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com). DOI: 10.1002/we.399

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers: Stress on the mechanical drive train due to a converter control malfunction

R. Melício1, V. M. F. Mendes2 and J. P. S. Catalão3

1 University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal 2 Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 3 University of Beira Interior, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Covilha, Portugal

ABSTRACT

This paper is on variable-speed wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Three different drive train mass models and three different topologies for the power-electronic converters are considered. The three different topologies considered are respectively a matrix, a two-level and a multilevel converter. A novel control strategy, based on fractional-order controllers, is proposed for the wind turbines. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the behaviour of the wind turbines during a converter control malfunction, considering the fractional-order controllers. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEYWORDS wind turbines; permanent magnet synchronous generators; modelling; power converters; fractional-order control Correspondence J. P. S. Catalão, University of Beira Interior, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha, Portugal. E-mail: catalao@ubi.pt Received 13 May 2009; Revised 29 December 2009; Accepted 10 February 2010

NOMENCLATURE

u0 u Ak ωk Ptt ρ R cp ωt θ λ Pt m gkm akm hk ϕkm average wind speed wind speed value with disturbance magnitude of the eigenswing k eigenfrequency of the eigenswing k mechanical power of the turbine air density radius of the area covered by the blades power coefﬁcient rotor angular speed at the wind turbine pitch angle of the rotor blades tip speed ratio mechanical power of the wind turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings order of the harmonic of a eigenswing distribution of the m-order harmonic in the eigenswing k normalized magnitude of gkm modulation of eigenswing k phase of the m-order harmonic in the eigenswing k

J Jt Tt Tdt Tat Tts ωg Jg Tdg Tag Tg Jb Jh

moment of inertia for blades, hub and generator of the one-mass model moment of inertia for blades and hub of the twomass model mechanical torque resistant torque in the wind turbine bearing of the two-mass model resistant torque in the hub and blades of the twomass model torsional stiffness torque of the two-mass model rotor angular speed at the generator moment of inertia for the rotor of the generator resistant torque in the generator bearing of the two-mass model resistant torque due to the viscosity of the airﬂow in the generator of the two-mass model electric torque moment of inertia of the ﬂexible blades section of the three-mass model moment of inertia of the hub and the rigid blades section of the three-mass model

Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13

the wind turbine is directly connected to the generator and the generator is completely decoupled from the electric grid. In this paper.002θ 2. Lq Rd. Portugal has one of the most ambitious goals in terms of wind power. Ltd.5 it is shown that variable-speed conceptions equipped with power-electronic converters will continue to dominate and be very promising technologies for large wind farms. F. M. Accurate modelling and control of wind turbines have high priority in the research activities all over the world. But this is not the case for wind turbines with PMSG and full-power converter. oversimpliﬁcation on the modelling of the mechanical drive train could introduce signiﬁcant error in the value of the results. INTRODUCTION In Portugal. using different drive train mass models. Catalão Tdb Tbs Tdh Tss Tdg if M p id. Mendes and J. 2. Voltage sags and swells.003 − (λ − 0. and in 2006 was the second country in Europe with the highest wind power growth.12 but little attention has been given to the possibility of internal abnormal operating conditions. Also.6 In a variable-speed wind turbine with full-power converter. this wind power goal has now been raised to 5100 MW. it is smaller and does not need a direct current power source for ﬁeld excitation.1 But. uq resistant torque of the ﬂexible blades of the three-mass model torsional ﬂexible blades stifness torque of the three-mass model resistant torque of the rigid blades and the hub of the three-mass model torsional shaft stifness torque of the three-mass model resistant torque of the generator of the threemass model equivalent rotor current mutual inductance number of pairs of poles stator currents stator inductances stator resistances stator voltages 1.2 Also. S. one. DOI: 10. Wind turbine The mechanical power of the turbine is given by: Ptt = 1 ρπ R 2u3c p 2 (1) The computation of the power coefﬁcient requires the use of blade element theory and the knowledge of blade geometry. 2011.8. such as a converter control malfunction. the overall performance of the electric grid will increasingly be affected by the characteristics of wind turbines. variable-speed wind turbines have become more common than traditional ﬁxed-speed turbines. At the moment. improving the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. harmonics. Rq ud. two-level and multilevel converters (iii) a novel fractional-order control strategy (iv) a converter control malfunction and (v) the bending ﬂexibility of the blades. considering: (i) three different drive train mass models.73 ⎜ − 0. great effort has been made to develop variable-speed wind turbines capable of supporting voltage/ frequency and remain connected to the system during external grid faults. The use of power-electronic converters allows not only for variable speed operation of a wind turbine. MODELLING 2.7 Previous papers were mainly focused on the transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at external grid faults.4 In a recent overview of different wind generator systems.14 of the wind turbines. this paper focuses on the analysis of the stress on the mechanical drive train of wind turbines with PMSG and full-power converters. substantial documentation exists on modelling and control issues for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine. Simulation results for the converter control malfunction ascertain the performance of wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers.Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R.4 λi (2) λi = 1 1 0.02θ ) (θ 3 + 1) (3) 14 Wind Energ.14 − 13. where the power coefﬁcient is given by: ⎛ 151 ⎞ c p = 0. Hence. and comparing with a wound synchronous generator. network operators have to ensure that consumer power quality is not deteriorated. the wind power goal foreseen for 2010 was established earlier by the government as 3750 MW. two and three mass models (ii) three different topologies for powerelectronic converters.9 Grid code speciﬁcations in European countries require that wind turbines must be able to ride though grid disturbances that bring voltages down to very low levels. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. P. the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the one with a signiﬁcant advantage: it is stable and secure under normal operating conditions.1002/we .2⎟ e ⎝ λi ⎠ −18. respectively matrix. phase steps. As the penetration level of wind power increases into the power systems. Melício.1. the total harmonic distortion (THD) should be kept as low as possible. V.15 Hence.10 Accordingly. Of all the generators used in wind turbines.58θ − 0.3 Power-electronic converters have been developed for integrating wind power with the electric grid. Today.11. respectively. One of the major concerns related to the high penetration level of the wind turbines is the impact on power system stability. but also for enhancement on power extraction. the numerical approximation developed in16 is followed. iq Ld. representing about 25% of the total installed capacity by 2010. frequency variation. DC components and noise are phenomena that can cause severe malfunction in the control or supervision circuits13. Hence.

