DATE

1 February 1962 5

I

I

REVISED

9 June 1962

Ilk 11
'

CONTROL NO. (244039

1 July 1963 1 €lpVIsn>) '.lMay,1964 LI."C& J
. L

REVISED

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITElUA
GIMINI SPACECRAFT (U)

REPORT

8616

COPY N

0

.

L

h d s
APPROVED BY APPROVEDBY

T P Brooks, . .
ProJect Strength kgr.

H C. Goran, Chief .
Strength Engr,

MCDOAINELL AIRCRAFT CORPORAT8ON
LAMOlffT

-

ST. LOUIS MUNICIPAL- AIRPORT.'lOX

I I m . mT. LOUIS 66. MO.

MAC 2 7 3

(REV 21 FEB 6 2 )

r

f-:.

INDEX

OF REVISIONS
REMARKS REVISED B Y APPROVED

-~
DATE PAGES A F F E C T E D

-

I

T. P. Brook

R e p o r t c mpletely revised

I-3J . 3

V I S I O N "1

I

.

P.

P. Brooks

3. C. Goran

+

.

-__-

361 ..
T. P Brook: .

2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.7.5

penetration c r i t e r i t ,

R. C Goran .

3.5
3.7.1 3.7.2
.0 1
A -1 3 1

dded e j e c t i o n s e a t a l l u t e and Dersonn abort c r i t e r i a

DATE REVISED REVISED

1 July 1963 IMay 1964

PAGE
REPORT

1.2.1

8616
Gemini

MODEL

11 .

1.2

.............................................. Table of Contents .................................................
Index of Revisions
*.

1.1

1.2.1

1 3 List of Pages .
14 .
15 .

................................................... 1.3 References ................................... ..... ...... ... 1.4

1.6 Introduction

21 . 22 .

23 .

24 .
2.5

2.6
2.7

................................. ....... .......... 1.6 PART TWO - BASIC R ! MA Spacecraft Description ....... ................................... 2 1 . Spacecraft General Arrangement .................................. 2.2 Spacecraft Design Weights ....................................... 2.3.1 Standard Atmomere :.........................* .................. 2.4.1 W i n a Shears axid Velocities ......................................... 2.5.1 Grrsta ................................. .......................... 2.6 Meteorbld Distribution .......................................... 2.7,1
PART !l?KREE

.....................................~.e......~eo~~....o. 1.5

1

- mmL4

31 .
3.2

3.3

3.4
36 .
3.7

3.5 Re-Ratry Phase

...................................................... 3.5.1 Landing Phase ...................................... ............. 3.6.1~1 Abort Phase ..................................................... 3.7.1
~~

................................... 3.1.1 h o s t m s e ........................................~*..~~.~~ 3.2:1 Orbital Phase ................................................... 331 .. Rendezvous Phase .......................~ ........................ 3.4
Limit and Ultimete Conditions

MAC 2 3 1 U

(REV

I AUG 6 1 )

PAGE REPORT REVISED MODEL

1.2.2

8616
GexLni

-E L

OF CC:XE+TTS (Continued)

..................................... 3.8 3.9 Pressurization .................................................. 3.8 3.10 Controls ........................................................ 3.10 3.11 Seats and Harness ...............................................3 1 . .11 3.12 mock and Acceleration Environment .............................. 3.11.1 3.13 Vibration an8 ACoWtlc M o m a t .............................. 3 1 . .11
3.8 Hoisting and Transportation
A. l1

A1.2

Al.3
A. 21

....................................................A-1.1 Boost Phase ...................................... A-1.2 Boost Phase TraJectory ......................................... A-1.3.1 Rendezvous Phase ............................................... A-2.1
Boost Phase
COnf~guratiOn

A

~~

-

-

r*cDo,WNELL
DATE

15 Februarv 1962-

tt.

LOUIS, MISSOURI

PAGE REPORT

1.3

REVISED

1963
1

8616
Gemini

REVISED

YODEL

1 . 3 L i o t of Pages
1 . 1
20 1

1.2.1
20 2 2.5.1

1.2.2

1.3 2.3.2 2.6 2.7.6 3.2.1 3.2.7 3.5.2 3.5.8 3.5.14 3.5.20 3.5.26 3.5.32 3.5.38 3.6.3 3 -8 3.13.2

1.4 2.4.1
2 07 0 1

1.5
2.4.2
2.7.2

1.6
2.4.3 2.7.3

2.3.1
2.5.2

2.7.4 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2.5 3 .4 3.5.6 3.5.12

2.7.5

3.1.3 3.2.6 3.5-1 3.5 .7 3-5-13 3.5 -19 3.5 -25 3.5.31 3.5.37 3.6.2 3.7.2 3.13.1
A-1.3-1

3 0 02 2
3.2.8 3.5.3 3.5.9 3.5.15 3.5.21 3 .5 027 3.5.33 3.5.39 3.6.4 3 010

3.2.3 3.3.1 3.5.4 3.5.10 3.5.16 3.5.22 3.5.28 3-5.34 3.60101 3.6.5 3.11.1

3.2.4 3 .3 .2 3.5.5 3.5.11

3-5-17
3.5.23 3.5.29 3.5.35 3.6.1.2 3.6.6 3.11.2

a

3.5.18 3.5.24 3.5.30 3.5.36 3.6.1.3 3.7.1 3 03.2
A01.1 A-1.2

A -1 3.2

.

A-2.1

m a
i

REPORT
YODEL

8616
Gemini

1.4

References 1 MAC Report .

