You are on page 1of 49

WWW.METCLUB.CO.

NR
Visit our Website to get more data like notes,
books, software & etc. Prepared By UETians

Download Full Version Software at WWW.FullSoft.CO.NR


Phases present 
L
 ferrite
 Bcc structure
Bcc structure Ferromagnetic
Paramagnetic Fairly ductile

 austenite Fe3C cementite
Fcc structure Orthorhombic
Non­magnetic Hard
Reactions ductile brittle

Peritectic L +  = 
Max. solubility of C in ferrite=0.022%
Eutectic L = + Fe3C
Max. solubility of C in austenite=2.11%
Eutectoid  =  + Fe3C
Steel is an interstitial solid solution of carbon in iron.

Theoretically steel has a maximum of 2.11% carbon.

In practice, the amount of carbon rarely exceeds 0.8%

Classification/Nomenclature
Low carbon steels up to 0.2%C AISI 1020: 
Last two numbers indicate
Medium carbon steels 0.2­0.4%C Amount of carbon :0.2%C
10 indicates plain carbon steel
High carbon steels >0.4% C AISI 4340: 0.4%C
43 indicates alloy steel
IRON-CARBON (Fe-C) PHASE DIAGRAM
• 2 important T(°C)
1600
points δ
-Eutectic (A): 1400 L
L ⇒ γ + Fe3C γ+L
γ A
1200 1148°C L+Fe3C

Fe3C (cementite)
-Eutectoid (B): (austenite) R S
γ ⇒ α + Fe3C 1000 γ γ
γ γ γ+Fe3C
α+
800
α γ B 727°C = T
eutectoid
R S
600
α+Fe3C
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
(Fe) 0.77 4.30 C , wt% C
120µm o
C eutectoid

Result: Pearlite = Fe3C (cementite-hard)


alternating layers of
α and Fe3C phases. α (ferrite-soft)
(Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister 6e. Adapted from Fig. 9.21,Callister 6e. (Fig. 9.21
(Fig. 9.24 from Metals Handbook, 9th adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd
ed., Vol. 9, Metallography and ed.,
Microstructures, American Society for Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM
Metals, Materials Park, OH, 1985.) International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.)
IRON-CARBON (Fe-C) PHASE DIAGRAM

BCC crystal structure FCC crystal structure

Note:  phase is also called  ferrite and is a BCC phase 1


ALLOYING STEEL WITH MORE ELEMENTS

• Teutectoid changes: • Ceutectoid changes:

C eutectoid (wt%C)
0.8
T Eutectoid (°C)

1200 Ti Si
Mo W 0.6 Ni
1000 Cr
Cr 0.4
Si
800 Mn
Mn 0.2 W
Ti Mo
600 Ni
0
0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12
wt. % of alloying elements wt. % of alloying elements
Overview of cast iron
• Iron with 1.7 to 4.5% carbon and 0.5 to 3%
silicon
• Lower melting point and more fluid than steel
(better castability)
• Low cost material usually produced by sand
casting
• A wide range of properties, depending on
composition & cooling rate
– Strength
– Hardness
– Ductility
– Thermal conductivity
Production of cast iron

• Pig iron, scrap steel, limestone and


carbon (coke)
• Cupola
• Electric arc furnace
• Electric induction furnace
• Usually sand cast, but can be
gravity die cast in reusable
graphite moulds
• Not formed, finished by machining
Types of cast iron

• Grey cast iron - carbon as graphite


• White cast iron - carbides, often
alloyed
• Ductile cast iron
– nodular, spheroidal graphite
• Malleable cast iron
Effect of cooling rate
• Slow cooling favours the formation of graphite
& low hardness
• Rapid cooling promotes carbides with high
hardness
• Thick sections cool slowly, while thin sections
cool quickly
• Sand moulds cool slowly, but metal chills can
be used to increase cooling rate & promote
white iron
Effect of composition

• A CE over 4.3 (hypereutectic) leads to carbide


or graphite solidifying first & promotes grey
cast iron
• A CE less than 4.3 (hypoeutectic) leads to
austenite solidifying first & promotes white
iron
Grey cast iron

• Flake graphite in a matrix of


pearlite, ferrite or martensite
• Wide range of applications
• Low ductility - elongation 0.6%
• Grey cast iron forms when
– Cooling is slow, as in heavy sections
– High silicon or carbon
Typical properties
• Depend strongly on casting shape & thickness
• AS1830 & ASTM A48 specifies properties
• Low strength, A48 Class 20, Rm 120 MPa
– High carbon, 3.6 to 3.8%
– Kish graphite (hypereutectic)
– High conductivity, high damping
• High strength, A48 Class 60, Rm 410 MPa
– Low carbon, (eutectic composition)
Graphite form