it must be taken into account that turbine power must never be higher than generator value for the rated power. F.15 ωk[rad/s] ωt 3 ωt 9π 1 1 1/2 (g11 + g21) hk m 1 2 1 2 1 akm 4/5 1/5 1/2 1/2 1 ϕkm 0 π/2 0 π/2 0 Wind Energ. vortex tower 2. all components are lumped together and modelled as a single rotating mass. given by: dω t 1 = ( Tt − Tg ) dt J (9) A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in determining the optimal rotor angular speed at the wind turbine for each wind speed to obtain maximum rotor power.1002/we 15 . θ ] (6) In a one-mass drive train model. One-mass drive train model ω t = λ opt (θ )3 2 Ptt max 5 ρπ R c p max [λ opt (θ ) . introducing mechanical effects inﬂuencing the energy conversion. The values used on equations (7) and (8) for the calculation of Pt are given in Table I.17 The conversion of wind energy into mechanical energy over the rotor of a wind turbine is inﬂuenced by various forces acting on the blades and on the tower of the wind turbine (e.4412 (4) interaction. the tip speed ratio at each pitch angle should be kept at the value corresponding to the global maximum for the power coefﬁcient. S. 2011. When rated turbine speed is reached. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers The global maximum for the power coefﬁcient is at null pitch angle and it is equal to: c p max [λ opt (0 ) . M. gyroscopic forces acting on the tower).3. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. k 1 2 3 Source Asymmetry Vortex tower interaction Blades Ak 0. given by: ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ Pt = Ptt ⎢1 + ∑ Ak ⎜ ∑ akm gkm (t )⎟ hk (t )⎥ ⎠ ⎣ k =1 ⎝ m =1 ⎦ 3 2 corresponding to an optimal tip speed ratio at null pitch angle equal to: (7) λ opt (0 ) = 7. a mechanical actuator is usually employed to change the pitch angle of the blades in order to reduce power coefﬁcient and maintain the power at its rated value. Ltd. Mendes and J. Once generator rated power is reached at rated wind speed it must be limited. gravity and varying aerodynamic forces acting on blades. increases in rotor speed of about 10% are allowed during transients because of the slow pitch control response.4 When regulating the wind system under the speciﬁcation of maximum power. and eigenswing in the blades. P. using the mechanical eigenswings. respectively given by: dω t 1 = (Tt − Tdt − Tat − Tts ) dt Jt dω g 1 = (Tts − Tdg − Tag − Tg ) dt Jg (10) (11) Table I. Those mechanical effects have been modelled by eigenswings mainly due to the following phenomena: asymmetry in the turbine. control strategy must be changed so that a higher wind velocity no longer increases turbine speed but increases generated power until generator rated power.08 0. 0 ] = 0. The mechanical power over the rotor of the wind turbine has been modelled. deriving the state equation for the rotor angular speed at the wind turbine and for the rotor angular speed at the generator.g.18 2. DOI: 10. Two-mass drive train model A comparative study of wind turbine generator system using different drive train models19 has shown that the two-mass model may be more suitable for transient analysis.1 to 10 Hz. V.R. deriving the state equation for the rotor angular speed at the wind turbine.4 Hence.01 0.2.15 The equation for the one-mass model is based on the second law of Newton.18 as a set of harmonic terms multiplied by the power associated with the energy capture from the wind by the blades. The equations for the two-mass model are based on the torsional version of the second law of Newton. given by: (∫ mω (t ′) dt ′ + ϕ ) t 0 k km (8) The frequency range of the wind turbine model with mechanical eigenswings is from 0. centrifugal. the rotor angular speed at the wind turbine is as a function of the maximum mechanical power Ptt max.057 (5) gkm = sin In order to achieve maximum power. Mechanical eigenswings excited in the wind turbine. Melício. For variable-speed wind turbines.