8611

Gemini Spacecraft Performance Specification
A Reference Atmosphere f o r P a t r i c k AFB, Cape Kennedy, Florida,Annual

3. NASA m D-610 4 .

Monthly and Annual Wind D i s t r i bution as a Function of A l t i t u d e f o r Patrick AFB, Florida Meteoroid Environment i n Near-Earth, Cislunar, and Near-Lunar Space, dated 8 November 1963 Gemini Landing Requirements dated 21 June 1962

NASA Engineering Criteria Bulletin No. EC-1

- --

5. NASA Letter

GPO 00169

-

6. MAC Report 8774
7 . MAC Report 8433

ProJect Gemini Predicted Vibration and Accoustic Environment General Environmental Requirements f o r Model 133P D i g i t a l Printout of Trajectory 309, dated 15 My 1963 a
D i g i t a l Printout of Trajectory

-

8 Martin Letter mom64 . 9. Martin IDC Design
Verification Trajectories
1. 0

333
Design Launch t o O r b i t Trajectory f o r Gemini Mission, dated 29 M y

Lockheed Document

mC/A377490
ll. MAC Report 9998

1963
Gemini Ablation Shield S t r u c t u r a l Capability and Performance Limits ( b be publishe5)

12. Lockheed (LMSC) Interdepartmental Communication m/80 571

.

Preliminary Gemini/Agena D Balance and I n e r t i a Data, dated 1 December 1

1963

MAL

231U

(REV

I AUC S I )

Y

McDomkvELL
15 Febrmrv 1961 1 J u l y 1963 REVISED
DATE

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI

PACE
REPORT MODEL

15 .

8616
Gemini

REVISED

1 m y 1964

15 .

Summary

This report forms part of the Gemini Spacecraft Performance Specification

(Reference 1)and gives t h e detail c r i t e r i a f o r the design of the s t r u c t u r e .

The s t r u c t u r a l design c r i t e r i a as described herein f o r the Gemini spacec r a f t i s applicable f o r all spacecraft as t h e missions are currently projected.

It is planned that this r e p o r t will be revisedlas new require-

ments arise either.from changed o r addedimissions o r from more refined a n a l y s i s of the current missions.

MODEL

Gex:l.ni

k

e

4 E-r

m

N

0

e

4

& -,*

mm m7
4-'LwIy-L(

-"i 9 r-.

1 .. 4 , - q I

-&
PAGE

DATE

REVISED REVISED

l5 February 1962 1May 1964

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI

2.3.2

REPORT

MODEL

8616 Gemini

2.3.5

Desim Re-entry Weeight (4050 t o 5050 lb.) Spacecraft weight upon re-entry into t h e atmosphere.

It i s t h e

Design Hetrograde Weight less a t t i t u d e propellant and the retrograde
section of t h e adapter.

2J.6

Design Deployment Weights

2361 ..,

Design Drogue Parachute Deployment Weight (4730 lb.)

Spacecraft weight a t the time of deploying t h e drogue parachute and/or p i l o t parachute. 2.3.6.2 De,sim Main Parachute Deployment Weight (400 lb.)

Spacecraft weight including parachute a t t h e time of deploying the main parachute.

2.3.6.3

Design Paraglider Deployment Weight (3650 t o 4650 1b.l

Spacecraft weight a t t h e t i m e of i n i t i a t i n g t h e paraglider deployment sequence.

It i s the Design &-entry Weight l e s s a t t i -

tude propellant, ablative material, p i l o t chute and paraglidor housing 2.3.7

.

Design Iandina Weights 2.3.7.1 Design Parachute Landing Wei,qht (4300 1b.l

Spacecraft weight impacting the water. suspended under t h e parachute. 2.3.7.2

It i the weignt s

Design Paravlider Landing Weipht (3300 to 4300 l b . 1

Spacecraft weight during landing runout o r impacting t h e water.

It is a l s o the weight suspended under t h e paraglider.

It i a the Design Paraglider Deployment Weight l e s e paraglider
and propellant jettison.

2.3.8

Desim Flotation Weight (3300 t o 4300 lb.) This is the same as the maximum Landing Weight.

REVISED

1 May

'ah4
Design l!ater Recovery WeiEht (5500 to 6500 lb.)

REPORT
MODEL

8616
Zenini

REVISED

2.3.9

This is t h e weight t o be hoisted a f t e r a water landing. Design Flotation Weight plus 2200 lb. of trapped water.

It i s t h e

231 ..0

Design Abort Weight (4900 t o 5900 lb.) The spacecraft weight a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n of separation from the

launch vehicle f o r an abort.

It i s t h e Design hunch Weight less t h e

launch vehicle mating section and t h e e q u i p e n t section of t h e Adapter.

2.3.U.

Design Transportation Weip,ht (6000 lb .)

The weight f o r hoisting, handling, and transporting as a u n i t .
2, 4 .

Standard Atmosphere
A l l loads and temperature calculations s h a l l be based on t h e a t m s - k e r e

LS

defined in Reference ( ) 2.

Density and pressure are shown on Figure 21. .12

and Figure 243 ..

as a function of a l t i t u d e .

1.6

Gusts

Strength shall be provided for loads associated w i t h i s o t r o p i c sharp edged
lusts of 30 fpe, equivalent airspeed, below 40,000 f e e t and 60 fps, t r u e airspeed, tbove,40,000 feet neglecting penetration effeote and w i t h an a l l e v i a t i o n f a c t o r

,f l r O .

Gusts a h a l l be considered separately o r in conjunction wfth tho wind When combining t h e gust v e l o c i t i e s with the wind shear
I

3heare of Section 2,5.

wqulremente, t h e awn of t h e wind plue gust v e l o c i t i e s s h a l l not exceed t h e iesign wind velocity shown in Figure 2.5.2.

RllVlSKO

MODEL

27 .

Msteoroid Env5ronment The meteoroid environembb s h a l l consist of the n e a p e a r t h and cislunar

sporadic meteoroids and t h e major meteoroid streams.

