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Ushahidi and Memory: The archiving of social memory

Ushahidi is geospatial visualization information tool. Ushahidi provides

crowdsourcing information through google maps, sms, and the internet which allows for
extremely fast gathering of news. It collects user-generated real-time information
regarding conflict, riots, rapes, refugees and deaths through anonymous submissions. The
information that is collected is plotted on a map of the region. In this way Ushahidi
collects witness testimony and emergency reports thus providing an alternative media
source. Usahidid has been increasingly used around the world, it was originally used in
Kenya’s 2007 presidential collection, and is now even used by news agencies such as Al
Jazeera or the Washington Post. It is important to study Usahidi because it has the
potential to alter how things are remember. Traditionally history and memory of the past
are dominated by institutions. However, now with a simple text message any person can
contribute to the news process by providing witness testimony. This research will
examine the use of Ushahidi through qualitative analysis of user-generated content,
particularly in the aftermath of crisis.

Virtual Perception of Thai Politics

The advancement in digital media has allowed any individual to participate and
contribute to media. Media no longer is limited to professional institutions. However,
with the rise and evolution of digital media new problems arise for governments,
particularly governments that censor their media. This research looks at the emergence of social
media in Thailand and it’s ability to affect political affairs and national stability. Thailand has
been experiencing political unrest as an emerging democracy and social media has had the power
to significantly affect politics and revolutions in a similar way as it did in China and Iran.
Social media had a significant impact in China, as exemplified during the Sichuan earthquake,
and Iran’s 2009 elections. In both cases social media was a tool that transformed communication
and awareness of issues. This subsequently led to blocks of some social media technology in Iran
and China. It appears that the same holds for Thailand, social media has been among the most
influential news sources for citizens, a forum forum for critical expression and thus it is
becoming increasingly monitored and censored. Looking at social media will show how
dependent political stability is on the media and how social media has empowered Thai citizens.
Electronic Literature’s and the Transformation of Narrative Theory

In "Introduction à l'analyse structurale des récits" Roland Barthes declared that

“Numberless are the world's narratives" which lead to the establishment of narrative theory.
Narratology is the study of narratives in literary texts. Barthes has argued that all narratives are
grounded in a common narrative structure. This allows for narrative texts to be easily recognised
as narratives. To ensure understanding of others writings narratives follow distinct
characteristics and norms which have developed into narrative systems. Narrative theory thus
gives us a recognisable framework thought which knowledge and events are communicated
clearly. The key principles aspects of narrative structures which will be looked at include the
narrative cycle, the narrator characters, sequential order of events, and position of the reader.

This papers examines various forms of Electronic Literature and their impact on
narrative theory. The rise of Digital Media has provided new tools and forms for conveying
narratives. This has lead to Electronic Literature has a new literary genre. Unlike print based
literature Electronic literature is based in digital environments and generated by a computer.
Electronic literature does retain literary aspects but is increasingly changing traditional
narratology. Digital environments have the ability to reforms narratives. The narrative power of
the computer lies in its ability to enable new components for experiencing stories. it provides a
completely different platform then traditional print literature since it is rooted in a digital
environment. the computer is the means to output electronic literature. Several elements of
electronic literature and digital media allow for changes in narrative theory. Digital narrative
spaces are interactive, transformable, participatory responsive, multi-sensory (sounds, visuals,
etc.), immersive, and can regenerate.