S. respectively given by: dω t 1 = (Tt − Tdb − Tbs ) dt Jb dω h 1 = (Tbs − Tdh − Tss ) dt Jh dω g 1 = (Tss − Tdg − Tg ) dt Jg (12) (13) (14) 2.Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Conﬁguration of the three-mass drive train model. OA and AB. and the input currents are nearly sinusoidal at the desired displacement power factor.4. where the blade analysis is represented as a simple torsional system. A2B2 and A3B3 are the effective ﬂexible blade section and have the moment of inertia Jb. Blade bending dynamics for the three-mass drive train model. Since the blade bending occurs at a signiﬁcant distance from the joint between the blade and the hub. Melício. ﬁnite element techniques may be used but this approach cannot easily be implemented in power systems analysis programs. One way to achieve this is represented in Figure 1.1002/we . but it has been researched. It is connected between a ﬁrst order ﬁlter and a second order ﬁlter. but in their absence an estimation of the mass moments of inertia is possible. The phase currents injected into the electric grid are modelled by the state equation using. 16 Wind Energ.6. The blade sections OA1. a null stator current id = 0 is imposed. P. the rest of the blade sections A1B1. for instance in22. with nine bidirectional commanded insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) Sij. Hence. M. PMSG The model for the PMSG is the usual one. Matrix converter Figure 1. The matrix converter is an AC-AC converter. magnitude and phase angle.21 The conﬁguration of the three-mass drive train model is shown in Figure 2. The ﬁrst order ﬁlter is connected to a PMSG. one question arises whether long ﬂexible blades have an important impact on the transient analysis of wind energy systems during a fault. Three-mass drive train model With the increase in size of the wind turbines. given by: di fk 1 = (u fk − Rni fk − uk ) k = {4.5. are given by: did 1 = [ud + pω g Lqiq − Rd id ] dt Ld diq 1 = [uq − pω g ( Ld id + Mi f ) − Rqiq ] dt Lq (15) (16) In order to avoid demagnetization of permanent magnet in the PMSG.20 To determine the dynamic properties of the blade. using motor machine convention. deriving the state equation for the rotor angular speed at the wind turbine and for the rotor angular speed at the generator. 2011. The mass moments of inertia for the model are given as input data. to avoid the use of the ﬁnite element approach it is necessary to simplify the rotor dynamics as much as possible. The equations for the three-mass model are based on the torsional version of the second law of Newton.23 The electric power is given by: Pg = [ud uq u f ][id iq if ] T (17) 2. 5. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons.24 A three-phase active symmetrical circuit in series models the electric network. Ltd. This estimation is out of the scope of this paper. Mendes and J. OA2 and OA3 establish the moment of inertia of the hub and the rigid section blade and have the moment of inertia Jh. DOI: 10. V. the blade can be split in two parts. A switching strategy can be chosen so that the output voltages have nearly sinusoidal waveforms at the desired frequency. whereas the second order ﬁlter is connected to an electric network. Catalão 2. where the state equations for modelling the PMSG stator currents. F. 6} dt Ln (18) Figure 2.