The s p e c i f i c environment

based on d a t a from Reference (4) i s defined i n t h e following paragraphs.

b :
LOG N = - . 4 13
Where N

m
Density:

-

log m

- 10.k23
,

number of h p a c t s per square foot per day
ass i n grams

0.5 d c c , a l l particle s i z e s

Average Geocentric Velocity:

30 km/sec, a l l p a r t i c l e sizes.

The flwc-mass relationship s t a t e d above is shown graphically i n Figure 273 ...

e

The f l u x r e l a t i o n given above is an average of t h e monthly variations.

For a

particular period, the f a c t o r s from Figure 2.7.4

a r e used.

Since t h e sporadic

meteroids are non-directional, t h e above c r i t e r i a are applied t o t h e surface
area of t h e vehicle.

A l l v e l o c i t i e s are assumed t o be directed normal t o t h e

target surface.
2.7.2 Near Earth and Cislunar, Meteoroid Streams F l u , Pass:
fM;

N

-1.34

log m

-

2.68

log V

- 6.465

+ log F

Where N = number of impacts per square foot per day

m
V

-

mass i n grama
geocentric velocity of t h e meteoroid stream ( b / s e c ) r a t i o of accumulative meteor stream flux t o t h e sporadic meteor f l u . The value of F, t h e period of a c t i v i t y ,

F

and the geocentric velocity of t h e major streams gre shown I n Table 275 ... The integrated value of F for

any given date during t h e e n t i r e year is shown in Figure 2. .6 7.

*~.VISLO

Density:

0.5 gpL/cc, all p a r t i d e s i z e s
A 8 shown

Ceocentrio Velocity:

in Table .Z!.7m5. Since t h e meteoroid

streams are directional, the above c r i t e r i a a r e applied t o t h e projected area of t h e vehicle. The vehicle shall be given the most

critical orientation ‘ r e l a t i v e t o t h e stream.
,

That is, a t any time, t h e l a r g e s t projected

area of t h e vehicle or component i s to be used

.

273 ..

ShieldinR Factor The shielding f a c t o r accounts f o r t h e f a c t t h a t in the v i c i n i t y of the

earth, meteoroids whose velocity vectors lie within a cone with t h e apex a t t h e

spacecraft ani surface tangent t o the surface of the e a r t h have intercepted
the earth’s surface.
these meteoroids.

Consequently, the spacecraft is e f f e c t i v e l y shielded from

To account for this, a near earth shielding f a c t o r of 05 .

shall be applied to t h e surface area of the spacecraft.

ST. LOUIS 66. MISSOURI

REPORT

861h

...

PAGE

2,7,1;
e.616
0 .

REPORT

REVI&ED

MODEL

. .

A v e r a g e Value (Flux-Mass E q m t i o n )
'

Log N

4 - 3 4 ; Lbg.m'

-10.423

l;4
12 .

g . 6
.a4
. 2
0

E

..€I

oc t

SeP
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY

Nov

1
Dec
Jan

FIGURE 2 . ? J + ~ Y WSPORADIC METEOR FLUX.

RIVISCD

MODEL

C&,-i

Table 275 .. Periods of Activity. Relative Frequency, a M Velocities for Major Keteor S t r e a m Period of Activity *

Name

Date Max.

Fmax.
80 .

Geocentric Velocity (kr/se c )

Quadrantids m d -Aquarid

Jan 2-4
April 19-22 My 1-8 a

Jan 3
April 2 1
I h Y 4-6

4

.

42
48
64

85

22 . 20 .

wetid Arietid

16-23.
b y 29-June 1 9

b Y 14-23.

37
38
29

June 6
June 6
June 28
I

45 .
3.0
2 . 0

4
6

-Perseid

June 1-16

j -Taurids 3

June 24-July 5
JuQ 2 6 - A ~5
July 1 5 - A ~ g 18

34

-Aquarid

'July 28

1.5
5.0

40
60

Perseid Ziacobinid* 3rionid

Aug 10-14 Oct 10 o c t 20-23

Oct 9-10 Oct 15-25 Oct-Nov Oct 24-Nov 22

20

23

1 . 2 11 .

66

h i et id, ;out hern
r a ~ i d ~ , Jorthern raurids,

Nov 5 Nov 10

28
29
37

0.4
1.0

Qw

Nov
Oct 26-Nov 22

raurids,
jouthern Leonid* Bielids kninld Ursids

Nov 5
Nov 16-17

0.9 0.9 2.5

28
72

NOV 15-20
Nov 15-Dec 6 Nov 25-Dcc 17

16
35

D ~ C21 1-3

4.0
25 .

Dec 20-24

Dec 22

# A l l a c t i v i t y i s taken t o be periodic, annually except f o r Giacobinids which have a wrlodlc'peak every 6.5 years and the extra peak of the Leonids every 33.25 years.
7

-

37

= r a t i o of maximurn accumulative meteor stream flux t o t h e sporadic ineteor flux.

3*1

Llnit and Ultimate Conditions

Limit loads and heating e f f e c t s r e s u l t from enviromental conditions a r i s i n g from normal mission, a8 described i n t h i s part, combined with t h e e f f e c t s of any single malfunction. Abort o r s e a t ejection s h a l l not be I n t h e case of malfunction

considered a m a l f h c t i o n in t h i s definition.

of a single retrograde rocket, causing only t h r e e out of four t o fire,
maneuvering r e s t r i c t i o n shall be placed on t h e re-entry f l i g h t t o preclude exceeding the s t r u c t u r a l limitations required f o r t h e nominal mission. Ultimate loade s h a l l be limit loads multiplied by the Factor of Safety. The minimum factor of s a f e t y $hall be 1.36 with t h e following exceptions:

For retrograde rocket pressures on t h e b l a s t shield and water impact
pressures on t h e re-entry module, ultimate design loads may be equal t o

U loads and damage t o the s t r u c t u r e s h a l l be acceptable provided t h a t t
astronaut safety and f l o t a t i o n requirements a r e m e t .
A minimum margin of safety of 25% s h a l l be maintained as defined below

for the following elements or assemblies.
(a)

&andlng Gear and Support F i t t i n g s

-

A l l j o i n t s where s t r u c t u r a l

i n t e g r i t y could be dependent on a single b o l t or pin and t h e design condition'is defined by 'landing Loads. (b) Paraglider

- All j o i n t s where s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y could be dependent

on a single b o l t o r pin and the design condition is defined by paraglidel deployment o r maneuvering, (c) Hatch Actuation

-

Hatch actuator, latching mechanism and a l l j o i n t s

where s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y could be dependent on a single b o l t o r pin anc t h e design condition is defined by hatch actuation.

