopaths are: Faby0987 AS Sociology
1. Katherine Knight had a lousy childhood. Knight s father Ken was an alcoholic who openly used violence and intimidation to rape her mother up to ten times a day. Barbara in turn often told her daughters intimate details of her sex life and how much she hated sex and men. Knight claims she was frequently sexually abused by several members of her family (though not by her father), which continued until she was 11. In 2001, she beheaded, skinned and cooked her de facto, John Price just because he refused to continue their relationship out of fear since Knight is a violent, physically and sexually, woman. 2. Richard Ramirez has been called "the chief example of a serial killer with Satanic overtones". He was named The Night Stalker from his habit of randomly entering homes at night and murdering and/or raping people who lived there. He created Satanic graffiti in the homes which he entered, made some of his female victims swear allegiance to Satan and showed an inverted pentagram on the palm of his hand during the trial. He apparently was not involved in any Satanic group. His crimes seem to have been influenced by a heavy metal rock song "Highway to Hell". Maternal deprivation Maternal deprivation is the absence of a stable and affectionate relationship between a child and its mother early in life. John Bowlby (1971) studied how human beings form attachments and how they experience grief and loss. He suggested tht humans have from infancy a predisposition to form a deep and overwhelmingly important attachment to one person and that person might be the mother. Disruption of the relationship with the mother during childhood by will produce anxiety and effects similar to grief for the loss of the loved ones. Thus, Bowlby argued that maternal deprivation can lead to mental illness or deviant behaviour later in life. For example: 1. Bowlby (1944) study a group of children who had been referred to a child guidance clinic because they were juvenile thieves. He compared them to a control group of children who had been referred to the clinic because of emotional problems but who had not committed any crimes. He found that 32% of the juvenile thieves were affectionless psychopaths (lacking guilt and remorse), whereas none of the children in the control group were affectionless psychopaths. Of the juvenile thieves who were affectionless psychopaths, 86% had experienced early separation. 2. Goldfarb (1947) studied two groups of infants. The first group had spent only a few months at a poor and inadequately staffed orphanage before being fostered. The second group had spent three years at the same orphanage before being fostered. Both groups of infants were tested at various times up to the age of 12. Goldfarb found that the children who had spent three years at the orphanage did less well on intelligence tests, were less socially mature, and were more likely to be aggressive. Non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication is the larger, non-spoken context within which all face-to-face communication takes place. Every conscious or subconscious behaviour in presence of another is suffused with meaning without which all verbal communication would be ambiguous. Non-verbal communication includes pitch, speed, tone and volume of voice, gestures and facial expressions, body posture, stance, and proximity to the listener, eye movements and contact, and dress and Faby0987 AS Sociology
appearance. Research suggests that only 5 percent effect is produced by the spoken word, 45 percent by the tone, inflexion, and other elements of voice, and 50 percent by body language, movements, eye contact, etc. Culture Culture is the generally shared knowledge, beliefs and values of members of society. Culture is conveyed from generation to generation through the process of socialization. While culture is made up of ideas, some sociologists also argue that it is not exclusively ideational but can be found in human-made material objects. They define a separate material culture . This distinction appears weak, since human-made material objects must embody human ideas. Culture and social structure are considered as the two key components of society and are therefore the foundation concepts of sociology.
Faby0987 AS Sociology
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