7. j ∈{1. (off ) (19) For the matrix converter modelling it is considered that: ∑S j =1 3 ij = 1 i ∈{1. Each IGBT is indicated by its Wind Energ. The inverter is connected between this capacitor bank and a second order ﬁlter. The inverter is connected between this capacitor bank and a second order ﬁlter. V.8.1002/we 17 . DOI: 10. Again. .2. with twelve unidirectional commanded IGBTs Sij used as a rectiﬁer.6} identiﬁes the inverter one.R. The switching variable of each leg j28 is given by: ⎧1. The conﬁguration of the simulated wind energy system with matrix converter is shown in Figure 3. and with the same number of unidirectional commanded IGBTs used as an inverter. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers Figure 3. 6} (24) The vector of output phase voltages is related to the vector of input phase voltages through the command matrix. ( S1 j = 0 and S2 j = 1) j ∈{1. Mendes and J. a three-phase active symmetrical 2. .5. 3} 0. S. 2. 3} (20) ∑S i =1 3 ij =1 j ∈{1. The voltage vdc is modelled by the state equation. given by: 6 ⎞ dvdc 1 ⎛ 3 = ⎜ ∑ γ ji j − ∑ γ ji j ⎟ ⎠ dt C ⎝ j =1 j=4 (25) The vector of input phase currents is related to the vector of output phase currents through the command matrix. 2. A group of two IGBTs linked to the same phase constitute a leg j of the converter. (on ) i. which in turn is connected to an electric grid. as follows: Sij = { 1. The IGBTs commands Sij are given in function of the on and off states. and with the same number of unidirectional commanded IGBTs used as an inverter. A three-phase active symmetrical circuit in series models the electric grid.27 The phase currents injected into the electric grid are modelled by the state equation (18). . Multilevel converter [ia ib ic ]T = [ S ]T [iA iB iC ]T (23) The multilevel converter is an AC/DC/AC converter. The rectiﬁer is connected between the PMSG and a capacitor bank. The rectiﬁer is connected between the PMSG and a capacitor bank. The conﬁguration of the wind energy system with two-level converter is shown in Figure 4. The index i with i ∈ {1. The index j with j ∈ {1.25 as follows: 2. 2. 2011. Ltd. A switching variable γj of each leg j is used to identify the state of the IGBT i in the leg j of the converter. Two-level converter The two-level converter is an AC/DC/AC converter. which in turn is connected to an electric grid. with six unidirectional commanded IGBTs used as a rectiﬁer. . M.25 as follows: ⎡ v A ⎤ ⎡ S11 ⎢ vB ⎥ = ⎢ S21 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ vC ⎥ ⎢ S31 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ S12 S22 S32 S13 ⎤ ⎡ va ⎤ ⎡ va ⎤ S23 ⎥ ⎢ vb ⎥ = [ S ] ⎢ vb ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ vc ⎥ S33 ⎥ ⎢ vc ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦⎣ ⎦ (22) Hence. F. A group of four IGBTs linked to the same phase constitute a leg j of the converter. Wind energy system with matrix converter. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. each switching variable depends on the conducting and blocking states of the IGBTs. 3} (21) switching state Sij. ( S1 j = 1 and S2 j = 0 ) γj =⎨ ⎩0. Melício. P.2} identiﬁes the IGBT.3} identiﬁes a leg for the rectiﬁer and j ∈ {4.26.