3.1 L i m i t and Ultimate Conditions

(Continued)

( 3 ) For the drogue parechute support structure, the minimum f a c t o r of s a f e t y
shall be 1.36 f o r the normal mission and 1 1 f o r the case of a re-entry .0

from t h e V - p a b o r t boundary (Flgure 3 5 3 ..)
control system (without rete damping).

vlth a failure of the a t t i t u d e

This value i s used because of the

improbable combination of events that w o u l d be required t o reach this extreme condi tion

.

(4)

For the personnel parachute canopies, the minimum Factor of Safety shall be
1.10 based on the minimum f a i l i n g strength.

W e value i s used because of

the improbability of all of the necessary circumstances combining t o produce

the design condition and the probability that the canopy strength does exceed

the minimum.

The minimum f a i l u r e load of the C-9 type canopy, which i s being

0

used by t h e direction of NASA, is 5,000 pounds and the noPainal c a p e b i l i t y i s

6,500 pounds.

I n order to reach the design condition f o r deployment of the

personnel parachute, ejection must occur a t a p a r t i c u l a r a l t i t u d e during launch and the seat must be oriented i n a-unique a t t i t u d e .

I n t h i s attitude,

t h e barostat, which i n i t i a t e s parachute deployment, senses ram pressure

superimposed on *static pressure ' causing premture parachute deployment. U l t i m a t e heating e f f e c t s are those obtained by increasing l i m i t temperatures
2009 o r hen-+-i q m t s by 154 whichever i s c r i t i c a l f o r r e - e n t r y and increasing
l i m i t t e m p e r a t u r e lOoOe f o r boost, except f o r i t e m s inside the pressure vessel.

Structure inside the pressure vessel which i s not attached to the, skin and has no s i g n i f i c a n t thermal mass shall be designed f o r 250% ultimBte.

U l t i m a t e design

conditions are either ultimate loads combined.with Wt heating e f f e c t s o r u l t i -

a

mate heating e f f e c t s combined w i t h l l m i t loads.
Deformations r e s u l t i n g fo aero-thermal e l a s t i c e f f e c t s a t l i m i t conrm d i t i o n s shall not e f f e c t adversely the aeroaynamia or functional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

7.1 Limit and Ultimate Conditions

(Continued)

of the vehicle,

Nonsurvivable failure shall not occur qnder ultimate loads

or under limit loads for the unique situation where u l t h a t e loads equal limit loads. The design s h a l l be based on a service life of one nominaldssion.
The

Re-entry Module s h a l l be re-usable after a mnm m amount of refurbishment ii u

and -placement

of certain c r i t i c a l items.
t h i s report are limit condition8 unless otherwise specified,

All conditions i n

8 . 2

Boost Phase

(Continued)

considered.

However, the considerations f o r the momentary guidance f a i l u r e

condition shall be limited by t h e t h r u s t vector r e s t o r i n g moment available t o maintain s t a b l e f l i g h t .

For t h e malfunction conditions, t h e boost phase s h a l l b-

considered ended when both astronauts haw passed c l e a r of the open hatch structure during e j e c t i o n o r when t h e connection between the'.spacecraft and t h e booster

h a s been severed during retrograde rocket abort.

Booster engines may o r may not

be ehut down f o r ejection, but they must be shut down f o r t h e retrograde rocket
abort.

The a l t i t u d e ranges through which e j e c t i o n abort o r retrograde rocket abort
conditions must be considered a r e presented i n Section 3.7. Atroospheric density variation s h a l l be considered by increasing dynamic
pressure

in the nominal t r a j e c t o r y by 5%.

a .

MTC
MODEL

1 July 1963 '

- -

MCDONNELL
ST. LOUIS 68. MISSOURI

?AOC REPORT

Ti2.7 si6

,

ij

BATE

~

MODEL

1J U - k l q 6 3 L Gemini

MdCDOMrn~LL
ST. LOUIS 66. MISSOURI

PAGE

REPORT

3.5020 8616

0

I

D A T E

1 July 1963
1 &y 196r,
I
'

D

rnT

REVISED
REVISED

I

m D T

Ei i

c,

ST.LOU1S 3. MISSOURI

(/.-6k&n

PAGF
REP0 RT

>>L ..A

r

*>i

8616
G€nini

-

.

-

MODEL

I

I

"

1
l

I
a
0

m

9

d I

IS

,

.

.

-. . ._

._. .

.,

.

_. . .
<

.

REVISED REVISED

REPORT MOOEL

8616

Gemini

The landing phase is defined as including a l l operations s t a r t i n g from t h e i n i t i a t i o n of t h e recovery system deployment u n t i l t h e re-entry module is safely

I Cc?loyment,
:
I
!

on t h e grmnd o r water,

It covers drogue parachute deployment, @ot

prackute

main parachute o r paraglider deployment, steady s t a t e o r maneuveririg
A l l mass items s h a l l be desigfied

descent, and surface inpact considerations,

f o r the shock and acceleration requireaents of Section 3.12.
Parachute Landing Phase

i 3.6.1

Pcachute larxling system c r i t e r i a a r e described herein fo? both the two

1 parachute systez bein4 used on the e a r l y spacecraft arid the t h r e e parachAe

a

i

systein beirg developed f o r l a t e r spacecraft.
The basic two parachute systen consists of a ring-sail p i l o t paraciiute

I 18 f e e t i n d i z x t e r and a ring-sail main parachute

84 f e e t in diameter.