• Uniform
• Rosette
• Superimposed (Kish
and normal)
• Interdendritic random
• Interdendritic preferred
orientation
Matrix structure

• Pearlite or ferrite
• Transformation is to ferrite when
– Cooling rate is slow
– High silicon content
– High carbon equivalence
– Presence of fine undercooled graphite
Properties of grey cast iron

• Machineability is excellent
• Ductility is low (0.6%), impact
resistance low
• Damping capacity high
• Thermal conductivity high
• Dry and normal wear properties
excellent
Applications

• Engines
– Cylinder blocks, liners,
• Brake drums, clutch plates
• Pressure pipe fittings (AS2544)
• Machinery beds
• Furnace parts, ingot and glass
moulds
Ductile iron

• Inoculation with Ce or Mg or both


causes graphite to form as
spherulites, rather than flakes
• Also known as spheroidal graphite
(SG), and nodular graphite iron
• Far better ductility than grey cast
iron
Microstructure

• Graphite spheres
surrounded by ferrite
• Usually some
pearlite
• May be some
cementite
• Can be hardened to
martensite by heat
Production

• Composition similar to grey cast


iron except for higher purity.
• Melt is added to inoculant in ladle.
• Magnesium as wire, ingots or
pellets is added to ladle before
adding hot iron.
• Mg vapour rises through melt,
removing sulphur.
Properties

• Strength higher than grey cast iron


• Ductility up to 6% as cast or 20%
annealed
• Low cost
– Simple manufacturing process makes
complex shapes
• Machineability better than steel
Applications

• Automotive industry 55% of ductile


iron in USA
– Crankshafts, front wheel spindle
supports, steering knuckles, disc
brake callipers
• Pipe and pipe fittings (joined by
welding)
Malleable iron

• Graphite in nodular form


• Produced by heat treatment of
white cast iron
• Graphite nodules are irregular
clusters
• Similar properties to ductile iron
• See AS1832
Microstructure

• Uniformly dispersed graphite


• Ferrite, pearlite or tempered martensite
matrix
• Ferritic castings require 2 stage anneal.
• Pearlitic castings - 1st stage only
Annealing treatments
• Ferritic malleable iron
– Depends on C and Si
– 1st stage 2 to 36 hours at 940˚C in a controlled
atmosphere
– Cool rapidly to 750˚C & hold for 1 to 6 hours
• For pearlitic malleable iron
– Similar 1st stage above (2 - 36 h at 940˚C)
– Cool to 870˚C slowly, then air cool & temper to
specification
• Harden and temper pearlitic iron for
martensitic castings
Properties

• Similar to ductile iron


• Good shock resistance
• Good ductility
• Good machineability
Applications
• Similar applications to ductile iron
• Malleable iron is better for thinner castings
• Ductile iron better for thicker castings >40mm
• Vehicle components
– Power trains, frames, suspensions and wheels
– Steering components, transmission and differential
parts, connecting rods
• Railway components
• Pipe fittings AS3673
Effects of alloy elements

• Promote graphite (Si, Ni)


• Promote carbides (Cr)
• Affect matrix microstructure
– Ferrite, pearlite, martensite or
austenite
• Corrosion resistance (Cr)
Increasing carbon

• Increases depth of chill in chilled


iron
• Increases hardness
• Increases brittleness
• Promotes graphite during
solidification
Increasing silicon

• Lowers carbon content of eutectic


• Promotes graphite on solidification
– Reduces depth of chill
• Negative effect on hardenability
– Promotes pearlite over martensite
• Raises Ms if martensite forms
• Can improve resistance to scaling
at high temperature
Manganese and sulphur

• Each alone increases depth of chill


• Together reduces effect of other
(MnS)
• Mn in excess scavenges S and
stabilises austenite
• Solid solution strengthener of
ferrite / pearlite
• Sulphur lowers abrasion resistance
Phosphorus

• Mild graphitiser
– Reduces chill depth
– Considered detrimental in alloy cast
irons
Chromium

• Main uses:
– Forms carbides
– Gives corrosion resistance
– High temperature stability
• Up to 3% - no effect on
hardenability
• More than 10% - M7C3 carbides
stronger and tougher than M3C
Nickel

• Promotes graphite
• Increases strength of pearlite
• Increases hardenability
– 2.5 to 4.5% Ni-Hard irons
• Stabilises austenite
– Over 6.5%