Figure 5. Melício. ( S and S ) = 1 and ( S or S ) = 0 ⎩ 3j 4j 1j 2j (26) j ∈ {1. The voltage vdc is the sum of the voltages vC1 and vC2 in the capacitor banks C1 and C2. and its Wind Energ. V. Fractional-order controller A novel control strategy based on fractional-order PIμ controllers is studied for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with PMSG and full-power converters. ( S2 j and S3 j ) = 1 and ( S1 j or S4 j ) = 0 ⎪−1. circuit in series models the electric grid. and also a switching variable Φ2j is associated with the two lower IGBTs (S3j and S4j). Mendes and J. P. . S. Wind energy system with multilevel converter. . Catalão Figure 4. 6} (27) Hence. The three valid conditions29 for the switching variable of each leg j are given by: ⎧ 1.5. . The index j with j ∈ {1. given by: 6 6 ⎞ ⎞ 1 ⎛ 3 dvdc 1⎛ 3 = ⎜ ∑ Φ1 j i j − ∑ Φ1 j i j ⎟ + ⎜ ∑ Φ2 ji j − ∑ Φ2 ji j ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ C 2 ⎝ j =1 dt C1 ⎝ j =1 j=4 j=4 (28) 3.6} identiﬁes the inverter one. The index i with i ∈ {1. Φ2 j = . each switching variable depends only on the conducting and blocking states of the IGBTs. . respectively given by: Φ1 j = γ j (1 + γ j ) γ j (1 − γ j ) .2.27 The phase currents injected into the electric grid are modelled by the state equation (18).26. 2 2 j ∈{1.1002/we 18 .3.Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R.2. CONTROL STRATEGY 3.3} identiﬁes the leg for the rectiﬁer and j ∈ {4. . . . The switching variable γj of each leg j is a function of the states Sij of the converter. . Ltd. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. F. M. The conﬁguration of the wind energy system with multilevel converter is shown in Figure 5. modelled by the state equation. ( S1 j and S2 j ) = 1 and ( S3 j or S4 j ) = 0 ⎪ γ j = ⎨ 0. Wind energy system with two-level converter. DOI: 10.1. 6} A switching variable Φ1j is associated with the two upper IGBTs in each leg j (S1j and S2j). 2011.4} identiﬁes the IGBT.

because of the on/off switching of their IGBTs.33 This means that integer operators are local operators in opposition with the fractional operators that have. a memory of all past events. ℜ (μ ) > 0 ⎪ μ 1. they cannot switch at inﬁnite frequency.32.t) is allowed. properties and controlling abilities in dynamical systems. for a ﬁnite value of the switching frequency. The most frequently encountered one is called Riemann–Liouville deﬁnition. μ is assumed as a real number that satisﬁes the restrictions 0 < μ ≤ 1. The differential equation of the fractional-order PIμ controller. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. Also. As mentioned previously. given by: Γ (μ + r ) f (t − rh ) r =0 r !Γ (μ ) t −a h a Dt− μ f (t ) = lim h μ ∑ h→0 (33) while the deﬁnition of fractional-order derivatives is: t −a h a D f (t ) = lim h μ t h→0 −μ ∑ (−1) r =0 r Γ ( μ + 1) f (t − rh ) r ! Γ ( μ − r + 1) (34) where the binomial coefﬁcients (r > 0) are given by deﬁnition. . given by: ⎛ μ⎞ ⎛ μ ⎞ μ ( μ − 1) . The other approach is Grünwald–Letnikov deﬁnition of fractional-order integral. In this paper. an error eαβ will exist between the reference value and the control value.31 Fractional calculus theory is a generalization of ordinary differentiation and integration to arbitrary (non-integer) order. due to power semiconductors switching only at ﬁnite 19 . guaranteeing the choice of the most appropriate space vectors. DOI: 10. The power semiconductors present physical limitations that have to be considered during design phase and during simulation study.30 Fractional-order calculus used in mathematical models of the systems can improve the design. the fractional-order counterparts are deﬁned by inﬁnite series. The following convention is used: 0Dt− μ ≡ Dt− μ. The fractional-order differentiator can be denoted by a general operator aDμ. In order to guarantee that the system slides along the sliding surface S(eαβ. Particularly. a and t are the limits of the operation. P.34 Sliding mode controllers are particularly interesting in systems with variable structure. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers design is more complex than that of classical PI controllers. in which the fractional-order integral is given by: Dt− μ f (t ) = 1 t (t − τ )μ −1 f (τ ) dτ Γ ( μ ) ∫a (30) where Kp is a proportional constant and Ki is an integration constant. ℜ (μ ) = 0 a Dt = ⎨ ⎪ t −μ ℜ (μ ) < 0 ⎪∫a ( dτ ) . . in time domain.31. Melício. a classical PI controller is obtained. M.2. F. such as switching power converters. The sliding mode control strategy presents attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the wind turbine and the generator as well as to electric grid disturbances. The mathematical deﬁnition of fractional derivatives and integrals has been the subject of several descriptions. Their aim is to let the system slide along a predeﬁned sliding surface by changing the system structure. Pulse width modulation by space vector modulation associated with sliding mode is used for controlling the converters. Mendes and J. R(μ) is the real part of the μ. Taking μ = 1 in (36). t ) dS (eαβ . t ) <0 dt (38) whereas the deﬁnition of fractional-order derivatives is: Dtμ f (t ) = dn ⎡ t f (τ ) 1 ⎤ dτ Γ ( n − μ ) dt n ⎢ ∫a (t − τ )μ − n +1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (31) a where Γ ( x ) ≡ ∫ y x −1e − y dy 0 ∞ (32) is the Euler’s Gamma function. 2011. Hence. using Laplace transforms the transfer function of the fractional-order PIμ controller is given by: G (s) = K p + Ki s− μ (37) a 3. the controllers used in the converters are respectively proportional integral and fractional-order PIμ controllers. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 0⎠ ⎝ r⎠ r! Wind Energ.1002/we (35) in practice a small error ε > 0 for S(eαβ. it has been proven that it is necessary to ensure that the state trajectory near the surfaces veriﬁes the stability conditions25 given by: S (eαβ . it is assumed that a = 0. is given by: u (t ) = K p e (t ) + K i Dt− μ e (t ) (36) (29) where μ is the order of derivative or integrals. implicitly. Converters control Power converters are variable structure systems.R. An important property revealed by equation (33) is that whereas integer-order operators imply ﬁnite series. S. ( μ − r + 1) ⎜ ⎟ = 1. V. Also. ⎩ The inﬂuence of fractional-order controllers is due to their ability for memory.t). and μ is the number identifying the fractional order. 0 < μ < 1. Ltd.33 given by: t μ ⎧ d ⎪ dt μ .