The

k h r e e parachu-Le system consists of a conical type drogue parachute

8.3 f e e t i n

d i m e t e r i n addition t o the i d e n t i c a l ring-sail p i l o t and main parachutes used

i n t h e basic system.

Tho design loads f o r each parachute in t h e sequenca Bra
L

based on deployment a t t h e spacecraft t e r n i n a l f r e e - f a l l dynamic pressure of
120 psf.

This condition i s consistent with normal f u l l y controlled re-entries For a normal f u l l y controlled

both from o r b i t and f r o m t h e abort boundaries, re-entry,

t h e spacecraft re-enters heat shield first with pitch and yaw r a t e Designing all parachutes f o r t h i s dynamic pressure insures

d a p i n g operative.

t h a t i n case of f a i l u r e o r malfiunction of t h e drogue o r p i l o t chutes, t h e

remainhg system can e f f e c t a safe recovery.

The c r i t e r i a f o r both systems

are s w m r i z e d i n Table 3.6.1,

I

-

,..

- ..

- -

RUVISLD

MODEL

~ c l i

. ni.

.

Table 3.6.1 Parachute Landim System

1 Deploy
Dia,
onfi.quratian Parachute
im Chute
lystam

P U l l

Off
Reefed

Type Feet

Re-Entry
All All

Altitude Feet

Ar.~le Iilx.

Pilot

Ring
Sail

18

10,600
(1 1

Yes

45O
16,000

Main
hroe
hute

Ring 84
Sail

Yes

9oo

Drogue

Con- 8,3 icnl

Normal Abort

50,000 40,000
10,600
(1 1

Yes
yes

gstem Pilot

Ring 18 sail
Ring 84

All
All

Yes
Yes 16,CG3

Pin

YO0

Two seconds a f t e r p i l o t parachute deployment
Nominal limit loads are based on a dynamic pressure (9) of 120 p s f .

Ultimate loads a r e 1.36 times limit loads Parachutes shall be qualified a t a dynamic pressure 1.50 times
t h a t used for design

( 4 q ~ a l = 1.50x 9design = 180 psf).

( 5 1 The increased load on the structure f o r t h i s condition over the
two-chute system is due t o the f a c t t h a t the drogue chute is still attached when the p i l o t chute i s deployed. The design U
t h

d

for the parachute is 3,500 pounds.

a

navisco

MODEL

Gemini

I n the basic two parachute system, the p i l o t parachute i s deployed i n a
reefed condition a t a n a l t i t u d e of 10,600

- 750 feet,
f

A f t e r a delay of approxi-

mately two seconds, the Rendezvous and Recovery Section i s separated from the

spacecraft,

The reefed p i l o t chute pulling the R & R Section away s t r e t c h e s the
After a

main parachute lines deploying the main parachute i n a reefed condition.
s h o r t delay, the min parachute i s then dlsreefed,

The p i l o t chute i s disreefed
& R

6 seconds a f t e r deployment t o reduce the probability of recontact of the R
Section and the main parachute canopy and/or t h e spacecraft.

I n t h e tnree parachute system, t h e drogue parachute has been added t o

ensure spacecraft s t a b i l i t y below &n a l t i t u d e of 50,OOO feet.

It I s deployed i n

a reefed condition a t an a l t i t u d e of 50,000 feet a f t e r re-entry from o r b i t and a t

0

40,006 feet a f t e r re-entry,fram launch aborts.

A t an a l t i t u d e of 10,600

- 750 +

f e e t , the p i l o t parachute I s deployed i n a reefed condition with t h e drogue chute attached i n tandem.
A f t e r a delay of approximately two seconds, the R & R Section

i s separated f r o m the spacecraft and the remaining portion of the sequence i s

i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o r the two parachute system.

The probability of recontact I s

f u r t h e r reduced because of the added drag of the drogue chute i n tandem with the p i l o t chute. For the case where rate damping has been l o s t o r degraded, the dynaThe

mic pressure a t t h e drogue parachute deployment a l t i t u d e can reach 145 psf.

increased loads f o r t h i s condition w i l l be absorbed with the.reduced margins of s a f e t y noted i n Section 3.1. Spacecraft employing parachutes a r e designed f o r water landings only.
To

yinimlze water impact loads, the main parachute suspension bridles have a provision f o r r o t a t i n g the spacecraft t o a position where t h e spacecraft 2 a x i s i s i n -

0

a

cllned at an angle of 55'

r e l a t i v e to the parachute a x i s .

Water impact loads s h a l l

be those r e s u l t i n g from a v e r t i c a l velocity of 30 f p s combined w i t h a horizontal velocity from winds up to 51 f p s plus the e f f e c t of parachute swine;.
The e f f e c t o f

parachute s w i n g s h a l l be considered e i t h e r a s a horizontal velocity increment of

MCDONNELL
15 February 1962
REVISED RLVISED

STe LOUIS, MISSOURI

PAGE

362 ..
8616
Gemini

May '964

REPORT

MODEL

1 , f p s w i t h zero swing angle or a zero horizontal velocity increment w i t h 1

l.5
The

degree swing angle.

A maximum wave dope of 9 degrees shall be considered.

strength requirement f o r water landing capability is Umited t o the capability

t o remain a f l o a t f o r a t least 36 hours per Reference (5) in a flrotation a t t i t u d e in which the hatches are on the upper wrface.

362 ..

hrapJider Iandins: Phase

The paraglider landing system consists of a 8.3 foot diameter conical type
drogue parachute, the paraglider, and the &id

type landing gear.

