Practical Applications of Tool Design (Mechanics of Metal Cutting

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Gary D. Baldwin
Director, Kennametal University

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The Mechanics of Metal Cutting is controlled by three main elements. •Rake Angles •Lead Angles •Clearance Angles

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Rake Angles
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Rake Angles Control Edge Strength FORCE POSITIVE •TRS measures the bending fracture strength of carbides 4 .

Rake Angles Control Edge Strength RCE FO NEGATIVE •Measure of deformation resistance SUPPORTED: More Compressive Loading 5 .

Edge Prep Alters the Rake Angle CE OR F Hone T-Land 6 .

Rake Angles Control Edge Strength Radial Rake has a greater impact on cutting edge strength Radial Rake (+) (-) Radial Rake absorbs the interrupted cut 7 .

Cutting Forces Ft = Tangential Force Ff = Feed Force Ft Ff Fr Fr = Radial Force 8 .

Rake Angles control Cutting Forces -5 NEGATIVE +6 Cutting Forces change approximately 1% per degree of Rake change (mild steel) POSITIVE 9 .

10 .Rake Angles control Cutting Forces Radial View (Top) Radial Rake (+) (-) Axial Rake has a greater impact on cutting forces.

Rake Angles control Cutting Forces Both axial and radial rake have comparable effects on cutting forces. Radial Rake (+) (-) 11 .

12 .Rake Angles Control Cutting Forces Negative Radial Rake Positive Radial Rake Designed for a specified clearance under the heel of the insert.

Top Topography is used to Enhance Axial Rake 13 .

Chip Flow Characteristics Rake angles control the direction of chip flow (+) (+) (-) (-) (-) (+) Positive / Positive Negative / Negative Negative / Positive (Shear-Clear) 14 .

Rake Angles:Drills Radial Rake Axial Rake Angle (Helix) 15 .

“Chisel Point” Drill Point Cutting Action 16 .

“S” Point Drill Point Cutting Action 17 .

Negative Axial Rake Positive Axial Rake Spiral Point Spiral Flute 18 .

Rake Angles:Reamers Axial Rake Angle Neutral Axial Rake Radial rake angle Positive Axial Rake Primary Clearance Secondary Clearance Negative Axial Rake 19 .

Lead Angles 20 .

Lead Angle controls the Direction of Cutting Forces 45 Lead Angle Table Feed Radial load Axial load 21 .

Direction of Cutting Forces Direction of Cutting Forces 22 .

23 .Direction of Cutting Forces Increasing the Lead Angle places the forces more into the Radial Plane.

Lead Angles control direction Cutting Forces Forces directed into the spindle Forces directed across the spindle 24 .

Lead Angles control direction Cutting Forces 90° 118° 140° The greater the angle. 25 . the greater the rigidity.

Lead Angles control direction Cutting Forces Chamfer Angle Lead Angle 26 .

Clearance Angles 27 .

Rake NEGATIVE POSITIVE 5° Degrees Clearance 5° Degrees Clearance 28 . Rake 90 Degree included Angle 5 degree Neg.Clearance Angles 79 Degree included Angle 5 degree Neg.

Back Clearance 29 .

Clearance Angles Arc of the cut Radial Rake (+) (-) Radial Rake is designed to provide a specified amount of clearance under the heel of the insert 30 .

Clearance Angles Lip Relief Angle Flank Margins Body Clearance (Radial) Point Angle Drill Diameter 31 .

Drill Margins Margins are a lack of clearance 32 .

Flute Design controls chip clearance 33 .

25% 34 .50% Conventional Flute Web = 12% .Flute Design Controls the Amount of Chip Clearance Rolled Heel Parabolic Flute Web = 25% .

Web Design controls Chip Clearance Flute Run-out Core Web 35 .

Web Design controls Chip Clearance Web thickness A A Section A-A Chisel edge length Drill Diameter Web thickness B B Section B-B Chisel edge length Drill Diameter 36 .

Tap Margins Concentric Grind (No Clearance) 37 .

Tap Margins CONCENTRIC No Clearance CON-ECCENTRIC Partial Clearance ECCENTRIC Clearance 38 .

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