6 rpm 900 kW 20 Wind Energ. 14. 14. 2 16 1 7 6 5 2 3 2 7 8 9 4 3 A converter control malfunction is assumed to occur between 7. σα and σβ assume values in the set Ω given by: Ω ∈{−2. The wind speed model upstream of the rotor is modelled in this paper by: ⎡ ⎤ u (t ) = u0 ⎢1 + ∑ Ak sin (ω k t )⎥ 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 ⎣ ⎦ k (42) A practical implementation of the switching strategy considered in equation (39) could be accomplished by using hysteresis comparators. The transient response in the drive train model for the malfunction. frequency variation. a 20 ms power ﬂuctuation. Output voltage vectors selection for the two-level converter. is about 3 s due to the drive train model inertias. This is due to the signiﬁcant moment of the inertia assumed as concentrated in only one-mass. V.64–81. F. are shown in Figure 7. 2} (41) In this control strategy. Consequently. σβ\σα −1 0 1 −1 4 6 2 0 4. It is almost a straight line although the mechanical torque is varying. σα and σβ assume values in the set Ω given by: Ω ∈{−1. Although wind turbines achieve an excellent technical availability of about 98% on average.σβ). 2011. for vC1 > vC2. 11 1. P. For the fractional-order PIμ controllers.04 m/s 6. The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the electric torque of the generator. 0. The rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with the two-mass drive train model are shown in Figure 8. with the one-mass drive train model. The rotor speed at the turbine with the one-mass drive train model is shown in Figure 6. S. 27 17. harmonics. The wind energy system considered has a rated electric power of 900 kW. The rotor speed at the turbine is almost a straight line Table V. Catalão frequency. only when vC1 ≠ vC2 a new vector is selected. for vC1 > vC2. for vC1 < vC2.Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Table IV. 1. 1} (40) The appropriate vector selection in order to ensure stability for the two-level converter is shown in Table II. imposing a momentary malfunction on the vector selection for the matrix converter and for the inverter of the two-level and the multilevel converters. given by: − ε < S (eαβ . 27 22. The time horizon considered in the simulation is 10 s. phase steps. σβ\σα −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 25 24 19 20 21 −1 25 26 23 22 21 0 12 26. t ) < + ε (39) 4. − 1.25 For the two-level converter. Wind energy system data. a switching strategy has to be considered. simulated by a random selection of vectors constrained to no short circuits on the converters.00 and 7.8 × 106 Nm 49 m 17. DOI: 10. they have to face a high number of malfunctions. two-mass and three-mass drive train models in order to establish a comparative behaviour. Ltd. μ = 0. 7 3. 15 16 1 7 11 10 15 3 2 7 8 9 4 3 Blades moment of inertia Hub moment of inertia Generator moment of inertia Stiffness Turbine rotor diameter Tip speed Rotor speed Generator rated power 400 × 103 kgm2 19. Mendes and J.1–10 Hz. Melício. Output voltage vectors selection for the multilevel converter. 6 1. SIMULATION RESULTS The mathematical models for the wind energy system with the matrix. 0.02 s.9–30. σβ\σα −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 25 24 19 20 21 −1 25 13 18 17 21 0 12 13. Output voltage vectors selection for the multilevel converter. Simulations with the model for the matrix converter were carried out. for vC1 < vC2.35 A severe malfunction in the control can occur due to voltage sags and swells. 5 0.7 is assumed in this paper. 2 1 5 1 3 Table III. M. considering one-mass. For the multilevel converter. two-level and multilevel converters were implemented in Matlab/Simulink.18 The average wind speed considered in this paper is a ramp wind speed starting at 10 m/s and stabilizing at 20 m/s. The appropriate vector selection in order to ensure stability for the multilevel converter is shown in Table III.2 × 103 kgm2 16 × 103 kgm2 1. The wind speed usually varies considerably and it has been modelled in this paper as a sum of harmonics with frequency range 0. The outputs of the hysteresis comparators are the integer variables σαβ = (σα. after 2 s.13 Table II. DC components and noise. shown in Table V. and in Table IV. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. Table V summarizes the wind energy system data.1002/we . The electric torque of the generator follows the rotor speed at the turbine except when it is decreased due to the malfunction.