The drogue parachute is deployed a t an altituie of 60,OOO f e e t following
re-entry from o r b i t ami a t an a l t i t u d e of 35,000 f e e t $bllowing a retrograde abort.
"lie design dynamic pressure shall be 125 psf

.

The drogue parachute is

attached t o the ReI.ldez,vous and Recovery Section and iB Jettisoned w i t h t h i s s e c t ion. Paraglider deployment begins a t an a l t i t u d e of 5O,ooO f e e t following re-entry from orbit.

The paraglider a s s a b l y I s uncovered by the j e t t i s o n i n g of

the Hedesvous and Reaovery Section.

It then-goes through a sequence of partial

deployment, i n f l a t b n of the stiffening menbera, and finally release t o the g l i d e configuration.

bads during the deployment sequence shall be investigated
,

and strength provided f o r all cirfitical caaes.

In t h e glide configuration: the apacecrilft qhaU be designed to maneuver

using t h e avaiLable r a t e and amount of center of gravity travel in both t h e longitudinal and l a t e r a l directions. The mminal range of paraglider angle of

a t t a c k shall be 25 t o 40 degrees with provision for 20 t o 45 degrees.

The spacecraft landlng gears ahaU be designed f o r t h e landing parameters
defined below using t h e wight defined i subsection 2.3.7.2. n considered i n a rational manner.

W l n g lift s h a l l be

For landing gear loading conditions, t h e f a c t o r

OAT C

15 February 1962 1 May 1964
~

f. xd:Qskc$.& . 7 c
..I-

7

- - - I . - . )

53
PAGE

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI

7 h ? , -

REVISED

REPORT

8 1 6 6
Gemini

RIVtSED

MODEL

362 ..

ParaRUder Landina Phase

(Continued)

of safety shall be applied t o the t o t a l energy t o be abosrbed i n t h e v e r t i c a l
direction, The t o t a l energy shall include t h e k i n e t i c energy due t o sink speed

and the p o t e n t i a l energy based on gear compression allowing f o r w i p l i f t . ~
loads computed on t h l a baais will be ultimate design loads f o r t h e landing conditions, Landing Gear Desipn Parameter
hXiIllUTl

Tho

b:inimum

Sink s p e d blimit)
Horizontal airspeed Pitch a t t i t u d e a t contact (angle measured between t h e surfaae and t h e spacecraft z axis)

10.0 f p s

0
*..

loo
OO

fps (nose up)
-15
0

(nose d o n )

Yew angle

+

25'

O0

Roll a t t i t u d e
Coefficient of f r i c t i o n ( a t impact)

- 100 +
0*50

0

02 .0

The values quoted i n t h e preceding t a b l e a r e extreme values f o r each of the individual parameters, These parameters s h a l l be combined i n a r a t i o n a l manner Alowable combinations of yaw and r o l l

f o r the landing gear design conditions.

a t t i t u d e s a t touchdown are shown i n Figure 3.6,4.

Sink speeds for y a k d and r o l l e d a t t i t u d e s shall be determined from t h e

where Ry and R

Q a r e t h e yaw and r o l l

sink speed f a c t o r s from Figure 3.6.5.

Lateral force components on the gear s h a l l be determined by using the designation coeilficients of f r i c t i o n except where applicable t e s t d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s not valid: however, design f e a t u r e s of t h e contact surface penetra-

tion, or other special tendencies shall be accounted f o r i n a r a t i o n a l manner,

REVISED

MODEL

Geni*

362 ..

Paraglider Landiw Phase

(Continued)

Paraglider water landings e h a be based on the same sink speeds, a i r s p e d s ,
and attitudes as ground landings.

W v slopes up to 9 ae

0

shall be considered.

The

strength requirement for water landing capabiuty i s limited to the cnpabiUty

to remain afloat for at least 36 hour8 per Reference ( 5 ) in a flotation attitude

i which the hatches are on the upper surface. n

a

REVISED

MODEL

Gemini

3.7

Abort Phasa The abort phase is defined a8 including all operations required t o return

the astronauts safely t o e a r t h subsequent t o a malfunction i n t h e launch vehicle the spacecraft which requires termination of t h e mission.

0:

2,7,1

Mode I (Ejection) Abort Phase

Mode I aborts are accomplished with t h e use of the e j e c t i o n seats,
T h i s mode of escape i s used off-the-pad

only a f t e r removal of t h e erector The e j e c t i o n

tower and during the boost phase up t o an a l t i t u d e f o 70,000 feet.

seats may a l s o be used f o r escape below an altitude of 60,000 f e e t following re-

e n t r y fc n o r b i t and below a n a l t i t u d e f o 35,000 f e e t following re-entry after rn
A b o r t Hode X I ,

The re-entry module surrounding the astronauts must maintain

s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y with the hatches open until both astronauts a r e clear.
The design loads for this phase s h a l l consider t h a t t h e time i n t e r v a l required t o

complete t h e ejection cycle (from t h e i n i t i a l detection of the failure including allowances f o r both' human and system reaction times, system operating time, and programmed delaya) is short enough t o preclude t h e vehicle reaching a s t r u c t u r a l l y catastrophic condition. The hatch operating loads and t h e e j e c t i o n seat loads of 15'

for Node I launch phase aborts shall be based on a t o t a l angle of attack

i n pitch and/or yaw.

The overall vehicle loads f o r Mode I aborts shall not exceed

t h e strength c a p a b i l i t i e s required by launch phase c r i t e r i a , d e f i n e d i n Section 3.2 The Mode I abort sequence may be initiated by e i t h e r astronaut pulling h i s

ID-rir@.

The hatches are opened by pyrotechnically powered actuators.

The seats

are then propelled along guide rails by separate pyrotechnically powered c a t a p u l t s
J u s t p r i o r t o leaving the rails, sustainer rockets attached t o each of t h e scata

e

0

are f i r e d propelling t h e seats

clear of t h e spacecraft, The ejection s e a t s s h a l l

be designed f o r a l l forces resulting from these operations.

a

*t\ISLD

MODEL

Gemini

371 ..

Mode I (Ejection) Abort Phase

(Continued)

S e a t s separation is programmed t o occur 1 0 seconds a f t e r t h e s e a t .3

leaves the rails.

Five seconds a f t e r t h e seat leaves t h e rails, a b a l l u t e The design load f o r t h e

attached to each astronaut's backboard is deployed.

b a l l u t e shall be 3,750 pounds ultimate.
a l t i t u d e of 7,500

The b a l l u t e is Jettisoned a t a pressure

2 700 f e e t .

The barostat controlling the persorrllel parachute deployment is armed a t

. seat-man separation and the parachute is deployed 23 seconds a f t e r the b a r o s t a t
senses a pressure a l t i t u d e of 5700
. I

+ 600

ft.

The design load for t h e personnel

parachute shall be 5000 pounds ultimate. defined in Section 3.1.

The r a t i o of ultimate t o limit load is

a

372 ..

Mode I1 (Retrograde Salvo) Abort Phase Mode I1 Aborts are accomplished by terminating booster t h r u s t , severing

t h e adapter structure a t Z Station

6 . 4 and f i r i n g the retrograde rockets in 84,

salvo.
feet.

This mode of abort is used a t a l t i t u d e s between 70,000 f t . and 522,000
After burn-out of the retrograde rockets t h e retrograde section is jet-

tisoned, the re-entry module is turned t o i t s nonnal re-entry a t t i t u d e , and

following re-entry the landing system i s deployed.
The spacecraft shall be designed f o r a l l loads occurring during and a f t e r

.

separation f r o m t h e launch vehicle.

The time f o r completing. t h e Mode I1 Abort

cycle shall include allowances f o r both human and system reaction times, systen operating times, and programmed delays.

Abort re-entry t r a j e c t o r i e s are shown

in Section 3.5.

3.7.3
0

Mode I 1 (Separation) Abort Fhase 1
1 The Mode 1 1 Abort Phase covers abort requirements during t h e r e m i n i n g

portbn of t h e boost trajectory above 522,000 f e e t .

Aborts during t h i s period

a r e accomplished by using the noxmd mission separation, re-entry and landing

9. .3 7

Node 1 ( 1 Separation)Aborb Phase

(Continued)

wquences,

The Mode I11 Abort sequence i s as follows: ,The launch vehicle

;bust i s terminated, t h e adapter structure i s severed a t t h e normal s e w r a t i o n
&me,

the rendezvous maneuvering system is f i r e d t o provide separation velocity,

the retrograde rockets may or may not be f i r e d as required t o a t t a i n the deairad

%box% re-entrg trajectory, and following re-entry t h e landing system i s deployed.
The abort boundaries are shown on Figure 353 ...

3.8

Hoistinn and Transportation
The hoisting l i m i t load f a c t o r i s 20 for t h e spacecraft during pre-launch .

operations and 30 for t h e capsule plus trapped water during recovery a f t e r a . water landing. The vehicle as packaged f o r shipping s h a l l be designed f o r t h e

following ultimate accelerations applied t o supporting fixtures separately.
Transportation by a i r c r a f t with t h e accelerations in t h e c a r r i e r a i r c r a f t axe:
6,Og Vertical (upward)
2.25g Lateral (+)

3.0g Longitudinal (aft)
The s p c e c r a f t 2 a x i s s h a l l be p a r a l l e l t o t h e a i r c r a f t longitudinal axis

and t h e other spacecraft w s shall be oriented as determined by t h e design of
the shipping fixtures.

3.9

Pressurization

For s t r u c t u r a l design the cabin pressure s h a l l be considered t o be 1 . p s i 20
ultimate (burst) and 3.0 p s i ultimate (collapsing). The cabin leakage rate s h a l l be measured a t sea l e v e l using nitrogen a t a t a p e r a t w e of 70°F and a cabin pressure of 5 1 psig. .
s h d be 6 . 2 cubic inches per mhute (1000 oc/min.) 103
No, 2 and

The allowable leakage r a t e

f o r Spacecraft No. 1and f o r Spacecraft No. 3 and up.

3 . 1 wbic inches per minute (500 cc/min.) 051

3.10

Controls The control loads s h a l l be a s follows:
Primary Controls
w i t h r e : t i o n at
I

Attitude Control G r i p Pitch Moment
Side (RoU)

Stops

:,:i.itcnes
---

or V d v c s

I33 in. lb.

loo lb.
I33 in. lb.

Sufficient t o c r e a t e 100 l b s . mininium a t switches

Twist (Yaw)

Abort Handle

I

Side
Fore/Aft

1 150
I

lb. m i n . t o 150 lb. max.

Sufficient t o create 100 lbs. minirnurr. a t switches

( h a d s are referenced t o center of knob.) Other Controls ManeuverinP Hardle

Vertical Side
Fore/Aft

I 5ox(1 +
L

lev?
max.

50 Ib. min. t o 100 lb.

Sufficient t o c r e a t e 1 0 lbs. 0 mininium a t s w i t che 6

( b a d s are re,drenced to center of knob i n unstoned position.) Environmental Contr o l e
F

lavers

5ox(1 ----\

+ lever
3

lenath)
/

il
Push-pull Handles (Loads are referenced t Rotating Knobs

50 l . min. t o 1 0 lb. max. b 0

3x p i l o t operating but not les3 than 70 l b . o r l e s s than t h a t su'f i c i e n t t o c r e a t e 103 l b s . rninimm a t valves
Not applicable

100 lbs.
center of knob o r ring.)

( h a d is not applicable t o knobs operating e l e c t r i c a l switches.)