9 Figure 8.5 2 1.4 8.9 Time (s) 8. 450 400 350 ↓ Mechanical torque 4. 450 400 Mechanical torque ↓ 4. considering matrix converter.R.4 7.9 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 6. M. F.9 Time (s) 8.9 7.9 ↑ Electric torque Figure 6.9 Time (s) 8. Rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with the three-mass drive train model. Rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with the two-mass drive train model. Mendes and J. Mechanical and electric torque with the three-mass drive train model.5 1 0. considering matrix converter.9 7. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons.9 7. considering matrix converter. Mechanical and electric torque with the two-mass drive train model. S.9 ↑ Turbine speed ↑ Electric torque 0 6. Figure 11.5 4 3.5 0 6. P.4 8.5 1 0. 2011.4 7.5 Generator speed ↓ ↑ Torque (kNm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 6.4 8.9 7.9 7. Melício. considering matrix converter. DOI: 10. considering matrix converter.9 Time (s) 8.5 Generator speed ↓ Torque (kNm) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Rotor speed (rad/s) 3 2.5 0 6.4 7.9 Time (s) 8.5 4 3. Figure 9. Mechanical and electric torque with the one-mass drive train model.9 ↑ Electric torque Rotor speed (rad/s) 3 2.5 0 6. Figure 10.4 7.5 4 3.9 7.9 Time (s) 8. Wind Energ.9 Turbine speed Figure 7.4 8.5 2 1. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers 4.4 8.4 7. considering matrix converter. V.4 7. Rotor speed at the turbine with the one-mass drive train model.1002/we 21 .5 2 1. Ltd.5 450 400 350 ↓ Mechanical torque Rotor speed (rad/s) Torque (kNm) 3 2.4 8.5 1 0.

The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind energy system with multilevel converter and with the Wind Energ. this is due to the signiﬁcant moment of the inertia associated with the blades and hub. Whereas the rotor speeds at the turbine with the onemass and with the two-mass models are in a tight neighborhood.9 7.9 Two−mass ↓ ↑ Three−mass 2. as it is for the one-mass drive train. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. with the two-mass drive train model.8 6. it is possible to notice the inﬂuence of the three-mass modelling as a clear composed harmonic behaviour over the speed of the generator.4 8.9 Figure 12.975 7 7. but almost after the end of the malfunction they recover to their normal behaviour. 2011.025 Time (s) 7. In order to compare the behaviour for the drive train models.9 Time (s) 8.4 7. The electric torque of the generator follows the rotor speed at the generator except when it is decreased due to the malfunction. Comparing with Figure 8. the rotor speeds at the turbine with the three different mass drive train models are shown in Figure 12.9 Figure 14. Also.9 Time (s) 8. 3000 2500 ↑ 2000 Converter control malfunction 1500 1000 500 0 6. The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the electric torque of the generator. Voltage vdc for the two-level converter with a threemass drive train model. M. DOI: 10. The behaviour of this voltage is identical to the one with the two-level converter. F. the rotor speed at the turbine with three-mass model is lesser all the time. The voltage vdc for the two-level converter with a threemass drive train model is shown in Figure 14.05 7. Melício. The rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with the three-mass drive train model are shown Figure 10. with the three-mass drive train model.1002/we 22 Voltage (V) Current (A) Rotor speed (rad/s) . but almost after the end of the malfunction it recovers to its normal value. Catalão 3. Ltd. are shown in Figure 11. The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind energy system with matrix converter and with the threemass drive train model are shown in Figure 13. the capacitor is charged. The rotor speed at the generator varies more signiﬁcantly after the malfunction due to the lesser moment of inertia associated with the generator. As expected during the malfunction they decrease. The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind energy system with two-level converter and with the threemass drive train model are shown in Figure 15. The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the electric torque of the generator. the electric torque of the generator follows the rotor speed at the turbine except when it is decreased due to the malfunction. Again. S.95 6. Currents injected into the electric grid (matrix converter and three-mass drive train model). 1500 1000 500 0 −500 −1000 −1500 6. As expected during the malfunction they decrease. This comparison is in favor of the three-mass model.075 Figure 13. Rotor speeds at the turbine with the three different mass drive train models.9 7. are shown in Figure 9. As expected during the malfunction this voltage increases. Mendes and J.05 3 2. as in Figure 7.85 2. The voltage vdc for the multilevel converter with a threemass drive train model is shown in Figure 16. but almost after the end of the malfunction they recover to their normal behaviour.4 8. considering matrix converter. justifying the increase on the mechanical torque in comparison with the other two models.Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. P.4 7.95 One−mass ↓ 2. V. since it offers a more realistic dynamic behaviour for the drive train.