1

I

Not Applicable

100 in. l b s .

lKVISC0

MODEL

Gemini

3.U

Seats and Harness
"he

larriing load f a c t o r s shown on Figure 3 1 . .12

shall apply t o the harness

used t o r e s t r a i n the astronauts, t o t h e seats, and t o the attac.hent of the s e a t s t o the primary structure, The magnitude of t h e design ultimate i n e r t i a

load vector is consistent w i t h an a c c e l e r a t b n of 40 g ' s b u t is terminated as
a function of direction such that the components do not .exceed the values shown

i n Figure 3.U.2.

The seats, seat equipment, and harness shall also be designed

f o r ejection f r e e f l i g h t conditions, s t a b i l i z a t i o n device loads and personnel parachute loads as applicable.

3.12

Shock and Acceleration Environment

The shock and acceleration environments f o r design of t h e spacecraft
equipment and support structure as defined i n Reference (6) and (7) a r e summarized

in Table 3.12,

For the special case of parachute water landing with fiCS f u e l

tanks f u l l , the tank supports shall be designed f o r t h e a c t u a l accelerations r e s u l t i n g from water impact.
The Mt values t be used, as estimated for the o

spacecraft cog. from model t e s t data, are nZ = 1 . , 20

% = 1,6,

8 =110 radians/

second2 f o r heat shield f i r s t landings, and nz = 4 * 6 , ny = 1 . , 0 =U O radians/ 20 second2 f o r cone f i r s t landings.

3.u Vibration and Acoustic Environment
The vibration and acoustic environments t o be used f o r . t h e design of t h e spacecraft equipment and support structure occur during the bcmst phase and a r e defined in Table 3.u. See Heferences (6) and (7).

I:.MAC Z S I U

tacv

I

AUC O I I

DATE

~
"\

-

3

MlDONNE&d+

MDL OE -

-

&
#.A L

PAGE NO.

a133-lk---8616

ST. LOUIS 3 MISSOURI ,

REPORT NO.

FIGURE A-3. a 3'

..-

S-AGEXA-TARGET
I...
.

DOCKXNG ADAPTER

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M A C 1984 GC (13 JUNE 58)

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FIGURE A
' I

I

'XTLAS)

0

AGZKA

-

- 1.3

TARCXC DOCKING, ADAPTER

e

REVISED

A21 -.

Rendezvous Phase

The Target Docking Adapter shall be designed f o r t h e dockine and maneuvering conditione presented in Paragraph

3.4 and t h e meteroid envirorkent presented

i n Paragraph 27 of this report. .

The adapter will contain a shock absorbing

system t o a l l e v i a t e the docking impact loads, a latching mechanism which will

make t h e Joint rigid, and other equipment required f o r t h e rendezvous and docking
operqtion.

For t h e rendezvous phase ultimate loads are 1.36 times limit loads.

During t h e rendesvoua phase the Gemini weight s h a l l be a s shownin Paragraph

233 ..

of this report.

The following data for t h e Agena plus Target Docking
Weights, centers of gravity, and moments of ir.ertia

Adapter s h a l l be used.

f o r the Agena plus TDA are based on data from Reference 12,
A t injection

W

-

6,919 lb.

* COG AS 347.5 .. * I = 7,650 Slug Ft.*
* h p e l l a n t a t aft end of ta;nks

At Burn-out

kf
COG.=

p

3,829 lb.

(include6 residual propellant)

I
Thrust

A S 331.7 ., 6,708 Slug Ft,2

Gimbal t r a v e l Gimbal r a t e

-2 +. 5 '

16,750 l b
(single plane) (u> -m

3O0/aec

32 Boost Phase .
The boost phase i s defined as including a l l operat$ons and environments encountered f r o m t h e i n a t a n t of launch vehicle engine t h r u s t i n i t i a t i o n u n t i l shutdown and separation of t h e last stage ( i n j e c t i o n i n t o o r b i t ) , The calcula-

t i o n s f o r t h e design s t r u c t u r a l loads and temperatures w i l l be based on t h e two boost phase t r a j e c t o r i e s presented i n Figures and Tables from 3!2?3 t o 328 .,. The traJectoriea are e s s e n t i a l l y v e r t i c a l f o r t h e f i r s t 20 seconds; then a

gravity turn i a maintained throughout t h e remaining 129 seconds of first stage
burning, The maneuvering required f o r o r b i t a l control is accomplished during The first t r a j e o t o r y i s a nominal launch The second t r a J e c t o r y i s

the active second stage f l i g h t ,

with i n s e r t i o n at a n a l t i t u d e of 87 n a u t i c a l miles,

off-nominal i n t h a t t h e first stage t h r u s t was assumed t o be decreased by 3% along with a - 2 8 / r 4,°h. pitch gyro d r i f t . The second t r a j e c t o r y results i n

c r i t i c a l boost phase temperatures,

These t r a j e c t o r i e s are from References ( 8 )

(9).
Loads during t h e boost phase s h a l l be based upon ( 1 ) the e f f e c t s of winds
and g u s t s as specified i n Paragraphs 2.5 and 26 .,

(2) a momentary guidance

f a i l u r e t h a t r e s u l t s in a 10 degree angle of attack a t any a l t i t u d e with r e s t o r i n g momenta from maximum t h r u s t vector deflection, or (3) a launch vehicle malfunction

which remdt.~ divergefit ezzGles cf attack, i??

The launch vehicie zaaifunction

conditions shall be investigated and design loads defined so as t o preclude ree n t r y module s t r u c t u r a l failure prior t o t h e completion of t h e e j e c t i o n or abort operation,

The e f f e c t s of combinins e i t h e r t h e momentary guidance failure condi-

t i o n o r t h e launch vehicle malfunction condition with t h e 84.1% (representative of o m sigma values) w i n d shear inputs, as derived from Reference (3), s h a l l be

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