Wind Power in Power Systems. (ed. The contributions of this paper are threefold: ascertaining the transient behaviour at an internal fault using matrix. Dinavahi V. Wind Energy 2008. Voltage vdc for the multilevel converter with a threemass drive train model. Castro R. Currents injected into the electric grid (multilevel converter and three-mass drive train model). the transient response of the three-mass drive train model is larger than that of the one-mass or the two-mass model. Bialasiewicz JT. A review of power converter topologies for wind generators.9 Time (s) 8.975 7 7. The simulation results have shown that the consideration of the bending ﬂexibility of blades can inﬂuence the wind turbine response during internal faults. 6. Modelling and control of variable-speed multi-pole permanent magnet Wind Energ. Moreno-Alfonso N. Hansen AD. Renewable Energy 2007. 11: 75–84.9 C2 dc Voltage (V) C1 REFERENCES 7. 1. Our study deals with the transient analysis during an internal fault. Knight AM. 6. 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. 2011. IET Renewable Power Generation 2008.05 7. 4. 1500 1000 500 0 −500 −1000 −1500 6. Ltd. Pinto M.1002/we Current (A) 23 . Estanqueiro A.025 Time (s) 7.: West Sussex. 2: 123–138. Carrasco JM. Flores P. Rodrigues R. namely a converter control malfunction. V. considering three different drive train mass models and three different topologies for the powerelectronic converters. the three-mass drive train model. 7. 2. Effect of operational modes of a wind farm on the transient stability of nearby generators and on power oscillations: a Nordic grid study.075 Figure 15. 11: 63–73.). M. may be more appropriate for the transient analysis of wind energy systems. Prats AM. 2005. 5. Mendes and J.R. Ullah NR. CONCLUSIONS This paper reports a study for PMSG variable-speed wind turbines. Leon JI. Thiringer T. For the same fault conditions. Ackermann T.9 Figure 16. Hence. and investigating the effects of the bending ﬂexibility of blades. Peças Lopes J. using a novel control strategy based on fractionalorder controllers. Chen Z. Wind Energy 2008. Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey.95 6.025 Time (s) 7. DOI: 10. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers 1500 1000 500 Current (A) 0 −500 −1000 −1500 6. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Michalke G. 53: 1002–1016.975 7 7. two-level and multilevel converters.4 8. Li H. Overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons. Franquelo LG. S. 32: 2369–2385. but almost after the end of the malfunction they recover to their normal behaviour. Melício. 3000 ↓v 2500 ↑ 2000 Converter control malfunction ↓v 1500 1000 ↑v 500 0 6. F.95 three-mass drive train model are shown in Figure 17. 5. 3. Ricardo J. Guisado RCP. P. As expected during the malfunction they decrease.075 Figure 17.4 7. Galvan E. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 2006.05 7. including both blades and shaft ﬂexibilities. How to prepare a power system for 15% wind energy penetration: the Portuguese case study. Currents injected into the electric grid (two-level converter and three-mass drive train model). Baroudi JA.

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